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Study Guide for Quiz #5

Exercise 18 Gram Positive Cocci: Staphylococci

Learning Objectives: 1-4, 6-8

1. describe the Gram reaction and recognize the arrangement of staphylococci cells on
a Gram stained slide.
- gram positive cocci: clusters, singly, and in pairs
2. list the types of media that the staphylococci grow on and describe their appearance.
- Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA): change from red to yellow shows the presence of acids
produced by mannitol fermentation; selective medium for gram positive, high NaCl
concentrations to inhibit gram negative
- Staphylococcus medium (SM 110): selective medium (same as MSA); differentiates based
on pigment production of each species; positive is yellow, negative is white
- M-Staphylococcus broth = selective medium that contains sodium chloride, which
restricts many bacteria
3. perform and describe the catalase, coagulase, and DNAse tests
4. know how the catalase, coagulase and DNase tests are used in studying the
- catalase: positive; hydrogen peroxide added, bubbles produced is positive
- Coagulase: s. aureus- positive; s. epi- negative; coagulase is an enzyme that binds plasma
fibrinogen; causing plasma to clot;
- DNAse test: s. aureus- pink positive; positive specimen should be able to produce
deoxyribonuclease, an enzyme that can alter DNA, agar changes from blue to pink;
inoculate onto DNAse agar plate with toluidine blue,

6. list some of the normal flora found on skin and in the nasal area.
- Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus
7. define carrier, opportunistic pathogen and pathogen.
- carrier: organism with a pathogen in its system
-opportunistic pathogen: microorganisms that invade the body when th ebodys immune
defense is suppressed or compromised
-pathogen: any microorganism that can cause disease in a healthy person
8. describe the types of hemolysis.
- alpha: incomplete or partial lysis; greenish darkening of agar
- beta: complete lysis; causes a transparent of the agar
-gamma: no lysis; no change in agar

Exercise 19 Gram Positive Cocci: Streptococci
Learning Objectives: 1, 3, 5, 8-11
1. describe the Gram reaction and recognize the arrangement of streptococci cells on a
Gram stained slide.
- gram rxn: catalase negative, gram positive cocci (in chains), grows well in low O2 and high
3. list some of the normal flora found in the throat and mouth.
- Cornyebacterium, Hemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus,
5. recognize positive and negative results for catalase, 6.5% NaCl and bile esculin tests.
6.5% NaCl: positive if it can grow in the broth
Bile Esculin Hydrolysis: used to identify Group D streptococci, enterococci; positive if it can
grow in the presence of 40% bile and can hydrolyze esculin to esculetin

8. perform the identification tests using Bacitracin, SXT and Optochin discs.
- Bacitracin: used to id group a beta hemolysis streptococci; positive if zone of inhibition
grows from the disk
- SXT: contains trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazol; id group c beta hemolysis streptococci
- optochin: differentiates S. pneumonia and other alpha hemolytic streptococci
9. list some diseases that Group A streptococci cause in humans.
- Streptococcus pyogenes causes: strep throat, necrotizing fasciitis, scarlet fever, rheumatic
10. list the different groups of streptococci and give examples of each.
- pg. 179
11. list examples of streptococci that cause dental plaque.
- Streptococcus salivaris: produces dextran or levan capsule, which enables bacteria to
adhere to teeth which can cause cavities.
-S. mutans: also causes tooth decay

Exercise 20 Urine Cultures
Learning Objectives: 9
9. know how to calculate the final number of colonies the diluted urine plates.

Exercise 27 Spoilage of Meat
Learning Objectives: 2, 3, 6
2. list the types of microorganisms that grow at refrigerator temperatures.
- psyhchrophiles: Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Vibrio, Bacillus,
Clostridium, Micrococcus
3. define; psychrophile, psychrotroph ,mesophile, thermophile, hyperthermophile.
- pg. 257
6. list some examples of food borne pathogens.
- E. coli 0157:H7, norovirus, bacillus cereus, clostridium botulinum

Exercise 28 Microbiology of Wine-Making
Learning Objectives: 1, 3, 4
1. list some foods that microbial fermentations are used to help produce.
- wine, beer, pickles, buttermilk, sauerkraut
3. name the yeast responsible for wine fermentation.
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae
4. describe the purpose of sealing the wine flask with a balloon or gas vent.
- the balloon collects the CO2 produced, which also indicates it can no longer be dissolved

Exercise 29 Microbiology of Milk
Learning Objectives: 1, 4, 6, 7
1. describe raw and pasteurized milk.
- raw milk: not more than 10,000 bacteria/mL & not more than 10 coliforms/mL
- pasteurized milk: not more than 500 bacteria/mL & only 1 coliform/mL
4. define the reductase test used for testing milk.
- Milk that contains large numbers of actively growing bacteria will becomes reduced due
to exhaustion of oxygen by the bacteria.
- Resazurin is added to milk
- The longer it takes for resazurin to change from pink to colorless is high quality milk
6. describe the type of fermentation used in yogurt production.
- Made from fermented milk
- Add microbes to pasteurized milk
7. list the types of microbes used in yogurt production.
- Streptococcus thermophiles & lactobacillus bulgaricus

Exercise 30 Isolation of Antibiotic Producer from Soil
- Be able to recognize if bacteria produces an antibiotic

***REMINDER*** These learning objectives are from the Lab Learning Objective
handouts that are posted on Blackboard at the end of the Syllabus. They are not the same
as the learning objectives that are in your lab manual.