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Chapter 19 Notes

STOWE AND HELPER: LITERARY INCENDIARIES


HARRIET BEECHER STOWE published UNCLE TOMS CABIN in 1852 which tackled
BLOODHOUND BILL (refer to chapter 18)
Phenomenal support home and abroad
BOOSTED NORTHERN morale and abolitionist spirit
ENGLAND and FRANCE considered helping the SOUTH but were stopped by own people
1857: THE IMPENDING CRISIS OF THE SOUTH by HINTON R. HELPER
- Nonaristocratic white from NC
- Hated slavery and blacks
- No publisher in the SOUTH
- NORTHERNERS used book as PROPAGANDA
THE NORTH-SOUTH CONTEST FOR KANSAS
KANSAS= battleground between ABOLITIONISTS and SLAVERYITES
- NEW ENGLAND EMIGRANT AID COMPANY which send 2000 people to KANSAS to stall
SOUTH spreading HENRY WARD BEECHERs BIBLE
- SOUTHERNERS sent BLACKS AND MASTERS TO KANSAS but most were blocked
KANSAS IN CONVULSION
JOHN BROWN moved to KANSAS from OHIO and along with son, hacked five SLAVERYITES
CIVIL WAR IN KANSAS OF 1856 joined the big scale CIVIL WAR OF THE US
LECOMPTON CONSTITUTION was a tricky document which retained slaves in KANSAS
eventually leading to its statehood as a slave state
PRESIDENT BUCHANAN supported LECOMPTON CONSTITUTION
VS.
STEPHEN DOUGLAS threw away his SOUTHERN SUPPORT
BULLY BROOKS AND HIS BLUDGEON
CHARLES SUMNER, abolitionist was one of the most disliked people in the SENATE because
of his appearance
- THE CRIME AGAINST KANSAS
- Hailed accusations against SC and SENATOR ANDREW BUTLER
CONGRESSMAN PRESTON S. BROOKS of SC disliked accusations of cousin and state
MAY 22, 1856: BROOKS walks up to SUMNER and beats him with a cane
MA reelected SUMNER and SC reelected BROOKS
- BLEEDING SUMNER joined BLEEDING KANSAS
OLD BUCK VS THE PATHFINDER
DEMOCRATS elected BUCHANAN in 1856 ELECTION because DOUGLAS and PIERCE were
tainted from BLEEDING KANSAS CRISIS
- Mediocre, irresolute and inadequate for crisis
- Popular Sovereignty
REPUBLICANS decided JOHN C FREMONT over SEWARD
- Abolition of slavery in new states
KNOW NOTHINGS and WHIGS stood behind Ex prez FILLMORE
FREMONT lost because of illegitimate birth and mainly because he was ROMAN CATHOLIC
ELECTORAL FRUITS OF 1856
REPUBLICANS LOST because of sectional strife which intimidated both SOUTHERNERS and
NORTHERNERS
1856: Many northerners were not willing to leave the SOUTH
REPUBLICANS had set astonishing record against OLD DEMOCRATS
THE DRED SCOTT BOMBSHELL
DRED SCOTT V. STANFORD
- MARCH 6, 1857
- DRED SCOTT sued master backed by abolitionists
- SUPREME COURT ruled that BLACK SLAVES could NOT appeal to the FEDERAL COURTS
- TANEY from MD ruled that COMPROMISE OF 1820 was unconstitutional
- SOUTHERNERS V. NORTHERNERS
THE FINANCIAL CRASH OF 1857
ECONOMIC PANIC OF 1857
- GOLD RUSH inflated currency
- CRIMEAN WAR had tipped demand
- NORTH: grain growers were hardest hit
- SOUTH: COTTON sale abroad helped them out
FREE FARMS OF 160 ACRES (NORTH)
- Given to pioneers for risking lives and health
- Opposed by:
EASTERN INDUSTRIALISTS who feared workers moving westward
SOUTHERNERS who feared that SLAVERY could not thrive on mere 160 acres
- HOMESTEAD ACT passed by CONGRESS
Public lands at 25 cents/acre
Veto of PRESIDENT BUCHANNA
TARIFF OF 1857
- Reduced duties by 20%
- As low as the WAR OF 1812
HELPED REPUBLICANS because of PROTECTION for the UNPROTECTED and the FARMS for
the farmless
IL RAIL-SPLITTER EMERGES
LINCOLN chosen as REPUBLICAN COMPETITOR for the SENATE
- Appearance was not so great
- Told amusing stories
- Married above himself into TODD FAMILY
- HONEST ABE = only chose cases that appealed to his conscience
- LINCOLN joined REPUBLICANS after KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT after which he became
prime orator of the NORTHWEST
THE GREAT DEBATE: LINCOLN V. DOUGLAS
LINCOLN challenged DOUGLAS to 7 meetings from AUGUST-OCTOBER 1858 that became
known as the LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATE
Most famous debate: FREEPORT, IL
- LINCOLN: PEOPLE vote slavery down while SUPREME COURT upholds slavery
Who should prevail?
DOUGLAS: FREEPORT DOCTRINE
If PEOPLE so desire to vote slavery down, then no one can stop them
PRECEDENT: JEFFERSONS EMBARGO DILLEMA
LINCOLN was playing for more than senatorship
LINCOLNS loss in the DEBATES ironically elevated image for PRESIDENT 2 years later
DEMOCRATS split further, setting course for CIVIL WAR
JOHN BROWN-MURDERER or MARTYR
Establish free state as sanctuary
Arrived at HARPERS FERRY, VA where he used federal arms to kill 7 people
REMNANTS of EFFORT captured by LIEUTENANT ROBERT E LEE
Died as martyr after saying THIS IS A BEAUTIFUL COUNTRY
- GOV. WISE OF VA
SOUTH doubted how they could stay in the UNION while the NORTH was run by BROWN-
LOVING REPUBLICANS AND FREE SOILERS
NORTH was infuriated by execution because of BROWNS RIGHTEOUS WAYS
- Compared to JESUS by RALPH WALDO EMERSON
DISRIPTION OF DEMOCRATS
First met at SC
- SOUTHERNERS infuriated by DOUGLAS
Tried again at BALTIMORE
- Against obstruction of FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW
- DOUGLAS is championed
RIVAL CONVENTION AT BALTIMORE
- NORTH not represented
- BRECKENRIDGE appointed head of faction
CONSTITUTIONAL UNION PARTY
- Stood in the middle
- Scared of choosing sides
- Nominated JOHN BELL OF TN
A RAIL SPLITTER SPLITS THE UNION
REPUBLICANS jovial at DEMOCRATIC split
WILLIAM H. SEWARD: most popular
-irrepressible conflict speech at ROCHESTER ruined chances
LINCOLN: the second best
- Strongest contender because had fewer enemies
- Free soilers: non-extension of slavery
- Northern manufacturers: higher protective tariff
- Immigrants: no abridgement of rights
- NW: a new pacific railroad
- WEST: internal improvements at federal expense
ELECTORAL UPHEAVAL OF 1860
He was a minority president
Name wasnt on SOUTHERN BALLOT
SC found reason to secede
SOUTH was still better off because of majority in congress
- REPUBLICANS were still young and growing
THE SECESSIONIST EXODUS
DECEMBER 1860: unanimous convention at CHARLESTON where they voted to secede
Followed by AL, MS, FL, GA, LA, TX
In FEBRUARY 1861, met at MONTGOMERY, AL where the CONFEDERATE STATES OF
AMERICA was formed
- JEFFERSON DAVIS was chosen president
PRESIDENT BUCHANAN was blamed for secession
- Used 15000 people for army against western INDIANS
- WAIT AND SEE POLICY continued by LINCOLN
THE COLLAPSE OF COMPROMISE
CRITTENDEN AMENDMENTS
- Appease the SOUTH
- Above 3630 : ABOLITION
- BELOW 36 30 (present and future i.e. CUBA): SLAVERY
- Vetoed by LINCOLN due to MORALS
Last effort to compromise