IEEE Standards Interpretations for IEEE Std 605 ™-1998 IEEE Guide for Design of Substation Rigid-Bus Structures

© All Rights Reserved

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IEEE Standards Interpretations for IEEE Std 605 ™-1998 IEEE Guide for Design of Substation Rigid-Bus Structures

© All Rights Reserved

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IEEE Standards Interpretations

for

IEEE Std 605

-1998

IEEE Guide for Design of

Substation Rigid-Bus Structures

Copyright 2009 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

Three Park Avenue

New York, New York 10016-5997 USA

All Rights Reserved.

This is an interpretation of IEEE Std 605-1998. Interpretations are issued to explain and clarify the intent of a standard

and are not intended to constitute an alteration to the original standard or to supply consulting information. Permission is

hereby granted to download and print one copy of this document. Individuals seeking permission to reproduce and/or

distribute this document in its entirety or portions of this document must contact the IEEE Standards Department for the

appropriate license. Use of the information contained in this document is at your own risk.

IEEE Standards Department

Copyrights and Permissions

445 Hoes Lane, P. O. Box 1331

Piscataway, New J ersey 08855-1331, USA

April 2009

Interpretation Number: 1

Topic: Conductor Vibration

Clause: 7

Interpretation Request #1

1) Please clarify whether this calculation is also applicable for 765kV ac system? Our live rigid conductor of 765kV is

supported at 15M from ground level.

2) For the given current rating, the following are the typical values of rigid bus selected for 765kV ac system:

Conductor =4.5 IPS Al. tube (Sch 80)

Conductor diamanter (d) =120mm

Wall thickness =12mm

Cross sectional area (A) =4072 sq.mm

Mass per unit length (m) =11kg/m

Moment of inertia (J ) =59998842 mm4

Modulus of elasticity (E) =6700 kg/sq.mm

Maximum span length (L) =10m

IEEE Std 605-1998

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With the above values, considering 15mi/hr, Aeolian frequency (Fa) calculated using eqn. (6) is around 10Hz; Natural

frequency (Fc) calculated using eqn. (5) is around 22Hz. Hence, the natural frequency of oscillations Fc is found to be 2

times higher than the Aeolian frequency calculated even under normal condition. As per 7.2.2, "If twice the natural

frequency is greater than Aeolian frequency, then bus span should be changed."

In this connection (referring to the example mentioned above), we interpret in the following manner:

Aeolian frequency calculated is less than (half the) natural frequency of the bus span selected. Hence, the system designed

will not resonate with respect to Aeolian frequency as there is significant frequency difference between the Fa and Fc.

Kindly confirm whether our interpretation is correct.

.

Interpretation Response #1

1.1 Induced vibrations

For a laminar air flow around a conductor with wind speed less than 72 km/h (45 mph), eddies are shed from the

boundaries of the conductor, alternating from edge to edge. The frequency of eddy shedding f

a

is given by

(1)

where

C is the Strouhal number (a dimensionless number) and is approximately equal to 0.19 for a cylinder shape. It accounts for

the oscillatory flow mechanism due to wind.

V is the wind velocity (m/sec) [in/sec]

D

o

is the conductor outside diameter (m) [in].

When frequency of eddy shedding f

a

coincides with the natural frequency of the conductor, wind induced vibration of the conductor may occur. It is

recommended that an allowance for variations be allowed. This is accomplished by ensuring the ratio of the inducing

frequency to the natural frequency is outside the range from 0.5 to 2.0 :

(2)

where

f

a

is the frequency of eddy shedding, Hz

f

b

is the natural frequency of the conductor, Hz (section 12.6)

For wind speeds in excess of 72 km/h (45 mph), the wind tends to be turbulent and steady exciting impulses are less

probable. If the natural frequency of the conductor is such that it falls within the range described by Equation (iii), then

attenuation measures should be taken as described below.

IEEE Std 605-1998

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Another source of vibration for buses is related to alternating current. Current flowing through parallel conductors creates

magnetic fields that interact and exert forces on the parallel conductors. This driving force oscillates at twice the power

frequency (2f). If the calculated frequency of a bus span is found to be greater than half the current-force frequency, that

is, greater than the power frequency:

(3)

b

>

then measures should be taken as described below or a dynamic analysis should be made to determine the stresses

involved.

1.2 Natural frequency of rigid conductors

A span of rigid conductor has its own natural frequency of vibration. If the conductor is displaced from its equilibrium

position and released, it will begin to vibrate at this natural frequency. The magnitude of the oscillations will decay due to

damping. If, however, the conductor is subjected to a periodic force whose frequency is near the natural frequency of the

span, the bus may continue to vibrate and the amplitude will increase. Such vibration may cause damage to the bus

conductor by fatigue or by excessive fiber stress.The natural frequency of a conductor span is dependent upon the manner

in which the ends are supported and upon the conductor's length, mass and stiffness. The natural frequency of a conductor

span can be calculated as

where

f

b

is the conductor natural frequency (Hz)

L is the span length (m) [in]

E is the modulus of elasticity of the conductor's material (N/m

2

) [lbf/in

2

]

J is the moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area (m

4

) [in

4

]

m is the mass per unit length of the conductor (kg/m) [lbm/in]

K is a dimensionless constant accounting for the boundary conditions at the conductor's ends:

K=1.00 for two pinned ends

K=1.25 for one pinned ends and one fixed (clamped) end

K=1.51 for two fixed (clamped) ends.

NOTEIn the above equation the mass by unit length (m) is required while in calculations we often evaluate the weight

by unit length (unit weight). To get mass by unit length in SI units from unit weight in N/m, divide unit weight by 9.81.

To get mass by unit length in British units from unit weight in lbf/in, divide unit weight by 386.1.

Ends conditions can range between fixed and pinned. A fixed end is not free to rotate (moment resisting), whereas a

pinned end is free to rotate (not moment resisting). Because of structure flexibility and connection friction, the end

conditions are not truly fixed or pinned.

The finite element method may also be used to calculate the natural frequency and corresponding mode shapes of a

structure; it permits to take account directly of the effect of supports as well as 3D behavior of structures.

1.3 Vibration attenuation

To prevent induced vibrations when the natural frequency of the conductor is in the vicinity of the excitation frequency

from wind or from alternating current [Equation (iii) or Equation (iv)], it is preferred that the diameter of the conductor be

increased to lower its natural frequencies, taking them out of the critical range. Another possible solution is to increase the

bus span length, that is to change the span between supports, which also has the effect of lowering the natural frequencies.

Another solution is also to provide damping elements. For tubular conductors, this can be accomplished by two methods:

IEEE Std 605-1998

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1) Installing stranded bare cable inside of tubular bus conductor to dissipate vibration energy; or 2) Installing

commercially available vibration dampers on the conductor.

Installing stranded bare cable inside the bus conductor requires that the weight of the stranded damping cable used be

between 10% and 33% of the bus conductor weight and that the damping cable be the same material as the bus conductor

to prevent galvanic corrosion. The designer should also consider the audible noise that can be generated by the stranded

damping cable inside of the bus conductor since this may not be acceptable in some locations. Note that the thermal

expansion fittings could also act as energy dissipation devices.

Commercially available vibration dampers can also be used on both tubular and non-tubular bus conductors and can be

applied in both EHV and non-EHV locations. Spacing of the vibration dampers is based on 1/3 of the span length plus

two feet and can be located at either end of the span.

Vibration dampers should be applied when the maximum vibration-free span length is exceeded as listed in the following

tables for various bus conductor types.

Table 1 Maximum vibration-free span length for tubular bus

Nominal Pipe Size Maximum Safe Span Length

1 1.5 m [5-0]

1-1/4 1.9 m [6-3]

1-1/2 2.1 m [7-0]

2 2.7 m [9-0]

2-1/2 3.3 m [10-9]

3 4.0 m [13-3]

3-1/2 4.6 m [15-3]

4 5.2 m [17-0]

4-1/2 5.8 m [19-0]

5 6.5 m [21-3]

6 7.7 m [25-3]

NOTEThese lengths are based on one cycle of vibration and apply to both schedule 40 and schedule 80 tubular bus.

The lengths listed above can be increased approximately 20% with reasonable certainty that there will be no vibration.

Table 2 Maximum vibration-free span length for universal angle bus conductor (UABC)

UABC Size Maximum Safe Span Length

3-1/4 x 3-1/4 x 3.7 m [12-0]

4 x 4 x 4.6 m [15-0]

4 x 4 x 3/8 4.8 m [15-9]

4-1/2 x 4-1/2 x 3/8 5.1 m [16-9]

5 x 5 x 3/8 5.6 m [18-6]

NOTEThese lengths are based on one loop of vibration. The lengths listed above can be increased approximately 20%

with reasonable certainty that there will be no vibration. However, this table does not apply for double back-to-back

configurations.

IEEE Std 605-1998

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Table 3 Maximum vibration-free span length for integral web channel bus (IWCB)

IWCB Size Maximum Safe Span Length

4 x 4 4.4 m [14-6]

6 x 4 6.3 m [20-9]

6 x 5 6.5 m [21-3]

6 x 6 6.6 m [21-9]

7 x 7 8.0 m [26-3]

8 x 5 8.8 m [29-0]

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