Report done on the unit Fluid Mechanics I, about drag force in water using different objects.

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Report done on the unit Fluid Mechanics I, about drag force in water using different objects.

© All Rights Reserved

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ASSESSMENT COVER SHEET

Family Name:

Da Costa Rodrigues

First Name:

Mateus

Student ID: 25230158

Unit Code & Name: CHE 2161 / MEC 2404: Fluid Mechanics

Name of assessment task:

Drag Force

Name of Lecturer : Dr Josie Carberry Name of Tutor: Gazy Al-Sumaily

Tutorial Day & Time: 12/09/2013 4pm

Due Date: 16/09/2013 Date submitted: 16/09/2013

All work must be submitted by the due date. If an extension of work is granted this must be specified with the signature

of the lecturer/tutor.

Extension granted until (date) ................ Signature of lecturer/tutor...

Please note that it is your responsibility to retain copies of your assignments before submitting.

Plagiarism and Collusion are methods of cheating for the purposes of Monash Statute 4.2 -Discipline

Plagiarism

Plagiarism is the presentation of work which has been copied in whole or in part from another persons work, or from

any other source such as the Internet, published books or periodicals without due acknowledgment given in the text.

Collusion

Collusion is the presentation of work which is the result in whole or in part of unauthorised collaboration with another

person or persons.

Where there are reasonable grounds for believing that cheating has occurred, the only action that may be taken when

plagiarism or collusion is detected is for the staff member not to mark the item of work and to report or refer the matter

to the Dean. This may result in work being disallowed and given a fail grade or if the circumstances warrant, the matter

may be referred to a Committee of Inquiry for investigation. Such investigation may result in the matter being referred

to the University Discipline Committee which has the power to exclude a student.

Students statement:

I certify that I have not plagiarised the work of others or participated in unauthorised collusion when preparing this

assignment.

Signature:

EXPERIMENT DF: FLOW VISUALISATION

MATEUS DA COSTA RODRIGUES

25230158

THURSDAY, 12/09/2013 - 4:00PM

OBJECTIVE

To confirm that the drag coefficient for spheres varies with the Reynolds number by measuring terminal fall velocities

in oil and water. To observe some of the corresponding flow patterns. To observe the influence of shape on the drag

coefficient by determining the fall velocity in water of rectangular and square plates of equal area.

PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS:

(a) Identify the three forces acting on a solid sphere falling through a liquid and state the directions in which they

are acting.

Gravitational force: Vertical down force;

Buoyancy: vertical upwards force;

Drag force: vertical upwards force.

(b) With reference to the three forces you have identified above, explain how the sphere attains its terminal

velocity.

The terminal velocity in this case is reached when we have a vertical equilibrium of these three forces acting on the

object. So, when the drag force added to the buoyancy force equal to the weight force we have no acceleration in

the vertical direction (F=m*a), making the velocity reach its final value.

(c) Write an equation relating the magnitude of the above forces for the state of terminal velocity.

(d) Derive an expression for the drag force in terms of d, the diameter of the sphere, f and s, the densities of the

fluid and the solid respectively.

INTRODUCTION:

Studies of drag force on fluids are very important to establish and define important characteristics of different fluids and

how the geometry of the immersed bodies can influence on the system flow. The present experiment allowed the study

of drag force in different conditions of object geometry and fluid properties, as well as visualizing the flow behaviour in

different fluids.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES:

In this experiment, the material needed to obtain the desired results consisted of two large cylindrical baths containing

water and oil (in different cylinders), nine spheres of three different sizes having diameters equal to 4.68, 11.1 and

19.1mm respectively (three spheres for each size), three square plates (25.4 x 25.4 x 3.17mm), three rectangular plates

(50.8 x 12.7 x 3.17mm), one metric ruler and one digital stopwatch.

In order to calculate the terminal velocity of the immersed bodies it is necessary to release the object, which has to be

previously submerged, in the bath and measure the elapsed time for the object to cross the two pre-established height

marks on the cylinder (it is assumed that the top mark is located far enough from the fluid surface to give time for the

object to reach its final velocity). After doing this procedure (in triplicate to reduce possible errors) we can use the data

obtained to calculate the terminal velocity for each case and, having all the data relative to the fluid and object

properties, we can also calculate the Reynolds number and the drag coefficient by using the formulas presented on the

Appendix. With all the obtained results from the calculations, it is possible to discuss the influence of the fluid

properties and the immerse object properties and geometry on the flow behaviour.

The second step of this experiment consists in the flow visualization of a sphere. In this case, additional black and white

inks are required. To visualize the flow around the falling particle it is necessary to involve the sphere with one of the

inks and release it into the fluid cylinder. As the particle falls, it releases ink to surroundings, allowing the visualization

and sketching of the flow streamlines, making it possible to discuss the visual differences between a laminar and a

turbulent flow.

RESULTS

WATER

Table1: Experimental Results of objects dropped in water

Object T.1

(s)

T.2

(s)

T.3

(s)

Average

Time (s)

Terminal

Velocity (V) m/s

Drag

coefficient (CD)

Reynolds

number (Re)

Small

Sphere

3.50 3.84 3.59 3.64 0.136 0.596 635.207

Medium

Sphere

2.25 2.22 2.21 2.23 0.222 0.531 2459.27

Large

Sphere

1.87 1.97 1.81 1.88 0.239 0.788 4555.77

Square

7.03 7.00 7.03 7.02 0.070 2.292 1774.44

Rectangle

7.57 7.22 7.56 7.45 0.066 2.578 1338.43

OIL

Table2: Experimental Results of objects dropped in oil

Object T.1

(s)

T.2

(s)

T.3

(s)

Average

Time (s)

Terminal

Velocity (V) m/s

Drag

coefficient (CD)

Reynolds

number (Re)

Small

Sphere

7.21 7.31 7.00 7.17 0.068 4.559 13.939

Medium

Sphere

2.65 2.72 2.62 2.66 0.188 1.415 91.402

Large

Sphere

1.56 1.62 1.68 1.62 0.309 0.901 258.500

Square

4.12 4.06 4.19 4.12 0.121 1.466 134.610

Rectangle

4.56 4.53 4.53 4.54 0.110 1.774 97.902

FLOW VISUALISATION

Table3: Characteristics of laminar and turbulent flow

LAMINAR FLOW TURBULENT FLOW

1 The flow is ordered and smooth The flow is random and very disordered

2 There are no expressive velocity fluctuations

through the flow

Velocity fluctuations in the flow

3 Low values for the Reynolds number (<2300) High values for the Reynolds number (>4000)

DISCUSSION

By analysing the results obtained in the first step of the experiment, the first thing that we notice in both fluids is that,

when using a sphere as the object of study, the terminal velocity is highly dependent on the object diameter. When

increasing the diameter of the sphere, the terminal velocity reaches higher values, what is a result of the increase of

inertia forces relatively to viscous forces due to a larger mass of the sphere, and then having a higher value for the

Reynolds number which leads to the conclusion that the drag force increases as the Reynolds number decreases. This

behaviour can be noticed in most of the results. However, in some cases, the large amount of suspended particles in the

fluids could affect the route of solids and increase viscous effects, leading to some errors in the calculation of the drag

coefficient.

Another thing that is really clear for both fluids is that the geometry of the immersed objects can really affect the flow

behaviour. Even having the same area, it is easy to notice that the change in the geometry from a square to a rectangle

can affect the drag coefficient. In the case of the square, the Reynolds number is always higher than in the rectangle,

making it easier to conclude that the square will always reach higher terminal velocities.

Finally, when comparing both fluids in all the cases, it is noticeable that the Reynolds number, when using the oil as the

fluid in the system, is significantly lower when comparing similar cases using water, which makes it much easier to

have a laminar flow using oil, due to its higher viscosity.

QUESTIONS: PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

(e) Parachute question:

Neglecting buoyancy force, as the density of air is relatively low, we find that the parachute diameter is d = 10.285m

(f) Golf Ball question:

Obtaining the maximum and minimum values of Re from the table we find: 18.5 ms

-1

< Vball < 61.67 ms

-1

CONCLUSIONS:

The properties of the fluid in study, especially viscosity, have a great influence in the magnitude of the terminal

velocity reached by an object. Drag coefficient is highly dependent on Reynolds number, being observed that the

Reynolds number increases as the drag coefficient increases. Finally we can conclude that the dimensions and the

geometry of the object can really influence on the flow behaviour.

APENDIX

- Fluid Mechanics 230 Lab 2 Report(Yj)Enviado porDaisywong
- Drag Force in Flow Over a BodyEnviado porHazril Lifebooks
- DuctEnviado pordenizkund
- DRAG FORCE REPORTEnviado porwandee2393
- Physics Homework 3Enviado porAndrew Goolsby
- Flat plate boundary.docxEnviado porHaikal Zulkifli
- Lab Report Bl2Enviado porAhmad Hafizuddin
- Laboratory Report 10 (Drag on a Sphere)Enviado porWang WeiXin
- CR8047 Sulzer CompaX Short Report1Enviado porDucViking
- Submerged BodiesEnviado porEdward
- Drag ForceEnviado porapi-3728640
- Fox 7th ISM Ch01-06Enviado porDaniel Choi
- Experiment 3-Flow Past a Circular CylinderEnviado porNguyen Duy Thao
- Drag ForceEnviado porImran Baha
- Andreas Dornbrack- Turbulent mixing by breaking gravity wavesEnviado porPogz1995
- Fluidised BedEnviado poraravind991
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