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Element/Family Properties Sources Uses

1. shiny solids that

are malleable,
ductile and good
conductors of
2. low densities and 1. table salt (NaCl)
low melting points food preparation
3. soft, easy to cut 2. lye or caustic
4. very chemically 1. never found free soda (NaOH) Draino
reactive (most or uncombined but 3. bleach (NaClO)
reactive family) as compounds in laundry
1. Alkali Metals 5. one valence many parts of the 4. baking soda
electron world (NaHCO3) baking
6. ion has 1+ 2. often found 5. lithium carbonate
charge dissolved in water (Li2CO3) is a
7. low ionization treatment for manic
energy depression
8. reactivity
increases down the
9. reacts w/
halogens on 1:1
1. higher densities
and melting points
than alkali metals
2. higher ionization 1. most abundant
energy, but are calcium and
decreases down the magnesium
1. found widely in
family 2. aluminum and
various mineral
3. not as reactive as magnesium
deposits such as
the Alkali Metals, combine to make
2. Alkaline Earth limestone (CaCO3)
but reactivity also structural metal, an
Metals and magnesite
increases down the alloy
family 3. magnesium metal
2. found in
4. heavier Alkaline is used for aircraft,
Earth Metals reach automobile wheels,
with water tools and garden
5. 2 valence furniture
6. ion has +2
Transition Metals
1. High density and 1. Obtained from 1. Grills of cars are
melting points deposits of these plated w/ chromium
2. Resistance to compounds in 2. Used to produce
3. Chromium
corrosion Russia, the a variety of alloys
3. Exhibits variety Philippines, and 3. Used in paint
of color southern Africa. pigments
4. Iron 1. Corrodes to form 1. from typical 1. used in weapons
iron oxide (Fe2O3) blast-furnace and tools
or rust 2. proper amount of
2. Strength, iron is an essential
durability, part of a healthy
resistance to diet
corrosion 3. creation of alloys
1. Coin making
2. used w/ tin to
1. resistance to 1. from free
make bronze
corrosion elemental state in
3. used w/ zinc to
5. Copper 2. soft metal nature and are
make brass
3. red color easily obtained from
4. electrical wiring
4. not very reactive their compounds
5. used in fireworks
for their blue color
1. lustrous white
metal 1. obtained from 1. used in
2. very ductile and free elemental state photography,
6. Silver malleable in nature and are coinage, jewelery,
3. resistance to easily obtained from silverware, and
corrosion their compounds electrical contacts
4. not very reactive
1. highly dense, yet
1. from free 1. jewelery
a very soft metal w/
elemental state in 2. gold is so soft
a yellow luster
7. Gold nature and are that it must be
2. resistance to
easily obtained from alloyed to form a
their compounds harder metal
3. not very reactive
Inner Transition
8. The Lanthanides 1. widely distributed 1. they have little
in nature commercial
2. they occur importance
1. all are similar to together in nature 2. making special
one another and because their steel alloys
because they differ properties are very 3. used to produce
principally in the # similar, they are color in TV screens
of electrons in the difficult to separate.
4f and 5d sublevels
rather than outer
6s sublevel
2. They all readily
lose 3 electrons to
3+ ions.
3. soft, silvery
4. somewhat less
reactive than
heavier alkaline
earth metals, they
are still too reactive
to be used as
structural materials
5. tarnish readily in
air, react slowly w/
1. only thorium (Th)
and uranium (U)
1. of greatest occur to any extent 1. Uranium might
interest b/c of in nature. be familiar to you as
radioactivity 2. all the elements the radioactive
9. The Actinides
2. all isotopes of after uranium are element used as
these elements are artificial elements, fuel in nuclear
radioactive produced by nuclear power plants.
Primary Families
1. boron is
aluminum, gallium,
indium, and
thallium are metals
1. most occurs
2. all have an outer
combine w/ silicon
ns2np1 electron
and oxygen in
config. and form 3+
compounds from
ions by loss of these
which pure
valence electrons
aluminum is difficult 1. structural metal
3. most impt
to extract. 2. beverage cans
10. Boron Group element is
2. aluminum metal 3. pots and pans
is obtained 4. aluminum foil
most abundant in
commercially from
Earth's crust
aluminum oxide
4. aluminum has
(Al3O3), which
low density, but
occurs in an ore
when alloyed with
known as bauxite
other metals, it is
quite strong.
5. does not corrode
extensively in air
b/c of Al2O3 layer
1. coal, petroleum,
natural gas
1. carbon is
2. plastics,
notmetallic, silicon
medicines, etc.
and germanium are
3. transistors and
semimetals, and tin
solar cells
and lead are metals
1. these are found 4. glass
2. more than 50%
11. Carbon Group in nature and in 5. various electronic
of Earth's carbon is
Earth's crust. devices
found in limestone
6. tin cans
7. lead storage
3. silicon: 2nd most
batteries, for cars
abundant in Earth's
8. cooking utensils,
12. Nitrogen Group 1. all nonmetals 1. phosphorous can 1. nitrogen is used
except Arsenic and combine with as plant fertilizers
oxygen and other
elements in
minerals and
become known as 2. nitrogen plays a
phosphates big role in
2. arsenic, ammonia--cleaning
Antimony (semi-
antimony, and detergent
metals) and
bismuth aren't as 3. phosphoric acid is
Bismuth (metal)
abundant used to
2. nitrogen is a
3. nitrogen is found manufacturer
clearless gas
in the formation of fertilizers,
nitrogen detergents, and a
compounds, known host of other
as nitrogen fixation products
4. phosphorous is
found in bones in
living organisms
1. we use oxygen
for breathing
2. oxygen is
required for
combustion, and
1. Oxygen, Sulfer, burning reactions
1. Oxygen is
and Selenium are 3. Sulfur occurs in
created from
non-metals compounds such as
photosynthesis of
13. Oxygen Group 2. Tellurium is a iron pyrite, fool's
semi-metal gold
2. Sulfur is found
3. Polonium is a 4. Used to give
freely in nature
metal natural gas an odor
that can be
detected in case of
5. Production of
sulfuric acid
14. Halogens 1. Non-metals 1. Fluorine is found 1. Fluorine is used
2. React with most abundantly on the to manufacture
metals and with Earth’s crust many carbon-
many non-metals 2. Chlorine occurs fluorine compounds
3. Highly reactive as NaCl in natural 2. Fluorine found in
salt deposits toothpaste
3. Bromine and 3. Chlorine is added
Iodine are less to drinking water,
abundant than swimming pools.
fluorine and 4. Chlorine used as
chlorine a disinfectant
5. Chlorine is used
as bleach
6. Bromine is used
to manufacture
compounds that are
used as fire
pesticides, and
components of
photographic film
7. Iodine is used to
make iodized salt
and also is an
effective household
antiseptic for
treating minor cuts
and scratches.
1. Helium is used as
coolants to perform
experiments at very
1. Least reactive 1. Neon, krypton, low temperatures
elements and xenon were 2. Liquid helium is
2. Tendency to isolated from air the coolest liquid
15. Noble Gases
remain apart 2. Helium was refrigerant available
3. Radon is highly isolated from 3. Argon is used in
radioactive uranium ores light bulbs
4. Neon produces
the red light in
"neon" signs
1. Non-metal that
exists as a gas
under normal
1. Used for natural
2. Colorless and
gas and petroleum
2. Major use is the
3. Most of Earth's
manufacture of
hydrogen is
ammonia which is
composed of
used as a fertilizer
oxygen as water
1. Most elemental or converted into
4. Most abundant
16. Hydrogen hydrogen comes other nitrogen-
element in the
from hydrocarbons containing filters.
3. Large quantities
5. One valence
of hydrogen are also
used to prepare
6. Ionization energy
various organic
is greater than
compounds, such as
7. 9th most
abundant element
on the Earth's