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Solutions Mnul for

ECTOMAGNTISM:
PRINCIPLS AD APPLICATIONS
Paul LrainDale R. Corson
by Paul Lrrain
University of Montreal
\. l. Freem ad Coma
Sa Fracisco
Copy rigt _ 1 ( by Paul Lrain
No pat of this book H be reproduced by a mechanical,
photogaphic, or electronic ,rocess, or in the for of c
phonogaphic recording, nor my it be stored in a retrieval
sy stem, transmitted, or otherise copies for pulic or
private use without written perission from the pulisher.
Printed in the United States of America
ISBN U (1O(-11U_-.
O ( O _ - _ . 1
Contents
Notes lV
Chapter 1 1
Chapter . (
Chapter _ 11
Chapter - 1_
Chapter _ .U
Chapter O .O
Chapter ( _-
Chapter O _(
Chapter -U
Capter 1U --
Chapter 11 -
Chapter 1. _.
Chapter 1_ _O
Chapter 1- O.
Chapter 1_ OO
Chapter 1O O(
Chapter 1( (1
Chapter 1O OU
Chapter 1 O_
Chapter .U O (
NOTES
1 . S o a s t o save space , s imple mathematical express ions are typed
on a s ingle line . Whenever the order of the operations is not indi
cated explicitly by means of parenthes es , they are performed in the
following order :
Examples :
l/ ab
1 + alb
1
ab
'
l/ a + b
multiplications ,
divisions ,
additions and subtractions .
l
+ b , l / ( a + b)
a
1
a+b
'
l/ ( a + b/ c + de/ fg)
1
b de
a +
c
+
fg
2. Programs for drawing the curves in this Manual with a HP9820 cal
culator and a 9862A plotter are available free of charge from the
unders igned.
3 . Reference is made , occas ionally , to a table of integrals by
Dwight. The full reference is "Tables of Integrals and Other Mathe
matical Data" by Herbert Bristol Dwight (Macmillan) .
Paul Lorrain
Departement de physique
Universite de Montreal
Montreal , Canada.
CHATER 1
1-1 ( 1 . 2)

A. B
=
AB cos 8 9 7 4 - 6 - 30 0
1-2 ( 1 . 2)

A. B = AB cos 8 2 - 18 + 1
=
-15 ; AB
cos 8 -0 . 650 , 8
=
130 . 5
0
( 1 . 2)

.
A. (B + C) A On ,
- -
.
A. B + A. C A Om + AO' A On
1-4 ( 1 . 2)
C
2
- - -
C . C A. A + B . B + 2A. B
A
2
+ B
2
+ 2AB cos 8
D
2
A
2
+ B
2
- 2AB cos 8
C
2
+D
2
2 ( A
2
+B
2
) , C
2
- D
2
4AB cos 8
1-6 ( 1 . 3)

A 7 B is normal to the p lane of A

and B . I ts magnitude is the area


show hatched . Then CA 7 B) . c
is the base of the parallelepiped ,
multiplied by its height , or its
1

l
( 4+9+1)
2
( 1+36+1)
2
23.1
~
M
~
R

volume .
Similarly, A. ( B x C) i s also the volue of the parallelep iped.
1-7 ( 1 . 3)
The x-component is A (B +C ) -
A (B +C ) (A B -
A B ) + (A C -A C ) or
y z z z y y y z z y y z z y'
the x-component of A x 8 Lx c. The same app lies to the y- and z- com
ponents .
l-S ( 1 . 3)
For the x-component ,
a ( b c -b c ) - a ( b c -b c ) b ( a c +a c +a c ) - c ( a b +a b +a b )
y x y y x z z x x z x x x y y z z x x x y y z z
The corresponding equations for the y- and z- components can be found
by rotating the subscript s .
1-9 ( 1
.
4)
d
;
/dt is perpendicular to;. Then r is a cons tant . Also,
( d/dt ) (;. ;) 2
;
. ( d
;
/dt) 0
( d/ dt) r
2
2r ( dr/ dt )
Then dr/ dt 0 and r constant .
1-10 ( 1 . 4)
x =
5 00 ( cos 30
0
) t , y ~ 500 (sin 30
0
) t-4 . 90t
2

T g

v =
433t ~ 250t - 4. 90t
2

2-
433 t l + ( 250t - 4 . 90t ),

433 i + ( 250 - 9 . SOt) j ,
-9 . S0
j
1-11 ( 1 . 5)
V (
A
.
;
) =(A x+
A y+
A
z ) = ( '/'x) ( )
i
+ ( '/'y) ( )
j
+ ('/'z) ( )-
x y Z
1-12 ( 1 . 5 )
,Z.V) ; =
A (d/'x) +
A ( d/'y) +
A ( '/'Z)](x
i
+y
i
+3
k
) = Z
x y z
1-13 ( 1 . 5 )
a ) \ ( l /r) =
i
( '/'X' ) ( l/r) +
j
('/'yl) ( 1/ r} + k(d/'z
'
) ( l /r)
where r (xl. -X)
2
(y' -y)
2
(
(Zl -z )
2

!
2
Now ( d/dX') ( l /r) = - ( 1/ r
2
) (dr/dx' ) = - ( 1/ r
2
) (x' -x) /r= ( x-x' ) /r
3
By symmetry, (d/dY'
) (1/ r) = (y-y '
) /r
3
, (d/dz ' ) ( 1/r) = (z-z ' ) /r
3
Since x-x' is the x-component of , and (x-x' ) /r is the x-component
of
1
, etc , V'( l/r)
1
/r
2
b) In this case , V (l/ r) = I(d/dX) ( l/r) + (d/dY) (l /r) + k (d/dZ) ( l/r)
(d/dX) ( l /r) - ( 1 /r
2
) (dr/dX) = - ( 1/r
2
) (x-x ' ) /r = - (x-x ' ) /r
3
and
similarly for the other derivatives. Then V ( l/r) =
-I
1
/r
2
1-14 ( 1.5 )
a)
. .
k i j
. .
A = x Y Z r x Vf
df/dx df/dY df/dz

. . .

.
b) A.r = ( r x Vf) r is zero, s ince r x Vf is perpendicular to r.
.
c) A' Vf is zero for the same reason.
1-15 ( 1. 3)
a) V.I= ( d/dX) X + ( d/dy) y + (d/dZ) z=3
. .. 2 3
b) The flux of r is r
.
r
1
4'r = 4'r or , using the divergence theorem,
for a sphere of radius r ,
'
..
r.r
1
da
'
.
3
V.rdT=4'r
s T
1-16 ( 1. 3)
. ( f) = (d/dx) ( fA ) + (d/dy) ( fA ) + (d/dz ) ( fA )
x Y Z
=cf (dA /dX + dA /dY + dA /dz )+
A df /dx +
A df/dy +
A df/dz
x Y Z x Y Z
. .
= fV.A
+
A. Vf
1-17 ( 1. 3)
a) f= r,
2 2 2
Cd/dX) (x +y +z ) = 2x, etc
. ( f) =
2 2
( d/dX) ( 3xr ) + (d/dY) (yr ) +
2
(d/dz) ( 2 zr )
2 2
3r + 3x 2x + r + Y
2 2 2 2
= 6r + 6x + 2y + 4 z
2
2y + 2r + 2 z 2 z
2 2 2
12x + 3y + 10z
3
120
2 2+ 2+ 2+ +
b) Vf = V
r
~ Cl/3x)r i +(3/3y) r j +(3/3z) r k 2 r
V . A = 3 + 1 + 2 = 6
+ + 2 + + + + + +
fV. A
+
A. Vf 6r + (3xi + yj + 2 zk)
.
(2xi + 2yj + 2 zk)
2 2 2 2
6r J 6x + 2y + 4z = 12 0
c)

v . (fA)
}
~

l/L

LL
2
,
= L
2
}
So V . (fA) is expres sed in meters squared .

+R
2 2
(H/2 ) (l-x/R) dydx ~ (H/2 ) ( 1-x/R) 2(R -x ) 2 dx
-R

+R
2 2
+R
2 2 2 2
= H
(l -x ) 2 dx - (HfR) (R -x ) 2xdx ~ H(1/2 ) R - = H1R /2
-R -R
1- 1 9 ( 1 . /)
Calculate the volume in the octant where x, y, z are all positive .

(R
2
_
Z
2
)

(R
2
_
y
2
_
z
2
)

R (R
2
_
Z
2
)
2 2
|
V/8 = dX dY dZ= , (R -Y -Z )
2
dy dz
0 0 0 0

R
-
2 2
-
(1/4) (R -z ) dz

1-2 0 ( 1 . 9)

v . A dT ~ A. c
T s
3 3 3
(1/4) R - (1/4) (R /3) = (1/6) R
Now V .
A
= df(x) /dx, and A. c is zero on the cylindrical surface . If
the cross-section of the cylinder is
B
,
Thus
Cdf(X) /dXJ
B
dx = [feb) - f(a) ]
B
a

b
Cdf(X) /dXJ dX = feb) - f(a)
a
0
1-2 1 ( 1 . 1 0)
.
2
Set F = K/r . Then PE
1-22 ( 1 . 10)
-K/r
The work done b y the gravitational force when it acts over a closed
curve is zero , even taking into account the curvature of the Earth.
Then the gravitational field is conservative .
1-23 ( 1 . 1 2)
Since the field is conservative ,
.. d + ..
a b
over P
1-2 4 ( 1 . 12 )
over Q
a a
over P over Q
Since the value of the integral is independent of the path, the
field defined b y the fuction f is conservative .
1-25
( 1 . 12 )
S ince the force is azimuthal ,
,. = 2rrF
and , from Stokes ' s theorem,

\x F ' 0 , s o the force is non-


conservative .
The curl is calculated as follows:
2 2 0. 5
F
x
=-Fsine=-F y
/r ~ -F y
/ (x
+
y )
F = Fcose = Fx/r = Fx/ (x
2
+y
2
)
0. 5
y
where F K(x
2
+ ,,`
2
. So

k i |
-
VxF @ a / ax a / a y a / a z
- Ky K
(
2 2
)
0. 3
x + y (
2 2
)
0 . 3
x
+ y
0. 3 Kx K

=
,x
2
+`
O
.
3 2 2 1 . 3
2x +
(x + y ) (
2 2
)
0 . 3
x + y
K
=
(
2 2
)
0. 3
x + y

2
_
0 . 3 ( 2X
2
+2 y
2
)
k
_
1 . 4K
k
(
2 2
)
-
0.6
x + y r
5
0. 3 K y
2Y
,
k
(
2 2
)
1 . 3
x + y
J-26 (1.11)

a/3x Ix A
=
xf(r)

k
J
3/3y 3/3z
yf(r) z f(r)
z(3f/3y) - y(3f/3z)] I +
Nowof/3y ~ (3f/3r) (3r/3y) ~ (3f/3r) (y/r) , 3f/3z ~ (3f/3r) (z/r)
So I x /=
(zy/r) (3f/3r) - (yz/r) (df/3r)j + =
0
J-2/ (1.11)

k i j

3/3x 3/3y 3/3z I x fA


=
fA fA fA
x y z
(O/3y) (fA
z
) - (3/32) (fA
y
)j ! +
=
f (3A_3Y) - (3A_3Z)] +
A
z
(Of/3y) -
A
y
(3f/3Z)
i
+ e
J-28 (1.11)
(A x]) (3/3x) (A D - A D )
Y z z Y
+ (3f3y) (A D - A D )
z x x z
+ (3/3z) (A D -
A D )
x y Y x
- (lx
A
)
=
D (3A /3y - 3A /3z) + D (dA /3z - 3A /3x)
x z y y x z
+ D (dA /3x - dA /3y)
z y x
-`- (lx
D
) = -A (3D /3y - 3D /3z) - A (3D /3z - 3D 13x)
x z Y Y x z
J-29 (1.11)
3/3x 3/3y

3/3x 3/3y 1 . lxA


A A
x Y
-A (3D /3x - 3D 13y)
z y x
a/3z
3/3z 0
A
z
6
1-3 0 ( 1 . 12)
7 7
E . dt =

7 7
[V x E) .da
7 -3 -2 -5
( 3t/3 t) .da = 2 x 10 x 10 = 2 x 10 V = 20jV
c s s
1-31 ( 1.13)
2 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 7
V ( Vf) = i ( 3 / 3x J 3 / 3y J 3 / 3 z ) ( af / 3x) J ]..,
7 2 2 2 2 2 2 7
= i ( 3 / 3x) ( 3 / 3x J 3 / 3y J 3 / 3 z ) f J ]...
= V ( V
2
f)
CHAPTER 2
2-1 ( 2 . 1) COULOM' S LAW
-
-31 -19 -11
a) Ee = mg , E = mg / e 9 . 1 x 10 x 9 . 8 / 1 . 6 x 10 5 . 6 x 10 Vim
2 2
b) E e / 4rE
o
r , r e / 4rE
O
E , r = 5 . 1 m
2-2 ( 2 . 1) SEPAATION OF PHOSPHATE FROM QUARTZ
Let x be the horizontal coordinate and y the vertical coordinate ,
downward
x = ( !) (QE /m) t
2
, y = (!) gt
2
-5 5
x/y = QE/mg = ( Q/m) ( E/ g) = 10 ( 5 x 10 / 9 . 8) 0 . 5
y 2x 100
Reference : A. D . Moore , Electros tatics and its App lications , Wiley,
19 7 3 .
2-3 ( 2 . 3) ELECTRIC FIELD INTENS ITY
7 7
E = ]
1
J E
2
By symmetry , the
vertical components cancel and
7 0
7
2 2
E -2 cos 45 Qi/4rE ( a J a )
= - Q/2
5 /2
rE
o
a
2
]
7

W
0
-
-
-
0
-

0
-

+W
2-4 ( 2 . 4) ELECTRI C FIELD INTENSIT
The charge in the ring is 2nrdrc.
Each point in the ring is at a
2 2 .
distance a J r from P . By sym-
metry , E is along the axis .
.
dX
V
dE
2 2 3 /2
cardr /2E a J r
o
E
ca
2E
o
R

rdr / ( a
2
J r
2
)
3 / 2
0
( ca/ 2E
o
) [1 / ( a
2
J R
2
)

- l/ aJ c/2E
o
when a R
2-5 ( 2 . 5) CATHODE-RY TUBE
Of course not . In approaching one plate an electron gains kinetic
energy by los ing potential energy , like a body falling in the
gravitational field of the earth .
2-6 ( 2 . 5) CATHODE-RAY TUBE
Let V be the accelerating voltage and e the absolute value of the
electronic charge . Then
2
.
( 1/ 2 ) mv eV, v ( 2eV/m) 2 .
|
If the dis tance traveled is D , the time of flight is D(m/2eV)
2
.
During that time the electron falls by a dis tance
( 1/2 ) gt
2
4 . 9 D
2
m/2eV 4 . 9 ( 0 . 2)
2
9 . 1 x 10
-31
/ 2 x 1 . 6:10
-19
x 5 x 10
3
1 . 1 x 10
-16
m.
A atom has a diameter o f the order o f 10
-10
m.
2 - 7 ( 2 . 5) MACROS COPIC PARTICLE GU
-
-12 -12 4 -2 -16
Q 1 . 65 x 4n x 2 x 8 . 85 x 10 x ( 10 / 4) ( 1 . 5 x 10 /10 ) =1 . 38 x 10 C
m (4 / 3 ) n (10
-18
/ 8) x 1000 5 . 24 x 10
-16
kg
2 4
-16
( 1/ 2) mv 1 . 5 x 10 x 1 . 38 x 10 , v 89 m/s
Reference: A. D . Moore , p 59 .
8
2-8 ( 2 . 5) ELECTROSTATIC SPRYING
Q
E /mg
( Q/m) ( E/ g) ~ E/ g: 10
4
/9. 8 ' 10
3
Reference : A. D . Moore , pp 7 1 , 250 , 259 , 262 .
2-9 ( 2 . 5) THE RUTHERFORD EXERIMNT
a) At the distance of closes t approach , Q
I
Q
2
/ 4TE
o
r is equal to the
kinetic energy :
6 -19
Q
l
Q
2
/4TE
o
r ~ 7 . 6 8 x lO x 1 . 6 x lO
r = 2 x 7 9 x( 1 . 6 x lO
-19
)
2
/4T x 8 . 85 x 10
-12
x 7 . 6 8 x 1 . 6 x lO
-13
= 29 . 6 fm
2 -13 -15
b) Q
I
Q
2
/4TE
o
r = 7 . 6 8 x 1 . 6 x lO / 29 . 6 x lO = 4l . 5 N
-2 7 26
c) a = ( 41. 5 / 4 x 1 . 7 x lO ) /9 . 8 = 6 . 23 x lO g ' s
2-10 ( 2 . 5) ELECTROSTATIC SEED-SORTING
a) 2 x 10
-2
~ ( 1/ 2 ) g Ct + 0 . 01)
2
- t
2
j ' 5 ( 0 . 02 t + 10
-4
) , t " 0.2 s
The upper pea mus t have fallen through a dis tance of gt
2
/2 , or about
200
b) The average mass of one pea is 2000 / l00 x 3600 x 24 2 . 32 x 10
-4
kg
-2 .2
Thus 4 x 10 ( 1 /2) ( QE /m) t , where t ' is the time interval during
which a pea is deflected:
-2 -4 -9 5
!
t ' = ( 2 x 4 x lO x 2 . 32 x lO / 1 . 5 x lO x 5 x lO )
,
' 2
The plates have a leng th L = v
o
t + gt /2 , with
L = 2 x O . 15 7 + 4 . 9 x O . 15 7
2
' 450 e
= 0 . 15 7 s .
2
v
_
= 2g x 0 . 2 , v = 2m/ s
Reference : Fluorescence-Activated Cell-S orting , S cientific Aerican ,
March 19 7 6 , p 108 .
2-11 ( 2 . 5 ) CYLINDRICAL ELECTROS TATIC ANALYSER
2

mv /R = QE = QV/ a , v = CQVR/ma) 2
Reference : Jour . Phys . E , S c i . Ins tr . , 403 ( 19 7 7 ) .
2
-
12 ( 2 . 5) PARLEL-PLATE AALYSER
Reference : Rev. S ci . Ins tr . , 142 3 ( 19 7 1) , Rev. S ci. Ins tr. 48 ,
454 ( 19 7 7 ) .
v
2-13 ( 2 . 5) CYLINDRICAL AND PARALLEL-PLATE ANALYSERS COMARED
J
In the cylindri cal analyser , v ( QVR/ma) 2 .
2
So ( 1/ 2 ) mv /Q ( R/2a) V . For a given instruent , R and a are fixed
and V is a measure of the given ratio .
In the parallel-plate analyser , from Prob . 2-12 ,
2
QV
o
/Q - ( 1/ 2) mv /Q - ( a/ 2b ) V .
So V i s a measure o f the sae ratio .
2-14 ( 2 . 5) ION TRUS TER
Consider a satellite of mass M and velocity V in a region where
gravitational forces are negligib le . The satellite ej ects m' kg/ s ec
backwards at a velocity v wi th respect to the satellite . The
momentum of the sys tem ( M + total ej ected mass ) is constant . Then ,
with respect to a fix d reference frame , calling p the total momentu
of the ej ected fuel ,
( d/dt) ( MV) + ( dp /dt) 0 , or MdV/ dt + VdM/dt + m' (V-v) 0 ,
MdV/dt - m' V + m' V - m' v = 0 , M( dV/dt) m' v.
I t i s this quantity that is called the thrus t . Note that the thrus t
is not the force ( d/dt) ( MV) . In the las t equation
a) F m' v, ( 1/ 2 ) m' v
2
IV, m' = ( I /ne) m
2
v 2IV / ( I/ne) m, F
J
( 2mV/ne) 2 1
-2 7 4 -19
!
b) ( 2 x 1 . 7 x lO x 5 x lO / 1 . 6 x lO ) 0 . 1
-2
3 . 26 x lO N
c) F
F
d) V
t
2
m' v, ( 1/ 2) m' v P

|
( 2m' p) 2 2 p/v , 2P / ( 2IV/m
,
) 2 (2m' /IV)2P (2m/neV)
2
p
Q / 4'E
o
R, Q 4'E
O
RV 47 x 8 . 85 x lO
-12
x l x 5 x l0
4
5 . 56 x lO
-6
V
Q /I 10Q 5 . 6 x 10
-5
s
Reference : R. G . Jahn , Physics of Electric Propulsion .
2-15 ( 2.5) COLLOID THRUSTER
Reference : The Electrical Propuls ion of Space Vehicles , A. W. Bright
and B . Makin , Contemporary Physics 14 (19 7 3) p 25 . See also S tatic
Electrification 197 5 , The Ins titute of Physics , London , 197 5 , p 44 .
10
CHAPTER 3
3-1 ( 3 . 1) ANGLE SUB TENDED BY A LINE AT A POINT
O 2 arc tan ( a/2b)
M
W
3-2 ( 3 . 1) SOLID ANGLE SUB TENDED BY A DISK AT A POINT
The ring of radius T and width
dr sub tends at P a s olid angle
[ 21rdr/ (b
2
+ r
2
) J cos O
21Tdrb / (b
2
J r
2
)
3 /
2
2 2 "
21 1- ( 1+ a /b )-j
If b ` a , ! O . I f b
3-3 ( 3 . 2 ) GAUS S ' S LW
0 , , 21. If ,
2
1, a


Ll
No . Gauss ' s law can only tell us that the net flux of E emitted
by a dipole is zero , s ince the net charge is zero . For example , the
average radial E is zero.
3-4 ( 3 . 2) SURFACE DENSITY OF ELECTRONS ON A CHARGED BODY
a) O = E
o
E 8 . 85 x lO
-12
x 3 x l0
6
2 . 7 x lO
-5
C/m
2
-10 2 2
b ) Each atom occupies an area of about (3 x 10 ) meter Thus the
nuber of atoms per square meter is about 10
19 .
-5 -19
c) The nub er of electrons per square meter is 2 . 7 x 10 /1 . 6 x 10 ,
11
or 1 . 7 x 10
14
. The numb er of free electrons per atom is 1 . 7 x 10
14
/ 10
19
or 1 . 7 x lO
-5

35 ( 3 . 2 ) THE ELECTRI C FIELD IN A NUCLEUS
R 1 . 25 x 10
-15
( 12 7 )
1/ 3
= 6 . 28 x lO
-15
m. At the center ,
( p/ 2E ) R
2

r
Q
2
/fTR
3
/ 3)[(R
2
/ 2 E ) 3Ze/ 8TE R v
o
O O
-19 -12 -15
3 x 53 x 1 . 6 x lO / 87 x 8 . 85 x lO x 6 . 28 x 10
At the surface ,
2 2 2 7
V = ( p/ E
o
) ( R / 2 - R / 6) = pR / 3 E
o
V
center
/ 1 . 5 = 1 . 2 x 10 V ,
2 -19 -12 -15 2
E Q/ 4TE
o
R = 53 x 1 . 6 x 10 / 4T x 8 . 85 x lO ( 6 . 2 8 x lO )
21
z 1 . 9 x 10 V /m.
3-6 ( 3 . 2) THE SPACE DERIVATIVS OF E , E , E
x Y
z
From Gaus s ' s law, aE / ax J aE / ay J aE / a z p / E
x y z O
Since V x E 0 , aE lay aE / a z , aE / a z aE
z
/ ax , aE
y
/ ax
z y x
3-7 ( 3 . 2) PHYSICALLY IMOSSIBLE FIELDS

We set E Ek
If p = 0 , V
E
= 0 and aE / a z = O .
Also , V x
E
0 and aE / ax aE/ ay O .

So, if p = 0 , E is uniform.
If o 0 , V r p/E and aE / a z p/E .

O O
Als o , V x E 0 and aE / ax = aE / ay 0 , as before .
Then E is a function of z , but independent of x and y.
12
(3.4) ION BEA
From Laplace ' s equation , 3
2
V / 3x
2
-p / E
O
'
3V / 3x -(/ E
o
)x + A,
2
V - ( p/2E
O
) X +Ax+B .
S ince V = at x 0 , B O . Also ,
2
V = - ( p/2E ) a + Aa and A G V / a + pa/2E
o 0 0 0
2
Finally , V = ( V
o
/ a+ pa/2 E
o
) x - px / 2E
o
'
E -dV/ dx - (V / a+pa/2 E ) + px/ E .
o 0 0
3-10 ( 3 . 4) A UIFOR AND A NON UNIFOR FIELD
tl0C/

L
-5^

a) V 1000 x , E -1000 . S ee Figs . a and c.
`
2 2 4 4 4 2
b ) d V/ 3x = -10 , 3V/ 3x -10 x+A, V -10 x / 2 + Ax+B
S ince V at x ~ 0 , B O. S ince V 100 at x = 0.1 , then A = 500 .
4 2
V = -10 x /2 + 1 , 500x . See Figs. b and d .
13
3-11 (3 . 4) VACUUM DIODE
,
2
V/
'x
2
(4V /9S
4/3
) X
-2/3
, '
V/
'
x ~ ( 4V /9S
4/ 3
)
3x
l
/
3
+
A
o O
V ( 12 V /9 s
4/3
) ( 3 / 4 ) x
4 /3
+ A = V (x/s)
4 /3
+ ^
o O
S ince V V at x
o
4/ 3
s , then A = V ~ V
o
Cx/s )
l
2
b) J pv, ( 1/2) mv eV
o
' v ~ (2eV /m) 2
o
2
|
J - ( 4E V /9s ) (2eV /m) 2
O O O
_
(2
5 /2
E
/
9 ) (e/m)
!
(V
3 /2
/s
2
)
o O
-2.335 x 10
-6
V
3 /2
/
/
o
3-l3 ( 3 . 7) IMGES
= 2
E - (Q
/41E
o
a
),
A
= 2
E
B
- (Q /ltE
o
a
`,

E
C

2 2 3 /2
!

Q/ 41E
o
( a + 4a ) (2a l + a J )

2 2 3/ 2
.

E
Q /41E
o
( a
+ 4a ) ( -2ai + aj )
D

E
tot
( Q /41E a
2
) ( -2 + 2/5/S) j
O
2

- ( 1 . 82ll
Q
/ 41E
o
a ) j
3-14 ( 3 . 7 ) IMGES
a) At some point P on the con
ducting plane ,
E 2
Q
/ 41E
o
( D
2
+ r
2
)cos 8
2 2 3 /2
z 2Q
D/ 41E
O
(D + r )
2 2 3/2
O E
o
E = -QD/21( D + r )
J4

!

0

1 m c mm m m
I
l

Q
*|
t
.
j D
I

!
1
l
l
U

.t
L

. L

,
g

d
.
jr
`<

<
U
l Q
~ a = = = = m = = m a . ~ ~ a . a . g a
U
`
U
I
b) -

0
2 2 3/2
21rdrQD/21 ( D + r ) -QD

rdr/ ( D
2
+ r
2
)
3/2
0
CHAPTER 4
4-1 ( 4 . 1) THE PER
I
TT
I
V
I
TY OF FREE SPACE
From Coulomb's law,
[ E ] [ Q
2
/FL
2
] = [ Q
2
/ ( FL) LJ = [ Q
2
/(Q
2
/ C) L ] = [ C/L] ,
o
-Q
where the brackets indicate that we are concerned only with the
dimens ions , and where F, L , C , s tand for Force, Length, and
Capacitance . Note that FL is an energy , like Q
2
/C .
4-2
a) C
b) Q
c) V
( 4 . 1) THE
41E R
O
41R
2
C
EA
RTH'S ELECTR
I
C F
I
ELD
-4
7 . 1 x 10 F ' 700jF
41R
2
E E ( 6 . 4 x l0
6
)
2
x
l
OO/ 9 x
l0
9
O
41R
2
E E/41E R z ER 6 . 4 x l0
8
V
O O
4 . 5 x l0
5
C
Reference : Richard Feynman , Lectures on Physics , 2, Ch 9 , Addis on
Wes ley.
4-3 ( 4 . 2) PARALLEL-PLTE CAPAC
I
TOR
I
f there are 3 plates ,
C 8 . 85 x 10
-12
(
2A/ t)

With four plates ,


C 8.85 x 10
-12
(3
A/t) , etc.
For N plates ,
C 8 . 85 x 10
-
l2
(N-
l
) A!t F
8 . 85 ( N-
l
)
A/ t) pF
'

4-4
(4.2) PARALLEL-PLATE CAAC
I
TOR
The plate separation might be 1 m. Then 10
-12
-4
A 10 , or one square centimeter .
15
-12 -3
8 . 85 x 10 A/I0 ,
4-5 ( 4 . Z ) PARLLEL-PLATE CAAC
I
TOR
C
' = C
a
C
b
/ ( C
a
+C
b
) = E
o
S / ( a+b) =E
O
S / ( S-s')
The capacitance is larger , but it


is independent of the pos ition of

ce coudu" 'ug p1u', .

1
'
=
4-8 (4. 3) ELECTROSTAT
I
C ENERG
q V

a) w
l
/W
Z
( QV
l
/Z) / ( QV
z
/Z) = V
l
/V
Z
b) WW
Z
( Q
I
V/Z) / (Q
Z
V/Z) = Q

Q
Z
C
l
V
C
Z
V =
C
l
/C
Z
4-9 ( 4 . 3) ELECTR
OSTAT
I
C ENERG
a) The energy that is dis s ipated
Q
l
Q
Z
Q
l
+ Q
Z
.
Z Z

,
z
ZC
l
+
Z C
Z
-
Z ( C
I

C
Z
)
1
b) The energy is dissipated by Joule heating in the resis tance R of
the wires . Let
Q
l
O
and
Q
ZO
be the charges at t = 0 ,
Q
l
and
Q
Z
the
charges at t . C
l
dis charges into C
Z
. Then
Q
l
/C
l
- Q
Z
/
C
Z
=
I
R,
Q
l
+ Q
Z

Q
l
O
+ Q
ZO

Q , I = d
Q
Z
/dt ,
16
S ince
Q
2
= Q
20
at t 0 , A = Q
20
-
1/C
1
+1/ C
2
dQ
2
/dt =

Q
20
-
1/

/C
2
[ -( 1/C
l
+l/C
2
) /RJ exp [ - ( 1/C
l
+l /C
2
) t /RJ
[ -Q
20
( 1/C
l
+l/C
2
) /R + Q/ C
l
RJ exp [ - ( 1/ C
l
+1/C
2
) t /RJ
W
[ -Q
20
/ C
2
R + Q
10
/C
l
RJ exp [ - ( 1/ C
l
+l /C
2
) t /RJ
2

2
[ Q
lO
/C
l
R-Q
20
/ C
2
R
]
( d
Q
2
/dt) R =
-
2
( 1/C
l
+1/C
2
) /R
R( O-l)
0
2
( Q
l
O
/ C
r
Q
2
0
/ C
2)
2
( 1/C
l
+l /C
2
)
2
( Q
lO
C
2
-Q
20
C
l
)
2C
l
C
2
( C
l
+
C
2
)
This is the result found under a, except that the initial charges
are now called
Q
lO
and
Q
20
' ins tead of
Q
l
and
Q
2
'
4-10 ( 4 . 3) PROTON
B
OBB
R
a) W ( 1/2
) pVd,
0

R
2 2 2
( 1/2
) (p
2
/E
o
) (R /
2
- r /6 ) 4 rr dr
0
b) Use the above result , replacing 1/4rE
o
by
G
2
W
G
z 3
GB / 5R
c) 3x 6 . 6 7 x lO
-ll
x (7. 33x l0
22
)
2
/5 x 1. 7 4 x l0
6
= 1 . 24 x l0
2
9
J .
d) p ( 1000/1 . 7 x lO
-
27
) 1.6 x lO
-19
9 . 6 x lO
lO
C/m
3
I
f R is the radius of the sphere of protons, 4rp
2
R
5
/15 t 1 . 24 x 10
2

29 10 2
]
1/ 5
O
R [5E
o
x 1 . 24 x lO /4 1 ( 9.6 x 10 ) 0 . 17 T
4-11 (4 . 5) ELECTROSTAT
I
C MOTOR
Reference: A. D . Moore , Electros tatics and its Applications .
17
4-12 ( 4 . 5) ELECTROSTATIC PRESSUE
2 6 5
a) V =
Q/ 41"
o
R, E = Q /41"
o
R , V = ER = 3 x 10 /0 . 05 = 1 . 5 x 10 V
b) The pressure is 0
2
/2"
o
" ( Q/ 41R
2
N
=( Q/ 41" R)
2
( "
2
/R
2
) /2 f
O O
O
0
5 2 2
( 1 . 5 x 10 ) "
0
/2R
-4
P 40P a ~ 4 x 10 atmosphere.
4-13 ( 4 . 5) PARLLEL-PLATE CAPACITOR
Let each plate have an area S . Then the capacitance changes by
2
dC = d ( "
o
S / s) = - ("
o
S / s ) ds .
Let ds be positive . The capacitance decreases and a charge
dQ V l del = ( " S /s
2
) Vds returns to the battery. Thus
o
2
dW
B
= - (" S /s
2
) Vds = -" E Sds .
o O
The
dW
e
energy s tored in the field increases by
2 2 2 2 2
d ( "
o
E sS /2) = d ( "
o
V S / 2s ) = - ("
o
V S /2) ds /s = -"
o
E Sds / 2 .
The mechanical work done on the system is
Fds
2 2-
S ( "
o
E / 2) ds "
o
E S /2 .
4-14 ( 4.5) P ARALLEL-PLATE CAACITOR
See
dW
e
Fds
the preceding problem. Here, dW
B
2 2
d ( " E s S /2 ) = ( " E S / 2) ds
O
2
O
2
("
o
E S / 2) ds , F "
o
E S / 2
0 and E is cons tant.
4-15 (4 . 5) OSCILLATIN
G PA
R
ALLEL-PLATE CAACITOR
a) The energy stored in the
capacitor is
2 2
Q
V/ 2 = CV / 2 = ( E
o
A/x) V /2 .
Let x ? x . Then the total
o
potential energy is
2
W ~ mg ( x-x
o
) J k( x-x
o
)
/ 2
2
J
E
o
A
( 1/x-1/x
o
) V /2 J VL
Q
,
where L
Q
is the charge fed into
the battery because of the decrease in capacitance:
2 2
VL
Q
= -V LC = -V "
o
A
( 1/x-1/x
o
) .
The battery gains energy if C is negative . Thus
2 2
W mg (x-x
o
) J k(x-x
o
) /2 - E
o
A
( 1 /x-1/x
o
) V /2
2
(x-x ) [mg J (x-x ) k/2 J ' AV / 2xx ]
o
0 0 0
18
[ (x-x ) /x] kx
2
/2 J (mg-kx / 2) x J E AV
2
/ 2x ]
o O O O
b) There are three dowward forces
and , at equilibrium,
2 2
mg J k( x-x
o
) J E
o
AV /2x O .
Also , at equilibrium,
2 2
dW/dx mg J k( x-x
o
) J E
o
AV / 2x
c) The relation F - ( dW/dx)
eq
comes from the cons ervation of
energy for a small displacement
near equilibrium. In setting
N
=0
7
|bI
dW/dx K(x-x ) , we assume that the W(x) curve approximates a
eq
2
parabola W ~ (K/ 2) (x-x ) in the region near the point of s table
eq
equilibrium. Thus
K ~ ( d
2
W/ dx
2
) k - E Av
2
/x
3
eq O eq
'
k - E AV
2
/x
3

O e
q
f 6 . 16 Hz .
m
'
4-16 ( 4. 5 ) HIG-VOLTAGE GENERTOR
a) The charge density on the plates , and hence E , remain cons tant
when the plates are separated . Then the increase in energy is
E
2
S s (n-l) / 2 .
o
2
The mechanical work done is the force , t
o
E S /2 ,
multiplied by s (n-l) .
b) Reference: A.D. Moore, Electrostatics and its Applications ,
Chapter 8 .
4-17 ( 4. 5) INK-JET PRINTER
a) A C ' V 2'E
o
V/ tn( R
2
/R
l
)
3 2
b) ( 4/3) ' ( 2R
l
) / R
l
= 32 R
l
/ 3
c ) Q 32 R
I
A/ 3 64'E
o
VR
l
/ 3t
n(R
2
/R
l
)
/f"
d) m
3
1000T , Q/m Q/ lOOOT 64' e
o
VR
I
/ 3000 tn (R
2
/R
l
) (4/ 3) '
(2R
l
)
Q /m
e) v
2
E
O
V/ 500 R
l
t
n( R
2
/R
l
)
8 . 85 x 10
-12
x 100 / 500 ( 2 x 10
-5
)
2
tn(5 x 10
-3
/ 2 x 10
-5
) 8 . 0xlO
-4
C/g
10
5
x 10
-4
10 m/s
19
f) A droplet remains i the deflecting field during 4xlO
-
. During
that time it is
tion is QE /m, or
is
subj ected to a
-4 5
8 x 10 x 10 ,
transverse force
or 80 m/s
2
The
2 -3 2
at /2 = 80 ( 4x lO ) /2 = 0 . 64 m
QE and its accelera
-
transverse deflection
The transverse velocity at the far end of the deflecting p lates is
at = 80 x 4x lO
-3
= 0 . 32 m/s
Reference: Special issue of the IBM Journal of Research and Develop
ment , January 19 7 7 .
CHATER 5
5-1 ( 5 . 1) CONDUCTION IN A UNIFORM MDIUM
c ~ c
o
-ax/ s , E J/c = J/(c
o
-ax/s)
5-2 ( 5 . 2) RSISTIVE FILM
Let the film have an area a
2
and a thickness t . Then
R = a/cat ~ l /cr t .
5-3 ( 5 . 2) RSIS TOJET
The thrus t is m' v, where m' is the mass ej ected per second , ad v
is the exhaus t velocity . See the solution of Prob. 2-14. Then
2
l l
m' v /2 3000 , v =(6000 /m ' )

, m' v (6000 m' )



~ 1.9 N.
Reference : Robert J . Jahn , Physics of Electric Propulsion , p 103 .
5-4 ( 5 . 2) JOULE LOSSES
-
2
-
2 5
V
/
R= P , V 8 10 x O . 25 ,
V = 158 V
~
M
M
20
5-5 ( 5 . 4) VOLTAGE DIVIDER
The current flowing through R
l
and R
2
is I .
V
i
~ I( R
I
+ R
2
) , V
o
IR
2
, V
o
/V
i
~ R
2
/ ( R
l
+ R
2
)
5-6 ( 5 . 4) POTENTIOMTER
See Prob . 5-5 .
5-7 SIMLE CIRCUIT
V' ~ V - ZV[ R
I
/ ( R
I
+ R
Z
) J
5-9 AMLIFIER
a) R
l
and R
2
carry the same current
I = ( V
i
-
V
iA
) /R
l
= ( V
iA
- V
o
) /R
2
,
( V
i
+ V
o
/A) /R
l
~ V
o
( -1/A - l) /R
2
,
V
o
/V
i
-R
2
/ [ R
l
+ (R
l
+ R
2
) /AJ - (R
2
/R
l
) / [ l + 1 /A + ( R
2
/R
l
) /AJ .
V
o
/V
i

-R
2
/R
l
if A 1 and if R
2
/R
l
A . The gain R
l
/R
l
mus t
therefore be much less than A.
|<
|$|SD|S
a _a
3 4
expx z 1 + x + x /2 ! + x /3 ! + x / 4! + . . .
e 1 + 1 + l/ Z + 1 / 6 + 1/ 24 + . . .
5-11 ( 5 . 5 ) TETREDRON
a) By symetry , the currents through ACB and AB are equal. The
potential at C and D is half-way between the potentials at A and B .
b ) ZR/2 ~ R , in parallel with the R between A and B . The resis tance
between nodes A and B is R.
5-12 ( 5 . 5) CUBE
a) By symetry points BED are at the same potential . Points FCR are
=1
at another potential .
b) The resis tance from A to BED
is R/3 . That from BED to FCR is
R/6. That from FCR to G is R/3 .
The resis tance is 5R/6 .
5-13 ( 5.5) CUE
E

M
M
a) Points FBDR. Branches FD and DR can be either removed or short
circuited .
b) Remove thos e branches. Around the inner square , we have a resis
tance 2R/2 = R. Around the outer square , the resis tance is 3R. Thus
we have R and 3R in parallel and the resis tance is 3R/ 4 .
5-14 ( 5. 5) CUBE
Dis tort the cube as in Fig. a .
Then , by symmetry , B and E are
at the same potential and can be
shorted . Similarly , C and R can
be shorted . Now redraw the
figure as in b and c. The resis
tance to the right of the dotted
line is 0 . 4 R and
R
AD
=
R( 1. 4R) / ( R+1. 4R) = 1 . 4R/2. 4
= 0 . S83R

M
22

M
I
|0J

5-15 (5 . 7 ) LINE FAULT LOCATION


Let the length of the line be and let a be the resis tance of one
meter of wire . Then
2 ax + R
s
= 550/ 3 . 7 8 = 145 . 5 , R
s
l45.5 - 2ax ,
2 ax + R
s
2a(-x) / [ R
s
+2a(-x) J = 550/ 7 . 2 7 6 . 39 ,
ax[ R
s
+ 2a(-x)J+ R
s
a(-x) = 38 . l9 [ R
s
+ 2a(-x) J ,
2 2 2
aXR
s
+ 2a x - 2a x + R
s
a(-x) = 38 . l9R
s
+ 76 . 39a - 7 6 . 39ax .
Canceling the axR
s
t erms and subs ti tuting the value o f R
s
in the
firs t equation ,
2 2 2
2a x - 2a x + (145 . 5 - 2ax) a 38 . l9(145 . 5 - 2ax) + 76 . 39a - 76 . 39ax,
-2a
2
x
2
+ l52 . 8ax + 6 9 . lla - 5.5 5 7 C O.
7 -3 2 -3
Now a 1 /5.8 x lO '(1 . 5 x lO ) = 2 . 439 x lO .
S olving , x ~ 7 . 818 kilometers .
5-16 (5 . 7 ) UNIFOR RESISTIVE NET
a) From Kirchoff ' s voltage law, the sum of the currents flowing into
o
is zero . Thus
(V
A
-V
O
) /R + (V
B
-V
O
) /R + (V
C
-V
O
) /R + (V
D
-V
O
) /R 0 ,
V
o
= (V
A
+V
B
+V
C
+V
D
) / 4.
b) For a three-dimensional circuit we have 6 resis tors connected
to 0 and
5-17 (5 . 9) POTENTIAL DIVIDER
For the left hand mesh ,
V
i
-I
l
R-(I
l
-I
2
) R = O .
For the middle mesh,
(I
2
-I
l
) R + I
2
R + I
2
R
= O .
Then 1
2
V
i
/5R, V
o
= (V/5R) R = \{5.
23
V

5-18 ( 5.9 ) S
I
MLE C
I
RCU
I
T W
I
TH TWO SOURCES
( R
l
+r)
I
, - r
I
2
= V , - r
I
l
+ ( R
2
+r)
I
2
V
I
=
1
1
-
1
2
= ( R
2
-R
l
) V/ [ R
l
R
2
+r ( R
l
+R
2
) ]
5-19 (5.10) DELTA
-S TA
R TRNSFORT
I
ONS
Equating the voltages ,
V
A
-V
B

R
e
(
I
D
-
I
C
)
V
B
-V
C

R
a
(
I
D
-
I
A
)
V
C
-V
A
=

(
I
D
-
I
B
)
R
ewriting ,
R
A
(
I
B
-
I
C
) +

(
I
A
-
I
C
) ,

(
I
C
-
I
A
) + R
c
(
I
B
-
I
A
)
'
R
C
(
I
A
-
I
B
) + R
A
(
I
c
-
I
B
)

-
I
A
R
B
-
I
B
R
A
+
I
C
(
R
A
+
-
R
e
) +
I
D
R
e
0 ,
-
I
A
(

+R
C
-R
)
-
I
B
R
c
-
I
C

+ I
D
R
a
0 ,
-
I
A
R
C
+ I
B
( R
C
+R
A
-
\
) -
I
C
R
A
+ I
D
\
O .
Eliminating
I
D
from Eqs . 4 and 5,
( 1)
(
2
)
( 3)
( 4)
( 5 )
( 6 )
-
I
A

-
I
B
R
A
+ I
C
( R
A
+

-R
C
) + ( R
e
/R
a
) [ -
I
A
(

+R
C
-R
)
+ I
B
R
C
+ I
C
]
= 0 ( 7)
I
A
[ -

- ( R
e
/R
)
(

+R
C
-R
)]
+
I
B
[ -R
A
+ (
R/
R
)
R
C
]
Thus + CR
e
/R
)
(

+R
C
) - R
e
= 0 , R
A
/R
C
= R
/
R
a
( 10)

+ (R
/
R
)
+ R
A
- R
e
= ( ll)
Only two of these equations are independent . Combining the firs t
two ,

+ ( R
A
/R
C
)

+ R
A
= R
e'
R
e
= (

R
C
+ R
C
R
A
+ R
A

) /R
C
Or , setting R l/
G, G
e
= G
A
G
B
/ ( G
A
+G
B
+G
C
)
2
4
( 12)
( l3)
5-20 (5.10) DELTA-STA TRANSFORTIONS
4K

' Y l
Redraw the circuit as in Fig. a and transfor the left hand delta
into a s tar , as in Fig . b , with
4000 x 1000/ 7000 ~ (4/ 7 ) 1000r, R
2
(8 / 7 ) 1000r, R
3
~ (2 / 7 ) 1000r,
R 2. 89 kr.
5-21 (5 . 12) OUTPUT RSISTANCE OF A BRIDGE CIRCUIT
The output resis tance is the resis tance one would measure at the
terminals of the voltmeter if the source were replaced by a short
circuit. This is R/2 + R/2 ~ R.
5-22 (5 . 12) INTERAL RESISTANCE OF A AUTOMOBILE BATTERY
The headlights , tail lights , etc draw about 15 A. Hence the internal
resis tance of the battery is about (1/ 15) . This is much too large ,
becaus e a cranking motor draws , s ay 200 A. A normal automobile bat
tery has an internal resis tance of the order of 10
-2
r.
Reference : S tandard Handbook for Electrical Engineers , Sections
21 and 2 4 .
5-23 (5. 14) DIS CHARGING A CAPACITOR THROUGH A RESISTOR
From Kirchoff ' s voltage law, Q/ C RdQ/dt. Thus
RdQ /dt - Q/ C 0 , Q Q
o
exp(-t!RC) , V V
o
exp (-t/ RC)
5-24 (5 . 14) R GENRATOR
V
o
~ Q/ C ~ I t / C
2 5
100 exp (-t)
5-
Z
5 ( 5 . 14) CHA
RG
I
N
G
A CAAC
I
TOR THROUG A RS
I
S TOR
The energy supplied by the source is
= =
CV
W
s
,Vldt V ( d
Q/dt) dt ~ V ,d
Q
CV
Z
.
0 0 0
The energy s tored in the capacitor for t - = is CV
Z
/
Z
.
The energy dis s ipated in the resis tor is
5-
Z
6 ( 5 . 14)
R [ (V/R) eXp ( -t/RC) ]
z
dt ~ CV
Z
/
Z
0
RC TRNS
I
ENT
a)
I
V/R
Z
+ CdV/dt , V
s
~
I
R
l
+ V ~ ( V/R
Z
+ CdV/dt) R
l
+ V
R
1
C dV/dt + (
l
+R
l
/R
Z
) V z V
s
S ince V 0 at t 0 ,
V , [ V
s
/ ( 1+R
l
/R
Z
) ] {1-exp [ - ( 1+R
l
/R
Z
) t/R
1
C] }
[ R
Z
/ ( R
l
+R
Z
) ] {
1-exp[ - (R
l
+R
Z
) t /R
1
R
Z
C] }
V
s
The time cons tant is R
1
R
Z
C/ ( R
l
+R
Z
) , or C/ (
l
/R
l
+
l
/R
Z
) .
For t
- =
, V z R
Z
V
s
/ ( R
l
+R
Z
) .
b) Now, at t 0 , V R
Z
V
s
/ ( R
l
+R
Z
) .
The capacitor dis charges through R
Z
and
5-
Z
7 ( 5.14) RC D
I
FFERNT
I
AT
I
NG
C
I
RCU
I
T
V
i
z
Q/ C + R
I
Q /C
V
o
, R
I
Rd
Q/dtRRCdVdt
C


L
V
X
Z
6
5-28 DIFFERENTIATING A SQUARE "lAVE
5-30 ( 5 . 14) RC INTEGRATING CIRCUIT
The current flowing into the capacitor is I .
V
i
~ RI + Q/ c
"
RdQ/dt + Q/ c ' RdQ/ dt ,
t
V
o
~ Q/ c
" ( l/RC)
V
i
d t .
0
5-31 ( 5 . 14) INTEGRATING CIRCUIT
5-32 ( 5 . 14) INTEGRTING CIRCUIT
(V
i
-V
iA
) /R
"
C(d/dt) ( V
iA
-V
o
)
v
i
+V
o
/A ~ -RC ( l+l/A) dV
o
/d t ,
V
i
-RC ( l+l/A) dV
o
/dt - V
o
lA
-RCdV
o
/dt if A 1 and if V
o
lA RCdV
o
/ dt.
2 7
5-33 ( 5 . 14) PULSE-COUNTING CIRCUIT
a) During a pulse , the voltage
across C
l
is approximately equal V
to V
p
and Q C
l
V
p
' After the
firs t pulse , the voltage across
C
2
is C
l
V
p
/ C
2
' The process
repeats itself . The voltage
across C
2
increas es by C
l
V
p
/ C
2
at each pulse .
CHATER 6
THE DIPOLE MOMNT p 6-1 ( 6 . 1)
a) p P iN 10
-7
/ 6 . 02 x 10
2 3
x (
3 . 5 /l2 ) 10
6
} ~ 5 . 7 x lO
-37
Cm
b) s p/Q
-37 -19 19
5 . 7 x 10 16 x 1 . 6 x 10 ~ 5 . 9 x 10
-
m
The diameter of an atom is of the' order of 10
-10
m.
6-2 ( 6 . 2 ) THE VOLU AND SURFACE BOUND CHARGE 'DENSITIES
,.
.
a+ + ,C
b
da
+ S
6-3 ( 6 . 2) BOUND CHARGE DENS ITY AT AN INTERFACE
In the figure , we have shown the
two media s eparated, for clarity.
On the face of 1 , C
bl

On 2 , C
b2
= P
2
'( -n) ~
6-4 ( 6 . 4) COAXIAL LINE

~
0
0
Cons ider a volue of dielectric having the shape shown in the
figure,
28
I
,.. ..
S
where S is the surface bounding

The surfaces A and B are the only



ones where Eda is not zero . Then,
if their radii are r
A
and r
B
,

,
Eda ~ - ( A/ 2TE r
A
) r
A
6L 1 ( A/ 2TE r ) r 6L
o O B B
S
0

. 0 and , s ince r
A
, r
B
and 6 are arbitrary , E ~ O .

6-5 ( 6 . 7 ) COAXIAL LINE


a) Near the inner conductor ,
E
l
A/ 2TE
r
E
o
R
l
If A is the charge per meter and C' the capacitance per meter ,
A C' V [ 2TE
r
E
o
/in( R
2
/R
l
)
J
V
Thus E
l
V/R
l
in (R
2
/R
l
)
6 -3 -5
5 x 10 ~ 500 /R
l
in( 5 x 10 /R
l
) , R
l
1 . 7 7 2 x 10 m
b) One should use No 34 wire .
c) C ' 2T x 2 . l x S . S5 x lO
-12
/in( 5 / 0. l6 ) 33 . 9 3 pF/m
6-7 ( 6 . S) CHARGED WIR EMEDDED IN DIELECTRI C : THE FREE AND BOUND
CHARGES
a) Inside the dielectric ,
D A / 2T
r , E ~ A
/ 2TE
r
E
o
r
On the inner surface of the
dielectric ,
On the outer surface ,
29
6-8 ( 6 . 8) PARALLEL-PLATE CAACITOR
a) We can treat this problem as if

we had two capacitors in series


C
l
= E
o
A/ ( s-t) , C
z
= E
r
E
o
A/ t
C = C
l
C
2
/ ( C
l
+C
z
)
=

" '
,
o
A

o
A
'
'
]
E E A
r
_
E E A
r
_
E A
o
1
E
r

t ( s-t) --+ -
s-t t
1
l- ( t/ s) ( 2/3)
6-9 ( 6 . 7 )
t + ( s-t) E
r
a) S ince the only free charge is Q ,
Eq . 6-17 gives us that
Z -9 Z -11 2 Z
D = Q/ 4Tr 10 / 4rr = 7 . 9 6 x lO / r C /m
both inside and outside the dielectri c .
Ins ide the dielectric ,
E
.
J
Z
D/E
r
E
o
Q/ 4TE
r
E
o
r

7 . 9 5 x 10
-11
/ 3r
2

2. 65 x 10
-11
/ r
2
Outside the dielectric ,
2 2
E
o
D/E
o
Q/ 4TE
o
r

8 . 9 4/ r
U
To find V , we set V

0 at infinity .
Outs ide the sphere , V
o
Q/ 4TE
o
r 9 . 00 / r V
At the surface of the
Inside the sphere , V
i
sphere , V = 450 V.
R
= 450 + ( Q/4TE E r
2
) dr
r
_
r
300 + 3 . 00 /r
c) Let us apply Gauss 's law to a small element of volume at the
surface. The bound charge on the element of area da is
30
0,1
b
as
The
the
;; E ,l -E.)
o O J
previous ly .
discontinuity
bound surface
2
( Q/ 4rR ) ( l-l
/E
r
) ,
in E is due to
charge .
6-10 ( 6 . 7 ) CHARGED DIELECTRIC SPHER
3 2
Outside the sphere , E ( 4 / 3) rR P
f
/4rE
o
r
3
At r R, V ( 4 / 3) rR P
f
/4rE
o
R
3 2
Ins ide the sphere , D ( 4 / 3) rr P
f
/4rr
3 2
R P
f
/ 3E
o
r
d
3 2
R P
f
/3E
o
R R P
f
/3E
O
r
p
f
/ 3 , E r
p
f
/ 3E
r
E
o
At the center ,
R
V R
2
p
f
/ 3E
o
+ , ( rP
f
/ 3E
o
E _dr
O
6-11 ( 6.7) MASURING SURFACE CHARGE DENSITIES ON DIELECTRICS
Reference : Journal of Physics E _, 412 ( 19 6 9 ) .
6-12 ( 6 . 7 ) VARIABLE CAPACITOR UTILIZING A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD
7
C
>

\!
In all cases , dC E
r
E
o
ydz / t , dC/ dz z
a)
y
10
-3
dC 10
9
dC
3 x 8 . 85 x 10
-12
-
=
2 6 . 55 dz
10
9
-9
y
26 . 55
10
=
37 . 7 @
3 1
\
E
r
E
o
y/ t
b)
10
9
-8
y =
2 6.55
10 x 2z 0.753z m
6-13 ( 6.8) EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES
a) No .
b) o
f
=
+
D . The charge density is positive on the side where the
vector D points away from the sheet .
6-14 ( 6.8) NON-HOMOGENEOUS DIELECTRICS
. = , i) = , .

) = 0
r o o r r
+
S ince _=0 , VE" 0 and P
b
" 0
P
. -, :/ )
b O r r
6-15 ( 6.9) FIELD OF A SHEET OF ELECTRONS TRAPED IN LUCITE
-7
a) The total free charge i s -10 C,
-7 -4 -3
P
f
-10 125 x lO x 2 x lO
-2 . 000 x 10
-2
e/m
3
b) From Gaus s ' s law , D on each s ide,
in the neutral region, is one half
the free charge per square meter :
D - ( 1/ 2) 10
-7
/25 x 10
-4
n
-5 2
-2 . 00 x lO Clm
P
n
, :-:/ ) D
-5 2
-1 . 37 5 x lO C/m
r n
E
n
(D
n
-P
n
) lE
O
D
n
lE
r
E
o
-7 . 062 x 10
5
V im
S ince E - -dV Idx , and s ince
n n
-3
V 0 at x = 6 x 10
n
5
V 7.062 x lO x - 4 , 237 V
n
J
b
+ + +
c) At both surfaces , P points inward , like E and D , and
0
b
P
n
-1 . 37 5 x 10
-5
C /m
2
3 2
J
d) Ins ide the charged region ,
~ dD /dx
c c
-2 3 -2 2
P
f
~ -2 . 000 x lO C /m , D ~ -2 . 000 x lO x C /m
The cons tant of integration is zero because D changes sign at x O .
S o D 0 at x O . Also ,

V E
c
dE /dx
c
8 2 8
( P
f
+ P
b
) /C
o
= -7 . 06 2 x lO V/m , E
c
= -7 . 062 x lO x V/m
The constant of integration is again zero, for the same reason .
From Poisson ' s equation ,
2 2 2 8 2
V V
c
d V
c
/dx = - ( P
f
+ P
b
) h
o
= 7 . 062 x lO V/m
8 2
dV /dx = 7 . 062 x lO x V/m
c
The constant of integration
3 . 53l x l0
8
x
2
V =
-
3 884 V
c
The cons tant of integration
e) See curves.
is zero, s ince dV /dx
c
is now chos en to make
-E Thus
c
V V at x
c n
10
-3
.
f) The s tored energy is 2 x ( 1 / 2)
lO
-
3
-4
P
f
V
c
25 x lO dx
-4
1. 883 x 10 J
0
g) No.
6-16 ( 6 . 10) SHEET ELECTRET
-C 0-C

- '
l |
-
,,f
p
, E
p
0- C
-C
6
-
17 ( 6 . 7 ) RLATION BETWEEN R AD C FOR A PAIR OF ELECTRODES
Let the area of one plate be S and the spacing s . Then
E E /a
r O
33
0-D
CHATER 7
7-1 ( 7 . 1)
CONTINUITY CONDITIONS AT A INTERFACE
D = A/2r , both ins ide and outs ide the dielectric ,
E
i
= A/2E
r
E
o
r ins ide,
E = A /2E r outside .
O O
V is continuous at the surface , but its slope dV/dr is smaller
ins ide than outs ide .
7-2 ( 7 . 1)
CONTINUITY CONDITIONS AT A INTERFACE
D
E .
J
Q/ 4r
2
, both ins ide
2
Q/ 4E
r
E
o
r inside ,
and outside the dielectric,
E
o
Q / 4E r
2
outs ide .
o
2
Thus , at the surface , E
o
- E
i
( Q/4E
O
R ) Cl-l/E
r
)
V is continuous at the surface , but its slope is smaller ins ide
the dielectric .
7-3 ( 7 . 2)
W QV/2
ENERGY S TORAGE IN CAPACITORS
CV
2
/2 = 10
-6
x 10
6
/2 = 0 . 5 J
mgh 0 . 5 J , h 0. 5 / l x 9 . 8 = 51 T
7-4 (.?) ENERGY S TORGE IN CAPACITORS
For Mylar ,
-12 8 2
W
I
3 . 2x 8 . 85 x lO ( 1 . 5 x lO ) /2
~ 3 . 2 x l0
5
J/m
3
One would us e the geometry shown
in the figure . We need an absolute
mlnlmum of one kilowatt-hour . Then
we need 3,600 x 1 000 , or 3 . 6 x 10
6
J .
Assuming 100 efficiency , which is
unrealis tic ( the actual overall ef-
ficiency might be, s ay 25 ), the capacitor would have a volume of
11 m
3
. The dens ity of Mylar being approximately equal to that of
water , the capacitor would have a mas s of 11 tons , which is absurd !
34
7-6 ( 7.1) BOUD SU RFACE CHARGE DENSITY
7-7 ( 7 . 3) EXLE OF A LARGE ELECTRIC FORCE
2 -12 7 2
The force per s quare meter is E
r
E
o
E /2 = 35 x 8 . 85 x lO ( 4 x lO ) /2
=2. 5 x l0
5
pa .
The force i s 2. 5 atmos pheres .
7-8 ( 7 . 3) PERETUA-MOTION MCHINE
We have four sheets of charge as
~ ^ 7 1 C
Sheets a and b are in the figure .
= Q_
coincident and are s ituated in the
b
fields of c and d . Choosing the
right-hand direction as positive ,
+

C
the field at the pos ition of a and
b is
E
b
(/2E - (
b
/2E C ( 1 /2E )
a, O O O
( - ( l-l/ E ) (] z (/2E E
r r O
O~
Then the forces per unit area on a and b are
F (
2
/2
E
r
E
o
' F = -(( /2E E - (l-l/ E ) (
2
/2E E
a b b r O r r O
S imilarly ,
E
c
(/2E
o
- (
b
/2E
o
+ (/2E
O
= ( 1/2E
o
) 2( - ( l-l/ E
r
)(] = ( 1+1 / E
r
) (/2E
o
F
c
2
( 1+1 / E
r
) ((
b
/2E
o
( l+l / E
r
) ( l-l/ E
r
) ( /2E
o
z _(
2
/2E
o
Finally,
F
a
+ F
b
+ F
c
+ F
d
0
7-9 ( 7 . 3) SELF-CLAMING CAPACITOR
F ( E E
2
/2) S ((
2
/2E ) S C ( S /2E ) ( VC/ S )
2
( S /2E ) ( V
2
/s
2
) ( E E si
t
o O O O r o
2 2 2 2 -12 -2 8
E
r
E
O
SV /2t = 3 x 8 . 85 x lO x 4 . 38 x lO x 36 x lO /
-4 2 4
2 x ( 7 . 62 x lO ) 1 . 1 x lO N
This is a very large force . It is approximately the weight of a mas s
of one ton .
`
7-10 ( 7 . 3) ELECTROS TATIC CLAS
~
Z Z 5
a) ( l/Z) E
r
E
o
( V/d) ~ Z x lO Pa, d ~ 15 )m
5
b) The E in the Mylar is 3000 / 1 . 5 x 10 V /m. Then the E in the air is
3 . Z x 3000 x 10
5
/ 1 . 5 6 . 4 x 10
8
V /m
Z 5
c) ( l/Z) E
r
E
o
(V/d) Z x 10 Pa, d ~ 8 . 4 )m
Reference : S tatic Electrification 19 7 5 , p . Z15 .
7-11 ( 7 . 3) CALCULATING A ELECTRIC FORCE BY THE MTHOD OF VIRTUAL
WOR
Let the force be F . Assume a virtual displacement dx . Then the
work done by the battery is equal to the mechanical work done ,
plus the increase in the stored energy , these two quantities being
equal. Thus
d
F
d (QV/Z)
Z
E
r
E
o
2V /Zs
Z Z Z
d (V C/ Z ) V dC/ Z z ( V / Z) E
r
E
o
2dX/S
-IZ 6 -3
~ 3 x 8 . 85 x 10 x 0 . 1 x 10 /Z x 10
7-lZ ( 7 . 4) ELECTRIC FORCE
-3
1 . 33 x 10 N
IE
Z
~ ( d / ax) E
Z
IJ ( a / ay) E
Z
|J c a / a z) E ZE aE / axIJ . . . ZElE
7-13 ( 7 . 4) ELECTRIC FORCE
S ee Prob. 7-10 .
The mechanical work done is equal to the increase in electric
energy . Both energies are supplied by the battery .
Z Z Z
Fdx d (V C/ Z ) V dC/Z (V / Z) ( E
r
-l) E
o
2dx/s
F (V
Z
/ Z) ( E
r
-l) E
o
2 /S ( 10
6
/ Z) ( 3-1) 8 . 85 x 10
-lZ
x O . l/lO
-3
8 . 85 x 10
-4
N
7-15 ( 7.4) ELECTRIC FORCE ON A DIELECTRIC
From Gauss's law, E ( A/ ZE
r
E
o
) /r
From Prob . 4-6 , V ( A/ ZE
r
E
o
) 2n( R
Z
/R
l
)
Z Z 3
Thus E V/r2n( R
Z
/R
l
) , dE /dr [ V/ 2n (R
Z
/R
l
) ] ( -Z/ r )
The force is directed inwards. Disregarding the sign,
F '
Z Z 3
( E
r
-l) E
o
V / 2n (R
Z
/R
l
) r
3.? x 10
-
3
/r
3
N /m
3
-12 6 2 3
8 . 85 x lO x 1 . 5 x 625 x 10 / 2n 5 x r
36
-3 -9 6 3
b) Near the inner conductor, F ' ~ 3 . 2 x 10 /10 3 . 2 x 10 N/m
The gravitational force per cubic meter is 9 . 8 x 10
3
N/m
3
. S o
(Electric force) / ( Gravitational force) ~ 3 . 2 x 10
6
/9 . 8 x 10
3
~ 330
7-16 ( 7 . 6) DISPLACEMNT AD POLARIZATION CURRENTS
From Sec . 5 . 14 the voltage on the capacitor is
V
c
V[ l-exp ( -t/RC)] , E = V
C
/s
D = E
r
E
o
E _ E
r
E
o
( V/s)[ l-exp ( -t/RC)]
dD/dt = E
r
E
o
( V/S) ( l/RC)exp ( -t/RC)
P = ( E
r
-1)E
o
E = ( E
r
-1)E
o
( V/s) [ 1-exp (-t/RC)]
dP/dt ~ [ ( E
r
-1)E
o
V/RCs ] exp (-t/RC)
7-17 (7. 7) DIRCT ENERG CONVERSION
-12 -4
C
1
E
r
E
o
A/s =8000 x8 . 5 x10 /2 xlO 340fF
-6
Q
1
= C
l
V
B
= 340 x 10 x 700 C
W
e
Q
l
V
2
/2 - Q
1
V
1
/2 = 0 . 2 48 ( 3 500-700)/2 347 J
W
t
= 2 . 9 x10
6
x 2 x10
-4
x30 = 1.74 xl0
4
J
4
W
e
/W
th
= 347/1 . 74 xlO 0 . 02
The efficiency is only 2 percent .
References: S . L. Soo , Direct Energy Conversion , p 184 ; Proc . IEEE ,
51 , 838 ( 1963) .
CHATER 8
8-1 ( 8 . 1) MGETIC INDUCTION ON THE AXIS OF A CIRCULAR LOOP
. NIa/2 ( } + z
2
)
3/2

o
41 x 10
-7
x 100 x 1 x 0 . 1
2
/2 ( O . 01z
2
)
3/2
21 X 10
-7
/( 0 . 01+.)
3/2
3
37
0
1
8
-
2 ( 8 . 1) SQUARE CURNT LOOP
B - 8 (
o
I / 4r)

a
dcos 8 / ( a
2
+
2
)
0
S (
o
I /4r)

a
a d / ( a
2
+
2
)
3/ 2
0
l
2
2
I /ra
o
Z0
8
-
3 ( S. l) FIELD OF A CHARGED ROTATING DISK
a) E O/ E
O
'
b ) 0 vO - wrO
Z0
c) A ring of radius r and width dr acts as a current loop .
S o , from S ec . S . 1 . 2 ,
R
B -
0
( wrodr) /2r
0
wRo /2
o
d) E 10
-
6
/ S
. 85 x 10
-
12
1 . 13 x l0
5
V/m
B - 0 . 5 x 4r x lO
- 7
x l0
3
x O . l 10
-
6
6 . 2S x lO
-
ll
T
S-
4 ( S . l) SUNSPOTS
a) The current loop between rand r + dr carries a current
2rrdro ( w/ 2r) - wrodr .
R
B (
0
/ 2) wrodr/r =
0
At the center ,
wRo/ 2
o
o 2B /
o
wR = 2 x O . 4 /4r x lO
-7
x 3 x lO
-
2
x l0
7
- 20 / 3r
-
19 19
-
2
The electron density is ( 2 0/ 3r) / 1 . 6 x 10 F 10 m
b) The current is the total charge divided by the period :
I ~ [ r x 10
14
x ( 20 /3r) ] / ( 2r /w) ::3 x 10
12
A
~
J
c) The negative charge of the electrons is neutrali zed by quasi
s tationary positive ions .
S-
5 (
S
. l) HELMOLTZ COILS
B = 2 NI} / 2 ( }+} /4)
3 /2
~ ( 0 . 8)
3 /2
NI/a = S . 9 92 x 10
-
7
NI /a
o 0
References : Durand , Magnetos tatique , pp 44 , 2 70 ; O ' Dell , The Electro
dynamics of Magneto
-
Electric Phenomena , Appendix 4 ; Rubens , Rev. S ci
38
Ins tr. _, 243 (19 45)
8
-
6 ( 8 . 1) HELMOLTZ COILS
a) In the northern hemisphere the
magnetic field points downward .
In a N
-
S plane , looking W, the
coils are oriented as in the
figure .
-7 -
5
c) 8 . 9 92 x lO NI /a s x lO ,
NI s x lO
-
s
/ 8 . 9 9 2 x lO
-
7
5 5 . 6 At .
V

\
\
\
d) Try a current of 2 amperes so as to make the number of turns as
small as possible . Then we need at leas t 2 8 turns in each coi l . Then
R 28 x 21 x l x 21 . 7 x lO
-
3
~ 3 . 82$
V 7 . 6 4V , P 4 x 3 . 82 15 . 3 W for each coil .
No cooling is required for this size of coil .
8
-7 ( 8 . 1) LINEAR DISPLACEMNT TRASDUCER
2 2 2 3 / 2
B ( )
o
la /2) l/[ a + (z
-
a) J
- 1/ [ a
2
+ ( z+a)
2
J
3 /2

2 2 2 3 /2
()
o
la / 2) [ l/ ( z
-
2az+2a )
- 1/ ( z
2
+2az+2a
2
)
3 /2
J
2 3 / 2
( )
o
I / 2a) [ 1/ ( z '
-
2 z ' +2)
-
1 / ( z,
2
+2 z ' +2)
3 / 2
J (z ' z / a)
8
-
8 ( S
. 2 ) THE SPACE DERIVATIVES OF B A S TATIC FIELD
v3 d B /dX+ d B /d
Y + 3 B /3 z 0
x y z
d B
y
/3
Y is positive . By symetry , 3 B
x
/3 x is also positive .
d B
z
/3Z is necessarily negative .
S-
9 ( S
.3) MAGETI C MONOPOLES
Q*H S . 2 7 x 10
-
15
x ( 10 /41 x 10
-7
) x 0 . 16
1 . 05 x 10
-S
/ 1.6 x 10
-
19
6 6 Gev
39
-
8
1 . 05 x 10 J
Then
8
-
10 ( 8 . 4) MGNETIC FIELD OF A CHARGED ROTATING SPHERE
2
a) a ~ Q/ 4r , V Q/ 4E
O
R, a ~ E
o
V/R
b) D
c) B
av ~ ( E
o
V/R) wR s in 8 E
O
WV sin 8

( E wV s in 8 Rd8 ) (R s in 8 )
2
/ 2R
3
~
o 0
0
( 2 / 3) E 1 wV
o 0
-
12
-7 4 4
d) B ( 2 / 3) 8 . 85 x lO x 4 x lO x 2 x ( 10 / 60) x lO
-
11
7 . 7 5 x lO T
The field is parallel to the axis of rotation .

e) m ~ ( 1/2) [ ( E
o
V/R) ( 2R Sin 8 ) Rd8 J ( wR sin 8 ) R sin 8
3

3 3
R E wV s in 8d8 ~ ( 4 / 3 ) R E wV
o 0
-
3
-
12 4 4
f) m ( 4 / 3) r 10 x 8 . 85 x 10 x h( lO / 60) 10
-
2
-7
-
5
g) ( / 4) 10 I 3 . 882 x 10 , I ~ 4 . 943 x 10 A
9
-
1 ( 9 . 1) DEFINITION OF 1
0
CHAPTER 9
3 . 882 x 10
-
7
A
2
9
-
2 ( 9 . 1) MGNETIC FIELD OF A CURRENT
-
CARRYING TUBE
a) B ~ 1
0
I /2rr
b ) Z is parallel to the tube and in the same direction as the current
c) ? inside is zero
-

- -
d) A is as above . I t is not zero . For any curve C , Ad gives the
flux linkage . If the curve is entirely situated ins ide the tube
where ? ~ 0, the integral is zero and Z mus t be uniform. I ts value
-
is of no interes t , s ince B ~ O .
9
-
3 ( 9 . 1)
-
MGNETIC FIELD CLOSE TO A CURRENT SHEET O
Cons ider the dashed curve
40
M
_. a a a a a a a
l
t
t
'
l I
L ~
9
-
4 (9. 1) VA DE GRAFF HIGH
-
VOLTAGE GENERATOR
a) O 2
E
E ~ 2 x 8 . 8S x 10
-
12
x 2 x 10
3
/10
-
3
~ 3 . S 4 x 10
-
S
C/m
2
o
I 3 . S4 x 10
-
S
x O . S x
1
x O . 1 x 60 ~ 3 . 336 x 10
-
4
A.
b ) B 41
x 10
-7
x ( 3 . 336 x 10
-
4
/0 . S) / 2 4
1
x 3 . 336 x 10
-
11
~ 4 . 19 2 x 10 -1
9
r
Y
9
-
S ( 9 . 1) SHORT SOLENOID
U
2
,
+L
2 2 3 / 2
B ~ ()
o
la / 2) (N/L) dz / [ a + ( z
-
Z) ]
-
L

_
_
2
,
+L
2 2 3 / 2
()
o
Nla / 2L) d ( z
-
Z) / [ a + ( z
-Z) ]
-
L
()
o
Nla
2
/2L)
2 2
z
-
z
2 3 /2

+L
a {a + ( z
-Z) }
-
L
()
o
NI /2L)
2
L
-Z
2 3/ 2
+
2
L+Z
2 3 / 2

[ a + (L
-
Z) ] [ a + ( L+Z) ]
9
-
6 ( 9 . 1) FIELD AT THE CENTER OF A COIL
R
2
+L/ 2

2
2 2 3/ 2
a) B ~ ()
o
nI / 2) x dxdz / (x +z )
R
1
-
L/ 2
()
o
nI / 2) ,
R
2

2
x

z
2

+L /2
dX
R

x (x +z )
-
L/ 2
1
,
R
2
Ldx
()
o
nI / 2)
2 2 ;
R
(L /4 + x )
1

2 2
1
'
R
2
()
o
nIL / 2) 2 n{x+ (L / 4+x
,

,
R
1
2 2
1
() nIL/2)
2
n
a+ (a +

o
l+ ( l+ S
)

_
Z
L
+~
Z
Note : Integrating firs t with respect to x would be much more dif
ficult .
41
b) The number of turns is L (R
Z
-
R
1
) n , and the average length of one
turn is Z r( R
l
+R
Z
) /Z . Thus the length of the wire is

=
L( R
Z
-
R
l
) nr ( R
l
+R
Z
) = r R
z
Z
-
R Ln = Vn ,
where V is the volume of the winding . Also
Z 3 Z 3

=
Zr (a -1) ( L/ ZR
l
) R
l
n Zrn(a
-
l) SR
l
9-7 ( 9 . 1) CURRENT DIS TRIBUTION GIVING A UNIFOR B
The field inside the hole is the same as if one had two superposed
current distributions : a uniform current dens ity throughout the
cross
-
section , plus a current in the oppos ite direction in the hole .
The current in the full cylinder is I
a
~ IR
Z
/ ( R
Z
_a
Z
) .
From Apere ' s law, B
ax
-
I y/ Z rR
Z
, B I x/ 2rR
Z
o a ay O a
The current in the small cylinder is I
b

o
_y/ Zra
Z Z Z
B
bx

o
l
a
Y / ZrR , B
by
z
-
I (x
-
b) / ZrR
o a
B B
x ax
+ B
bx
0 ,
Z Z Z
B
=
B
ay
+ B
by
I b /ZrR
o
Ib / Zr ( R
-
a )
y o a
The field is therefore uniform ins ide the hole .
Note that B is proportional to b . Thus B 0 when b
changes s ign with b . Also , when a - R, b - 0 and B O .
9-8 ( 9 . 1) SADDLE COILS
This current dis tribution is
obtained by superposing two full
cylinders of current flowing in
opposite directions .
Let I be the current flowing
through the coil . Then the cur
rent I ' that would flow through
one complete circle is related
to I as follows :
(
I = l
-
( Z /r) cos
-
\a/R)
-
( a/R) ( l
-
} /R
Z
)

\
I '
0 , and B
Ins ide the lef t
-
hand circle , at the radius r , the B due to that s ide
is
Z Z
B ~
o
( I ' /Zrr) ( r /R ) ( I ' / Zr) r/R
Z
. S o
o
42
X
B
x
2
!
2 2 2
!
2
+ y ] IR , B
2
= ( )
o
I 12'H ( a
-
x) + y ] IR
2 2
!
2 2 b
- -B
l
y I [ ( a+x) + y ] + B
2
y I [ ( a-x) + y .
l l
B
y
B
l
cos 8
l
+ B
2
cos 8
2
~ B
l
( a+x) / [ ]
2
+ B
2
( a-x) / [ ]
2
) I ' a/ 'R
2
o
S o B is uniform and parallel to the y-axis .
9-9 ( 9 . 1) TOROIDAL COIL
a) <
,B
.
da =

'
0 0
( ) NI /2 ')
O
' '
'
0 0
) NI
O
2' ( R+p cos 8 )
d 8
p dp
R+
p cos 8
pdpd8
The integration with respect to
8
mus t be done with care , taking
into account the two branches of the curve . We integrate from
-' /2 to +'/2 , where cos 8 is pos itive , and then from '/ 2 to 3' /2 ,
where cos 8 is negative . Then
0

2'
-:
_
d
_
8
-:
R+p cos 8
0
,
'/ 2
d8
-
R
':
+
::
P
-
c
-
o
-
s
-
8
+

3' / 2
d8
R+p cos 8
' / 2
,
' /2
d8

R+p cos 8
,
'/ 2
d 8
+
R-p cos 8
-'/ 2 -'/ 2
tan

-p
2
!
tan ( 8 / 2 )

'/ 2
( R
-
p

-'/ 2
43
-'/ 2
f
T/2
d8
z
R-p cos 8
-T/2
J
2 T _
R+p cos 8
0
Since arc tan
d8
4
2
] arc tan
-p
2
1 arc tan
+p
2
!

(R
2
_
P
)
-
(R
_
p )
2 (R
_
p
a + arc tan b = arc tan [
( a
+
b)/(
l-ab)] ,
4 4 ( T/ 2) 2T

T
arc
R+p cos 8
( R
2
_
p
2
)
!
0
tan
2R/ (R
2
_
p
2
)
!

2 2 2 2
=
l- ( R -p ) / ( R -p ) ( R
2
_
p
2
)
!
-
( R
2
_
p
l
!
Thus 1 (
o
NI /2T) f
r
2T
_
p dp
( R
2
_
p
2
)
2
2 2 1
NI [ R-( R -r )

]
o
0
The integration is more difficult with Cartes ian coordinates .
-
[
2 2
!
]
2

b) B =
o
NI R- ( R -r ) / Tr at the radius .
2 2 1 2
S et a = R + p cos e . Then NI /2T I ~ NI [ R- ( R -r ) 2 ] / Tr
o O
2
/ (
2 2
!
2
/
2
/
2
!
] r 2 [ R- R -r ) ] ~ r 2R[ 1- ( 1-r R )
2 2 2 2 2
For r R , ~ r /2R( r /2R ) R
CHAPTER 10
There is an interes ting article on the crossed-field mas s spec
trometer in The Journal of Phys ics E , S cientific Ins truments ,
Volume 10 ( 19 7 7 ) page 458 .
10-1 ( 10 . 1) THE CYCLOTRON FREQUENCY
a) The cen tripe tal force being BQv, BQv mv
2
/ R.
b) Then u viR = BQ/m.
-19 -27
c) BQ/2Tm = l x 1 . 6 x lO / 27 x 2 x 1 . 7 x lO = 7 . 5 megahertz .
10-2 ( 10 . 1) MOTION OF A CHARGED PARTICLE UN A UNIFORM B

The velocity component parallel to B is uaffected . The component

normal to B gives a circular motion as in the preceding problem.


4 4
10
-
3 ( 10 . 1) MAGNETIC MIRRORS
The figure shows part of a helical
orbit for a positive particle .
The particle drifts to the right .
The magnetic force points to the
lef t . After a while , the drift
velocity will also point to the
left .
Reference . There is a good
article on the magnetosphere in
Contemporary Physics , , 165
( 19 7 7 ) .
10
-
4 ( 10 . 1) HIG ENERGY ELECTRONS IN THE CRB NEBULA
a) W 2 x l0
14
x 1 . 6 x lO
-
19
' 3 . 2 x lO
-
5
J ,
b ) m 3 . 2 x lO
-
5
/9 x l0
16
3 . 6 x lO
-
22
kg ,
m/m mc
2
/m c
2
~ 3 . 6 x lO
-
22
/ 9 . l x lO
-
3l
4 x lO
S
o O
c) R
d) ( 2 1 x 3 . 4 x l0
13
/ 3 x lO
S
) / ( 24 x 3 , 6 00)
S
. 2 days
10
-
5 ( 10 . 1) MAGNETIC FOCUSING
a) A electron goes through one full circle in a time T
During that time it travels a dis tance L
J
3/ 2
J
L ( 2eV/m) 2 2 1 (m/Be) 2 1 (mV/e) 2 /B , B
v T . S o
x
2
3 /2
1 (mv/e)
!
/L
2 1/W .
b) B 2
3 / 2
1 ( 9 . l x lO
-
3l
x 10
4
/ 1 . 6 x 10
-
19
)
!
/ 0 . 5 - 4 . 24 x lO
-
3
T
IN ' B /
o
337 3 A
10
-
6 ( 10 . 1) DEMSTER MS S SPECTROMTER
2 2
a) mv /R - BQv, mv BQR, (2m( 1/ 2 ) mv ) 2
J
QR
2
B
2
/2V ( 2mQV) 2 BQR, m
l
b) B ( 2mV/Q)
2
/R
BQR
1 -
2 7
-
19
! -
2
For n_ g B
l
( 2 x 1 . 7 x lO x lOOO/ 1 . 6 x lO ) /0 . 06 z 7 . 7 x lO T .
0 . 11 T .
0 . 09 4 T .
45
Note that 6m/m ~ 26B /B . Thus , for large m ' s , where 6m/m b ecomes
small from one isotope to the next , 6B /B becomes even smaller .
c)
J
B ( 2mV/Q) 2 /R
-2 7 -19
!
( 2xl . 7xlO AlOOO / l . 6xlO ) / 0 . 06
- 5
! ! -
2
!
Q ( 3 . 4xlO / 1 . 6) A /0 . 06 = 7 . 6 8xlO A
where A is the atomic weight . This
value of m is approximate .
10-7 ( 10 . 1) MAS S SPECTROMTER
2
mv /R BQv , R mv/BQ
x = 2R ( 2 /B) (m/Q) v
4
The time of flight from A to the target is TR/v ~ T/B (m/Q) .
During that time the ion drifts through a distance
y = ( 1/ 2) (QE /m) ( TI/BQ)
2
~ ( T
2
E /2B
2
) (m/Q) .
Reference : Rev . S ci . Ins tr . , 819 ( 19 7 4) .
10-8 ( 10 . 1) HIGH-TEMERTURE PLASMAS
2 2
J
a) mv /R BQv, R mV/BQ ~ ( 2mv / 2) 2 /BQ . : 0 . 225 m
b) A D
+
ion has the same velocity , but half the mas s , so R 113 -
Reference : Glas s tone and Loveb erg , Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions
pages 156 and 395 .
10-9 ( 10 . 1) HIGH TEMERATURE PLASMS
a) By syetry , B can only be
azimuthal . But the line integral

of B d over a circle perpendicu-
lar to the paper and with its
center on the axis of syetry
mus t be zero , s ince the net cur
rent is zero . Then B O .
S imilarly , B = 0 ins ide the inner
cylinder .
b) See figure .
c) I t bends downwards .
46
U O
~
L L L L L L
Z Z 7ZZ .7Z
U C
C
G G
d
3 D

G
U
c

O G
d) I t b ends upwards
e) They als o return to the discharge .
Reference : G1as s tone and Loveb.erg , Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions
p 2 7 8 .
10-10 ( 10 . 1) ION BEA DIVERGENCE
a) I vA , A = I /v
b ) QE Q ( A/ 21E
o
R) = QI/21E Rv
O
c) QvB QV( l
o
I /21R) = QIl
o
V/21R
d) QE - QvB ( QI / 21R) ( 1! E
o
v - l
o
V)
10-11 ( 10 . 1) ION THRUSTER
S ee the s olution to Prob . 2-14 . Here , the force exerted on the
ej ected fuel , in the reference frame of the vehicle, is BIs , or m' v.
2 2
I R ~ I ( s /oA) , where A is the area of one of the electrodes ,
n
C or D .
l / ( l+P
D
/P
G
) = 1 1
2
1 / ( 1 + 2m' /oB +)
Also , 2I/ oAv ~ 2J/oBv
n 1 / ( 1 + 2E /Bv) .
+
` _
2
_
~ 1/ ( 1 + 2BIs /oB
2
w)
oA BIsv
2oE /oBv 2E/Bv,
As v increas es , n - l , and n " l for v 2E /B .
10-12 ( 10 . 3 ) GAM
( 1-S
2
)
!
~ 1/ 101 , S
2
1 - 1/ l1 , S =, 0;9 9504 .
10-13 ( 10 . 5 ) RFERNCE FRS
l
1 / ( 1-1/ 4) 2 ~ 1 . 155
1 . 155 ( 1-1 . 5x10
8
x1) ~ -1 . 7 32 x 10
8
m
Y
1
= 1 m, z
2
= z
l
= 1 m
1 . 155 ( 1-1/ 23x10
8
) ~ 1 . 155 s .
47
10-14 ( 10 . 5 ) REFRENCE FRAS
T
1 . 15 5 as above
`
8
1 . 155 ( 1+l . 5xlO xl)
8
1 . 7 32 x 10 m,
Y
l
z
l
1m, t
l
1 . 15 5 s
10-15 ( 10 . 8) HALL EFFECT

a) v -M( E+vxB) , where

i j k

v x B v v v
x
Y
z
0 0 B
v + v |+ v | -M E +E |+v B
t
-v B ,
x Y
z x
Y Y
x
v
x
b) v
x
v
Y
-M(E +v B) , v -M(E -v B) v
Y Y
x
'
z x Y
-M[E -M( E -v B ) B ]
x Y x
-M +M
2
BE
x
l+M
2
B
2
-M
y
M( -E ME )
x y
-
2 2
l+M B
2
O .
M( -E +ME )
x
.
1+M
2
B
2
-M

M
2 2 ME
-
1+MB
2
E
y
+
1+M
2

2

M
( E +ME )
lM
2
B
2 y x
J
x
J
y
c) V C
y
2 2
neM( E -M B) / ( l+M B )
x Y
2 2
neM( E +M B) / ( l+M B )
y x
( b / a) MV B
x
-3 -3 -4
( 10 / 5xlO ) 7 x 1 x 10
-4
1 . 4 x 10 V.
d ) When E 0 ,
Y
2 2 2 2
J
x
neM
x
/ ( l+M B ) , I
x
b cneM( V
x
/a) / (l+M B ) ,
R V II a( 1+B
2
) /b cneM,
x x
2 2
LI/R M B
o
Let us calculate the mobility in copper . J p v ~ aE , v ( a /p ) E .
. 7 28 -19

Thus the mobilitY :s a /p a /ne 5 . 8 x lO / 8 . 5 x 10 x 1 . 6 x 10
= 4 . 3 x lO
-3
.
References : H . H . Wieder , Hall Generators and Magnetores is tors ;
48
H . Weis s , S tructure and Applications of Ga1vanomagnetic Devices .
10-17 ( lO . 8) ELECTROMGNETIC FLOWTERS
V ~ vBa
CHATER 11
11-1 ( 11 . 1) BOAT TESTING TANK
a) Bv 9 ~ 2 x 10
-5
x 20 x 3 1 . 2 mV
b) Zero .
11-2 ( 11 . 1) EXADING LOOP
a) I - Bvs /R
2
b) (Bls ) v ~ ( Bvs) /R
2 2
c) I R - (Bvs ) /R. The power expended to move the bar appears as
heat in the resis tance R.
11-3 ( 11 . 2) INDUCED CURRNTS
t
t
Reference : Rev . S ci . Ins trum. , , 1581 ( 19 7 7 ) .
49
11-4 ( 11 . 1) INDUCED CURENTS
a) Counterclockwise
b) Counterclockwise
c) S ince the flux linkage is con

s tant , and s ince v x B - 0 , the
induced electromotance is zero .
11-5 ( 11 . 2) INDUCED ELECTROMOTANCE
_~ df/dt NA( dB /dt) - 100 x 10
-
2
x 10
-2
x Zx 60 s in( 2 T x 60 t)
3 . 7 7 sin( 2T x 60 t) V
We have disregarded the s ign .
11-6 ( 11 . 2 ) ELECTROMGNETIC PROSPECTION
o
J
a) The induced elec tromotance is azimuthal . Over a circle of
radius r ,
2TrE Tr
2
B wsinwt , E - ( rB w/ 2) s inwt .
o O
The induced current density is aE and is also azimuthal
J ( arB w/2) s inwt .
o
b) With our s ign convention , a positive J gives a positive B .
At t 0 , dB /dt 0 and J - O . Then , as B decreas es , J increases
as per Lenz ' s law, etc .
11-7 ( 11 . 2 ) INDUCTION HEATING
2
a) -d /dt ~
-
Tr ( d/dt) ( V N ' I coswt)
o O
b) The length of the conductor is 2 Tr and its cros s-section is Ldr .
50
Hence R 21r/cLdr
( u U
2
WN ' I )
2
c) dP
av
o

2x2 rr/cLdr
2 2 2 2 3
~ I
o
rcw N ' I

/ 4 Lr dr ,
h 1 f ,
2
b ' 1 0 5 T e average va ue

S ln wt elng equa to . .
d) P
av
( ) L
R
r
3
dr ( ) LR
4
/ 4
0
-7 2
( 4r x lO x 21 x 60 x 5000 x 2)
5 -2 4
( 1 x lO /16) ( 6 x lO ) x l 5 . 7 1 W
Note The power dis s ipated in the winding is I
2
R, where R is its
resis tance . The conductivity of copper being 5 . 8 x 10
7
siemens per
meter , if there are n layers , the cross-section of the wire is
r (n/ 5000)
2
/ 4 and R ~ 21 x 6 x lO
-2
x 5000 / [ 5 . 8 x l0
7
1 (n/5000)
2
/ 4 J ,
2 3 2 2
I R ' 10 I /n .
If n 10 , I
2
R 40 W.
Reference : S tandard Handbook for Electrical Engineers , p 22-28 and
following .
11-8 ( 11 . 2) INDUCED ELECTROMOTANCE
y ~ vt ( wA /21) t , wt
-
21
Y/ A
Y
+A / 4
B
o
s in( 2 1
Y
/ A) s inwt ( A / 4) dy
y
y+
A / 4
B
o
sinwt ( A/ 4) ( A /2 1)

-cos ( 2 1Y/ A)
y
1-
U
2
/81) B s inwtC -cos ( 2 rY/ A+1/2) + cos ( 2 r
Y
/ A) J
o
( A
2
/ 8r) B ( s in
2
wt + s inwtcoswt)
o
(B
O
VA /4) ( s in2wt + cos2wt)
11-10 ( 11 . 4) THE TOLMAN AND BARNETT EFFECTS
Z
In the reference frame of the conductor , the force on a particle
of charge -e and mas s m is
Reference : Landau and Lifshi tz , Electrodynamics of Continuous Media ,
p 2l0 .
5 1
11-11 ( 11 . 5) ELECTRIC CONDUITS
From the definition of i (Eq . 8-18) , is parallel to the wire .
Then aZ/ a t is also parallel to the wire and , if there is a single
wire , there is a longitudinal induced electromotance in the wire .
Reference : S tandard Handbook for Electrical Engineers , Sec . 17-11 .
11
-
12 ( 11 . 5) THE POTENTIALS V and A

S ince Vx (A - VC) V x A, B is not affected . Also
-V( V + ac/ a t) - ( a / a t) (i - VC) -v - ai/ a t and z is not affected
either .
CHAPTER 12
12-1 ( 12 . 1)
[H] [ J
o
] [ L ] , [ J
o
] [ H] / [ L ]
12-2 ( 12 . 1) MTUAL INDUCTANCE
Assume a current I in the wire . The flux linkage through the
toroidal coil is
( J
o
IbN/ 2T) nC l+b /a) , M ( J
o
bN/2T) n( 1+b /a) .
12-3 ( 12 . 1) MTUAL INDUCTANCE
a) From S ec . 8 . 1 . 2 , coil a produces at b a magnetic induction
B = J N I a
2
/2 C } + z
2
)
3 /2
.
o a a
2 2 2 3 /2 2
S o M C
"
ab
/I
a
= J
o
N
a
a / 2 ( a + z ) N
b
Tb
2 2 2 2 3 / 2
TJ N N
b
a b / 2 ( a + z )
o a
b) M varies as the cosine of the angular displacement .
c) No .
12-4 ( 12 . 2) A OUTSIDE A SOLENOID
2
The magnetic flux inside the solenoid is TR J
o
N ' I . Then the electro-
motance induced in a loop of radius r > R coaxial with the solenoid is
TR
2
J
o
N ' dI /dt = 2TrdA/dt , A = ( J
o
/2r) N ' R
2
I .
5 2
12-5 ( 12 . 2) A INS IDE A SOLENOID
The magnetic flux inside a loop of radius r < R, coaxial with the
solenoid , is
2
( d/dt) ( + )
o
N ' I) 2 rrdA/d t , A
12-6 ( 12 . 3) MGNETIC MONOPOLES
( ) / 2) N ' I r .
o .
The flux due to the current mus t exactly cancel that due to the
monopoles . Then
LI nNe* , I nNe*/L
1 . 322 x 10
-8
A
-15 -3
100 x 1 , 200 x 8 . 26 x 10 / 7 5 x 10
12-7 ( 12 . 3) ROGOWSKI COIL
Reference : Glass tone and Loveberg , Controlled Thermonuclear
Reactions , p 16 4 ; Rev. S ci . Ins tr . , 6 6 7 ( 19 7 1) .
12-8 (12 . 3) INDUCED CURENTS
a) In the azimuthal direction , R 2ra/cb, B
2
L /I )
o
ra / .
-7 -6 -11
b) L 4r x lO x r x 2 5 x lO /1 9 . 87 x lO H
) I/ ,
o
R
-3 7 -3 -7
2 r x 5 x 10 /5 . 8 x 10 x 10 x 1 ~ 5 . 42 x 10 "
L /R 1 . 82 x lO
-4
s .
12-9 (12 . 3) COAXIAL LINES
In the annular region , B is due only to the current in the inner
conductor , from Apere ' s circuital

R
2
B )
o
I /2rr , ' = ()
o
I /2r) dr/r
12-10 ( 12 . 3) COAXIAL LINES
R
l
law. Thus
From Ampere ' s circuital law, the B in the annular region between
the conductors is the same at all frequencies . Inside the conduc tors
there is more field at lower frequencies . Hence W
m
is larger at low
frequencies and L
f
L
hf
5 3
12-11 ( 12 . 5) LONG SOLENOID WITH CENTER TAP
2 2 2 2
L
AC
(
o
N /)
r
R , L
AB
L
BC
(

o
N /2)
r
R , M O .
Our formula for a long solenoid is based on the assumption that B
is
o
(N/) I ins ide , and zero outs ide . With this assumption , the
coupling coefficient k is zero , and M is zero .
12-1
3
( 12 . 7 ) VOLTAGE SURGES ON INDUCTORS
i

H
L
a) V ( R + R
s
) I + LdI /dt " R
s
I J LdI /dt , 100 " R
s
I - 10
4
h 1 R d b h about 10
4
V. T e vo tages acros s
s
an 1 are ot
b) Connect the diode as in figure b . Upon opening the switch , the
current is I - (V/R) e
-Rt /1
~ 10e
-t
.
12-14 ( 12 . 7) TRANSIENT IN R1C CIRCUIT
In circuit a, V/V
s
1-exp ( -t/RC)
In circuit b , 1 10
4
x 10
-6
/ 4 2 . 5 x 10
-
3
H ,
2 2
1d Q/ dt + RdQ /dt + Q/ C = V
s
.
As in Prob . 12-15 , the particular solution is Q
2 2 2
J
1n + I + l/ C 0 , n = - (R/2L) (R / 41 - 1/1C)
2
,
-
3
4
R/2L 100 /5 x 10 ~ 2 x 10 1/1C .
Thus the two values of n are equal and
Q (A + Bt) exp (-Rt/21) + V
s
C .
At t 0 , Q ~ 0 and A -V
s
C . Also ,
I dQ/dt exp ( -Rt/21) [ B - ( R/21) (A + B t) J .
At t 0 , I = 0 and B - (R/21) V
s
C .
5 4
V C
s
Finally , Q
-
V
s
C ( 1+Rt /2L) exp ( -Rt/ 2L) + V
s
C
S ince R/2L 2 /RC , Q G V
s
C[ 1
-
( 1+2t /RC) exp (
-
2 t /RC) J ,
v Q/ C , V/V
s
1- ( 1+2t /RC) exp ( -2 t /RC) .
Summarizing ,
V/V
s
l-exp (
-
t /RC) , for circuit a .
V/V
s
1- ( 1+2 t /RC) exp ( -2t /RC) , for circuit b .
S etting t /RC t ' ,
V/V
s
l
-
exp (
-
t ' ) , for a ,
V/V
s
1
-
( 1+2 t ' ) exp (
-
2t ' ) , for b.
The figure shows Q /V
s
C as a function
of t for the two circuits . The
l 0
charges are the same at t 1 . 26 RC . g
The circuit with the inductor is slower
at firs t , and then faster . The
inductor is not us eful .
12
-
15 (12 . 7 ) TRNS IENT IN RLC CIRCUIT
a) LdI /dt + RI V, I ~ Aexp (
-
Rt /L) + V/R
S ince I 0 at t 0 , I ( V/R) [ l
-
exp (
-
Rt /L) J
b) LdI /dt + RI + Q/ C V, Ld
2
Q /dt
2
+ RdQ/dt + Q/ C
The particular solution is Q ~ vc 10
-4
.
The complementary function is
nt 2
/
!
J /
3 .
Q Ae , n [
-
R (R
-
4L C) 2L
-
5 10 | ,
3 3
-
4
Q exp ( -5t) ( BcoslO t + Ds inlO t) + 10 .
. -4
S lnce Q ~ 0 at t 0, B ~
-
10 ,
-4 3 3 -4
Q exp ( -5t) (
-
10 cosIO t + DsinlO t) + 10 ,
t '
lO [ ( l
-
exp ( -lOt) J .
V

-4 3 -1 3 3 3 3
I dQ /dt exp (
-
5 t) ( 5 x 10 cosIO tHO s inlO t
-
5Ds inlO t +10 Dcos lO t)
Als o , 0 at t O . Then D -5 x lO
-7
-
4 3 -7 3
-
4 -4 3
Q - exp ( -5t) (
-
10 cosIO t -5 x 10 s inlO t) + 10 ;: -10 exp ( -5t) cos IO t
+ 10
-4
.
-4 3 3 -4 3
I -10 exp (
-
5t) (
-
10 s inlO t) + 5 x 10 exp ( -5 t) coslO t
0 . lexp (
-
5t) s inlO`+ 5 x 10
-4
exp (
-
5 t ) coslO` ;:0 . lexp (
-
5t) s inlO`.
55
13-1 ( 13 . 1) MGNETIC FORCE
.
-2
-
2
BIL = 5 x 10 x 400 x 5 x 10
13-2 ( 13 . 1) MGNETIC FORCE
CHAPTER 13
a) Let the wire have a cross-section a , and let the current density
be J . For a length o f one meter ,
BJa
I
p ag , J p g/B = 8 . 9 x l0
3
x 9 . 8 x lO
-
4
8 . 7 x l0
8
A/m
2
8 . 7 x l0
8
a A
b) R' 1 / 5 . 8 x 10
7
a . "/m

!
( 8 . 7 x l0
8
a)
2
/ 5 . 8 x l0
7
a 1 . 3 x lO
lO
a W/m
I f a 10
-
8
, then
!
130 W/m. The wire will become very hot .
Convection will spoil the measurement .
c) In the Northern hemisphere there is a South magnetic pole . The
lines of B point S outh . The current mus t point Wes t .
d ) At the poles the lines o f B are vertical and the magnetic force
on a horizontal wire is horizontal and perpendicular to the wire .
13-3 ( 13 . 1) MGNETIC FORCE
-
-4 O
F 50 x 100 x 0 . 5 x 10 x s in 7 0
13-4 ( 13 . 1) MGNETIC FORCE
+
,
+ + +
,
+
F I d, x B -I B x d,
a a a a
O .
13
-
5 ( 13 . 1) ELECTROMGNETIC PUMS
Cons ider an element of volume
dxdydz , as in the figure , with the
current flowing along the z-axis .
+
The current is Jdxdy . Both J and
+
B are uniform ins ide the infini
-
tesimal element of volume . The
force per unit volume is
0 . 235 N

U
5 6
~
J0x dy
0 x
13-6 ( 13 . 1) HOMOPOLAR GENERATOR AD HOMOPOLAR MOTOR
v
2
BwR /2 I x ( 3000 X 21/ 60) 0 . 2 5 / 2 39 . 2 7 V .
13-7 (13 . 1) HOMOPOLAR MOTOR
The current has a radial component pointing towards the axis . The
azimuthal component of the current gives a B pointing to the right .
The wheel turns counterclockwis e .
13-8 ( 13 . 2) MAGETIC PRS SUR
- "
~

=- - -

- .

-

a) We have precisely the s ituation des cribed in Sec . 13 . 2 .


b ) Inside the inner solenoid , there is zero magnetic field . Between
2
the two solenoids the field is B . The magnetic pressure B / 2
o
pushes
inward on the inner solenoid .
13-9 ( 13 . 2) MAGNETIC PRSSURE
2 2 -7 2 -7 -5
a) B
/ 2
B / 2 X 41 x lO Pa ' (B /2 x 41 x lO ) 10 atmospheres
o
2
4 B atmospheres .
b)
5 7
c) ( i) The pres sure is always equal to the energy density
( ii) The electric "pres sure" we have cons idered is as s ociated with
the fact that lines of force are under tens ion . This "pres sure" is
always attractive . (We have no t cons idered the repuls ion betweeen
electric lines of force , which gives a positive pres sure of E E
2
/ 2 .
o
For example , if we have two electric charges of the same s ign , one
can find the correct force of repulsion by integrating E E
2
/ 2 over
o
the p lane half-way between the charges , where the lines of force clash) .
( iii) The magnetic pressure we are concerned with here is as sociated
with the lateral repulsion between lines of force . This pressure is
repuls ive . In Prob . 15-6 we are concerned with the tens ion in the
lines of force , which gives an attractive "pressure" of B
2
/ 2 ) .
o
( iv) In pratice , the electric "pres sure" is nearly always negligible
while magnetic pres sure is often large . For example , a large E of
10
6
V/m gives an electric "pressure" of 5P , while a large B of 1 T
5
gives a magnetic pressure of 4 x 10 P .
13-10 ( 13 . 2) MGETIC PRESSUR
a) B = ) I /2 R outs ide , B 0 ins ide , from Apere ' s circuital law .
o
2 , 2 2
Thus P
m
( 1 /2 )
o
) ( )
o
I/ 2R) = ( )
o
/ 8 ) ( I /R) .
-7 2 8 -8 7
b) P
m
( 4r x lO / 8 ) ( 9 x 10 /25 x lO ) = 5 . 7 3 x 10
F
:: 5 . 7 3 atmo-
spheres .
Reference : J . Phys . D . App1d Phys . , 2187 ( 19 7 3 ) .
13-11 ( 13 . 2) MGNETI C PRSSUR
.
-7 5
a) P = 1/ 8 x 10 " 4 x 10 Pa " 4 atmospheres .
b) The pressure would be unchanged , s ince B is uniform inside a long
solenoid .
13-12 ( 13 . 3) ENERG STORAGE
E E
2
/2 8 . 85 x lO
-12
x 10
12
/ 2 ~ 4 . 43 J
/
m
3
o
B
2
/ 2)
o
1/ 8 x 10
-7
= 3 . 9 8 x l0
5
J/m
3
13-13 ( 13 . 4) MGNETIC PRESSURE
a) The magnetic force is 2 R2p
m
' It acts through a dis tance dR.
Then the work done by the magnetic force is 2R2p
m
dR.
5 8
b ) The mechanical work done is
Z ' Rf (B
Z
/Z) ) dR = Z ' Rj _.NI / )
Z
/Z)
j
dR ') I
Z
N
2
RdR/ ,
o o o o
c) I (Nd1 = INd ( ' R
Z
) NI / f)
o
13-14 ( 13 . 4) FLUX COMRSSION
a) As the tube shrinks in diameter ,
an azimuthal current is induced L x p| o8| ve
that maintains the enclosed mag
netic flux approximately constant .
Hence B B (R /R)
Z
.
o o
b ) B z )
o
a , a 10
3
/ ( 4 'TX 10
-7
)
10
9
A/m
c) B 10 ( 10 / 1)
Z
10
3
T .
T0 bc
( 1)
( Z)
d) The s olenoid maintains a constant B
o
in i ts interior . The current
in the tube increases the induction inside the tube to B . Thus the
increas e in magnetic energy is
lM
m
'R
Z
L B
Z
-B
o
Z

Z )
o
= 'R
Z
L
R
o
4
/
R
4
_
1
B
o
Z

Z )
o
'
'x ( 10
-4
/4 ) x O . Z ( 10
4
_l) 10
Z
/ 8'Tx lO
-7
6 x l0
6
J .
The source supplies an extra energy
^\ N,
o
I ( d1 /dt) dt = NI ^1 ~ NI 'R
Z
( B-B ) ,
s o o o o
0
'


NI IR
Z
R
Z
, R
Z
-1 B 'R
Z
(B L /) ) R
Z
R
Z
-1 B ,
o o j o o o o , o
Z Z 2 -7 2 -Z -4
( '/)
o
) LB
o
(R
o
-R ) ( '/ 4'Tx lO ) O . Z x lO ( 10 -10 ) / 4
1 . 3 x l0
5
J .
The explosive supplies an energy
-
,
R
Z1rL ( B
Z
-B
o
Z
) / Z )
o

dr
R
- ( 'L/ ) ) ,
R
R
4
, r
4
_
l
,
Z
rdr ,
o o
)
o
R
o o
( 'L/ ) ) B
Z
R
4
/ZR
Z
+ R
Z
/ Z _ R , 6 x l0
6
J .
o o o o
Note that ^N = 6W + W
1 m s exp
( 3 )
( 4)
( 5 )
( 6 )
( 7 )
( 8 )
( 9 )
Note also that , although the magnetic field j us t ins ide the solenoid
59
is unaffected by the current I in the tube , the current I produces a
a A/a t in the solenoid that makes W
s
O . The explos ive supplies mos t
of the energy . We have neglected the mechanical energy required to
crush the tube , acous tic energy , etc .
13-15 ( 13 . 4) PULSED MGNETIC FIELDS
.
2 6 6
a) W
m
= ( B / 2]
o
) V = 4 x 10 J . Cost " $ 8 x 10
6 6 6
b) W 4 x 10 J

4 x 10 / 3 . 6 x 10 ' 1 kwh . Cos t ' 2 to 10 cents ,


m
depending on prevailing rates .
c) B
2
/ 2] ' 4 x 10
9
Pa ' 4 x 10
4
atmospheres .
o
13-16 ( 13 . 5) MGNETIC ENERGY
a) W
m

I
/
'
a
/ 2 + I
b
f
b
/2

I
a
( f
l
aa
+
_
a
) /2 + I
b
( f
l
ab
+
_
b
) / 2
b) W
m
13-17 ( 13 . 5) ENERG STORAGE
a) W = LI
2
/ 2 I( LI)/ 2 = I
f
/ 2
m
b) W
=
I (N) / 2 INTR
2
] NI / 2
m o
13-18 ( 13 . 5) ENERG S TORGE
a) i) LdI /dt = V, I ( V/L) t
ii) ( 1/ 2 ) (Vt /L) Vt (V
2
/ 2L) t
2
2 2 2
] TR N I / 2
o
ii) 11
2
/ 2
2 2 2
= L ( Vt /L) / 2 = (V /2L) t
b) i) V Q/C ~ ( I/ C) t
ii) ( 1 /2 ) [ ( I t /C) I J t ~ ( 1
2
/2C) t
2
iii) CV
2
/ 2 = C ( It/ C)
2
/ 2 ( I
2
/ 2C) t
2
13-19 ( 13 . 4) ENERGY S TORAGE
a) E E E
2
/ 2 3 . 2 x 8 . 85 x 10
-12
x 10
16
/2 = 1 . 4 x 10
5
J /m
3
r o
B
2
/ 2] 64/ 2 x 4T x 10
-7
= 2 . 5 x 10
7
J/m
3
o
2 7 2 7 10 13
b) ( TD / 4) L x 2 . 5 x 10 ( TD /4) 20 D x 2 . 5 x 10
=
10 x 3 , 600
=
3 . 6 x 10 ,
60
D = 45 m, L 900 .
250 atmospheres
A = 1DL = 1 x 45 x 900 = 1 . 2 7 x 10
5
m
2
Reference: Foner and S chwartz , Superconducting Machines and Devices ,
p 41 .
13-20 ( 13 . 6) SUPERCONDUCTING POWER TRANSMISS ION LINE
a) F ( u I /2 1D) I
o
2 -7 11 5 2 -2
l
o
I /2 1D = 41 x 10 x ( 10 /2 x 10 ) / 21 x 5 x 10
b) B
10
6
N/m
-7 5 -2
2 I
o
I/ 2 1 ( D/ 2) = 2 I
o
I / 1D = 8 x 10 x 5 x 10 /5 x 10
2 -7 7 3
B /2 I
o
= 6 4 /41 x 10 = 5 x 10 J/m
8 T .
c ) W ( 1 /2 ) 11
2
= ( 1/ 2) ( 6 . 6 x 10
-7
x 10
6
) ( 5 x 10
5
)
2
Cost = 5 x 10
-3
( 8 . 25 x 10
10
/ 3 . 6 x 10
6
) = $ 115 .
8 . 25 x 10
10
J
Reference: Proc . I . E . E . E . , April 19 6 7 page 5 7 .
13-21 ( 13 . 8) ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOVING-COIL MTERS
a) F
1
NIBb , perpendicular to
both 1 and B
F
2
NIBa, in the vertical
direction
F
3
NIBb , p erpendicular to
both 3 and B
F
4
NIB a , in the vertical
direction
b) T = 2NIBb ( a sin 8 / 2 ) = NIBab s in
13-22 ( 13 . 8) MAGETIC TORQUE
a) T I d < / a e
ISB s in

b) T = m x B
I d (BS cos ) / 3 8
61

z
'

U
13-23 ( 13 . 8) ATTITUDE CONTROL FOR SATELLITES
a) i ~ NBA cos 8
,
T ~ I ( a / a 8 ) (NBA cos 8 ) ~ NIBA s in 8
S ee figure for Prob . 13-22 .
-3 -5 2
b) IN T/BA sin 8 10 /4 x 10 x ( 1/ 4) 1 . 14 x O . 08 7 3
13-24 ( 13 . 9 ) MCHNICAL FORCES ON A ISOLATED CIRCUIT
nw
s
I ( di /dt) dt ~ Ini
nW n (LI
2
/ 2 ) ( 1/2 ) I
2
nL ~ ( 1/ 2) I
2
n ( i jI) ( 1/ 2) Ini
m
Thus the mechanical work , nw
s
- nW
m
, is equal to nW
m
.
CHTER 14
14-1 ( 14 . 2) MGETIC FIELD OF THE EARTH
C M sin 8
e
If the sphere carried a surface
charge density c and rotated at
an angular velocity w , we would
have
0 cv cwR sin 8 , cwR ~ M
14-2 ( 14 . 3) EQUIVALENT CURRNTS

+
P
+
o
280 At
+
The surface current density is the s ame as if a toroidal coil were
wound on the torus , and C
e
~ M.
14-3 ( 14 . 4) EQUIVALENT CURRNTS
The equivalent currents are equal
and in opposite directions . Thus

B 0 ins ide the tube .

N
6 2
14-4 ( 14 . 4) DIELECTRICS AD MGNETIC MTERIAS COMAED

lJJ | D I
a) b) D is unaffec ted , E is reduced by C
r
' See Figs . a and b .
c) The energy is minimum.

C


l
' J |
d) e) H is unaffected , B is increased by l
r
' S ee Figs . c , d
f) The energy is minimum. See Fig . e .
The loop is in s table equilibrium.
14-5 ( 14 . 4) MGETIC TORQUE
| 0 l
The magnet acts like a solenoid . S ee Probs 13-22 and 13-2 3 .
14-6 ( 14 . 4) MASUREMNT OF M
Bo s in 8 cos 8 ` sin 2 8
The field i s larges t a t 8 45 degrees .
6 3
14-7 ( 14 . 4) MICROMTEORITE DETECTOR
a) V ( d/ dt) (Ml
b
)
2 2
1) N a b
( d/dt)
O
2
a
2 3 /2
I
b
2 ( a + z )
b) S ee the figure
Reference : Rev . Sci . Ins tr . 42 6 6 3 ( 1971)
14-8 ( 14 . 4) MCHAICAL DISPLACEMNT TRASDUCER
a) S ee curve .
b ) xz / (x
2
+ z
2
)
5 / 2
2 5 / 2
O . l / ( O . Ol + z ) z
z = 14 . 4 m
4
0 . 9 5 x l0 z ,
3
9 . 5 x 10 ,
Reference : H . Wieder, Hall Genera
tors and Magnetores is tors , p 9 5 .
14-9 ( 14 . 5 ) MAGNETIZED DISK
Outside , we can us e the field of a current loop :
B
ex
)
o
Mt}/2 ( } + z
2
)
3 /2
, H
ex
Mt}/2 ( } + z
2
)
3 /2
.
2 2
Ins ide , we have the s ame value of B , with z a :
14-10 ( 14 . 6 ) TOROIDAL COIL WITH MAGNETIC CORE

Let N ' be the nub er of turns per meter in both cases . From Eq .
14-15 , H N i l in both cases . With the air core , B
the magnetic core , B is larger by a factor )
r
.
) N ' L With
O
The equivalent currents flow in the same direction as I .
14-11 ( 14 . 6 ) EQUIVALENT CURRENTS
64
b) On the inner surface , 0 M B /
I
o
- H z (
I
r
- l) H X
m
H z X
m
I/ 2 rb ,
e
in the same direction as the current
On the outer surface , 0 X
m
I /2rc , in the opposite direction .
e
c) B
l
o
I /2 rr , as if the iron were
14-12 ( 14 . 7 ) THE DIVERGENCE OF H
absent .
\
'
?
'

(
l
r
l
o
'
) =
I

\
_
.
=
+
l
r
l
o
v
.
"
0
r
- -
\
H 0 if \ 0 and if \ is not perpendicular to H .
r r
14-13 ( 14 . 8) THE MGETIZATION CURVE
Interpolating logarithmically between the points marked 2 x 10
3
and
4
2 x 10 ,
I
r
6 . l x 2 x l0
3
1 . 22 x l0
4
.
14-14 ( 14 . 8) ROWLAND RING
a) H 500 x 2 . 4 /2 r x O . 2 ,: 1000 A/m, B ,: 0 . 5 T
b) V NdC / dt NSdB /dt 10r x lO
-4
x O . 5 ( 10 /2 . 4)
14-15 ( 14 . 9 ) THE WEBER AER-TURN
6 . 6 mV
A weber is a unit of magnetic flux , and dC/dt is a voltage .
Thus a weber is a volt s econd . The numb er of turns is a pure number .
S o [weber ] [ ampere] - [ volt second ] [ ampere] [watt] [ second] [ j oule]
14-17 ( 14 . 9 ) TRANSFORR HUM
The hum is due to magnetos triction
Reference : S tandard Handbook for . Electrical Engineers , Sec 11-96
and following .
14-18 ( 14 . 9 ) POWER LOS S DUE TO HYSTERESIS
3
The area of the loop is approximately 2 . 8 x 16 , or 45 W /m cycle .
65
14-19 (14 . 9 ) THE FLUXGATE MAGETOMTER AND THE PEAING S TRIP
Reference : H . Zij ls tra , Experimental Methods in Magnetism, Vol 2 ,
p 3 7 , Brandt , Introduction to the Solar Wind p 145 ; M . S tanley
Livings ton and John P . Blewett , Particle Accelerators , p 2 7 6 .
15-1 ( 15 . 2 ) RELUCTANCE
W
m
( 1/ 2) LI
2
~ ( 1/ 2) (LI) I
15-2 ( 15 . 2 ) RELUCTANCE
L = N</I = N
2
< /NI ~ N
2
/
15-3 ( 15 . 3) CLIP-ON AMTER
CHATER 15
( 1/ 2) (N< I ( 1/ 2) <
2
/NI
a) < = B A
g g
I
V IA/L B V I /L
(2 rR-L ) / V V A + L /V A o g
'
o
g r o g o
g
Without the iron core , B is V
o
I / 21R and is much smaller .
b ) The position of the wire is unimportant .
15-4 (15 . 3) MGETIC CIRCUIT
For V = 500 ,
r
NI
B =
2 1R/V V +t
/ V
r o g o
0 . 43 T .
NI
o
21R/V +
r g
-7
41 x 10 x 500 x 2 . 4
21 x 0 . 2 /500+ 10
-3
66
-3
1 . 508 x 10
1 . 25 7 /500+10
-3
This B is too large ; for
r
500 , B 0 . 32 T . Try
r
5 2 5
1 . 508 x lO
-3
B
3
0 . 44 T .
1 . 2 5 7 / 525+10
-
This B is again too large ; for
r
525 , B 0 . 38 T . Try
r
= 550
B 0 . 459 T, ins tead of 0 . 5 on the graph . This is s atisfactory .
15-5 ( 15 . 3) MGETORESISTACE MULTIPLIER
15-7 ( 15 . 4) RELAY
F ~ ( B
2
/ 2
o
) A (A/ 2 ) ( NI /t)
2
( A/2) (NI / t)
2
O O O
-7 -4 4 -2 -3 2
( 47 x lO x lO / 2 ) (10 x lO / 2 x lO ) = 0 . 16 N .
15-8 ( 15 . 3) MGETIC FLUIDS
a) The magnetic flux is concentrated in the fluid , where B is large
enough to give an appreciable magnetic pres sure .
b ) S ee the literature published by Ferrofluidics Corp .
CHAPTER 16
16-1 (16 . 1) RECTIFIER CIRCUITS COMARED
b
6 7
16-2 ( 16 . 2 ) R VALUE OF A S INE WAVE
V

S
( l/T)

T
V
0
2
coS
2
Wtdt V
0
2
/WT

2
.os
2
ada
o
0
16-4 ( 16 . 2) R VALUE
a) V
O
'
b) 4V
0
2
/ 2,

~ 2

V
O
c) ( l /T) V
o
( 1-2t /T)
2
dt

~ ( V
o
/T

) ( 1-2t /T)
2
ct

.
d) For the complete s ine wave , V V
O
/ 2
2
, so that the mean square
rilS
value is V
0
2
/2 . For the half s ine wave , the mean square value is
2
V
o
/ 4 , and V
rms
= V
O
/2 .
16-5 ( 16 . 3) THRE-WIRE SINGLE-PHASE CURNT

2
2
( 240) ~ 339 V
16-6 (16 . 4) THREE-PHASE CURRENT
coswt + coswtCOS ( 21/ 3) - s inwtsin ( 21/ 3) + coswtCOS ( 41/ 3) - s inwtsin ( 41/ 3)
coswt[ 1+cos ( 2 1/3) +cos ( 41/ 3) ] - s inwt [ sin( 21/3) +sin( 41/ 3)]
coswt [ l+cos 120
0
+cos 2 40

] - sinwt C s in 120
0
+sin 240

]
coswt [ l+cos 120
0
+cos ( -120
0
)] - s inwt[ sin 120
0
+s in ( -120
0
)]
coswt ( 1-0 . 5-0 . 5) - sinwt ( s in 120
0
-s in 120
0
) = 0
16-7 ( 16 . 4) ROTATING MGNETIC FIELD
a) Us ing trigonometric functions ,
B
x
- B
o
[ coswt - 0 . 5 cos (wt+21/ 3) - 0 . 5cos (wt + 41/ 3) ]
B
o
[ coswt - 0 . 5 (coswtcos21/ 3 - s inwtsin21/ 3)
-0 . 5 (coswtcOS41 / 3 - sinwtsin41 /3) ]
= B [ coswt - 0 . 5 (-0 . 5 coswt - O . 5
/3
s inwt) -0 . 5 ( -0 . 5coswt+0 . 5
!
s inwt) ]

g 1 . 5 B coswt

6 8
B B [ 0 . s lcO
S ( Wt+21/ 3) - 0 . s lcoS ( Wt+41/3) ]
y O
O . S !B ( cosWtc
O
S21/ 3 - sinwtsin21/ 3 - coswtcos41/ 3+s inwts in41/3)
o
O . S IB ( -0 . Scoswt - O . S/s inwt 1 O . Scoswt - O . Sls inwt)
o
-2 ( 0 . S I)
2
B s inwt -l . SB s inwt
o O
- - -
S o B 1 . SB
O
coswti - 1 . SB
O
s inwtj , B 1 . S B
O
'
b) Using exponential functions ,
B
x
B
o
[ expj wt - O . Sexpj ( Wt+21 1 3) - O . Sexpj ( Wt+41 1 3) J ,
B
o
expj wt ( 1-0 . Sexpj 2 1/ 3-0 . Sexpj 41/3) ,
B expj wt [ 1 - O . S ( -O . S
+O . S lj ) - 0 . S ( -0 . S-0 . S /j ) J ,
o
1 . SB
o
expj wt ,
B B [ 0 . S lexpj (wt+21/ 3) - 0 . S !expj ( wt+41/ 3) J ,
y O
O . S IB expj wt (expj 2 1 1 3-expj 41 1 3) ,
o
O . S IB expj wt ( -0 . S+0 . s lj +0 . S+0 . S /3j ) ,
o
2 ( 0 . S I)
2
B j expj wt ,
o
1 . SB
O
expj (Wt+1 1 2 )
Thus 1 . SB (coswtI- s inwt|) as previous ly.
o
16-8 (16 . 4) DIRECT
-
CUR ENT HIG VOLTAGE
l J
a) 2 (V
o
/ 2
2
)I
Sp
2V
o
I
DC
'
I
Sp
22 1
DC
J J
b) 3 ( V
o
/ 2
2
) I
TP
2V
o
I
DC
'
I
TP
( 2 / 3) 2
2
I
DC
G
TRNSMISSION LINES
0 . 9 4I
DC
16-9 ( 16 . 5) ELECTROMGNET OPERATING ON ALTERNATING CURNT
I NI ,(NV /wL)/ ~ V / Nw , from Prob 15-2 .
rms rms rms , rms
16-10 ( 16 . 6 ) COMLEX NUERS
a) 1 + 2j 2 . 2 3 6 L1 . 107 ; -1 + 2j
-1 - 2j 2 . 236 L4 . 249 ; 1 - 2j
2 . 236L2 . 034 ;
2 . 236 -1 . 107
b) ( 1+2j ) ( 1-2 j ) 1 + 4 5 ;
( 1 +2j )
2
1 - 4 + 4j - 3 + 4j
1 / ( 1+2 j )
2
1/ C-3+4j ) ( -3-4j ) / (-3+4j ) ( -3-4j ) = ( -3-4j ) / ( 9+16)
-0 . 12 - 0 . 16j
( 1+2 j ) / ( 1-2j ) ( 1+2j ) ( 1+2j ) / (1+4) -0 . 6 + O . 8j
16-11 ( 16 . 6) COMLEX NUMERS
2 . 2 3 6 _1 . 10 7
16-12 ( 16 . 6) COMLEX NUERS
expj x 1 + j x - x
2
/2 !
_ j x
3
/ 3 ! + x
4
/ 4 ! + j x
5
/ 5 !
cosx 1
j sinx + j x
.
3
/ 3 ' - |
16-13 ( 16 . 6) COMLEX NUMERS
expj 1 ~ COS 1 + j s in1 -1
16-14 ( 16 . 6) COMLEX NUMERS
a) Multiplication by j increases the argument O by 1/2 radians .
b) O increases by 1 .
c ) O decreases b y 1/ 2 .
16-15 ( 16 . 7 ) THREE-PHASE ALTERATING CURRENT
coswt - cos ( wt+120
o
) coswt - coswtcos120
o
+ s inwtsin120
0
l
coswt ( l +cos60
o
) + s inwtsin60
0
~ 0/ 2 ) coswt + 0
2
/2) sinwt
3

'/2) cowt + C2 ) sinwt


'.( cos30
o
coswt + sin30
0
s inwt)
3
2
cos ( wt-30 ) G 3
2
cos ( wt-1/ 6)
7 0
16
-
16 ( 16 . 7 ) CALCULATING AN AVERAGE POWER WITH PHASORS
a) P = ( l /T)
T
V coswtI cos ( wt+) dt
av 0 0
0
(v I /T)
T
coswt ( coswtcos
-
s inwtsin) dt
o 0
0
( V
"
1
0
/T) CO",
"
c
"
e
2
wc"
-
elncoewMnw" l (v I /T) cos( T/ 2)
o 0
(V I /2) cos l
o 0
The integral of sinwt C
O
E Wt over one period is zero .
b) P ( 1/ 2) R v exp ( j wt) I exp
-
j ( wt+) ( 1/ 2) V I cos<
av c

0 0 0 0
CHAPTER 17
17
-
1 ( 17 . 1) IMEDANCE
)
. R/j wC
R
'
L
R( l
-
Rj wC)
a Z R + J wL +
! + 1/ j wC
=
+ J w +
2 2 2
R w C + 1
R

R
2
wC
R +
2 2 2
+ J WL -
2 2 2
R w C + 1 R w C + 1
Z = 2R at f = 0 and Z - j wL at f - =
b) R + R/ (R
2
w
2
C
2
+1) 10 + 10 / ( 100x41
2
x10
6
x25x10
-
18
+1) = 20(
c)
d)
2 2 2 2 3 -3 3 -9
wL
-
R wC / ( R w C +1) 2 1x10 x5x10
-
100x21x10 x5x10 / 1 31 . 4(

( 20
2
+3 1 . 4
2
)
!
3 7 . 2(
=
arc tan ( 31 . 4 / 20) 57 . 5
0
I y l
l/
I
Z
I
-
2
-
5 7 . 5
0
2 . 69 x 10 S ,

=
P 201
2
0 . 20 W
e) No
f) X is inductive ( positive) for L ? R
2
C / CR
2
w
2
C
2
+1) , which is always
true
g) X is zero at f 0 .
7 1
17 -2 ( 17 . 1) RA INDUCTORS
Z
( R+j wL) /j wC R+j wL ( R+j WL) [ ( 1-W
2
LC) - Rj wC J
R+j wL+1 /j wC . 2 2 2 2 2 2
RJ wC-w LC+1 ( l-w LC) + R w C
2 2 2 2 . 2 2
R( l-w LC) + Rw LC + j w[ L ( l-w LC) - R c J R+J w[ L( l-w LC) - R c J
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
( l-w LC) + R w C ( l-w LC) + R w C
17-3 ( 17 . 3) COMENSATED VOLTAGE DIVIDER
V
a
/V
i
R
2
/j wC
2
R
2
+ 1/ j wC
2
R
2
/j wC
2
R
1
/j wC
1
R
2
+1/j wC
2
+
R
1
+1/j wC
1
R
2
R
1
R
2
j wC
2
+1
+
R
1
j wC
1
+1
17-4 ( 17 . 3) RC FILTER
0. H
9. |
I 0
a) Call V ' the potential at the connection between A and C
v
o
/V ' ~ D / ( C+
D) ,
B ( C+D)
B ( C+D) + A(B+C+D)
,
BD BD
V
o
/V
i
= ( V
o
/V ' ) ( V ' /V
i
) =
B ( C+D) + A( B+C+D)

A+ (A+B) ( C+D)
b) A R, B l/ j wC , C l/ j wC , D R
R/j wC R 1
V
a
/V
i

2
R/j wC + (R+1/j wC)
2
z
R + R j WC + l/j wC + 2R 3 +j (RIC - l/RwC)
7 2
v /V . is maximum at RwC = 1 . Then V / v,
=
1/ 3 .
o 1 O J
l
When v /v . = ( 1/ 3) / 2
2
, RwC - 0 . 303 or 3 . 30 . The pass-band is very
o J
broad .
17-5 ( 17 . 3) MASURING AN IMEDACE WITH A PHASE-SENSITIVE VOLTMTER
r V
2
/V
1
- Z / (R ' +Z) ,
Z R' r / ( l-r) - R' (a+bj ) / ( l-a-bj )
Z
"
-
( a+bj ) ( l-a+bj )
2 2
( I-a) + b
Setting Z = R + j X,
R a _ a
2
_
b
2
R
=
1 + a
2
+ b
2
_ 2a
R
r cos e _ r
2
o O
a (1-a) - b
2
+ j b)
2 2
( I-a) + b
X
2
1 + r 2a
, _ -
r sine
X O
b
2
1 + r 2a
i
=
1 + r
2
- 2r cos e
-
1 + r
2
_ 2r cos e
o O o O
Reference : Electronics , July 25 , 197 4 , p 117 .
17-6 ( 17 . 3) IMEDANCE BRIDGES . THE WIEN BRIDGE
7 3
1
For R
1
R
2
/2 , R
3
R
4
, C
3
C
4
'
the firs t equation is s atis fied
and the second one yields R
3
wC
3
~ 1 .
17-7 ( 17 . 3) LOW-PASS RC FILTER

' `
) V /V
l/j wC 1

/ 1/
.
f C 1 a
O J

R + l/ J' " ,C
V V . : RwC J Rw ?
Rj wC + l
'
O J
2 2 2

8 2 2 -8 -
2
' 2 2 -
2
'
b) I V /V . I l/ ( R w C +1)
2
1/ ( 10 X41 xf x10 +1) 1/ ( 41 f +1)
o J
c) db ~ 20 log l V Iv . .
o J
17-8 ( 17 . 3) PHASE SHIFTER
0

. /

/0
|=L
[ R l/j WC
v
R-1/j wC R+j /wC
V
o = [R+1 /j wC
-
R+1 / j wC i
=
R+1/ j wC
V
i
-
R-j /wC
V /V . exp
2j arc tg ( l/RC)
o J
17-9 ( 17 . 3) MASURING SURFACE POTENTIAS
a) V d
a
E
a
~ d
d
E
d
'
c E
o
E
a
+ E
r
E
o
E
d
E
o
E
a
+ E
r
E
o
( d
a
E
a
/d
d
)
7 4
E
a
b) a .
1
c) V
d) IR
C
IR
( a/E ) / ( l+E d /d
d
)
o r a
E E a / ( l+E
r
d
a
/d
d
)
o a
d E
a a
( ad /E ) / (l+E d /d
d
)
a O r a
( dQ/dt) R V( dC / dt) R
-13
( 10 /2 ) ( l+exp j wt) , dC/dt
( 10
-13
/ 2) j w ( exp j wt ) RV
( 10
-13
/ 2) j w exp j wt
References : S tatic Electrification 19 7 5 , pages 17 3 , 182 ; Catalog of
Monroe Electronics .
17-10 ( 17 . 3) RFERENCE TEMERATURES NEAR ASOLUTE ZERO
Let I
p
and I
s
be the currents in the primaries and in the secondaries ,
respectively . At balance , V O .
Then j wM
1
I
p
Reference :
17-11 ( 17 . 3)
R
1
I
S
'
j wM
2
I
p
= R
2
I
s
'
M
l
/M
2

R
l
/R
2
Rev . Sci . Ins tr . 44 , 1537 ( 19 7 3) .
REMOTE-READING MERCURY THEROMTER
a) S ince C
l
C
2
, the capacitance of C
l
and C
2
in
equal to C
2
and
V ' /V
R
Rj wC
2
/ (Rj WC
2
+l) , ,
R + l/j wC
2
s
where C
2
varies linearly with the temperature .
series may be set
b) S ince V' is to vary linearly with C
2
, we mus t have that RC
2
1 ,
and then V ' V
S
c) C
2
is a cylindrical capacitor with an outside radius of , s ay , 2 m.
The mercury colun has a radius of , s ay , 0 . 05 m. Then
C
2
:: 21E
o
E
r
L / 9n(2 / 0 . 05) , 21E
o
E
r
L/ 9n 40 ,
" (21x8 . 85xlO
-12
x3 / 9n 40 ) L " 45 L pF.
We have set E
r
" 3 . Here L is the length of the mercury column ins ide
the electrode C . S et ting L " 100 m, if R
l
j wL
ls
'
R
2
j wL
2s
'
7 5
d) C
2
' 5 pF , R 1 /wC
2
S etting R ' 301 ,
. 7 -12
1/ 2-rx 10 x 5 x 10
RwC
2
' 1 /100 , V ' /V
s
' 1 / 100 , V' ' 0 . 1 volt .
3000 1 .
Reference : Review o f S cientific Ins truments , 195 ( 19 7 6 ) .
17-12 ( 17 . 3) WATTMTER
S ince wL Z , we may set the voltage across the load equal to that
at the source . Also , s ince R
1
Z , we may set the current through
the load equal to the current supplied by the source .
The coil produces a B that is proportional to , and in phase with ,
the current through Z .
The voltage across R
2
i s R
2
/ ( R
l
+R
2
) times the voltage across the
source . Then
v ' KV I (cos t/2) KV I cost
av o o rms rms
1 7-13 ( 1 7 . 3) TRNSIENT SUPPRESSOR FOR A INDUCTOR
We can calculate the voltage acros s the inductor , after the switch
is opened , in another way. We consider a clockwise mesh current in
L and C .
a) Firs t , we find Q and I as functions of t , with the switch open .
From Kirchoff ' s voltage law,
2 2
LdI /dt + 2RI + Q/ C ~ C , Ld Q /dt + 2RdQ/dt + Q/ C ~ O .
Try a solution of the for Q Q exp nt . Then Ln
2
+ 2Rn + l/ C 0
2 2
o
2
n -R/L (R /L -l/LC) -R/L , s ince R L/ C . The two roots are
equal .
Then Q
Set Q
Now I
S et I
Q
I C
( A+Bt) exp ( -Rt/L) .
Q
o
at t 0 . Then A Q
o
.
dQ/dt exp (-Rt/L) [ - (R/L) (A+Bt) +B J
I
o
a t t 0 . Then B I
o
+ RQ
o
/L ,
exp ( -Rt/L) ( Q
o
+l
o
t+RQ
o
t /L) ,
exp (-Rt /L) [ - (R/L) ( Q +1 t+RQ t iL) + 1 + RQ . /LJ ,
o o o o ,
exp ( -Rt/L) [ I - (R/L) ( I +RQ /L) tJ .
o o
O
b) Now let us find a relation between Q
o
and I
o
. Set I
L
and I
C
the
currents through the inductor and capacitor before t 0 in the
7 6
directions shown , s o as to give a
clockwis e current in the right
hand mesh when the switch is open .
Then
V
_
1
= -
2

2
}
cos [ wt-tan
-1
( w1/R) ] ,
( R +w 1 )

Q
V
o -1
2 2 2
1
cos [w tHan ( l/RwC) ]
( R +l/w C )
2
d
Q/dt ,
V
o -1

2 2 2
sinew t+tan ( l /RwC ) ] ,
W( R +l/w C )
2

I
o
2 2 2
-V
o
R/ ( R +w 1 ) ,
I
o
Q
-
o
V
o -1
2 2 2

sin[ tan ( l/RwC) ]


W( R +l /w C )

2 2 2
R ( R w C +1)
C 2 2 2
(R +w 1 )

-R/1 -1 / ( 1C) 2 .
If the source supplied DC , ins tead of AC , I would be -ViR,
Q
o
would
o
l
be VC , and I
o
/
Q
o
would again be -l/RC , or -1/ (1C)
2
.
Since
_
_
-RQ
o
/1 ,
Q
=
Q
o
exp (-Rt /1) , I = I
o
exp ( -Rt/1)
c) The vol tage acros s the inductor , after the switch has been opened ,
is
RI + 1dI /dt = RI
o
exp ( ) + 1 (-R/1) exp ( ) 0 ,
despite the fact that I decreases exponentially with time .
Reference : Reference Data for Radio Engineers , p 6-12 .
17-14 ( 17 . 3) SERIES RESONACE
Z R + j ( w1-l/wC)
Z -= ] for w 0 , Z
Z = oj for w =
2
R for w 1C = 1 ,
7 7
I Y
H
17-15 (17 . 3) PARLLEL RESONANCE
l 0O

6
/ ^ 6dz
~I00
1 l
a) Z
_
( R+j wL) / j wC
-
R+j wL+1/ j wC
R+j wL
.
2
1 RJ wC-w LC+
(R+j wL) ( 1-w
2
LC-Rj wC) R + j w[ L ( 1-w
2
LC) - R
2
C J

2 2 2 2 2
(l-w LC) + R w C
2 2 2 2 2
( l-w LC) + R w C
Real part of Z
R
2 2 2 2 2
( l-w LC) + ( R w C )
21f[ 10
-
\1-41
2
f
2
10
-9
)
_
10
-4
J
Imaginary part of Z ~
2 -10 2 2

( ) + 10 41 f
Mgnitude of Z
{ 100 + 41
2
f
2
[ J
2
}


)
2
+ 10
-10
41
2
f
2
Phase of Z = arc tan w[ J /R
b) X = 0 when [ J ~ 0 , or when
2 2 2 2 2 2
L ( l-w LC) R C , 1 - w LC ~ R C /L , w ~ ( l-R C/L) /LC
f [( 1-R
2
C /L) /LC] / 21 = [( 1-10
-
/ 10
-3
) / 10
-9
] /21 = 4 . 7 7 kHz
| ? Nz
2 2 6 -3 -6 2 -3
c) 1 - w LC = 1 - 41 x 6 4 x 10 x 10 x 10 1 - 41 x 64 x 10 = -1 . 5 27
10 + j ( 2r8x10
3
)
[
10
-3
( -1 . 52 7) - 10
2
x 10
-6
] 10 - 81 . 7 8j
Z
2 . 332 + 10
2
x 41
2
x 64 x l0
6
x 10
-12
=
2 . 584
d) Z ~ R' + l/j wC ' , R' ~ 3 . 86 9
, C' 0 . 629 ]F
Reference : Philips Technical Review 31 No 4 ( 19 7 1) .
7 8
17-16 ( 17 . 4) S TA
R-DELTA TRANSFORMTION
- O . | 5 92 J

~ . A | O
7
)
~ 2. 535 A | O
^
17-17 ( 17 . 4) STA
R-DELTA TRNSFORTION
A
17-19 (17 . 4)
B
RID
G
ED-T
R + Z 0 ,
R ~ -Z ,
1 /R ~ -Y - Zj WC - w
Z
C
Z
( r+j wL)]
-Zj wC + w
Z
C
Z
r + j W
3
LC
Z
Z Z Z
Then w C rR 1 , w LC Z .
M
7 9
17-20 ( 17 . 5) MUTUAL INDUCTANCE
Trans form the circuit into the one
shown in the figure of the preceding pag e .
10
I - I - C !
)
3
1
-
2
-
5
10+2rx10 x1 . 9j
~
2 10
3
0 9
'
+
2
rx x . j
2 2 1
= 5 / 1 5+5+100rj l = 5 / 1 10+314j l = 5 / ( 10 +314 )
2
-2
= 1 . 592 x 10 A = 15 . 9 2 u
CHAPTER 18
:

<
C
-
u
18-1 ( 18 . 1) DIRECT-CURNT MOTORS
a) Replace V' by a resis tance R'
by the s ource is
V ' /I . Then the power supplied
IV = I ( IR+IR' )
The first term represents the various los s es and IV ' is the useful
power .
c)
At no load , V' - V , L = (V-V ' ) /R - O ,
B
- O .
Since V " V ' ''w
B
, w -
o
.
O

.
d) IV ' increases . The motor slows down and V' decreases , s o I
increases faster , R' V ' /I decreases and the efficiency decreases .
18-2 ( 18 . 2) POWER-FACTOR CORRCTION
a) . 600 / 100 6 . 00
R 6 x 0 . 65 3 . 9 0 : ,
X C 6 x sin(arc cos 0 . 65) 4 . 55
b) I v{/ v,r- x) / .
.
(600 /36) (3 . 9 0-j 4 . 55)
The in-phase component is
(600 /36) 3 . 90 65 . 0 A.
The quadrature component is 76 . 0 A,
lagging . Check: 6 5 . 0
2
+ 7 6 . 0
2
100
2

80
x

c) VwC = 7 6 , C 7 6 / ( 600x2160) 366 ]: .


This capacitor would cos t about $ 400 . 00 .
Reference : S tandard Handbook for Electrical Engineers , 5-9 8 and
16-185 .
18-3 ( 18 . 2) POWER-:ACTOR CORRECTION WITH :LUORES CENT LAS
The in-phas e component of the current is 80 /120 = 0 . 6 6 7 A.
S ince cos ' 0 . 5 , ; 60 degrees . The current is 2 x 0 . 66 7
The reactive current i s 1 . 33 sin 60
0
1 . 16 A.
Then VwC 1 . 16 , C 1 . 16 / ( 260x120) 20 ]: .
References : Henderson and Marsden , Lamps and Lighting , p 325
S tandard Handbook for Electrical Engineers , 19-33 .
18-4 ( 18 . 3) ENERGY TRANS :ER TO A LOAD
K
L
a) rI = RI ' J (Q ' / C) , rj wQ = Rj wQ ' J q ' /C
Q ' (r/R) Q , xc (r/RC) Q
b) W =
VIdt ,VdQ c ,YdX
0 one cycle one cycle
81
L
kl | :l
Rj wQ '
1 . 33 A
c) i) For a resis tor , V V
o
coswt , I ( V
o
/R) coswt
Q
~ ( V /wR) sinwt .
O
See Fig . R
ii) For a capacitor , V V coswt ,
Q
CV cos wt .
O O
S ee Fig . C .
iii) For an inductor , V V
o
coswt , Ldl /dt V
o
coswt ,
Ld
2
Q/dt
2
~ V
o
cos wt , Q
- ( V
o
/
W
2
L) coswt .
See Fig . L .
d
Q /dt ,
iv) For a resistor in series with an inductor , with R j wL ,
jw
Q
I V
o
exp j wt / ( R+j wL) ~ ( V_R) exp j wt / ( 1+j )
l
( V / 2
2
R) exp j ( wt-1/4) ,
o
J
Q
~
(
V /22 wR) exp j (wt-1/ 4-1/2)
o
See the fourth figure .
Reference : Rev. S ci . lns tr . , 109 ( 19 7 1) .
lS-5 ( lS . 3) ENERG TRANSFER TO A LOAD ,
Let the voltage across G , at a
given ins tant , be V . The voltage V
at y is then approximately equal
to V . Let the current through Z ,
at a given ins tant , b e l , and the
pulse duration be T . Then the energy
dis sipated in Z during a pulse is
T
W VIdt
0
Vd
Q
one cycle
0/ 0
The voltage a t x i s
Q
/C . Then the spot on the os cilloscope s creen
des cribes a curve as in the figure .
The area under this curve is proportional to the above integral .
Reference : Rev. S ci . lns tr . , 1004 ( 1974) .
S2
A positive X
2
is equivalent to a negative X in the primary .
lS-7 ( IS . 4) MASUREMNT OF THE COEFFICIENT OF COULING k
With the secondary open , Z
o
Z
l
j wL
1
.
With the secondary short-circuited ,
Z
o
j WL
l
+ w
2
i
/j wL
2
j wL
l
- j wL
l
j W
L
2
k
2
/j WL
2
2
Z
O
/Z
o
1 - k .
lS-S ( lS . 4) RFLECTED IMEDANCE
a) Z
in
R
l
+ j wL
l
+ W
2
M
2
/ ( R
2
+
j WL
Z
)
b)
( 1+j R
2
) R
2
/
R
2
2
+1 ,
0 v
lS-9 (IS . 4) MASURING THE AA UNDER
A CURVE
Draw a line around the periphery
of the figure with conducting ink .
Then measure the voltage induced
when the Helmholtz coils are fed ,
say at 1 kilohertz .
The sys tem can be calibrated with
a circle or with a rectangle of
known area .
Reference : Rev. S ci . Ins tr . 41 , 1663 (19 70) .
lS-lO ( lS . 4) S OLDERING GUNS
-1 -6 7 -4
a) R = 9/Ac 10 /4 x lO x S . S x lO 4 . 3 x lO
I
sec
b) I
pri
(100 /4 . 3 x lO
-4
)
!
4S0 A,
100/120 = O . S A.
S3
V
sec
4S0 x 4 . 3 x lO
-4
"0 . 2 volt
18-11 (18 . 4) CURENT TRANSFORR
Disregarding the s ign , the induced electromotance is d/ dt , with
b+a
, (v
o
I /2rr) 2adr ( V
o
a/r) Itn[ (b+a) / (b-a) J ,
b-a
v u a/ r) tn[ (b+a) / (b-a) J dI/ dt .
o
Reference : Rev . S ci . Ins tr . , 324 ( 19 7 5) .
18-12 ( 18 . 4) INDUCED CURRENTS
R
t
t /aA 2ra/ iba
The tube is a single-turn s olenoid . Hence L
18-13 ( 18 . 5) EDDY-CURENT LOSSES
S ee the s tandard Handbook for Electrical Engineers , Sec . 2-7 4 .
18-14 ( 18 . 5) EDDY-CURNT LOSSES
For a s olid core , the power loss is
2 2 2
P
I
v /R f ( d/dt) / ( 4a/abL) ( abL/4a) (di /dt) .
If the core is split into n laminations , insulated one from the othe
2 2
P
n
n[ d (i/n) /dt J / ( 4an/abL) P
l
/n .
Reference : S tandard Handbook for Electrical Engineers , Sec . 2-7 4 ,
9 1 , 9 2 , 9 3 and following .
18-15 (18 . 5) HYS TERSIS LOS SES
Place the laminations inside a sole-
noid and measure the resis tive part
R of the impedance of the solenoid
as a function of the frequency .
Then
R A "
B
f " Cf
2
,
where A is the DC resis tance .
Then
( R-A) / f
B
+ Cf .
0- Al / }
C
A plot of ( R-
A) /f as a function of f gives both
B
and C .
84
18-16 ( 18 . 5) CLIP-ON AMTER
a) v NAdB /dt NAwB ~ NAw I / 2Tr
r o
3 -4 -7 4 -2
10 ( 0 . 64 x 10 ) ( 2T x 60) ( 4T x 10 x 10 ) / 2T x 1 . 5 x 10 3 . 12 v
b) Loop the wire carrying the unknown current s everal times around
the core .
CHATER 19
19-2 ( 19 . 3) MELL ' S EQUATIONS
6 . 5

o
V x (H + M) - E
o

o
a E/ a t
o
( J
f
+ ap/ a t + V x M) , from Eq . 14-20 .

Dividing by
o
and canceling V x M on both s ides ,

V x M J
f
+ ( a / a t ) ( E
o
E + l) J
f
+ aD/ a t , from Eq . 6-5
19-3 ( 19 . 3) MELL ' S EQUATIONS
Us e the equations of the previous prob lems , setting ~ E E L,
r o
~ | | !, a / a t j w
r o
19-4 ( 19 . 3) MELL ' S EQUATIONS
V x 8- E | aF/ a t = | J
o o o m

Taking the divergence of both sides and rememb ering that V


'
V x B , 0

for any vector B ,


85
19-5 ( 19 . 3) MGNETIC MONOPOLES AD MAELL '
S EQUATIONS
~
a) Taking the divergence of the equation for'x and remembering
that the divergence of a curl is always equal to zero ,
, - / - :) , ) ~ -v
.
!
*
, V
. !
* ~ -p *
/ - t .
b ) From the
x E da ,

s
19-6 ( 19 . 3)

equation for the curl of E ,


,r ~ , G -1
* .
c
11
2 2 2
1N . m ~ 1 kg( m/s ) m 1 kg m /s
1W
1C
11/ s
lAs
2 3
1 kg m /s
1V lJ/C
2 2
l (kg m /s ) /As
2 3
1 kg m /As
11
1S
1F
1Wb
1T
1H
*
1V/A ~
11
-1

1C/V
1Vs *
1Wb /m
2
1 kg m
2
/A
2
s
3
1A
2
s
3
/kg m
2
2 3
lAs / (kg m /As )
2 2
1 kg m /As
1 kg/As
2
2 2 2
1Wb /A**= 1 kg m /A s
From the fact that , in a changing magnetic field , the induced voltage
is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux
**
From L ' /I
Let us check
2 2
. 1 kg m kg m
a) j wLI = V glves _ _ A ~ --
3
- ,
A s A s
Correct
b) The energy s tored in a capacitor is CV
2
/ 2 . Then
kg m
2
A
2
s
4

k
A
g m
s
2
3

2
--
2
-
=

2
s kg m
Correct
86
c) The energy
I
tored in an iductor is LI
2
/2 . Then
2 2
kg m
_
kg m
A
2
2
-
2 2
s A s
d) The
2
kg m
-
3
-
=
s
power loss
2
A
2

A
2
s
3
)
2 .
e w LC JS a pure
2 2 4
l

- l
2 2 2 2
-
.
s A s kg m
etc .
Correct
in a res is tor is I
2
R.
Correct
number . Then
Correct
CHAPTER 20
20-1 ( 20 . 4) PLANE WAVE IN FRE SPACE
E = E
o
exp j ( wt- z/ , H = H
o
exp j ( wt-z / J) ,
Then
where E
o
and H
o
are independent of x , y, z , t and have no z-component
a) Then , from V E = 0 ,
( a / ax)
ox
exp j 0 , ( a / ay)

E
oy
exp j (
= 0
These equatio
p
s are identities

b) We have s imilar equations for H .
c ) From V x l - a
g
/ a t ,
o

i j k
a / a z - a
g
/ a t , 0 0
O
E E 0
x Y
Thus , C-j /1)
k
x l =

-j wH ,

k x E

=
d) From V x E E a
l
/ a t , k x H =
O
20-2 ( 20 . 4) LOOP ANTENNA

i j
0 0
E E
x y

wJH =
O

E cE
O

k
-j / x C
0

. cH
O

-j w
o
H
!max
10 ( d1/dt) = 10 cos 30
o
( dB /dt) = 10 cos 30
o
( dE /dt) / c
max max max
o 6 3
lO cos 30 (2r x 3 x 10 ) 0 . 1/3 x 10 = 5 4 . 4 mV .
3/
20-3 ( 20 . 6 ) POYNTING VECTOR
26 16 -3 2 5
a) J= 3 . 8 x lO / 47 x 49 x lO = 2 . 65 x lO E
rms
'
E
rms
=
1 . 5 3 x lO Vim

2 2 2 2
b)
,e9f-s
= E
E
/E
S
= ( l /R
S
_
E
) / ( l/R
s
) , E
E
/E
S
= R
S
/R
S_E
E
E
( 7 x 10
8
/1 . 5 x 10
11
) 1 . 53 x 10
5
= 700 Vim
c),
E
= 2 . 65 x lO
-3
x ( 700)
2
= 1 . 3 x l0
3
W/m
2
3 4 2
_ 60 x 1 . 3 x lO ( cal /4 . l9 ) / ( 10 cm ) = 1 . 86 calorie /minute centi-
2
meter
This quantity is called the solar cons tant
We have neglected ab sorp tion in the atmosphere .
The average daily flux at the ground , in the United S tates , is about
0 . 4 calorie /minute centimeter
2
.
Reference : Aerican Ins titute of Physics Handbook , 3rd ed , p 2-143 .
20-4 ( 20 . 6 ) SOLAR ENERGY
3 2
At the surface of the earth , 1 . 3 x 10 W /m , from Prob . 20-3 .
P =A/50 , A = 5 0 P = 5 x l0
7
/1 . 3 x l0
3
4 i l0
4
m
2
,
or a square 200 meters on the s ide .
20-5 ( 20 . 6 ) POYNTING VECTOR
, = CE E
2
= 3 x 10
8
x 8 . 85 x 10
-12
x 20
2
= 1 . 06 W/m
2
o
In one second , the energy abs orbed by one square meter of the copper
sheet is 1 . 06 J .
This energy will increase the temperature of one kilogram of copper
by 1 . 06 /400 kelvin .
In one s econd the temperature of the sheet rises by 100 x L 06 /400
= 1 . 06 / 4 0 . 265 kelvin .
20-6 ( 20 . 6 ) POYNTING VECTOR
a)
_ _ -(. . _'
_ .. .. .. .. .
88
b) Energy flows into the field .
20-7 ( 2 0 . 6 ) POYNTING VECTOR

~av
20-8 ( 20 . 6) POYNTING VECTOR
Near the surface of the wire ,
E = IR' , H = I /2 ra , i x a
~ I
2
R' /2ra
Thus the power loss per meter is
I
2
R'

20-10 ( 20 . 6 ) COAXIAL LINE


R
2
E ~ A/ 2r
o
r , , ( A/2r
o
r) dr V , ( A /2r
0
) n ( R
2
/R
l
) z V ,
R
l
A 2r
o
V/n( R
2
/R
l
)
'
E v/ rn( R
2
/R
l
)
H I/ 2 rr
R
2
, [ v/rn( R
2
/R
l
) J (I / 2rr) 2Tf rdr VI
R
l
220 x10 2200 W
20-11 ( 20 . 7 ) RFLECTION AD REFRACTION , FRSNEL ' S EQUATIONS
See Electromagnetic Fields and Waves , Sec 12 . 2 . 2 .
89