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INTRODUCTION

Waste management is the generation , prevention,


characterization, monitoring, treatment, handling, reuse
and residual disposition of solid wastes. There are
various types of solid wastes including municipal
(residential, institutional, commercial), agricultural and
special (health care, household hazardous wastes,
sewage sludge). The term usually relates to materials
produced by human activity, and the process is
generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health,
the environment or aesthetics. Waste is also termed as
any substance which may be in any state-solid, liquid or
gas-which is no longer of any use to the humans or
which is not safe for them is discarded and hence it is
termed as waste.
Types of waste:
There are many waste types defined by modern
systems of waste management, notably including:
Municipal Waste includes Household
waste, Commercial waste, and Demolition waste
Hazardous Waste includes Industrial waste
Bio-medical Waste includes Clinical waste
Special Hazardous waste includes Radioactive
waste, explosives waste, and Electronic
waste (e-waste
Sources of waste:
1 . Municipal wasteMunicipal sources of waste:
It includes waste from household, different
organization, schools, colleges, other institutions,
restaurant & other public places. It involves our
daily life items like remnant food, used plastic
bottles, plastic/polythene bags, broken
utensils/furniture, old cloths/shoes, food/product
packets, used papers etc.
2. Medical/Clinical sources of waste:
It includes waste from different health care institute
like hospitals, nursing homes, different medical
clinic, and different pathological labs. It involves
items like different expired medicines, operational
ingredients, used needles & syringes, used
bandage, blood, pharmaceuticals.

3. Agricultural sources of waste:
It includes waste from different agricultural
phenomenon. It involves activities like dropping
seeds, applying different pesticides, horticulture,
livestock breeding, seedling, personal gardening
etc.
4. Waste from Automobiles:
It includes exhaust contain various poisonous
gases like CO,SO
2
,NO
2
along with different
hydrocarbons like CH
4
,C
2
H
2
,C
2
H
6
,butane,iso-
butane.It causes due to incomplete combustions of
petrol in cars. Sometimes old not working vehicles
are dumped that adds more waste to the
environment.
5. Industrial sources of waste:
It includes various types of fossils fuel for energy
which produces poisonous smoke containing
hydrocarbon and different inorganic oxides like
CO,NO,N
2
O,NO
2
,SO
2
and mixed with different
solid metals of Hg, Pb, As, dust etc.
6. Construction sources of waste:
It includes waste from different construction
activities of building roads. Sometimes old
damaged building or roads are pulled off in order
to build new one or for making new space. It
involves different concrete waste, wood, plastic
bags of cements & building materials.
7. Electronic sources of waste:
It includes different electrical/electronic waste that
involves TV, computers, vacuum cleaners,
telephones, AC machines etc. These are called e-
waste or waste electrical and electronic equipment
(WEEE).Dumping of such not working e-waste
affects our environment & human population as
they contain lead, mercury, cadmium, and
brominates.
Waste management:
It is the method of collection, transportation, proper
processing, organization & monitoring of wastage.
It defines the processing of products that are
disposed by human daily activities & efforts are
taken in order to control their effects on
environment & human & animals health.
Hazardous waste:
It refers to the wastes those are huge in size &
amount and is able to cause harm to our health &
environment. In the US, the method, storage &
dumping of such waste is maintained by Resource
Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA
state that hazardous wastes are divided into two
categories: characteristic wastes and listed
wastes.
Characteristic wastes involve: Which are tested to
passes 1 or more of the following attributes: -
ignitability, toxicity, vulnerable to chemical action &
corrosivity.
Listed wastes involve: which are especially marked
by the regulatory authorities as the hazardous
waste which may be disposed from a specific
source or from a non-specific source or any
refused chemical products.





Why do we need waste management?
Waste management is essential, as it affects us all
in many ways. We need to manage our waste
To effectively protect the environment and
our natural resources.
The adverse environmental effects of waste mainly
happens from its disposal. If the waste that needs
to be disposed of can be lessened, the
environmental damage can consequently be
lessened, as well.
Landfill and incineration are two main solid waste
disposal routes that, if poorly controlled, can
worsen the pollution to the atmosphere,
watercourses, and land surfaces. If we all treat
waste made from raw materials in limited supply
with care we prevent our valuable natural
resources from being exhausted, and give our
environment a time to breathe.
To control the costs.
In the UK, the waste disposal cost has traditionally
been low. The suitable sites for landfill have been
readily available. However, because many citizens
became more and more concerned about the
impacts of landfill and incineration to health and
the environment, the availability of the sites were
made limited, thus increasing the cost of
disposal.
Also, since many local facilities trend towards
becoming larger, they eventually produce larger
amounts of waste. This made rural sites act by
increasing the costs of transporting and handling
for waste. If everyone, from consumers to
manufacturers, becomes more active in
responsible waste management then the waste
disposal costs will not be that expensive for your
family or business.
To avoid legal issues.
To cover a wide range of waste management
operations, the scope of waste legislation has
been broadening. This time, all parties (including
both the producer and consumer) in the waste
management chain have their share of
responsibilities in helping mitigate the harmful
effects of waste. If you commit an offence, you
would have to face warnings or pay the increasing
fines as imposed by the courts. This is why
individuals, especially the organisations, should
treat waste management seriously. Not only do
you save yourself from paying hefty fines, but also
save the environment and your health from
receiving further damages.
Manage waste not just because you are told to do
so. Do it for your own and for everyone elses
good. Start managing your waste for a better way
of living and better quality of life. Do your research,
and look for the best waste management methods.