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Waves, Sound & Light

Start date: 5/9

End date: 5/27

Chapters: 11,12, 13, 14

I Properties of Waves

  • A. Wave: the motion of a disturbance.

    • 1. Mechanical wave: waves that require a

material medium.

a. medium- material that wave travels through

  • 2. Electromagnetic waves can travel

through a vacuum.

3. Sine waves- vibrate with simple harmonic

motion

B. Types of Waves

1. .

Transverse wave: the particles of the

disturbed medium move perpendicularly to the wave motion.

Crest

1. . Transverse wave: the particles of the disturbed medium move perpendicularly to the wave motion.

Wavelength

1. . Transverse wave: the particles of the disturbed medium move perpendicularly to the wave motion.
1. . Transverse wave: the particles of the disturbed medium move perpendicularly to the wave motion.

Amplitude

Trough

  • 2. A longitudinal wave occurs when the particles of the medium vibrate back and forth in the

direction of propagation of the wave.

Example: sound waves

C. Period, Frequency & Wave Speed

1.

v f
v
f

v: speed (m/s) f: frequency (Hz)

1. v f v: speed (m/s) f: frequency (Hz) : wavelength (m) a. Waves transfer energy

: wavelength (m)

  • a. Waves transfer energy from one place to another.

Ex: A piano string is tuned to middle C and vibrates with a frequency of 262 Hertz. The speed of sound in air is 343 m/s. Find the

wavelength of the sound waves produced by

the string.

f = 262 Hz

v = 343 m/s = ?

• Ex: A piano string is tuned to middle C and vibrates with a frequency of

l:

v f
v
f

D Wave Interactions

1. Wave Interference

A. Interference patterns can be formed as two or more waves

overlap to share the same space in

time.

1. Constructive interference

(reinforcement) occurs when the crest of one wave overlaps with the crest of another and

their amplitudes add.

1. Constructive interference (reinforcement) occurs when the crest of one wave overlaps with the crest of

+

1. Constructive interference (reinforcement) occurs when the crest of one wave overlaps with the crest of

=

2.

Destructive interference (cancellation)

occurs when the crest of one wave overlaps

the trough of another and their individual

effects are reduced.

2. Destructive interference (cancellation) occurs when the crest of one wave overlaps the trough of another

+

2. Destructive interference (cancellation) occurs when the crest of one wave overlaps the trough of another

=

2. reflection

a. At a free boundary- waves are reflected

b. at a fixed boundary- waves are reflected & inverted

2. reflection • a. At a free boundary- waves are reflected • b. at a fixed

3. Standing waves

1. regular repeating motion of a string produces waves of a certain frequency, wavelength, & amplitude

3. Standing waves • 1. regular repeating motion of a string – produces waves of a

SOUND

I Sound Waves

A produced by a vibrating source- the waves spread out in all directions

B. Characteristics of Sound Waves

1. The pitch (frequency) of a sound is how high or low the note is

• 1. The pitch (frequency) of a sound is how high or low the note is

2. The speed of sound depends on the medium

Sound will travel the fastest in solids then liquids the slowest in gases

3. sound waves propagate in three dimensions

• 3. sound waves propagate in three dimensions

C. The Doppler Effect

1. The change in the frequency of a wave due to

the motion of the source or receiver is called

the Doppler effect.

C. The Doppler Effect 1. The change in the frequency of a wave due to the

2. The loudness of a sound depends on the energy it contains

The measure of the loudness is called the intensity The units are decibels (dB)

II. Sound Intensity & Resonance

A. Sound Intensity

Intensity = P 4 II r 2

II. Sound Intensity & Resonance A. Sound Intensity Intensity = P 4 II r P =

P = Power (Watts) Intensity ( watts/meter 2

B. Forced Vibrations & Resonance

1) Resonance is an effect in which the vibration of one object causes another object

to vibrate at its natural frequency

C . The Ear & hearing

1. Parts of the ear

a) outer ear- fleshy portion, ear canal , eardrum

b) middle ear- three small bones; transmit vibrations from eardrum

c) inner ear cochlea; interprets sounds, sends signals to brain

cochlea
cochlea

eardrum ear canal

cochlea eardrum ear canal outer ear middle ear inner ear
cochlea eardrum ear canal outer ear middle ear inner ear
cochlea eardrum ear canal outer ear middle ear inner ear

outer ear

middle ear

inner ear

2. Hearing & sound & other cool stuff ..

a) The normal range of human hearing is from 20 to 20,000 Hertz

• a) The normal range of human hearing is from 20 to 20,000 Hertz

b) Sounds below 20 Hertz are called infrasonic (infrasound)

c) Sounds above 20,000 Hertz are called ultrasonic (ultrasound)

d) Ships used ultrasound to locate objects along the ocean floor

e) Bats and dolphins use ultrasound to navigate

• d) Ships used ultrasound to locate objects along the ocean floor • e) Bats and
• d) Ships used ultrasound to locate objects along the ocean floor • e) Bats and

f) Ultrasound waves are used to produced images of the interior organs of a patient

• f) Ultrasound waves are used to produced images of the interior organs of a patient
• f) Ultrasound waves are used to produced images of the interior organs of a patient

III Harmonics

Musical instruments make sound through the

vibration of a string, column of air, or membrane

III Harmonics Musical instruments make sound through the vibration of a string, column of air, or

A. Standing waves on a vibrating string

• A. Standing waves on a vibrating string

Harmonic series of standing waves on a vibrating string:

f n = n

v_

2L

f = frequency (Hz)

n = harmonic number

L = length of the vibrating string (m) v = speed of the wave in the string

fundamental frequency (1 st harmonic) n = 1

second harmonic

(see Table 3 pg 423)

n = 2

B. Standing waves in an air column

1. pipe with both ends open- all frequencies present

Harmonic series of standing waves in a pipe open at both ends:

f n = n

v_

2L

f = frequency (Hz)

n = harmonic number

L = length of the vibrating string (m) v = speed of the wave in the string

2. If one end of a pipe is closed only odd

harmonics are present

Harmonic series of standing waves in a pipe closed at one end:

f n = n

v_

4L

f = frequency (Hz)

n = harmonic number

L = length of the vibrating string (m) v = speed of the wave in the string

3. harmonics account for the sound quality (timbre)

4. the fundamental frequency determines pitch

C. Beats

1. Produced by sound waves at slightly different frequencies

a. the number of beats /sec = the difference between the frequencies

C. Beats • 1. Produced by sound waves at slightly different frequencies a. the number of

Light

I Characteristics of light

A. electromagnetic waves

I Characteristics of light • A. electromagnetic waves

1. vary depending on frequency & wavelength

a. longest

• 1. vary depending on frequency & wavelength a. longest radio waves -least harmful shortest gamma

radio waves -least harmful

shortest

• 1. vary depending on frequency & wavelength a. longest radio waves -least harmful shortest gamma

gamma waves-most harmful

c

f
f
c f C = speed of light in a vacuum (3 X 10 m/s) f =
c f C = speed of light in a vacuum (3 X 10 m/s) f =
c f C = speed of light in a vacuum (3 X 10 m/s) f =

C = speed of light in a vacuum (3 X 10 8 m/s) f = frequency (Hertz)
wavelength (m)

2.Particles called photons

travel in a wave

2.Particles called photons travel in a wave

3. Visible light is one small portion of

the electromagnetic spectrum

3. Visible light is one small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ROY G BIV
3. Visible light is one small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ROY G BIV
3. Visible light is one small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ROY G BIV
3. Visible light is one small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ROY G BIV
3. Visible light is one small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ROY G BIV
3. Visible light is one small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ROY G BIV
3. Visible light is one small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ROY G BIV

ROY G

BIV

B. Characteristics of light

1. Frequency ; amount of energy carried

2. Speed- depends on the density of the medium it is traveling through

3. Intensity (brightness) ; depends on the amount of light

II Flat Mirrors

A. Reflection of light

1. change of the direction of ight

Bouncing off of light rays as they strike a surface

A. Reflection of light • 1. change of the direction of ight – Bouncing off of

2. How well the light is reflected depends on the surface

a) rough surfaces- diffuse reflection

b) smooth surfaces ; angle of light coming in is equal to the angle of light going out

1.Law of Reflection

Angle of incidence

Angle of reflection

• 1.Law of Reflection Angle of incidence Angle of reflection

B. Flat mirrors

1. Ray diagrams can predict image location

B. Flat mirrors • 1. Ray diagrams – can predict image location

2. image: virtual , not magnified, reversed

III. Curved mirrors

(see table pg 464)

A) concave mirrors- curve inward

Mirror surface
Mirror surface

1. radius of curvature determines where image will appear & how large the image is

2. Image location

For an image in front of the mirror, M will be negative and the image will be inverted (virtual).

When the image is "behind" the mirror, m is positive and the image is upright (real).

3. mirror equation

1

1

1

+ =

+

+ =

=

+ =

p

q

f

p = object distance q = image distance f = focal length

magnification equation

M =

h’

=

-

q

q
M = h’ = - q h p

h

p

M = Magnification

h ‘ = Image height’

h =

Object height

q =

Image distance

p =

Object distance

If M is + virtual upright image

  • - Real inverted image

b) convex mirrors- bulge outward

• b) convex mirrors- bulge outward Mirror surface
• b) convex mirrors- bulge outward Mirror surface

Mirror surface

C. Parabolic mirrors

1. used by reflecting telescopes

IV Color & Polarization

A. Additive Primary colors red, blue, green

red + green = yellow

red + blue = magenta blue + green = cyan

red + green + blue = white light

B Subtractive Primary colors- yellow, magenta, cyan

• B Subtractive Primary colors- yellow, magenta, cyan

Refraction

A. Refraction

1.Bending of light as it travels from one substance into another

A. Refraction • 1.Bending of light as it travels from one substance into another

a)When light travels from a substance with

less density to one with more density , it slows

down, and the rays bend toward the normal line

b)

n = c

• a)When light travels from a substance with less density to one with more density ,

n = index of refraction

  • v c= speed of light in a vacuum v = speed of light in medium

air

normal line

water
water

b) When light travels from a substance with less density to one with a greater density it

bends away from the normal line

water
water

air

Snell’s Law

Snell’s Law n sin = n sin Index of refraction of the first medium x the

n i sin

Snell’s Law n sin = n sin Index of refraction of the first medium x the

= n r sin

Snell’s Law n sin = n sin Index of refraction of the first medium x the

Index of refraction of the first medium x the sine of the angle of incidence =

Index of refraction of the second medium x the sine of the angle of refraction

II Thin Lenses ..

change the direction of light

A. Types of lenses 1. Converging lenses (double concave)

II Thin Lenses .. change the direction of light • A. Types of lenses – 1.

2. Diverging lenses (double convex)

• 2. Diverging lenses (double convex)

C. equations

1

1

1

+ =

+

+ =

=

+ =

p

q

f

p = object distance q = image distance f = focal length

magnification equation

M =

h’

=

-

q

q
M = h’ = - q h p

h

p

M = Magnification

h ‘ = Image height’

h =

Object height

q =

Image distance

p =

Object distance

If M is + virtual upright image

  • - Real inverted image

III Total Internal reflection

A. when light moves from a medium with a higher index of refraction to a lower index of

refraction

B. Critical angle- the refracted ray moves parallel to the boundary & is reflected

sin

=

c =

n r

= n n i

n i