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International Journal of EmergingTrends & Technology in Computer Science(IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 3, Issue 2, March April 2014 ISSN 2278-6856

Volume 3, Issue 2 March April 2014 Page 91

Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Networks, sensor nodes are
used to sense the network. These sensor nodes detect events in
the surrounding environment. Therefore in routing path data
traffic get increased. There are various categories of routing
techniques like data-centric, hierarchical and location based.
The main aim of the implemented protocol (Mint-route) is to
avoid congestion by reducing traffic in the network.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Mint-route,
Routing mechanism, Network traffic, Congestion.

Wireless communication Wireless Sensor Network is a
combination of number of sensor nodes. Enhancement in
wireless communication made it possible to develop
wireless sensor network consisting of small devices.
These small devices sensor nodes have a particular
sensing range, this sensing range has the ability to receive
or transmit the data in that particular sensing range.
Sensor nodes have controller to process the data and to
control the functionality of other computer. It also
contains transceiver that has the ability of receiving and
transmitting the data. To maintain the power of the
sensor network power source get implemented in the
nodes. Sensing nodes transfer the data to the base station

Figure 1 Wireless Senor Network

Wireless Sensor Network [3] has a wide range in
commercial and industrial area such as environmental
monitoring, habitat monitoring, healthcare, military area
The sensor network has many issues but the growing
issue in the WSN is congestion. [1] Routing mechanism
in the internet has been based on shortest-path routing for
best effort traffic. This cause congestion due to which
throughput get depleted, energy get consumed more and
more. Occurrence of congestion in the sensor network is
due [2] to transmission of data through multiple nodes
and when routing node failure get arise in the network.
Due to [7] limited wireless transmition range of sensor
nodes in the wireless sensor network, multi-hop routing
protocols are used often for data transmition. These
routing protocols depend of hop-count, power availability.
There are many ways to evaluate link, quality such as
signal strength, packet loss and end-to-end delay. Mint
route protocol comes under lint quality protocol.
Therefore similar to potential based routing scheme (to
find routes with high delivery ratio) mint route [8]
protocol use same scheme for estimating link quality i.e.
to estimate link quality, average packet reception ration
is measured with periodic beacon messages. Mint -route
protocol uses a same function, which collaborate link cost
and parent cost. The parent cost is the cost which
indicates the parent nodes reachability to the base station
and the link cost is the cost that how much links get used
to transfer the packets.
Mint-route is also known as benchmark routing protocol.
The protocols [3] that are designed and implemented in
wireless sensor network should provide some real time
support as they are applied in area when data is sensed,
processed and data transmition to an immediate action.

In wireless sensor network sensor nodes have limited
transmission range. We use multi-hop routing protocols
for transmition of data from sensor node to the sink node
(base station). Operations of the routing protocol are
different some depend on hop count some depend on link
quality between the nodes. Mini- route protocol is also a
link quality routing protocol.
Mint-route protocol was proposed to increase the
reliability by selecting adjacent link with the smallest
number of lost packets as next hope in wireless sensor
network. In wireless link transmission of packet is
unstable, but the reliability of the data transmission is
affected by the distance between the nodes. To solve this
problem, Mint route protocol gets developed. In this
protocol the main consideration is to decide parent node
and sink and how to maintain the received packets from
sender node as well as distance between the nodes.
Mint-route [8] protocol reveals the acceptable
performance at certain scenarios. In mint route at various
levels the work by the researchers has carried out. First,
the author in [9] addressed security problem in mint-route
by proposing a scheme to prevent link Quality attacks by
a malicious node. Second, the author in [10] addressed
Mint-Route to Avoid Congestion in
Wireless Sensor Network

Shuchi Sharma
and Anand Nayyar

Pursing M.Tech CSE (Networking System), PTU Main Campus J alandhar
Assistant Professor, KCL Institute of Management and Technology, J alandhar
International Journal of EmergingTrends & Technology in Computer Science(IJETTCS)
Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 2, March April 2014 ISSN 2278-6856

Volume 3, Issue 2 March April 2014 Page 92

how to use surprised learning technique to make informed
decisions in the context of WSN. They also evaluate their
effectiveness by investigating the design space of both
offline and online learning and use link quality estimation
as a case study. In third [13] the author proposed an
enhanced version of mint called PA-mint. A transmission
power control interface is added to network layer in PA-
mint scheme. When routing performance of the current
network is not satisfied, the enhanced version of Mint i.e.
PA-mint monotonically increases the transmission power
via the interface we added.

The performance of the Mint-Route scheme is analyzed
against parameters such as throughput, delay, and packet
delivery ratio and energy consumption. The simulations
are carried out under NS@ simulator running in Linux
environment. The main objective of this scheme is to
minimize congestion, energy consumption and to increase
throughput and to maintain packet delivery ratio.
To analyze the performance of Mint-route scheme,
scenarios are set as per the parameters shown in the
following table 1. This scenario is carried out in a grid
range of 500 X 500.
Table 1: Simulation Parameters
Parameter Name Parameters
Channel type Channel/ wireless
Radio Propagation Propagation/Two Ray
Antenna Type Antenna/ Omni
Link Layer type LL
Ifq Queue/Drop
Max packet in Ifq 200
Network Interface
Phy/Wireless Phy
MAC type Mac/802-11
No of mobile nodes 50
Routing protocol AODV
Grid Size 500 X 500

The performance of the protocol gets calculated under
many metrics. The metrics such as throughput, energy
consumption, delay and packet delivery ratio etc are used
to evaluate the performance of the protocol under various
scenarios like node density, node mobility etc. The
performance of the protocol can be measured by many
Throughput: Throughput provide the vision of data
transferring i.e. it refers that in a particular period of
time how much packets can be transferred from
source to destination.
Delay: Delay referred as the time difference between
the data packet sending at senders end and the data
packet receiving at receivers end. It shows the
average delay of all successfully transmitted packets
from source to destination.
Energy consumption: It describe as the total energy
consumption to the number of packets received by the
sink (receiver) successfully. The energy consumption
per data packet received by the sink (receiver)
provides the energy efficiency of the protocols.
Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR): The packet delivery
ratio is the ratio of the number of packets delivered to
the destination.

In this paper we evaluate the performance of protocol. In
this scenario we plot the graph having 50 nodes. We plot
the graph of throughput, delay, energy consumption and
packet delivery ratio having 8 nodes and performance get

Figure 2 Packet forwarding between nodes

In figure 1 and figure 2 green circled figure act as mobile
nodes and these red circular strings are sensing range of
the nodes and the drops coming from the nodes are
packet loss in the network. In these figures packet
forwarding between nodes has been carried out. In these
figures data transferring between nodes is shown and
packet loss from the nodes get calculated.

Figure 3 Packet loss in the network
International Journal of EmergingTrends & Technology in Computer Science(IJETTCS)
Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 2, March April 2014 ISSN 2278-6856

Volume 3, Issue 2 March April 2014 Page 93

In this we evaluate the performance of Mint-route by
evaluating the graphs of energy, delay, throughput and
packet delivery ratio and analyse the results.

Figure 4 Energy consumption graph

Figure 5 Delay graph

Figure 6 Throughput graph

Figure 7 Packet Delivery Ratio

In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing is a vast area
of research with growing set of research results. In this
paper we presented a routing technique. This routing
technique is mainly used to increase throughput and to
minimise delay and energy consumption while
maintaining packet delivery ratio. The main aim of the
Mint-route technique is to avoid congestion by reducing
traffic. Due to congestion packet get lost in the network
and data cannot delivered at the particular receiver end.
In future on Mint-route scheme many various techniques
can get used to minimise congestion. For specific
application the available topologies can be tested with
implemented Mint-route technique.

[1] Anindya Basu Alvin Lin Sharad Ramanathan
Routing Using Potentials:A Dynamic Traffic-Aware
Routing Algorithm, pp: 37- 48.
[2] Majid I. Khan, Wilfried N. Gansterer and Gnter
Haring Congestion Avoidance and Energy Efficient
Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with
2, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2007, pp: 42-49.
[3] Aniket M. Junghare, Balaji M. Patil and Deepali M.
ShimpiAn ImprovedTraffic Aware Dynamic
Routing to Relieve Congestion in Wireless Sensor
Network, Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2014,pp-356-
[4] Naveen Sharma and Anand Nayyar A
Comprehensive Review of Cluster Based Energy
Efficient Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor
Networks, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2014, pp:
[5] Agam Gupta and Anand Nayyar A Comprehensive
Review of Cluster Based Energy Efficient Routing
Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks, IJRCCT Vol
3, Issue 1, January- 2014, pp: 104-110.
International Journal of EmergingTrends & Technology in Computer Science(IJETTCS)
Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 2, March April 2014 ISSN 2278-6856

Volume 3, Issue 2 March April 2014 Page 94

[6] Dina Katabir, Mark Handley and Charlie Rohrs
Congestion Control for High Bandwidth-Delay
ProductNetworks, pp: 89-102.
[7] Islam Hegazy, Reihaneh Safavi-Naini and Carey
Williamson Towards Securing MintRoute
inWireless Sensor Networks, IEEE 2010.
[8] Ki-II Kim and Min-Jing Baek Improving
MintRoute Protocol at different Scenarios, Appl.
Math. Inf. Sci. 6 No. 2S pp. 619S-625S (2012).
[9] I. Hegazy, R. Safavi-Naini, and C. Williamson,
Towards Securing Mintroute in Wireless Sensor
Networks, IEEE International Symposium on A
World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks
Proceeding, (2010).
[10] Y. Wang, M. Martonosi, and L. Peh, Predicting Link
Quality Using Supervised Learning in Wireless
Sensor Networks, ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile
Computing and Communications Review. Vol.11,
No.3,(2007), 71-84.
[11] S. Zhi-Jun, W. Jun, and Y. Hai-Bin, Cross-layer
Enhancement to Multi-hop Routing in Sensor
Networks: an Empirical Study, ACTA
AUTOMATICA SINICA, Vol.32, No.6, (2006), 875-


Shuchi Sharma have completed her B.Tech
degree in Information and Technology from
Rayat Bahra College of Engineering and Nano
Technology for Women Hosiarpur, Punjab. She
is currently pursuing her M.Tech CSE (Networking
System) from Punjab Technical University Main Campus

Er. Anand Nayyar (MCA, M.Phil, M.Tech,
MBA). He is currently pursuing his Ph.D in
Computer Science from Desh Bhagat
University, Mandi Gobindgarh. A certified
professional in many International
Certifications like Comptia A+, CCNA, MCP, MCSA,
OCP, Tally Certified Professional, Project Management,
AutoCAD, DTP, Web Development, Google Certified
Power Searcher and many more. He has published more
than 200 Research Papers and published more than 10
Books on Computer Science. He has reviewed more than
1300 Research Papers for various journals, national and
international conferences. He has guided 8 M.Tech (CSE)
& (ECE) students and 5 MCA students. He is a part of
more than 200 Research Journals as Editorial Board
member and Review Board Member and has been
associated with more than 150 National and International
Conferences as Advisory Board and Reviewer Committee
He is a more of more than 45 International & National
Research Societies as Life Member. He has been awarded
Best Faculty Award, Bharat Shiksha Ratan Puraskar, Best
Citizen of India, ISTE Best Teacher Award and Young
Scientist Award. He has been cited in Marquis Whos
Who in the World in 2014 and Rifacimento International:
Asia Reference: Whos Who in Asia.