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Integration of the


Technology and the
Compact CFB Boiler

Steve Goidich

Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation

Perryville Corporate Park
Clinton, NJ 08809, USA

Presented at:

PowerGen International
Orlando, Florida
November 2000
Stephen J. Goidich, Foster Wheeler Energy International


Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers offer increased operational flexibility because of the
ability to fire a range of fuels in the same unit. Fuels fired can include waste and low grade fuels
which cannot be fired in conventional units. In-furnace capture of sulfur dioxide by limestone
addition, and low NOx emissions resulting from low operating furnace temperature (850-900°C)
and staged combustion make CFB units an environmentally friendly means to generate steam.

Once-through utility (OTU) boilers can be operated at supercritical pressures [>220 bar (3200
psia)] since they do not rely on the density difference between steam and water to provide
circulation through the furnace enclosure tubes; fluid circulation is maintained by the boiler
feedpump. Operation at supercritical pressures provides a significant increase in steam cycle
efficiency which results in reduced fuel consumption. The coupling of supercritical OTU and
CFB technologies offers a very attractive way to produce power in the 150 to 600 MWe size

Described in this paper is how the Siemens BENSON Vertical OTU technology is integrated
into the Compact CFB boiler configuration offered by Foster Wheeler. Critical to the design of
a once-through boiler is the ability to accommodate heat absorption variations without
overheating the furnace enclosure tubes. Historically this has been done by designing for high
fluid mass flow rates which results in high pressure losses and therefore increased auxiliary
power consumption. The BENSON Vertical technology provides a means to design for low
mass flow rates with a simple, single vertical pass configuration which can safely accommodate
full variable steam pressure operation. The Compact CFB boiler, with its minimal use of
refractory which results from having cooled separator, sealing device, and INTREX heat
exchanger, allows for rapid load changes to meet the requirements for full variable pressure
operation. The unique features of the BENSON Vertical OTU and Compact CFB boiler are
discussed as well as start-up system requirements. A design for a 350 MWe Compact OTU CFB
boiler is described.


Large scale conventional utility boilers which fire high grade fuels such as pulverized coal (PC),
oil, and/or natural gas can be and have been configured as either “drum” or “once-through”
types. However, circulating fluidized bed units, with a few exceptions, have primarily been
configured as “drum” type units.

In drum type units (see Figure 1) the steam flow rate is controlled by the fuel firing rate.
Superheat steam temperature is determined by the proper sizing of the superheater heat transfer
surface and controlled by spray water attemperation. In a once-through type boiler, the steam
flow rate is established by the feedwater pump, and the superheat steam temperature is controlled
by the fuel firing rate. Since the once through boiler does not rely on the density difference
between steam and water to provide proper circulation and cooling of the furnace enclosure
tubes, it can be operated at

psia)] pressures. Operation above SUPERHEATER

the critical pressure significantly

increases plant efficiency which
not only results in reduced fuel
costs, but also has the
environmental benefit of less
carbon dioxide production (green
house effect) and less emission of
SOx and NOx (acid rain) that are
characteristic of the particular fuels

As CFB boilers move into the WATER WALL TUBING


large-scale (300 to 600 MWe)

utility market, there is a strong
Figure 1. Utility Boiler Circulation Methods
incentive to take advantage of the
cycle efficiency improvement that
supercritical steam conditions offer. To utilize once-through supercritical operating conditions,
the steam/water pressure parts of the CFB boiler must be configured to accommodate the
selected circulation method. The selection of the circulation method dictates not only the boiler
configuration, but also the selection of auxiliary systems as well as the modes and methods of
operation and control.

Historically, once through boilers have been designed for high steam/water mass flow rates to
minimize peak tube metal temperatures and limit the differential temperature between adjacent
enclosure wall tubes. To provide high mass flow rates, the evaporative furnace walls have been
designed in a multiple pass arrangement which also limits the heat absorption per pass and
therefore potential temperature unbalances within a pass. However, this type of an arrangement
requires operation at supercritical pressure over the load range to avoid two-phase flow related
problems that can occur when trying to distribute steam/water mixtures between passes. As a
result, there is a throttling pressure loss during low load operation.

Another method for achieving high mass flow rates is to incline the furnace enclosure tubes in a
single pass, spiral arrangement. This allows fewer tubes to form the required furnace enclosure.
Also, since all tubes wrap around through all enclosure walls, heat absorption and therefore tube
metal temperature unbalances are minimized. Since a single pass is used, the unit can operate at
subcritical pressure during part load or cycling operation which improves part load cycle
efficiency and makes it easier to match steam and turbine blade metal temperature for improved
steam turbine life. However, the spiral tube arrangement is not acceptable for CFB boiler
application because the inclined enclosure tubes would be subject to erosion. In CFB boilers,
fuel and sorbent ash are entrained in the flue gas which passes up through the furnace. A
significant amount of the entrained solids reflux (fall down) along the furnace walls. Any
protrusion which changes the direction of the falling solids can cause an erosive condition.
The current state-of-the-art technology for once-through boiler design is the BENSON Vertical
technology developed by Siemens through extensive research and development, and field-
testing. This technology offers significant functional and economic advantages for OTU power
generation. In order to incorporate these advantageous features into Foster Wheeler
conventional and CFB boilers, FW became a licensee of the BENSON Vertical technology.
Features of the BENSON Vertical technology and how it has been integrated into the FW
Compact CFB boiler system are described below.


“Natural Circulation” Characteristic. The most important requirement for the configuration
of the evaporative circuit in a furnace is to minimize peak tube metal temperatures and limit the
differential temperature between adjacent enclosure wall tubes. As noted above, this has
traditionally been done by ensuring sufficiently high steam/water mass flow rates through the
tubes over the once through operating load range.

By maintaining a minimum mass flow

rate at the minimum once-through
operating load point, a relatively high
pressure loss results at full load which
increases auxiliary power consumption.
This mode of operation has what is
termed a “once-through” characteristic
because an excessively heated tube will
have a reduction in flow because the
friction pressure loss is a significant
fraction of the total pressure loss. This
phenomenon is illustrated in Figure 2. A
strongly heated tube will have hotter
fluid and therefore a lower density than
occurs in the average tube. The pressure
loss resulting from hydrostatic head will
go down. However, because the fluid
density is lower, fluid velocity will
increase, increasing the friction pressure
loss. Although there is a reduction in
hydrostatic head, the increase in friction
loss dominates and the circuit total
Figure 2. “Once-Through” Characteristic (Ref. 1)
pressure loss increases. To maintain the
average pressure loss in the circuit, flow
in this excessively heat tube will therefore be reduced. This combination of high heat input with
reduced flow can cause an increase in steam temperature and therefore tube metal temperature
that can result in tube failure.

In the BENSON Vertical design, the furnace vertical enclosure tubes are selected so that a
relatively low mass flow rate (about 1000 kg/m2-s) results at full load. This mode of operation is
termed to have a “natural circulation” characteristic because an excessively heated tube will
have an increase in flow because the
hydrostatic pressure loss is much greater
than the friction loss (see Figure 3). The
reduction in hydrostatic head is greater
than the increase in friction loss so that
the excessively heated tube receives
more flow. The steam temperature rise
in this circuit is limited because of the
corresponding increase in fluid flow
through the tube.

With smooth tubes, a low mass flow rate

results in a lower steam side film heat
transfer coefficient and dryout will occur
at relatively low steam qualities. This
means that cooling of the furnace tubes
will not be as effective as with high mass
flow rates. Also, since dryout occurs at
a lower steam quality, it occurs lower in
the furnace where the heat flux is the
greatest. If the deterioration in internal
film heat transfer coefficient occurs here,
Figure 3. “Natural Circulation” Characteristic (Ref. 1)
tube failure can result. However, unique
to the BENSON Vertical technology is
the use of optimized rifled tubes to eliminate this problem.

As illustrated in Figure 4, dryout in a smooth

tube can result at relatively low steam
qualities. In the example illustrated, it occurs
at about 55% quality at which point there is a
sudden increase in tube wall temperature.
With an optimized rifled tube, the tube wall
can be keep wet to a steam quality over 90%
even with low mass flow rates.

Through extensive laboratory testing,

Siemens has determined the optimum rifled
tube design which uses the best combination
of rib lead angle, height, and shape to provide
the best combination of heat transfer and
pressure loss. This data has been correlated
into advanced computerized software for
thermal hydraulic analysis. Figure 5 shows
how an optimized rifled tube compares to a
standard rifled tube and to a smooth tube for
the same mass flow rate. As can be seen, the Figure 4. Rifled Tube Heat Transfer
optimized rifled tube results in the lowest tube Improvement (Ref. 1)
temperature. The lower plot in
Figure 5 illustrates how the mass
flow rate of an optimized rifled
tube (770 kg/m2-s) can be
significantly lower than that for a
standard rifled tube (1000 kg/m2-
s) and smooth tube (1500 kg/m2-s)
to achieve the same level of tube
cooling. Because of this, the
optimized rifled tube can operate
with low mass flow rates to permit
operation with a “natural
circulation” characteristic.

Considerations for CFB

Applications. The BENSON
Vertical technology was initially
developed for conventional PC,
oil, or gas fired utility boilers. A
CFB furnace operates under
considerably different and less
severe heat flux conditions than a
conventional furnace. In the CFB
furnace a significant portion of the
air required for combustion is
introduced as primary air through
an air distribution grid located on
the furnace floor. This air lifts
and puts into suspension the solids
inventory of fuel and sorbent
products resulting from the
combustion process. The
Figure 5. Optimized vs. Standard Rifled Tubes (Ref. 1)
remainder of combustion air
(secondary air) is introduced about
2m above the air distributor to
complete the combustion process and entrain the finer fraction of solid products. The entrained
solids pass up through the furnace, are collected in a separator which returns the solids back to
the lower furnace and directs the flue gas to the heat recovery area (HRA). This flywheel of
circulating solids maintains a relatively uniform vertical and radial temperature distribution
throughout the furnace. For optimum capture of SOx by the limestone, the furnace is maintained
at a temperature of about 850-900°C. The staged combustion and low operating temperatures
also minimize the formation of NOx.

As a result of the low and uniform operating temperature with the CFB furnace, the heat flux to
the enclosure walls of the furnace are considerably lower than in a pulverized coal furnace as
shown in Figure 6. The lower 4-8 m of the CFB furnace is protected by refractory to prevent
corrosion due to the substoichiometric atmosphere, and to prevent erosion due the dense bed of
solids. As a result the heat
absorption in this area is minimal.
The highest heat fluxes occur just
above the refractory protected
area. In this transition region,
there is a significant amount of
refluxing (falling back) of the
particles which are too coarse to
be completely entrained by the
rising flue gas. As a result, the
solids concentration and therefore
the heat transfer to the furnace
walls is highest in this region.
However, the peak to average heat
flux is considerably lower than in
a pulverized coal furnace.
Figure 6. PC vs CFB Heat Flux
Because of the low and uniform
heat fluxes in a CFB furnace,
mass flow rates lower than that required for a conventional furnace can be used without concern
for departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) or dryout (see Figure 7). A full load mass flow rate
in the 500 to 700 kg/m2-s range can be used to achieve the “natural circulation” characteristic.
Figure 8 shows that for part load operation
with subcritical pressure and with smooth
tubes and low mass flow rates (55% of that
used for PC design), there is not a
significant rise in tube temperature at the
dryout point because of the low heat fluxes
that are characteristic of a CFB furnace.

Another phenomenon that must be consid-

ered in the design is DNB that can occur
near the critical steam pressure. As the
critical pressure is approached, the
Leidenfrost temperature (tube wall
temperature above which stable film boiling
occurs) approaches the saturation
temperature. With the high heat fluxes
associated with PC furnaces, DNB can occur
near zero percent steam quality (see Figure
9) when operating in the critical pressure
range (210-215 bar). Optimized rifled
tubing can enhance the heat transfer rate and
reduce the tube temperature as shown in
Figure 9. For typical CFB operation with
smooth tubes, the heat flux is not high
enough to increase the tube wall temperature Figure 7. DNB and Dryout
to the level required for film
boiling to occur with low steam
quality (see Figure 9). Rifled
tubing is therefore not typically
required. However, project
specific requirements that require
a wide range of fuel firing
capability which includes a high
percentage of standalone firing
with liquid (oil, desaphalting tar,
bitumen, etc.) or gaseous fuels
(natural or synthetic gas), may
utilize tube rifling.

Additional BENSON Vertical

Features. In addition to the
“natural circulation” characteris-
Figure 8. Dryout at Subcritical Pressure tic that minimizes differential
temperatures that can cause
fatigue cracking, the BENSON Vertical design offers the following advantages:

• Low Pressure Loss. Since the

evaporative circuit can be de-
signed with low mass flow
rates, the total pressure loss
and therefore power consump-
tion is lower. The permanent
frictional pressure loss in the
furnace tubes is considerably
lower with the “natural circu-
lation” characteristic when
compared to designs with a
“forced circulation” charac-
teristic as noted in Figure 10.

• Simple Support System. The

vertical, self-supporting fur-
nace enclosure tubes are linked
to a standard top support sys- Figure 9. DNB Near Critical Pressure
tem that does not require
attachment of separate support straps. There is therefore no associated limit on the change
rate of waterwall fluid temperature due to fatigue limits of the support straps. Also, the load
carrying ability of the furnace is greater in the event that higher than expected furnace solids
inventory is required. If repair is required, standard, simple tube replacement procedures can
be used.
• Variable Furnace and Superhea-
ter Pressure. Full variable pres-
sure (see Figure 11) can be used
over the once through operating
load range to match steam turbine
metal temperature for cycling
service. The low system operating
pressure at low loads reduces pump
power consumption and therefore,
fuel consumption.

• Completely Drainable Water-

walls. The vertical tube orientation
permits openings, such as those for
fuel feed, startup burners, and over-
fire air ports, to be formed while
allowing all enclosure wall tubes to
be completely drainable. This is an Figure 10. Furnace Tube Pressure Losses
advantage if the oxygenated feed-
water treatment method is used since there are benefits to completely draining the unit for
long term storage.


Compact Separator. A main distinguishing feature of a CFB boiler is the separating device at
the furnace outlet that collects
unburned fuel and bed material
entrained in the flue gas and returns
it back to the lower furnace. The
separator can take many forms, but
the most common in the industry
has been the cyclone.

First generation cyclones consisted

of a steel shell lined with one-foot-
thick refractory. The capital cost is
relatively low, but operating costs
are higher due to refractory
maintenance and heat loss.

The next major advancement was a

cyclone formed with steam-cooled
tubing and lined with approximately
one-inch-thick refractory held in
place with metal studs. Less
refractory means less refractory
maintenance. In addition, the thin Figure 11. Steam Pressure vs. Load
layer of cooled refractory
operates at a lower temperature
which improves its wear
resistance characteristics. Also,
cooling the cyclone to the same
temperature as the furnace mini-
mizes differential expansion be-
tween the furnace and cyclone,
minimizing the number and rela-
tive motions of expansion joints,
and thereby reducing expansion
joint maintenance. The main
drawback of the steam-cooled cy-
clone is that it requires more
complex fabrication which in-
creases capital cost.

To eliminate the fabrication Figure 12. Compact Separator

complexity issue, Foster Wheeler
developed the Compact separator
(Ref. 2) that is formed from flat rather than curved tubing panels. The arrangement shown in
Figure 12 allows the separator to be positioned adjacent to the furnace and provide a “compact”

INTREX  Heat Exchanger. Another innovation that enhances the Compact CFB boiler
design is the Integrated Recycle Heat Exchanger (INTREX) which provides the additional
solids cooling needed for larger boilers where the furnace walls are no longer sufficient (Ref. 3).
The INTREX is a bubbling bed heat
exchanger consisting of one or more tube
bundles that further cools the solids collect
by the separator before they are returned to
the furnace (see Figure 13). In addition to
cooling the externally circulated solids,
openings in the furnace rear wall provides
access for additional solids to internally
circulate through the INTREX tube bundles
ensuring sufficient hot solids to the INTREX
at all loads. Excess solids spill back into the
furnace through openings in the furnace rear

The solids flow rate through the tube bundles

is controlled by controlling the amount of
aeration air added to the lift legs which return
the solids to the lower furnace. By
controlling the solids flow rate through the
INTREX, the heat absorption can be varied Figure 13. INTREX Heat Exchanger
giving operational flexibility to control furnace and/or superheat steam temperature. Rapid heat
absorption control can also be provided by controlling the fluidization velocity in the INTREX
which can vary the heat transfer characteristic to the submerged tube bundles.

The enclosure is formed by water-cooled tubing that is integrated with the furnace circuitry.
This integrated configuration allows the INTREX to grow downward with the furnace enclosure
so that large maintenance prone expansion joints are not required.


Figure 14 illustrates a 350 MWe Compact CFB BENSON Vertical boiler. This particular design
utilizes two (2) double vortex COMPACT solids separators which are positioned on one side of
the furnace. Solids entrained in the flue gas are collected by the separators and are cooled by
four (4) INTREX heat exchangers which contain superheat heat transfer surface. The duty of the
INTREX is selected to maintain the desired furnace operating temperature for optimum emission
control and fuel burnup as well as to efficiently provide final superheat duty.

Feedwater is heated first in

the HRA economizer and
HRA hanger tubes which
support the tube coil
elements. From the hanger
tubes the feedwater is then
passed through the INTREX
enclosure walls before it is
directed to the furnace
enclosure walls which do all
the evaporative duty. The
furnace enclosure is formed
from vertical tubes, all of
which are in parallel flow.

Fluid leaving the furnace is

passed through the in-line
tangential steam separators.
From the steam separators,
the steam is superheated in
the furnace roof, the
COMPACT separators, HRA
enclosure, the HRA convec-
tion super-heaters, and finally
in two (2) passes in the four
(4) INTREX heat exchangers. Figure 14. 350 MWe CFB BENSON Vertical Boiler
The entire reheater is
positioned above the economizer in the series pass HRA. Final reheat steam temperature is
controlled by the FW patented reheat steam bypass system in which a portion of the reheat steam
is bypassed around the lower reheat tube bundles. This design example is configured with a
reheat steam bypass system. Project specific details will dictate which of the reheat steam
temperature control methods will be used to control final reheat steam temperature (reheat steam
bypass, parallel pass HRA with gas flow proportioning, or INTREX reheat with solids and
fluidization control).


To start-up a once-through boiler, the steam/water pressure parts and the steam turbine must be
warmed and brought on-line in a safe and controlled manner that will not cause damage to any
component. To do this, a load is defined below which the unit is controlled in a manner similar
to a drum type unit (firing for pressure/steam flow). In-line separators are provided to collect
steam for warming the superheater pressure parts and the steam turbine. Water collected is
returned back to the furnace to maintain a minimum mass flow rate for proper tube cooling.
Above this defined minimum load, the unit is operated and controlled as a once-through boiler
(firing for steam temperature).

For the Compact CFB BENSON Vertical boiler, the minimum BENSON load is usually
established between 35 to 40% load. This requires establishing a minimum mass flow rate of 35
to 40% of the full load flow rate through the furnace walls. To do this, a recirculation pump is
used to superimpose a recirculating flow onto the flow provided by the boiler feedpump. Figure
15 illustrates the recirculation pump system.

With the economizer

and evaporator cir-
cuitry filled with water,
and a water level es-
tablished in the water
collecting vessel, a
minimum boiler feed-
pump flow rate is es-
tablished and is sup-
plemented by the recir-
culation pump to
maintain the minimum
load flow rate through
the furnace enclosure
walls. The water flow
leaving the furnace is
passed through several
tangential steam sepa-
rators which are con-
figured in parallel (a
typical 350 MWe unit
Figure 15. Recirculation Pump Start-Up System
would have two sepa-
rators). The water
collected in the separators is drained to a single water collecting vessel which feeds a single
boiler recirculation pump which pumps the water to the economizer feed line. The water level in
the water collecting vessel is controlled by a valve which allows excess flow to be dumped to a
flash tank.

Steam collected in the separators flows through the superheater circuitry and is dumped to the
condenser via the high pressure bypass station, the reheater, and the low pressure bypass station
during the initial start-up phase, and later, via the high pressure turbine, the reheater, and the
intermediate/low pressure turbine.

The first formation of steam in the furnace tubes causes a small amount of water to be discharged
from the water collection vessel to the atmospheric flash tank when the maximum level in the
tank is reached. The water from the atmospheric flash tank flows to the condensate tank and
from there is either pumped back to the feed tank via the deaerator or discharged to atmosphere
depending on the water quality.

A minimum recirculation pump flow line is provided to protect the pump. The valve in this line
is closed when the minimum flow rate is achieved.

A subcooling line is provided to allow low temperature feedwater to be admitted to the saturated
water in the water collecting vessel during recirculation. This subcooling of the water prevents
the formation of steam bubbles in the recirculating pump suction line even when the rate of
pressure reduction is high.

A typical tangential separator is

illustrated in Figure 16. Steam enters
through either four (4) or six (6) inlet
nozzles (depending on unit size) which
are positioned tangential around the
vessel circumference. The orientation
and size of the nozzles in combination
with the vessel diameter and position
of the vortex finder (upper steam
discharge pipe) has been optimized by
extensive testing by Siemens to
provide a balance between pressure
loss and steam separation efficiency.
A vortex eliminator is provided near
the water drain at the bottom of the
vessel. Vessel diameter is limited to
about 584 mm to limit vessel thickness
so that it does not restrict allowable
temperature change rates. Vessel
length is typically about 4m. Figure 16. Tangential Steam Separator

A typical water collecting vessel is

illustrated in Figure 17. The vessel has the same diameter limits as the separators and is about
12m tall. It is equipped with a pressure equalizing line which vents any steam which may be
carried along with the separated
water. A vent line is connected to the
steam discharge line from each


The Compact CFB BENSON Vertical

boiler design permits the use of
variable pressure operation with its
advantages noted above. As system
pressure is lowered, so is the
saturation temperature for evaporation
which requires changes to the water
inventory temperature as well as to
the evaporative pressure part
temperature. Sliding pressure
operation therefore has more inertia
or slowness to load change. In
addition, CFB boilers have an Figure 17. Water Collecting Vessel
inventory of solids both in the furnace
and INTREX, as well as some refractory that affects the thermal inertia characteristics of the
boiler. Experience of load change rates for drum type CFB boilers which operate at constant
pressure is therefore not directly applicable to a supercritical OTU CFB boiler.

Extensive modeling work has been conducted by FW to understand the dynamic response
characteristics of the Compact CFB
BENSON Vertical boiler. The major
objective of the work was to develop a
control system to coordinate the heat
flow to the boiler water/steam according
to the energy output requirements placed
on the unit.

A major advantage of the CFB boiler is

the capability to load and unload the
physical and chemical heat of the bed
material in an intelligent way. The
primary objective is to maintain the
appropriate ratio of water/steam system
heat input to feedwater flow ratio during
fast load change conditions. As
schematically shown in Figure 18, the
CFB boiler has several parameters for
control that increase the operational
flexibility of the unit to meet the
Figure 18. Boiler Load Control Parameters required dynamic response behavior.
For example, although firing rate control
may be sluggish in achieving a rapid
change, heat absorption rate can be rapidly
changed by shifting the solids distribution
profile and heat release patterns within the
furnace by varying how much and where
primary and secondary air are introduced
into the furnace. Additional flexibility is
available when INTREX heat exchangers
are used; heat absorption can be varied by
several means (solids flow rate control by
lift leg aeration, fluidizing velocity which
changes the heat transfer rate to the
submerged tube bundles, and spray water
attemperation for rapid steam temperature
adjustment). As shown in Figure 19, a
combination of controlled parameters can
provide the required ratio between energy
input and feedwater flow.
Figure 19. Matching Energy Input and Flow
The dynamic simulation models have
shown that the unique control features of a CFB boiler combined with standard control means
such as throttling reserve in the variable pressure ramp and throttling of steam extraction to
feedwater heaters can be used to make the CFB OTU equal or comparable to conventional PC
boiler for step and ramp load changes. Unique to the CFB OTU is that it can accommodate
disturbances from the process (fuel rate and quality) because of the stabilizing effect of the
inventory and flywheel of circulating solids. Superheat versus evaporative duty distribution can
be controlled by varying furnace enclosure, internal furnace heat transfer surface, and INTREX
heat absorption characteristics.


The BENSON Vertical once-through boiler technology, with its “natural circulation”
evaporation circuit characteristic, is ideally suited for CFB boiler application. The range of fuels
firing capability, low pollutant emissions, and high efficiency provide for cost effective power
production. Features such as the Compact separator and INTREX heat exchanger further add to
operational flexibility, low maintenance costs, and increased reliability.

1. Siemens BENSON Boiler Brochure, “Research & Development at the BENSON Test
Rig” by Siemens AG , Power Generation KWU.

2. S. E. Hatch, “Compact CFB’s”, Foster Wheeler Review, Spring 2000.

3. S.J. Goidich, T. Hyppanen, K. Kauppinen, “CFB Boiler Design and Operation Using the
INTREX Heat Exchanger, 6th International Conference on Circulating Fluidized Beds,
Würzburg, Germany, August 22-27, 1999.