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ENGL 191 - INTRODUCTION TO RHETORICAL

Jonas Villela de Souza #ID12166575



1. Write a brief paragraph for each of the two articles summarizing the main
points of the article. Make an effort to locate examples of logos, ethos, and pathos.

Confirmation Bias - The article Confirmation Bias describes what
confirmation bias is. At first, the author of the article uses some examples using things
from our own daily lives to describe the meaning of what is confirmation bias. Later, he
describes confirmation bias as many kinds of filter that we use to choose what we really
want to see. Thus, our thinking begins to act in a selective way and choose between so
many things just what we want to see. Thus, we do not see what goes against what we
believe and we just have confirmed what we already knew. In additional, the author also
uses some examples from research that shows that most people only buy books that are
redirected to things they already believe. To the conclusion the author somehow tries to
show us that we should try to look different things from what we already believe, so that
way we can see the world in different ways.

Anchoring Effect - The article "Anchoring Effect" describes what Anchoring
Effect is. At first, the author of the article uses examples of when we go to the mall to
shop and look relatively high and prices also looked at the discounted price, we bought
believing to be doing a good deal even not needing to buy the product. The author uses
this way to show us that certain ideas can be implemented in our brain. In additional, the
author also uses some data from related research, such research confirms that at times our
brain can be induced in the absence of information use information we were presented
later, and even though we use are not true.

2. For each article, write a paragraph explaining what you found to be
valuable in the article. Make sure to use specific textual examples.

Confirmation Bias - I found it extremely relevant part that the author describes
what really confirmation bias is, describing the following Confirmation bias is a filter
through which you see a reality that matches your expectations. It causes you to think
selectively, but the real trouble begins when confirmation bias distorts your active
pursuit of facts. In this part, I could actually understand what he was proposing and in
an unconditionally way, we do it without even noticing.

Anchoring Effect - I found it extremely relevant part that the author shows us
some research that makes it clear we are when we direct by a factor that we even knew
each, searches like the following:
The wheel was painted with numbers from 0 to 100, but rigged to always land on
10 or 65. When the arrow stopped spinning, they asked the person in the experiment to
say if they believed the percentage of countries was higher or lower than the number on
the wheel.
They then asked people to estimate what they thought the actual percentage of
nations was.
They found people who landed on 10 in the first half of the experiment guessed
around 25 percent of Africa was part of the U.N. Those who landed on 65 said around 45
percent.
They had been locked in place by the anchoring effect.

3. Brainstorm and list several detailed ways in which you can strive to avoid
(or at least be aware of) Confirmation Bias. Do the same for the Anchoring Effect.

Confirmation Bias

Thinking - Trying to think of ideas contrary to ours.
Creating - Creating ways to not close our minds to new things.
Accepting - Accepting new views on some subject.
Reading - Always try to read articles that relate the two forms of opinion on the
subject.

Anchoring Effect

Trying - Trying not to be deceived by certain information.
Analysis - Analyzing information which are real and which are not.