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GEOREFERENCI NG I MAGES I N ARCMAP




The Georeferencing process allows for creation and storage of control
point information that assigns coordinates to raster datasets (.tif, .jpeg, .img,
GRID, etc.) for display of the dataset in its correct geographic location.

GEOREFERENCI NG USI NG MAP COORDI NATES
Start ArcCatalog by clicking Start > All Programs > ArcGIS > ArcCatalog, or
click the icon in ArcMap.

In ArcCatalog, browse to the folder your dataset is contained in.
Right-click the raster dataset and select Properties

Click the Spatial Reference tab in the Raster Dataset Properties window
Click Edit in the same window to choose the correct map projection.


Find the proper projection / coordinate system info from your map and assign it
to the raster by clicking Select in the XY Coordinate System window and
browsing to the datas projection system.
Map projection: UTM
Datum: ED 1950
Zone: 36
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Click OK to accept the current projection assignment.
Click OK to close the Raster Dataset Properties window
You can close the ArcCatalog window
Open ArcMap by clicking Start > All Programs > ArcGIS > ArcMap.

Click Add Data

Browse to your raster, click on it, and and click Open to add it to the map.
Click Yes in the Create Pyramids for Data s Name
Click View-Toolbars-Georeferencing Toolbar

Zoom in the first coordinate on your raster data

Click the Add Controls Point to add control point

Click the left mouse button over the known location in the unreferenced image to
add the first coordinate in the link.












X: 34 0000
Y: 464 0000
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Click View Link Table

Type in the X Map and Y Map values for the first coordinate point

Click Full Extent to see the whole raster data on the screen

Zoom in the second coordinate on your raster data

Click Add Control Point to add control point

Click the left mouse button over the known location in the unreferenced image to
add the second coordinate in the link
Type in the X Map and Y Map values for the second coordinate point

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Click Full Extent to see whole your raster data on the screen

Zoom in the third coordinate on your raster data

Click Add Control Point to add control point
Click the left mouse button over the known location in the unreferenced image to
add the third coordinate in the link
Type in the X Map and Y Map values for the third coordinate point

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Click Full Extent to see whole your raster data on the screen

Zoom in the third coordinate on your raster data

Click Add Controls Point to add control point

Click the left mouse button over the known location in the unreferenced image to
add the fourth coordinate in the link
Type in the X Map and Y Map values for the fourth coordinate point
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Click Georeferencing and click Rectify to save the transformation information
with the raster.










Accept Cell Size value
Click Resample Type >Nearest neighbor (for discrete data) generally
this is the best choice.
Type the rasters new name in the Name box
Click Save
You can check
total residual
values in here
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This creates a new file with the name specified, and an associated .aux file that
contains the coordinate information.
Click Add Data

Browse to the new raster file, click it, and click Open
The georeferenced raster is added to the map.
Click Yes when prompted to Create Pyramids.






See that the raster is
now in the proper
coordinate space.
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GEOREFERENCI NG USI NG A GI S LAYER


Open ArcMap by clicking Start > All Programs > ArcGIS > ArcMap
Click Add Data, and browse to the GIS layer to which you will georeference the
raster data, select it, and click Open to add it to the map.
Notice from the coordinate display that the GIS layer is georeferenced already
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Examine the source image that needs georeferencing for a projection definition.

Click the right mouse button on Layers in the table of contents.

Select Properties,

Select the Coordinate System tab in the Data Frame Properties window.
In the Select a Coordinate System window, click Predefined, and set the
projection to the same as the source map.











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Click OK in the Data Frame Properties window,
Click Add Data,
Browse to the raster file from the Add Data window and select it,
Click Open to add the source image to ArcMap.
At the ArcMap message:







Click Yes,
At the ArcMap message:








Click OK,
The image is added to the bottom of the table of contents.
Click and drag the source image to the top of the table of contents.





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Click View > Toolbars > Georeferencing Toolbar,
Zoom the map to the general area your image covers.
Click Georeferencing and click Fit To Display,
This will display the source image in the same area you are zoomed into.
Click the right mouse button on the source image in the table of content,
Select Properties,
Click the Display tab in the Layer Properties window,
Type 30 in the Transparency to display the image with a 30% transparency.
Click OK.


Source image at the top of
the table of contents
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Now it is time to match features in the image with those on the GIS layer. A
minimum of 4 identical points are required, preferably one on each corner of the
map. Adding more than 4 may improve the georeferencing result.

Zoom in to the first matching feature on your source image,

Click Add Control Point to add a control point

Click the left mouse button on the feature in the image to add the first
coordinate. When adding control points, choose discrete features visible in both
the image and GIS layer. For example: road intersections, narrow tips of islands,
etc. Zoom in and click as accurately as you can when adding control points.



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Zoom out until the same feature on the GIS layer is visible.
Zoom in to the same feature on the GIS layer.

Click Add Control Point,

Click the left mouse button on the same feature in the GIS layer to assign the
first coordinate.
After clicking, the source image will move, and align itself with the GIS layer
based on the control point you added.
Click View Link Table,
The first control point appears on the list in the View Link Table, with the map
coordinates automatically added.




The first image control point
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Zoom in to the second matching feature on your source data,

Click Add Control Point to add a control point,
Click the left mouse button over the feature in the unreferenced image to add
the second coordinate.





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Zoom out until the same feature on the GIS layer is visible.
Zoom in to the second matching feature on your GIS layer,

Click Add Control Point,
Click the left mouse button over the same feature in the referenced image to add
the second coordinate.
Click View Link Table,
The second control point appears on the list in the View Link Table.









The second image
control point
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Repeat this procedure to add a third and fourth control point.









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Click Georeferencing and click Rectify to save,








Accept Cell Size value,
Choose Resample Type >Nearest neighbor (for discrete data) generally
this is the best choice.
1. Point
2. Point
3. Point
4. Point
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Type the name of the georeferenced raster in the Name box,
Click Save and a new file with the name specified will be created, along with an
associated .aux file that contains the coordinate information.

Click Add Data,

Browse to the newly created raster in the Add Data window,
Select it, and click Open,
Click Yes in the Create Pyramids, dialog box, and the georeferenced raster
will be added to the map.