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8

th
MINERALOGY (ECONOMIC SESSION)
CLASSIFICATION PAPER
Name : Selvi Misnia Irawati NIM : 12/331551/PA/14761
Wave : W
2

Page : 1
Today, (8/5/2013) I do the mineralogy labwork class for the eight term in this semester. Below is my note of
my sulfide-minerals identification :
I identify the mineral sample numbered M51.
The color is grey.
The streak is grey.
The luster is metallic.
The hardness is approximately between 2,5 to 3, because it can be scratched by fingernail and little
scratched by copper coin.
The cleavage is 3 direction.
The fracture is even.
The diaphaneity is opaque.
This mineral is tend to be diamagnetic.
The system of the crystal is isometric.
Draw here :






After I compared the data that had been taken in labs, I argued that there is/are any/some
differences/similarities on galena (PbS) because of all the physical properties of minerals that have been
identified refers to the mineral galena.
And, this mineral is economically valuable because due to the extraction of silver and used to make lead
acid battery.
Genesa:
Galena is the main ore of lead and silver. It is a combination of lead and sulfur. Galena is found
combined with zinc, copper, and silver. It is sometimes considered a by-product of the mining of the other
minerals. When the ore is melted, it makes lead. It is formed in the earths crust in hot water veins. Galena
is found in igneous and sedimentary rocks.
In the vast majority of cases it forms by from direct precipitation from hydrothermal fluids, hot
waters that migrate through the crust of the earth. Sometimes the lead sulfide (galena) forms because the
waters are suddenly cooled, say by expulsion into the ocean, and in other cases the fluids, which are
normally quite acidic, are neutralized by reacting with limestone or something, causing the lead sulfide to
bang out. There are several other physical or chemical processes that can also cause the formation of
galena from hydrothermal fluids.



















8
th
MINERALOGY (ECONOMIC SESSION)
CLASSIFICATION PAPER
Name : Selvi Misnia Irawati NIM : 12/331551/PA/14761
Wave : W
2

Page : 2
Today, (8/5/2013) I do the mineralogy labwork class for the eight term in this semester. Below is my note of
my sulfide-minerals identification :
I identify the mineral sample numbered M48
The color is yellow.
The streak is greenish black.
The luster is metallic.
The hardness is approximately between 6 to 7, because it can be scratched by steel file.
The cleavage is poor.
The fracture is uneven.
The diaphaneity is opaque.
This mineral is tend to be paramagnetic .
The system of the crystal is isometric.
Draw here :






After I compared the data that had been taken in labs, I argued that there is/are any/some
differences/similarities on pyrite (FeS
2
) because of all the physical properties of minerals that have been
identified refers to the mineral pyrite and it seems like gold.
And, this mineral is economically valuable because as an indicator of hydrothermal. In the recent past,
pyrite was mined as a sulfur source for sulfuric acid, an essential commodity for chemical industry.
Genesa:
One of the most important chemical processes in organic-rich marine sediments is decomposition
of organic matter in bacterial sulphate reduction. Bacterial sulphate reduction produces bisulphide.
Bisulphite can be partially oxidised or can react with organic matter and reactive metal species. All these
reactions may be bacterially mediated. The reaction of reduced sulphur with reactive dissolved iron and
iron minerals, if available, results in the formation of iron sulphides. The most common iron sulphide in
pyrite. The amount of pyrite formation in marine sediments is largely determined by the availability of
sulphate, reactive iron and reactive organic matter during the formation of the sediments.
Although it is not a significant rock-forming mineral, pyrite is very widespread and a common
accessory mineral in many rock types. In igneous rocks, pyrite may be disseminated throughout the rock or
concentrated in layers if the magma cooled slowly enough for crystals to settle out. Pyrite is also common
in contact metamorphic settings or disseminated through sedimentary rocks as a replacement of other
minerals. Although pyrite occurs in most hydrothermal veins, it is particularly abundant in sulfide deposits.
In fine-grained or organic-rich sedimentary rocks, pyrite may even form discrete pyrite concretions or
flattened discs called pyrite dollars.
In calcite and quartz veins, pyrite is commonly associated with chalcopyrite and other sulfide
minerals and metallic ores. Pyrite oxidizes to other iron sulfate minerals that in turn alter to limonite, so the
presence of a weathered rusty limonite layer may indicate the presence of pyrite in the underlying rock.














8
th
MINERALOGY (ECONOMIC SESSION)
CLASSIFICATION PAPER
Name : Selvi Misnia Irawati NIM : 12/331551/PA/14761
Wave : W
2

Page : 3
Today, (8/5/2013) I do the mineralogy labwork class for the eight term in this semester. Below is my note of
my silica-minerals identification :
I identify the mineral sample numbered M50
The color is white.
The streak is white.
The luster is vitreous.
The hardness is approximately 7, because it can be scratched using a steel file.
The cleavage is poor.
The fracture is conchoidal.
The diaphaneity is translucent.
This mineral is tend to be diamagnetic .
The system of the crystal is trigonal.
Draw here :




After I compared the data that had been taken in labs, I argued that there is/are any/some
differences/similarities on silica minerals (quartz) because of all the physical properties of minerals that
have been identified refers to the mineral quartz.
And, this mineral is economically valuable because it can be used as decoration and ornaments. Because of
its physical strength, ground quartz is used as an abrasive in stonecutting, sandblasting, and scouring soaps.
Since it is chemically stable, crushed quartzite fragments are often used as ballast (finely broken rock
fragments) along railroad lines and highway shoulders. Pure, fine quartz sands are also used in water
purification systems as a filter since it will not react with the water and the pores between the sand grains
are small enough to filter out many impuitiers
Genesa:
Quartz can be formed naturally from the silica which collects in the earth. When silicon (Si) and
oxygen (O2) combine, it will create silicon dioxide (SiO2), which is quartz. For this reason, quartz will form
underground quite easily whenever a combination of oxygen and silica-rich solutions are present. The
formation of quartz is generally at an angle, as the dripping of the solution causes quartz to form atop itself,
which explains the quartz "spears" sometimes seen in nature. Quartz contains a crystal lattice, and does not
require any specific temperature or pressure to form, occurring naturally from the presence of its
component parts.






















8
th
MINERALOGY (ECONOMIC SESSION)
CLASSIFICATION PAPER
Name : Selvi Misnia Irawati NIM : 12/331551/PA/14761
Wave : W
2

Page : 4
Today, (8/5/2013) I do the mineralogy labwork class for the eight term in this semester. Below is my note of
my sulfide-minerals identification :
I identify the mineral sample numbered M50
The color is yellow.
The streak is greenish black.
The luster is metallic.
The hardness is approximately between 3.5 , because it can be scratched by a copper penny.
The cleavage is poor.
The fracture is uneven.
The diaphaneity is opaque.
This mineral is tend to be paramagnetic.
The system of the crystal tetragonal.
Draw here :





After I compared the data that had been taken in labs, I argued that there is/are any/some
differences/similarities on chalcopyrite (CuFeS) because of all the physical properties of minerals that have
been identified refers to the mineral chalcopyrite and the sulfur is bonded with copper and iron.
And, this mineral is economically valuable because to identify potential areas for geothermal. Throughout
human history, chalcopyrite has been our leading source of copper. More recently, coppers high
conductivity, softness, and resistance to corrosion, have given it a critical role in generating and distributing
electrical power. Copper is easily worked and relatively cheap so it is used for the bulk of the wiring that
connects our societys electrical systems.
Genesa:
Chalcopyrite is easily the most widespread copper-bearing mineral. A common mineral found in
almost all sulfide deposits, chalcopyrite usually occurs in medium-temperature and high-temperature
hydrothermal veins in igneous rocks or metamorphosed igneous rocks. Some economic chalcopyrite
deposits form as hydrothermal fluids dissolve copper from igneous rocks and then precipitate it in
surrounding contact-metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. Chalcopyrite is most often found with pyrite and
other sulfide minerals, as well as sphalerite, galena, dolomite, tourmaline or quartz. It can oxidize to form a
number of minerals such as malachite, azurite, and cuprite.






















8
th
MINERALOGY (ECONOMIC SESSION)
CLASSIFICATION PAPER
Name : Selvi Misnia Irawati NIM : 12/331551/PA/14761
Wave : W
2

Page : 5
Today, (8/5/2013) I do the mineralogy labwork class for the eight term in this semester. Below is my note of
my silica-minerals identification :
I identify the mineral sample numbered M34
The color is green.
The streak is white.
The luster is waxy.
The hardness is approximately between 3 to 5, because it can be scratched by copper penny and little
scratched by glass.
The cleavage is 1 direction.
The fracture is even.
The diaphaneity is opaque.
This mineral is tend to be diamagnetic.
The system of the crystal is monocline.
Draw here :






After I compared the data that had been taken in labs, I argued that there is/are any/some
differences/similarities on serpentine because of all the physical properties of minerals that have been
identified refers to the mineral serpentine.
And, this mineral is economically valuable because it can be used as home oranament (tile).
Genesa:
Serpentinization is a geological low-temperature metamorphic process involving heat and water in
which low-silica mafic and ultramafic rocks areoxidized (anaerobic oxidation of Fe
2+
by the protons of water
leading to the formation of H
2
) and hydrolyzed with water into serpentinite. Peridotite, including dunite, at
and near the seafloor and in mountain belts is converted to serpentine, brucite, magnetite, and other
minerals some rare, such as a waruite (Ni
3
Fe), and even native iron. In the process large amounts of
water are absorbed into the rock increasing the volume and destroying the structure.






















8
th
MINERALOGY (ECONOMIC SESSION)
CLASSIFICATION PAPER
Name : Selvi Misnia Irawati NIM : 12/331551/PA/14761
Wave : W
2

Page : 6
Today, (8/5/2013) I do the mineralogy labwork class for the eight term in this semester. Below is my note of
my native element-minerals identification :
I identify the mineral sample numbered M64
The color is black.
The streak is white.
The luster is adamantine.
The hardness is approximately between 5.5 to 6 , because it can be scratched by glass.
The cleavage is not visible.
The fracture is even.
The diaphaneity is opaque.
This mineral is tend to be paramagnetic.
The system of the crystal is none.
Draw here :







After I compared the data that had been taken in labs, I argued that there is/are any/some
differences/similarities on ore drilling bit and synthetic diamonds (C) native element because of its
characteristic resemble to graphite syntheses become core. And, this mineral is economically valuable
because it can be used as jewelry, ore drilling bit to exploration.
Genesa:
Diamonds are made of carbon that crystallized under conditions of extreme temperature and
pressure. They were formed millions of years ago in molten rock within the Earth at depths greater than
160 km. After their formation, diamonds were carried up to the surface of the Earth in rising magma by
strong volcanic activity. When the magma cooled, cone-shaped pipes of bluish rock called kimberlite were
left behind. Over the years, wind, rain, snow and ice eroded the kimberlites and released diamonds and
indicator minerals (small particles indicating the presence of diamonds). Advancing and receding glaciers
sometimes dispersed and transported the eroded materials hundreds or thousands of kilometers away.




















DAFTAR PUSTAKA

http://www.quartzpage.de/gen_rock.html
diakses pada Minggu, 12 Mei 2013 pukul 08.23 WIB
http://geology.com/minerals/diamond.shtml
diakses pada Minggu, 12 Mei 2013 pukul 08.37 WIB
http://www.ehow.com/facts_7385404_chalcopyrite-made_.html
diakses pada Minggu, 12 Mei 2013 pukul 09.03 WIB