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Tnn Plates annexed tothe presentpublication were engraved, several
years ago, for aWork entitled AncientUnedited Monuments of Greek
Art", and was intended toinclude Marbles, Bronzes, Fictile Vases, Gems,
Coins, and other remains of Antiquity.
The rstnumber of this Work appeared in 1822, and was continued
successively, till from wantof encouragement, and having experienced
aconsiderable loss, the author was obliged togive up the undertaking,
and conne ittoten numbers, forming twovolumes, one of Fictile Vases,
the other, of Statues, Busts, and Bas-reliefs.
Itwill scarcely be credited, thatin acountry soopulentas Great-Bri
tain, where the wantof asimilar publication has been sooften and so
generally acknowledged, the number of subscribers did notexceed Twenty.
Of the merits or demerits of the Work in_aliterary pointof view, it
does notbecome the author tospeak, butin the selection of the va
rious Monuments which the plates contain, and their importance with
reference both toArtand Science, and with regard tothe delity of the
engravings in preserving, as much as possible, the peculiar style and cha
racter of the original monuments, he ventures toassertthatthe Work
in question may contend (in proportion toits extent), with the most
costly publications of the same kind which have hithertoappeared.
Itwould be foreign lothe subjecttoinvestigate generally the causes of
the state of neglectintowhich the Fine Arts and various branches of
Literature connected with the study of them, are fallen. Some obser
vations however with respecttothe Numismatic Science will notbe
misplaced on this occasion.
In justice totruth, itmustbe confessed, however reluctantly, thatthis
branch of learning, of which the utility is sogenerally appreciated, and
which has been cultivated with somuch success in Italy, France and Ger
' I
many, has been little attended toin this country. We have nonames to
oppose tothose of Vaillant, Buonarotti, Spanheim, Morel, Havercamp,
Froelich, Eckhell and Visconti.
The only numismatic works deserving of any notice, which have ap
peared in England are, the T esoroBritannicaof Haym, and the Cata
logue of the Bodleian Collection, by Wise. The rstpossesses consi
derable merit, especially when compared with others of the same period,
and contributed greatly tothe advancementof the numismatic science.
Its author, whowas an Italian, has been abused with greatvirulence and
scurrility by Pinkerton, butmostunjustly, as in knowledge of coins.
Haym was far superior tothe latter, whowas merely acompiler and
totally unacquainted with the subject. '
Wise in his catalogue has displayed much learning and criticism, and
itmustbe regretted thathe had notamore ample eld for the exer
cise of his talents. Itcertainly reects little crediton the University, not
tohave allowed an annual sum tokeep up and improve acollection of
which such agood foundation existed, and which every seminary of learn
ing oughttopossess.
The catalogues of lord Pembrokes Collection, and of Dr. Hunter's
Greek Cities, are useful productions, and deserve greatpraise, as offer
ing materials for study; butbeing withoutexplanations cannotlay
claim toany literary merit. The same may be said of the catalogue of
the Greek Coins of the British Museum published by the Trustees in 1814.
The neglectof the numismatic science appears the more unaccount
able, when itis considered that, owing toits extensive relations with
foreign parts, the opulence of its inhabitants and their peculiar disposi
tion for travelling, this country has greater opportunities than any other
in Europe of cultivating antiquarian pursuits.
The number of private collections existing in England, has been, and
is, in fact, much greater than in any other country. Itwill sufce to
name those of Lord Pembroke, the Duke of Devonshire, Mr. Tyssen, the
Rev. Mr. Cracherode, Lord Northwick, Mr. Thomas, Mr. T rattle, and
above all, those of Dr. Hunter and Mr. Payne Knight.
PREFACE. ~ vij
Butprivate Collections are by their nature difficultof access, and like
private libraries, useful only totheir owners. Public repositories alone
afford means for study, and contribute tothe advancementof learning.
Itis withoutdoubttothe deciency of them, thatthis and many other
branches of science have been solittle cultivated. Nor have we in our
Universities professors of Archaeology as are found in all similar insti
tutions on the continent. '
Till solate aperiod as the year I8oo, nopublic Collection of the kind
existed in the capital of the richestempire in Europe. The British Mu
seum possessed, itis true, afew coins acquired accidentally, and chiefly
by donations, butof little consequence, and with ajustsense of pro
priety, they were never shown. ,
The rstfoundation of aNational Collection was atlength due tothe
municence of aprivate individual, the Rev. MordauntCracherode, emi
nentfor the higher virtues of piety and benevolence, as well as distin
guished by his learning and taste for the Arts, whobequeathed tothe
British Museum, avaluable library, agreatnumber of ancientprints and
drawings, and achoice collection of Greek and Roman Coins
In whatstate of abandonmentthis mostuseful departmentof science
had been leftpreviously tothis period, may be seen by the Catalogue
of the Greek Series published by the Trustees in 18x4. Poor as the
collection then was ( as aNational one ), the far greater number and the
mostimportantcoins were due toits late benefactor.
In reference tothe publication justmentioned, itmay be proper to
state, thathowever laudable the intentions of the Trustees may have
been, their judgmentand knowledge of the subjectare, notentitled tothe
same praise. The collection wasiatthe time soinferior tothose of several
private individuals in the country, withoutmentioning the public establish
ments atParis, Vienna, Florence and Munich, thattomake itknown
(I) Itis with peculiar satisfaction, thatthe author nds here an opportunity of paying atribute tothe
memory of avenerable friend, towhom he is principally indebted for his inclinations toArcheological
with somuch pomp, was adisplay of poverty nothonorable tothe es
tablishment, and still less tothose whohad the direction of public affairs.
The expence incurred 'was alsoin agreatmeasure useless, many of the
coins having been previously published, or offering triing varieties. In
stead of fteen Plates, all the objects which deserved tobe made known,
mighthave been comprized in six.
After 1814, when the Catalogue in question appeared, the collection
assumed afar more respectable character, and was more than doubled
in numbers and interest, by the acquisition of the collections of Mr. Town
ley, Capt. Cust, Col. de Bosset, and Lord Elgin; besides some other pur
chases of less importance
Buttothe municence of the late Mr. Payne Knight, the country is
especially indebted. Thatdistinguished scholar bequeathed tothe Mu
seum, asplendid collection of Vases, Coins, Bronzes, Gems, objects in
gold and silver, and other productions of ancientart. His collection .of
Greek Coins, the resultof forty years unremitting labour and expence,
was peculiarly remarkable, and had attained, in some branches, the high
estdegree of eminence. With this accession, the Greek series of the Mu
seum mightbe considered in 1824, as irivalling, on the whole, thatof
the French Collection, acknowledged hitherto, the rstin Europe. The
subsequentacquisitions made by the latter, while we have remained
stationary, have restored, however, toour rivals their previous supe
riority. .
After somany testimonies of individual patriotism, itmustappear
extraordinary thatthe Governmentof the country should nothave been
animated by similar sentiments of liberality. Opportunities the most
favorable occurred, butwere neglected. The collections of _Dr. Hunter and
lord Pembroke were proposed tothe Government, and although their
acquisition would have given us in this departmentof science, adecided
preeminence highly honorable toanation, they were refused.
Itmightbe supposed thatthe expence was toogreat; butthis was not
(I) The whole amountof the AncientCoins purchased by the Museum, from the year 1800 toI830
does notexceed Nine Thousand Pounds, forming on an average, the annual sum of Tlmze Hum1rea'Poun(/.x.
Many private collectors are more liberal.
the case : after the sale of duplicates, the whole amountwould nothave
exceeded Twenty Thousand Pounds which for greaterconvenience might
have been paid by instalments. Such opportunities when neglected are
often lostfor ever.
The parcimony displayed on this occasion is the more surprising,
when itis reected thatfor the lastforty years, the annual expenditure
of the state has amounted on an average toFifty Millions : from this im
mense sum an annual grantof Ten Thousand Pounds dedicated tothe
maintenance and improvementof Libraries, Collections of Natural His
story, Antiquities, and various Departments of Public Instruction and the
Fine Arts, would have sufced. Certainly such agrantcould produce
noinconvenience tothe State.
Melancholy is the consideration thatsuch atriing sum could not
be spared for objects sohonourable, when atthe same time, somany
Millions were lavished for the mostdisgraceful purposes; abroad, in wars
notundertaken for national interests, buttogratify the passions of a
Faction hostile toevery improvementin the state of society : athome,
tosubvertgradually by corruption the institutions intended toprotectour
liberties. Thanks toProvidence, the nation is atlength roused from its
apathy, and we may hope for better things in future. Reform is inevitable,
and our Constitution restored toits original principles, alike hostile
todespotism and licentiousness, will be nolonger a, deception, buta
truth. *
Returning tothe noble and patriotic donation of Mr. Knight, itis re
quisite tonotice the Catalogue of his Greek coins, which has been recently
published. Though announced as printed from an autograph manus
criptof the late learned possessor, this production, contrary toevery ex
pectation, is incontestably the mostfeeble of the kind which has appear
ed for along time. Full of the mostpalpable errors, which have long
since been exploded, and aschool-boy \vould nothave committed atthe
presentday, itis wholly devoid of every sortof order and method, and
mustbe esteemed alike injurious, tothe state of Science in this country, to
the literary character and judgmentof the Trustees by whose order it
was printed, and tothe memory of Mr. Knight. .
With regard tothe rstand second of these points, the author pro
poses offering some observations on afuture occasion. Atpresent, he
shall notice only the last. _
Having had for many years the honor of Mr. Knight's acquaintance,
the author who, though differing from him in opinion on various subjects,
always entertained ahigh esteem for his profound learning, and zealous
patronage of the Arts, considers itaduty tovindicate his memory on this
occasion, by placing the facts in their true light.
The manuscriptin question is simply an assemblage of anumber of
loose notes, made atdifferentperiods, some perhaps 4oyears ago, before
the works of Eckhell and many recentdiscoveries were generally known :
they were intended toregister new acquisitions of coins successively in
serted in the Collection; as such, they were generally written in haste, from
memory, and withoutreference tobooks on the subject. In this state,
they were the materials from which Mr. Knightintended tohave formed
aregular Catalogue, butengaged in questions of greater interest, he
never had leisure for the execution of such atedious and minute task.
Some time before his death, nding his strength decay, itappears that
he collected these notes, and transcribed them hastily as they now stand,
with the view, of forming an Inventory for the convenience of the Trustees
of the Museum, towhose care the Collection was tobe consigned athis
demise. As such,- itwas never intended tobe made public; nor could
Mr. Knighthave ever thoughtof offering tothe world aproduction in
such adeformed and unnished state. The Trustees oughttherefore,
consistently with the intention of the donor, tohave submitted the
manuscripttosuch arevisal and correction, as its author would himself
have effected, and in acting otherwise, all the errors of the publication
-can be attributed solely tothem. These observations of course, can
never apply tothe Trustees in general, buttotwoor three members of
thatbody whoassume the direction of the establishment.
In concluding, afew words on the importance of numismatic publicat
ions shall be added. If coins are admitted tobe of all AncientMonu
ments, those which afford the mostextensive and varied sources of infor
mation, they are alsothose of which the preservation is the mostdifcult,
on accountof their exiguity, and the dangers towhich they are exposed
from ignorance and dishonesty.
Collected usually by men of learning and taste, they afterwards fall,
according tothe natural course of things, intothe hands of heirs, gene
rally ignorantand impatientof enjoyment. When of brass, they are con
sidered with contempt, and often thrown away; while those of gold and
silver, estimated according totheir intrinsic value, are consigned tothe
crucible. In more favorable cases, when objects of this nature are pre
served outof respectfor an ancestor, they are senttoalumber room,
where they are soon forgotten.
Many valuable collections, public and private, described by Goltzins,
Vaillant, and other antiquaries, wholived in the 17th and 18th centuries,
have disappeared in this manner, and the coins they contained can no
longer be traced, when reference tothem, in doubtful cases, is desirable.
Hence itis essential thatCollectors whoentertain aregard for the pro
gress of afavourite study, should cause tobe engraved with all possible
exactness, such coins as they possess which have notbeen published,
and may be considered deserving of notice.
If from wantof leisure, or other motives, they are unwilling toillus
trate the engravings made, they may consign them tosome Literary So
ciety, in whose transactions they would be communicated tothe public,
and thus many valuable historical monuments which, for somany ages,
have escaped almostmiraculously the destruction common toall mortal
productions, may be secured from oblivion.
____-_iO~__. _
;____ ____? __ ! .,._... _ ,7...
r' I
Laureated head of Apollo.
Rev. CORANO. Warrior on horseback, brandishing aspear. AR 2.
Troy weight, 93grains. Plate I, n. 1. (Mr. Durand, Paris.)
This silver didrachm, hithertounique, was attributed by its former
learned possessor, Mr. Carelli, toCora, acity of the Volsci, situated about
1omiles S.- E. of Velletri, and retaining its name tothe presentday.
Pliny (1) ascribesithe foundation of CoratoDardanus (2), and its Hellenic
origin is attested by the tradition which supposes its founder tohave
been Coras, ason of Amphiaraiis, and brother of Tiburtus and Catillus.
Considerable remains of its ancientwalls of polygonal or Cyclopean con
struction, which are still seen, attestits high antiquity.
Various reasons, however, created strong doubts with respecttothe
origin attributed tothis singular numismatic monument:
1 The consideration that,excepting asmall silver coin of Signia, simi
lar toaRoman Sestertius, there are nocoins in any metal of the cities
betweenthe Tiber and the Liris; i _
2 The striking resemblance of this coin tothose of Cales, Teanum,
Suessa, and other cities of Campania, in pointof workmanship, style
(I) Pmxnus. Hist. Nat., lib. III, cap. 9. (2) Snvrus ad )E1ua1n, lib. VII, ver. 672.
. I,
( 2 )
of design, and the peculiar termination in O, indicates thatl itwas
struck in thatpartof Italy, rather than in Latium;
3 The probability thatCorahad notbecome acolony atthe period to
which the coin may be referred (1), when noItalian cities used the Latin
language, exceptRoman colonies.
Startled by these difficulties, I examined the coin anew with greater
attention, and from the result, am condentthatthere is an error in the
legend , and thatthe rstletter, apparently aC, was originally an S, of
which the lower parthas disappeared, owing tosome accidentin the
coinage. In this case, instead of Cotnmo, the reading would be Sonmo,
and the coin would belong toSora, aVolscian city, on the Liris, and bor
dering on Campania, asite towhich itwould be perfectly appropriated.
Little mention of Soraoccurs in history, butwe know from Livy (2)
thatitwas taken in the year of Rome 411, and became aRoman colony
in 452 : acircumstance favourable tomy hypothesis. Other. coins, like
the present, will probably come tolightatsome future period, and de
termine the question, by removing any doubts which mightstill exist.
The gure on the reverse is extremely spirited, and, in the Greek heroic
costume, with the chlamys and the causia. Itrepresents mostprobably
some indigenous hero, or the founder of the city. Its action recalls
tomind the description Virgil gives of the Italian chiefs of the army
of Latinus: (3) _
Adversi campoapparent, hastasque reductis
Protenduntlonge tlextris, etspiculavibrant:
Adventusque virum fremitusque ardescitequorum.
(1) T. Livius, lib. VII, cap. 28; lib. X, cap. 1.
(2) Ithas been supposed, butwithoutfoundation,
thatCorawas an early Roman colony, previous to
the expulsion of the kings. (V. CnAMEn, AncientItaly,
tom. II, page 104.)
The appellation of Colonia: Latinae, given by Livy
(lib. II, cap?I6.) toCoraand Pometia, implies solely
thatthey were ofthc thirty cities founded by Latinus
Silvius, king of Alba, which formed the Latin confe
deracy,and were called PrisciLatini. L1v., lib. I, cap. 3.
Among the twelve Roman Colonies, which re
fused tosupply their contingent in the semnd
Punicltwar, Corais mentioned by Livy, lib. XXVII,
cap. 9. 0
In asubsequentbook, however, the same author
relating the punishmentinicted by the Senate on the
refractory colonies, mentions Sora, instead of Cora.
(Lib. XXIX, cap. I5.)
Hence there is evidently an error in one of the
twopassages, mostprobably in the rst, where we
should read Sara, which we know by the authority
of Livy, received aRoman colony in the year of
Rome, 452. (Lib. VII. cap. 28.)
(3) /Eneid, lib. XI, vers. 605, 607.
( 3)
The termination in O usual on somany Latin coins, is the early form
of the nominative in OM, common tomany cities, as Privernum, Be
neventum, etc. (1) By asimilar suppression of the nal letter, we nd
I1r'n:61'otand T195; instead of lrtvrtitaq and Tapag, according tothe Aeolic dialect
which has somuch afnity with the Latin.
MAIIE2- Female head. ~
Rev. Bull with ahuman head: Above, an unknown symbol. AE. 3
Plate I, n. 2.
This copper coin is probably of Melae or Meles, acity of Samnium,
mentioned only by Livy (2); and which is supposed by some modern
geographers, tohave been where Molisanow stands; while others place
itatMelissano, near S.-Agathade Gothi.
M Avellinorstdescribed asimilar coin (3), and promised togive an
engraving of itwith farther remarks, but, unfortunately, he was obliged
by circumstances, todiscontinue his very useful and interesting Numis
matic Journal. The inscription in the presentinstance is notMALIES,
butMAIIE2, the I being substituted for the L, as on the coins of the Latin
Calatia This orthography seems congenial tothe Italian dialect, and
we nd itin the modern language, whereori, chiari, etc, are formed
from ares, clari, etc.
(1) I have changed the opinion expressed on asuppose Mela: and Meles tohave been distinctcities.
former occasion, thatthe termination in Oon the V. CnxMan, AncientItaly, tome II, page 236.
coins of Campaniaand Samnium was in the dative (3) Italize Veteris NumismataadVol. I. Supplem.
case. V. Recueil de Mdailles Greeques Indites, Neapoli, l814,pag. 48
liome, I812, page 3. M. Avelinorelates the opinion ofaNeapolitan anti
(2) Oppidavicapta, CompulteciaMelaa. (T. Livws, quary, thatsimilar coins are of Beneventum, and in
lib. XXIV, cap. 20. ) Maroneam etMales de Samni- scribedwith the Greek,form ofthe name Maloei; from
tibus vi cepit. (Id. lib. XXVII, cap. I.) which, by the usual llexion, the Latins made Male
Some modern geographers are of opinion that "Kimm
Livy, notwithstanding the differentorthography of (4) Mllllngenv Mdallles Grecques Indlt95- Rome,
the names, speaks of one and the same city; others 1317- Page 3
. ( 4 ) -
The female head on the obverse resembles thaton the coins of Naples
and Nola. The androcephalous bull on the reverse, representing ariver,
is the common type of the Campanian and Samnite cities.
Laureated head of Jupiter. t v
Rev. A horse unbridled and atliberty. Underneath, CALATI in Oscan
letters. AE 2. Plate I, n. 3. (Mr. Durand, Paris.) ~
There were twocities of the name of Calatia, one on the right, the
other on the leftside of the Vulturnus, atasmall distance from each
other, and both in Campania. (1)
The presentbrass coin, which differs from those hithertopublished, is
of the latter, or Oscan Calatia, 5 miles tothe S. E. of Capua, towhich
itwas either allied or subject.
The coins of this city, which are extremely rare, are in the Oscan lan
guage. Those of the other Calatiaare in Latin, and equally scarce.
Head of alion betwen those of twowild boars.
Rev. KV. . .ION. A shell (mytilus) and barley corn. AR. 2. Plate 1, n. 4.
Mr. Avelino, whodescribed asimilar coin (2), explains the type of the
obverse as alluding tothe metamorphosis of the companions of Ulysses
by Circe; butan allusion soremote and obscure, appears inconsistent
with thatsimplicity and clearness always displayed in the gurative
language of ancientart; especially atsoearly aperiod as thattowhich
the coin may be referred, probably the 9oor 95* Olympiad, or 4oo
years before our asra.
If noother mode of explanation occurred, the type in question might,
with more probability, be considered as emblematic of the valour and
(1) P111.1.1mnnn. DellaCampanialice, pag. 351, 411. (2) Italia-': vet. Num. ad vol. 1. Suppl. Neapol. 1814.
M11.1.111oxn. Mdailles GrecquesInd.,Rome,18n,p.1. pag. 11-12.
' \
( 5 )
strenghtof the people; thus in Homer the Greek warriors are des
cribed (1):
Xeioucw ouc6-reg dipoqaoiyotctv
i cuci. xcinpotctv , 'r1Tw1'e cr9 voq oim ai7.ac1':a8v6v.
Perhaps, however, apassage in Pausanias may afford some lighton the
subject(2). Thatauthor relates thatin his time, the inhabitants of Cumain
Opicia, pretended (though withoutfoundation) thatthe tusks of the Ery
manthian boar were preserved in the temple of Apolloin thatcity. From
hence itmay be conjectured thatone of the heads is the same alluded to
by Pausanias, and which, entire when the coin was struck, had fallen tode
cay or been carried away, and the tusks only existed, when thatauthor
lived, or above 5ooyears afterwards. Such was the value attached tosi
milar relics, that, after the battle of Actium, Augustus senttoRome the
tusks of the Calydonian boar, taken from the temple of MinervaAlea, at
Tegea(3). The twoother heads may be relics of asimilar kind, possibly
those of the Nemean lion, and of some other animal whose destruction was
attributed toHercules (4).
This conjecture is the more admissible, considering the greatvenera
tion paid toHercules by the Cumoeans, on accountof his victory over the
giants in the Phlegrzean plains; his construction of the cause-way which
separated the Lucrine lake from the sea(5), his foundation of Herculaneum
and Pompei, and other fabulous adventures of which the neighbourhood
of thatcity\were supposed tohave been the scene.
< I> I2TEAIA. Youthful head frontfaced, with apointed cap.
\ .
(1) Iliad., lib. V, vers. 782, 3. lib. VII, vers. 256, 7. dppatbb; ro Kaludmviou, duc1im1-oli 6n5 106 Z pdvou ,
lib. XV, vers. 592. xzi : dmiv is 1pv7_1Iw Z d1; \jIl).bV. lib. VIII, cap. 47.
(2) Pausun, lib. VIII, cap. 46. (Ii) The heads of alion and wild boar,"made of
(3) The skin of the animal remained atTegea,and iron, were dedicated in atemple of Bacchus, in Per
existed there in the temple of MinervaAleawhen gamus. We are nottold on whataccount. Pxusuv.
Pausanias wrote, he describes itthus : lib. X, cap. 18.
Avzviy-am di v rib vat} : -:6: o'v.EwMq'oirz-ra, { qtpiv -rb (5) Drononus S1cu1.., lib. IV, cap. 21, 22.
( 6 )
Rev. PHISTVLI. In Oscan letters. Dolphin, acrostolium, and barley
corn. AR. 4. Plate I. n. 4.
Similar coins, with an Oscan inscription only, are frequently found in
the vicinity of Naples. The silver obolus, here described, is veryimpor
tant, from having atthe same time the Greek name of the city < I> I2TEMA.
N oancientauthors have mentioned aplace of this name, butthe coins,
by their type, their Oscan dialect, and the site where they areusually dis
covered, prove ittohave been amaritime town, situated between Saler
num and the Liris. Some modern authors have supposed thatP/zistulis
or Phistlus, as itis variously written in the Oscan language, was another
form of Paestum, and the Etruscan name of Posidonia, before the arrival
of the Greek colony from Sybaris, consequently thatthe coins in question
are of amostremote period; an opinion subversive of all established no
tions of history and palaeography (1).
Nor can these coins, as other antiquaries have suggested, be assigned
toan intermediate period between the disuse of the Greek and the
introduction of the Latin dialect. 1. Because the ancientdidrachm
inscribed Phistlus with an androcephalous bull on the reverse, (2) is cer
tainly coaeval with many of the Greek coins with the name of Posi
donia. (3) 2. The change of language was notsudden and occasioned by a
revolution which changed the population, butthe Greek dialectwas
gradually corrupted, in consequence of the numerous Roman colonists
whomingled with the old Greek inhabitants.
The name of Paestum (as Salmasius has observed) (4) is merely acor
ruption of Posidonia, or, as the city was called in the Doric dialect
(1) Mxzzocni, inTAnu1.. Hansen. Comu. pag. 510. city. Butsuch an explanation is inadmissible for
D'Hnvcxnvn.u:. Vases de Hamilton, tome I, pag. 98. many reasons, and, among others, because the cha
RAouL-RoCunITE. Histoire des Colonies Grecques, raclersareevidently Greek, and notOscan or Etrus
tom.I, page 247; tom. III, page 245. can.
(2) P1:LLan11v. 2."Supplment. Pl. I. n. 4. Itprobably indicates an alliance with some
(3) Besides the inscription 1102 or T1021-II, some of neighbouring city, perhaps with the Picentini, or
the coins of Posidoniahave also112 preceded by the with Phistclia: in the latter case, itwould prove that
digamma, and making FII2,which has been supposed the twocities were distinct.
tosignify the Tyrrhenian, or Etruscan name of the (4) Observat. in Solinum.
_____i ___,__ |==-r - -
( 7 ) -
Poseidania. The change is easily accounted for; according tothe genius of
the Latin language, the O of the rstsyllable was converted intoAI or
AE, the D intoT, and the termination intoOM or UM. Thus making
Paisetanum, whence Paistanum, and by farther contraction, Paistum was
subsequently formed. (1) This gradual change of the name is attested
by coins.
Some antiquaries are of opinion thatPhisteliais the ancientname
of the city called Puteoli by the Romans, (2) and there is certainly agreat
analogy between them. The coins alsoresemble by their type those of
Cuma, of which Puteoli or Dicaearchia, as itis sometimes called, was a
colony. If the head with apointed cap is of Vulcan, itwould be an ad
ditional argumentin favour of this opinion, as aplace called Forum
Vulcani, (3) now the solfatara, was contiguous toPuteoli. The resemblance
of the didrachm of Phisteliapreviously mentioned, tothe early coins of
Naples, implies alsothe vicinity of the twocities.
Itmay be noticed here thatthe didrachm in question is the oldest
monumentextantin the Oscan dialect.
The investigation of the coins of Phisteliacalls our attention tothose
inscribed AAAIBANON, which are often found together. Some years ago,
adepositof 7 or 8ooof the former was discovered, and, with them, many
of the latter, for _the mostpartbarbarous and illegible, butsome,
however, of good workmanship, with the inscription entire. These
coins have been attributed toAllifae in Samnium, butthe marine divi
nity, implies amaritime, and notan inland city. .
l\I' Carelli is of opinion, thatthey are of an ancienttown , situated
near Puteoli or Pouzzoli, on ahill, which is still called Ollibani.
This explanation is farther conrmed by the circumstance thatthe
name of Alibas, being thatdP'a"river of the Infernal Regions (4), would
be perfectly suited toacity in the vicinity of Cuma, where poets placed
(1) Thus we nd Pm: instead of 1-:95; Alexanter Mazzochi, butrejected. (Tin. HEnACL., p. 510.)
and Cassantrainstead of Alexander and Cassan- (3) Hemigtu oi-yop&.(SrnAno. lib. V. pag. 246.)
dl3- (4) Alifiatg, vexpdg, -Z norzpb; v Adan (SuIDAS. Ely
(2) This opinion, among others, is adduced by mologicon magnum. Lucu1v, 1Vcc_7'0ma!|!c!'a, cap. re.
.( s ) v
the seatof those regions, and where somany local names, such as Styx,
Cocytus, Periphlegethon and Acherusa, related tothatfable.
NEOHOAITQN. Youthful male head, probably of Apollo.
Rev. NEOH. . . .. Hercules strangling the Nemean lion. Ewergue
NV. AR 4. Plate I, n. 6. _ \
Instead of the androcephalous bull, emblem of the river Sebethos,
usual type of the coins of this city, the silver obolus here described,
represents Hercules strangling in his arms the Nemean lion (1).
This type is evidently imitated from the coins of Tarentum, probably
on the occasion of some political alliance or community of religious (2)
rites between the twocities. (3) A rare didrachm, with the equestrian
gure, imitated likewise from those of Tarentum, may have been struck
on asimilar occasion.
Youthful male head with adiadem. Before it, NVFKRINUM, ALFA_,.
in Oscan letters.
Rev. The Dioscuri on horseback. Ewergue, ECFINYM in Oscan let
ters. AE 2. Plate I, n. 7. v
The presentbrass coin, differsfrom those of this city, hitherto
published. The head, though withoutthe usual laurel wreath , seems
tobe of Apollo. The reverse, representing the Dioscuri, shews that
the gure standing by ahorse, on the silver coins of Nuceria, is Cas
tor and notEpidius Nuncionus an indigenous hero, as has been sur
mised. _
The legend on the obverse is as usual NVFKRINVM in Oscan letters
from righttoleft. The characters which follow, are the rstsyl
(1) For the connection between Tarentum and (a) Avauno. Supplem. Pag. :6, n. 391.
Naples. V. DIonYB. Huncuut. Excerpt. Pag. 2315, (3) Some ancientauthors attributedthe foundation
dit. Reiske. " of Neapolis toHercules. Tzetzes adLycophron. 717.
( 9 )
lables of the appellation of ALFATERNVM, by which this city was
distinguished from others of the same name.
In the exergue is inscribed ECFINVM, which may be the name of
amagistrate, or allusive tothe subjectrepresented.
The coins, with the Greek inscription NOIKPINQN, formerly attribut
ed tothis city, are now ascertained tobe of another of the same name
near Rhegium in Calabria(1). The coins of N uceriaAlphaternaare those
only in the Oscan dialect.
Helmeted head of Minerva.
Rev. KAI. Hercules strangling the Nemean lion. AR. 4. Plate I,
rz. 8. ~
The silver oboli of Tarentum and its dependentcity Heraclea, with
ahead of Minervaon one side, and Hercules strangling the Nemean
lion on the other, were in very extensive circulation, as appears from the
greatnumbers of them continually discovered.
These types being sopopular and well known, they were imitated
by various cities of Apuliaand Iapygia, allied with, or dependantlon
Tarentum,whose conquests were occasionally extended toagreatdistance.
Such is the little silver coin, Plate I, n. 8, with the letters KAI,
initials of Caelia, acity of Apulia, 3miles tothe N. of Bari. The coins
of this city, inscribed KAIAINQN, give the true reading of the name,
called Kata, by Strabo(2), and Coelium by Pliny
1. Helmeted head of Minerva.
Rev. PI. Hercules strangling the Nemean lion. AR 4. Plate 1. n.,9.
This silver obolus (4), like the preceding of Caelia, is an imitation of
those of Tarentum. The name of this city is variously written by ancient
(1) V. Plate H, n. 4. (3) H1s-r. Nu-., lib. IH, sect. 16.
(2) Snuno, lib. VI, p. 282, Edit. Cxssunozv. (4) Avn1.1.1no. Supplm. Torn.I, pug. 25, n. 10.
( 1 )
authors, and on coins. On the latter, we nd sometimes PYW whence the
Latin name of Rubi. They inform us also, thatthe inhabitants were
called PYBAETEINOI, and hence the vicious reading of Rubustini in Pliny (1)
and Frontinus may be corrected.
From the Greek name, itwas probably acolony from llhypte in Achaia,
called alsoPI\I and PYHE2. - This origin is -notunlikely, when we consi
der thatSybaris, Metapontium, Cauloniaand Crotona, the principal cities
in the south of Italy, were Achaian colonies. Myscellus, the foun_der of
Crotonawas, in fact, anative of Rhypm in Achaia(2). Itmay be noticed
moreover, thatmany of the coins of Rubi imitated from those of Meta
pontium, imply arelation between the twocities.
2. P1. A bucranium with llets.
Rev. A lyre. AR. 4. Plate I. n IO.
Very small silver coin resembling those of Canusium.
Little mention of Rubi occurs in history, butfrom the number and
beauty of the ctile vases found in its ancientcemetery, itmusthave been
arich and populous city.
Victory holding apalm branch.
_ Rev. BBVN. A dolphin. Above, V. AE. 4. Plate I. n. 11.
This little brass coin, differs from those of this city hithertopu
blished, and which have constantly the same type of Arion on the
dolphin. Though Brundusium was an ancientGreek city, yetwe have
none of its coins before the time when itwas taken by the Romans and
in 508 A U. C. became acolony. '
1. TAPA. Head of Venus elegantly attired. Before, adolphin. Underneath,
Rev. AIOEKOPOI. The Dioscuri on horseback, holding palm branches
and wreaths. Exergue, EA. WeightI33grains. AV. 2. Plate l. n. I2.
(M. Dupr. Paris.)
(I) HIST. Nu-., lib. III, sect. 16. (2) Sumac, lib. VIII, pag. 387, Edit. CASAunon
( 11 ) =
The coins of Tarentum, those of gold especially, are remarkable for
their beauty, and bear ample testimony tothe magnicence and taste for
the ne arts, which according tothe universel testimony of ancientau
thors, distinguished its inhabitants.
The female head on this unedited gold stater, is probably of Ve
nus'(1), adivinity held in greatveneration atSparta, and consequently
atT arentum, aSpartan colony. Itis elegantly attired with aveil (spi
8ep.vo|. ), diadem (2) and earrings. The dolphin placed before it, and which
always accompanies asimilar head on Tarentine coins, alludes tothe ma
rine origin of the Goddess. The name of the city TAPA, is expressed
according tothe old Aeolic and Doric form for TAPA2. The name of a
magistrate KON perhaps for KONQN is added.
The national divinities of the Spartans, the Dioscuri, distinguished by
the inscription AIOEKOPOI, are on the reverse. One of them places awreath
on his horses head, the other holds apalm branch, towhich llets and
wreaths are suspended (ip'n0't(i)v'n A type probably alluding togames
celebrated in their honour.
On the exergue, are the letters 2A,"which, from their frequentrecur
rence on Tarentine coins, may possibly imply an alliance with the Salen
tines, aneighbouring people. .
2. Adverse radiated head of the Sun.
Rev. TAPAN. A thunderbolt. Underneath, AHOA. AV1 4. Plate I. n. 1 3.
(Mr Hamilton.)
2. A small'gold coin, presenting types totally differentfrom those
usually engraved on the coins of this city. On one side, is afull faced
radiated head of Helios, or the Sun, and on the other, athunderbolt,
with the inscription TAPAN, for Totpow-rimv, and AHOA, the rstsyllable of a
magistrates name, such as Apollodorus or Apollodotus.
This coin resembles socompletely those ofAlexander son of Neoptolemus,
thatthere can be nodoubt, thatthe latter were alsostruck atTarentum,
(I) This is alsothe opinion of M. Avellino. (Inn. ILuD X, 469). Hence the epithet7_pu0aipnuxsgiven
Var. NuM., pag. 85.) Eckhell attributes ittoCeres. tovarious goddesses by the poets. Itwas also
V. NuMr Var. AIIECD. Vienna, 1775, pag. 3ll called 017.:-le, or a0avd0'w| from its resemblance toa
(2) This kind ofdiadem was called Ail.-nuE. (Hanna, sling. I
' . - ( 12 ) .
during the time, when thatprince, atthe requestof the Tarentines, came
totheir assistance againstthe Bruttians and Lucanians. As his arrival
was in the year 337, before our aera, and he was killed atAcherontia,
in 323, ( 1) itfollows, thatthe presentcoin was struck during the
intervening period of 14 years.
3. Helmeted head of Minerva. .
Rev. TAPAN. Hercules in an attitude of repose. AR. 4. Plate I. n. 14.
Minervawas one of the principal divinities of the Tarentines, whose
greatdevotion towards her appears from their having dedicated asta
tue of her atSparta. The sitting gure of Hercules, on the reverse, is
perhaps acopy of the celebrated statue by Lysippus, which, after the
taking of Tarentum, was senttoRome (2) by Fabius Maximus, and placed
in the Capitol.
4. Male gure riding on adolphin.
Rev. TA. A horse atliberty. Under, acrescent; AR. 4. Plate I. n. 15.
5. Cupid riding on adolphin, and shooting an arrow. Before, acrescent.
Rev. A shell ( pecten AR. 4. Plate I. n. 16. .
Twosilver coins differentfrom those hithertopublished. On the se-.'
cond is Eros or Love, shooting an arrow and riding on adolphin, a
maternal attribut% Though withoutan inscription, the shell on the re
verse shews thatitis of T arentum.
6. Head of Jupiter with laurel crown.
Rev. TAPANTIN.... Victory crowning atrophy. AE. 2. 'Plate 1. n. 7.
7. Same head as the preceding.
Rev. TAPANTINQN. Victory holding athunderbolt. AE. 2. Plate I. n. 18.
Though the coins of Tarentum are soobvious in silver, they are rarely
seen in copper.
(1) T. Lrvrus, lib. VIII, cap. 7 et2/1. S1-aano, dmie des Inscriptions etBelles-Lettres, tom. XH,
lib. VI, pag. 280. page 339. Ecxnau, Docr. Nun V1:-r Tom. II,
There is much uncertainly with regard tothe pre- page 169.
cise dates of these events. (V. Mmoires de l0Aca- (2) P1.nr.XXXIV, Sect. 18. Snuno, VI, 278.
( 13) .
Those of this metal here published, refer tosome victory ob
tained by the Tarentines, in the course of their frequentwars with the
Messapians, Iapygians, and other neighbouring states. Both have the
head of Jupiter, the giver of victory. On the reverse of the rstis
NIKH, Victory, erecting atrophy with the spoils of the vanquished.
On the second, the same Goddess appears, holding the thunder of Jupiter.
A similar coin, butdecientin the legend, is published in the catalogue
of Dr Hunter (1), as being of Agrigentum in Sicily.
Female head, with diadem and ear-rings. Behind, TE in monogram.
Rev. HEPIHOAQN HITANATAN. Hercules strangling the Nemean lion.
AR. Plate I. n. I7. .
Eckhell (2) published asilver obolus like the present, butpartof the
legend being injured, and the word HEPIHOAQN alone legible, he clas
sed itamong the uncertain of Italy, towhich country, its fabric proves
thatitunquestionably belongs; referring, however, the opinion of his
predecessor Khell, whoattributed ittoPeripolium, asmall fortress be
longing tothe Epizephyrian Locri, near the river Halex (3).
The inscription in the presentinstance being perfectly distinct, shews
thatthe coin is of the Pitanatae, apeople inhabiting some partof Magna
Graecia, and whowere probably acolony from Pitane (4), adistrict[Ktym]
of the city of,Sparta.
The appellation of nepiwohot, which is here assumed by the Pitanatae,
had various signications, butmostfrequently designated the young
men (5) who, from the age of 18 to2o, were subjecttoamilitary cons
cription, and employed in various services, butparticularly in guarding
(1) NtmMonuu Var. Por. etUna. etc. Londini, (3) Tnucvmnns, lib. III, cap. 99. .
1782; Tab. II. n. 15. (4) Scnon. I1v TuuCYD., lib. I, cap. 20. Itis called
(2) Nun! VETnnzS Anncmrn Vienna, I775. Pag. 63"Iiy-aq by Herodotus, lib. IH, cap. 55.
308. Tm. XVI, n. 8. (5)Po1.1.nx, lib.VHI, sect. l05.Hun> ocn.1rpina7toq.
( I4 )
the frontiers and garrisoning fortresses, forming, as the name implies, a
moveable or circulatory corps.
In the presentinstance, this appellation is probably assumed in order
tocommemorate the origin of the colony, from youths of the tribe of
Pitane, who, perhaps, formed partof the Lacedaemonian expedition which
founded Tarentum, and was composed of young men called Partheniae (1),
from the peculiar circumstances of their birth. On accountof their
common origin, the Pitanatae were consequently connected with the Ta
rentines; and hence the coin in question resembles by its types those of
Ancientauthors nothaving mentioned atown of Pitane in Magna
Graecia, we have nomeans of determining its situation; the only cir
cumstance which throws any lighton the subject, is tobe found in Stra
bo(2), whorelates that, according toatradition, some Laconians were
intermixed with the Samnites; whence the peculiar friendship of the lat
ter towards the Greeks, and the origin of the name of Pitanata-3' given
tosome of the Samnites.
Straboadds, itis true, thatthis was afable invented by the Tarentines
toatter their powerful neighbours; buthis doubts affectonly the pre
tentions of the Samnites toaSpartan origin, and notthe existence of
Pitanatae among them, forming perhaps adistincttribe. -
The coins in question, may then with greatprobability be referred to
these Pitanatae, whooriginally of Lacedemonian origin, and connected
with the Tarentines, had been conquered by the Samnites in the course
of the long and frequentwars between the twonations. Hence itwould
ensue, thatthey were setteled in some partof Messapia, butwe have solittle
information respecting the ancientstate of thatcountry, thatnothing
farther can be said on the subject.
Besides attesting the existence of acity hithertounnoticed, the coin
is interesting for the lightitaffords toaquestion, concerning which, the
twogreatesthistorians of antiquity are atvariance.
(I) Srnxno. lib. VI, pag. 279--280. xzi d|-& 1-06:0 > 1'.zi. < 1> O.7J.nva.;i naipEau,-rivizgdi mi Hiravimq
(2) Twk 3% xai Acixmva; rruvoixou: ainoiq 1evio0zi cgawi, xakaiaai Snnao, lib. VI, pag. 250.
_!_ ' ___- - -~ w
( 15 )
In his description of the battle of Plataea, Herodotus speaks of acohort
(7.61%) of the Pitanatw (1) under the command of Amomphoretus, whose
disobedience tothe orders of Pausanias, the commander in chief, eventually
proved the cause of the victory obtained by the Greeks.
Thucydides evidently alluding tothis accountof Herodotus, though
withoutnaming him, says, on the other hand, thatnosuch cohortever
existed among the Lacedazmonians (2).
The present numismatic monumentappears todecide the question in
favour of the father of history. By shewing thatthe Pitanatae entertained
adistinctbody of Peripoli, itleads tothe obvious inference, thatthey had
alsoadistinctldxog and other military divisions usual in the composition
of Grecian armies.
The objection-, which probably will be made, thatin the presenten
quiry the difficulty relates toaSpartan tribe, and nottoapeople oi
MagnaGraecia, is of little weight, when itis considered with whatreligious
attention, ancientcolonies, especially those of Sparta, retained all the in
stitutions and customs of the parentcountry. Of this observance, frequent
examples occurred in particular atTarentum (3), where we nd ariver
called Eurotas, the barrow of Hyaointhus, and many other denominations
recording the origin of the city.
Helmeted head of Minerva. ~
Rev. l~HPAKAHIQN. Marine divinity armed with ahelmet, spear and
shield. > AE. 3. Plate I. n. 2o. ,
Similar coins, which are notuncommon, have been published several
times, butvithoutany satisfactory explanation of the singular gure on
the reverse.
Some antiquaries have supposed ittobe Scylla(4), butthis opinion is
(1) Hnnonorus, lib. IX. cap. 53--57. . (3) Ponrnrns, lib. VIII, excerpt. 7.
(2) Kai vbv Uimvuirnv 1d10v zi'rroI(Auulatnovioq) (4) TAYLon Comma. New in Mus. Ban-. Lond.
tha_, 6; 06d i1vt'r0 1'ro'rno'ri. TxmcYn., lib. I, cap. 20. 1814. Tab. III, n. I3. _
( I5 )
inadmissible, as itis evidently amale gure, with the attributes of awar
rior. From these circumstances, itseems rather intended torepresent
Glaucus, originally awarrior, and afterwards transformed intoamarine
divinity. " .
We have agreatvariety of traditions respecting this personage (1). Some
describe him as anative of Anthedon in Boeotia; others as aCretan and
the son of Minos (2). In the accounts of the Argonautic expedition, he
is frequently mentioned (3). A Greek historian, quoted by Athenaeus (4),
says thathe was the constructor and pilotof the ship Argo; and thaton
the return of the expedition from Colchos, in an engagementwhich took
place with the Tyrrhenians, all the Minyan heroes were wounded, except
Glaucus, wholeaped intothe sea(the reason is notmentioned), and was
transformed by Jupiter intoadivinity of thatelement.
Another author writes (5) thatafter Glaucus had disappeared, Iapyx, a
general of Minos, being sentin search of him, landed in Italy, and settled
in thatpartof the peninsula, towhich from him, the name of Iapygia
was given. We nd alsoaccounts of his amours with Scylla(6), and of
his victory over Tibris aT yrrhenian king
These various traditions shew thatthe fable of Glaucus was one of those
which were popular in Italy, and accounts for the veneration of the Hera
cleans towards him. ~
The fable is evidently of Pll(1?l1lCiIl origin, and hence Glaucus is repre
sented in the same manner as Dagon, whose greattemple was atGaza. It
is even probable thatthe Boeotian Anthedon was made the birth place of
Glaucus, from its bearing the same name, as acity of Phoenicia, where the
worship of Glaucus was rstestablished. Thus, differentcities of the
name of Nysaclaimed the honour of being the birth place of Dionysius.
A curious scarabee, with asimilar gure bearded and armed, has been
(l)Aruz1nzus, lib. VII, cap. 47; lib. XV, cap. (4) Llb- VII, 8P- '57
23, (5) Awumuzus. lib. XII, cap. 24.
(2) Snnvms, in 1E1u:m. lib. VIII, vers 72. (6) A-ruanmus. loc. cit. Snnvws in Exam, lib.
(3) Arouoa. RuoD. lib. I, vers 1310. Arnuzus. VIII, vers 72.
lib. VII; cap. -'17. (7) Snnvxus, in VIncIL. Eclog. VI, vers 76.
( 17 )
published by Lanzi (1), whoexplains itas representing Glaucus. The
coins of Heracleafully conrm the opinion of thatlearned and judicious
1. AXEAOIO AGAON. Bearded gure with bulls horns, leaning on areed,
and holding apatera. Before him, adolphin. .
Rev. META. A wheat-ear. In the area,agrasshopper. AR. 2. Weight,
116 grains. Plate I, n. 21. (Duke de Luynes. Paris.) -
This silver didrachm of the Metapontines claims greatattention, and
may be esteemed one of the mostimportantnumismatic monuments hi
thertodiscovered, from the lightwhich itaffords tovarious questions
of history and philology.
On one side, with the legend META, rstsyllables of Mewmwivnv, is a
wheat-ear, the usual type of the coins of this people, and allusive to
the extreme fertility of their territory. The grasshopper ('re'1"r|.E) in the
area, is awell known emblem of Ceres.
The opposite side offers agure of the river Acheloiis, indicated by
the inscription which accompanies it This representation of the cele
brated river-god is particularly interesting, as itexplains, in amostsa
tisfactory manner, adifcultand much disputed passage of the Trachiniae
of Sophocles, in which Dejanirarelates the various forms assumed by the
Acheloiis in his contestwith Hercules (3). ' I
a't'7J.o'ri aiwlpitp 'n51rtp
Bounpwpog. I-Eu. 3% zloicxtou yevawidoq
Kpouvoi. dteppaivovroxpnvaiou 1ro'roi7.
According tothis description, he is gured here of ahuman form,
oivpiop 'r'5-mp, with athick beard daicxtou ysvetcidoq, and With [I16 hOIIlS Oi a
(I) SscexoDI LIIIGuAETnuSCA. tom. II, pag. I42. present, butbeing ill-preserved, he supposed that
(2) Acoin of Metapontium, published by Magnan the gure had the head of abull.
(Mrscnu. tom. III, Tab. 26.), as representing the (3) Soruocnns. Trachiniar, vers I2. I4. Srnmo,
Minotaur, was, in all probability, similar tothe lib. X, pag. 458.
( 18 ) .
bull, which are metaphorically compared with the prow of aship,
The reed on which he leans, alludes tothose of apeculiar quality
which grow in this river The patera(wan) is symbolical of the sa
crices offered tohim as adivinity. The dolphin indicates thatthis
river was frequented by seash; acircumstance noticed by ancientwri
ters (2).
The inscription is in characters of avery ancientform, or according
tothe usual orthography AXe).< 6wu1\61ov. Supplying the word dydwog, which
is understood, we may read Mxov yvo; Axemwu, < < Prize of the games
in honour of Acheloiis. . '
From this singular inscription, itmay be inferred thatthe coin was
issued tocommemorate the games in question; and, from the term Mlov,
thatitwas atthe same time intended for aprize atthe various contests
which took place on the occasion. j .
Originally money was given tothe victors atpublic games, butafter
wards, awreath of laurel, or other plants, was substituted instead. Hence
the difference l) lIW(-3611 the Xpnpmrimg and arapavirng aiyzbv
Thatariver of ./Etoliashould receive such honours in MagnaGraecia,
appears singular, butis easily explained, if we consider thatthe Pe
lasgi, whose original seatwas atDodona, and in Eastern Greece, where
the Acheloiis was in high veneration, naturally introduced the same (4),
when they migrated, and'formed differentsettlements in Italy.
The city of Metapontium, in particular, appears tohave received aco
lony from AEtolia, and tohave taken its name from Metapa, acity of that
country. -
~ For further particulars on this subject, the reader is referred toaMe
moir inserted in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature,
vol. I , page 142, where the question is discussed atgreater length.
(1) Puuosrnn-us, Icones, lib. I, cap. 25. Ep: 38, 39. Consnn, Fasti Altici, tom. HI, pag.
(2) PAuSAnuS, lib. IV, cap. 34. 80.
(3) For the difference between the twocontests, (4) The oracle of Dodonaordered all those who
see Scuou.is-r. in PInDAn, Argum. II in Pyth., Ar- wished toconsultit, tomake previous sacrices to
gum. IV in Pyth. Mmnon. Oxoxv, Chron. Par., the Achelos. Eruonus in MACnonIo, cap. 18.
( 19 ) ,
Itmay be proper toadd here, thatthe form given tothe Acheloiis on
the coin under consideration, was notthe only one under which he was
represented. The coins of the OEneiadae and various cities of /Etoliaand
Acarnania, shew thathe was mostfrequently gured as an androcepha
lous bull. He is represented also, in this manner, combating with Her
cules, on acurious ctile vase recently found atAgrigentum, as well as
on avery ancientscarabee.
These twomonuments, which will be shortly communicated tothe
public, in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, leave no
doubtthatthe bull with ahuman head represented on many ancientmo
numents, particularly on the coins of Italy and Sicily, is ariver-god, and
remove all probability of its having been intended for Bacchus Hebon.
2. Female head with laurel wreath. Underneath, APIETOE-'.EN.
Rev. META. A wheat-ear. AR. 2. Plate I. n. 22. (Duke de Luynes.
Itis difculttodetermine whether the head crowned with laurel is of
Venus, or some other female divinity. The same difculty exists with
regard tothe name of Aristoxenus, writen on the defaultof the neck;
whether itmay be considered as thatof amagistrate, or of the engraver
of the die. .
I 3. Helmeted head of Minerva. Behind, A.
Rev. META. Wheat-ear. Area, atrophy and II. AR.0 2. Plate I.
n. 23. (Duke de Luynes. )
The head on this coin is differentfrom those hithertopublished.
Busts of the Dioscuri, crowned with laurel, and surmounted by two
stars. '
Rev. BPETTIQN. The same divinities on horseback, holding palms.
AR 2. Weight, 88 grains. Plate I, n. 24. (Mr. Hamilton.)
Several silver coins like the present, of larger size and weightthan the
usual coins of this people, have lately been discovered.
' 3.
< 2o> ,
They offer likewise differenttypes, and being of inferior workmanship,
seem tohave been struck after the subjugation of the Brettii by the
The unusual repetition of the same divinities on the twosides of the
coin, implies thatitwas issued on some peculiar occasion, probably to
commemorate games celebrated in honour of the Dioscuri, or atsome pe
riodical festival ( wdvyuptg ) atthe altars erected tothem by the Locri on
the spotwhere they obtained over the Crotoniatae agreatvictory, which
they attributed tothe miraculous assistance of these divinities. Hence
the Dioscuri were held in greatveneration in thatpartof the peninsula
occupied by the Brettii.
AIEAPOE. Laureated youthful head.
Rev. Pegasus. Underneath, KP. AR 4. Plate 1,n. 25. (Mr. Durand,
Paris. ) '
This coin has been attributed toLiparon, aking of Syracuse, men
tioned by Plautus: and aSicilian antiquary has published avolume of
1 15 pages toillustrate the discovery
Trusting tothe engraving, and toacastsentfrom Naples, Visconti had
inserted itin the supplementtohis Iconograp/zie Grecque
Being atRome, in the winter of 1816, I purchased aparcel of Greek
coins, among which was the supposed Liparus. On examining itcare
fully, I found thatthe rstletter was an A, and the third notaH but
a2, amistake easily made, and that, instead of AIHAPO2, the reading
was AIEAPOE, the name of ariver near Crotona(4); and this reading was
(I) Srmno, lib. VI, pag. 26:. river, or toamagistrate of thatname. .
(2) Di Liparo, re di Siracusa; dal Cav. M. Calca- Individuals never took the names of divinities or
gni. Palermo, 1809- places, butderivatives from them. Consequently, a
(3) Planche A, n. 5. _ name derived from the Esarus would be 1!-Isarius
(4) There seems tobe noroom for the doubtex- as Scamandrius and Simoeisius from the Scamander
pressed by Visconti, whether Esaros refers tothe and the Simois.
, ( Q1 )
moreover conrmed by the letters KP, initials of Crotona, placed under
the Pegasus on the reverse.
Fortunately, the explanation of Visconti had notappeared, and I was
able toapprize him in time of the error intowhich he had inadvertently
fallen ' 4
This example shews the necessity of examining with the mostscrupu
lous attention the inscriptions on coins,. especially when the letters are so
minute that, unless in perfectpreservation, amistake easily occurs.
Adverse female head.
Rev. Pegasus. Underneath, A. AR. 3. Plate I. n. 26. (Duke de
Luynes. ) I
The workmanship of this coin, appearing tobe Italian, is the reason
for assigning ittothe Locri Epizephyrii, rather than tothe Locri Opun
tii, or Ozoli. ' I
The head, which is extremely elegant, may be thatof Proserpine, who
had acelebrated temple in the vicinity of Locri.
The Pegasus, on the reverse, indicating aCorinthian origin (2), is the
common type of the Hellenic, as well as of the Italian Locri.
MEEMA. Female head elegantly adjusted; before it, avase.
Rev. Youthful heroic gure seated on arock, and holding apatera.
Before him, adog. AE 2. Plate II, n. I. j
The city of Mesma, of which the name is inscribed on the presentcoin,
is withoutdoubtthe same as thatcalled Medamaby Strabo(3), and Medma
by other ancientauthors By its coins we nd thatthe mostancient
(I) V. Iconographie Grecque. Supplement, pag.9. (4) Hscrrzsns ap. SrnrnutBvzslvr. V. Mdpn.
(2) Swnmo, lib. VI, 259. . i V. CasMsa. AncientItaly, tom.II, page 422. Scvn-.x,
(3) Lib. VI, 256. Peripl.
r < =2>
and usual form of its name,was Mesma. Stephanus relates the twoforms(|),
butnotaware of their identity, he supposed them tohave been distinct
Mesma, which took its name from aneighbouring fountain (2) , was a
city belonging tothe Epizephyrian Locri, on the Terinaean Gulph, now
called Golfodi Gioja, near Nicoterain Calabria. The river, on which
itis situated , still retains the name of Mesima. .
The head on the obverse probably represents the Nymph from which
the city derived its name: the vase or urn, placed before it, is the
characteristic emblem of aNaiad.
The gure on the reverse, resembles the Hercules of the coins of
Crotonaand Tarentum, butnothaving the lions-skin and club, may
representsome other mythological hero, perhaps the founder of the city.
The patera, which he holds, alludes tothe divine honours paid to
him. The dog, emblem of the chase , was frequently attributed toheroic
personages. A gure nearly similar occurs" on the coins of Pando
The coins of this city were unknown toEckhell, butof late years, seve
ral have come tolight. They are remarkable for the elegance of design
and execution , which distinguishes the productions of these once fortu
nate regions , now reduced tomisery and wretchedness.
1. Female head. Above, TEPINA, in letters of an ancientform.
Rev. NIKA Female gure holding abranch of laurel. The whole type
encircled by alaurel wreath. AR. 2. Plate 11,.._ n 2. (Mr. Burgon.)
The female head, withoutany peculiar attributes, which is sofre
quently seen on Greek coins, is , in mostcases, thatof the city by
which the coin was struck.
The head on the obverse of this rare and singular didrachm of Terina,
(1) V. Midpn etMcym. (3) Nun: Var. In Mus. Burma. Tab. 1|, 1.
(2) Sumo, loc. cit. n. 26; -
7 * '7 '7 0
\ ( 23)
may be considered in the same light, and this explanation is farther
conrmed by the inscription which accompanies it. '
The inscription NIKA informs us thatthe gure holding abranch
of laurel on the reverse, is'Victory, whois represented withoutwings
(ointepoc), as on the mostancientworks of art .
This lasttype is of greatimportance, as itshews evidently thatthe
winged gures , sofrequenton the coins of Terina, is notthe Sciren
Ligea, as some authors have supposed, butNi/re, the goddess of
Itis necessary toobserve here , thatthe ancients gave amore extensive
signication toNina, or Victory, than the usual acceptation of the word
implies. They did notconne her attributions tosuccess in war or in
contests, butconsidered her in the same lightas the Hours, or the
Graces, or Fortune, whoconferred prosperity of every kind.
Thus, on the coins of Terina, Victory appears with various attributes,
sometimes holding acaduceus or olive-branch, emblems of peace and
alliance; atother times, wreaths of laurel or olive; abird, or apatera: on
arare didrachm (2), she hold avase in which she receives water from a
As an emblem of prosperity, Victory is represented crowning the an
drocephalous bull, on coins of various cities. Eckhell availed himself
of this circumstance as an argumentagainstthe opinion thatthe gure
in question was ariver-god, or an emblem of agriculture, and asks (3),
whatvictory did the Sebethos ever obtain?
Had this greatluminary of the Numismatic science considered the
subjectmore maturely, he would have found, thatVictory in this case, was
(I) PAuSAnuS, lib. I. cap. 22. between the names of places in MSS, and on coins
(2) Minnracu. Mdailles Greeq. Ind., pl. I, and others monuments, itis possible thatthe foun
n. 16. tain may be the same as thatcalled Apt; by Lycophron.
On other coins, with this type, the base or plinth
on which Victory is seated, bears the inscription
A I H, possibly the name of the fountain from which The name of A-pi, by its etymology, is perfectly
the water issues. suited toafountain or stream. (V.E'rvn1o1.oe. Mica.)
As adifference of orthography frequently occurs (3) Docrnnu Nun. Var. , vol. I, page I35.
Attica: Si dig-I-atBouxipmg vaapai; Apm.
Cassslvnns, vers 730.
( 24 ) .
noother than the Z wciwoh; on the Geloian coins (1), and the A-{ @ 015 T6;-n
of alater age.
The archaic form of the characters, particularly thatof the I, which
is sinuous and resembles aprimitive 2, affords room toassign this inte
resting Numismatic monumenttothe period intervening between the
years 5ooand 45obefore our aera. _ .
2. TEPINAIQN. Female head elegantly attired.
Rev.... PINA. Female gure seated, and holding apatera. Behind, a
small Victory which crowns her. AR. 2. Plate II, n. 3. (Duke de
Luynes. Paris.) j
Instead of the archaic style of the preceding, we have here aproduction
of artin its higheststate of excellence. The female head, probably of
Terinapersonied, is remarkable for the beauty and gracefulness we
should expecttond in the works of Praxiteles.
The seated gure on the reverse, alsoextremely elegant, offers another
representation of Terina; such atleastthe inscription which accompanies
it, leads us tosuppose it: she is here crowned by Victory, and holds a
patera, emblem of the divine honours which were paid toher.
The representation of the same divinity, on both sides of the coin, ap
pears singular, butwe have seen asimilar instance on the coins of the
Brettii before described (2). Itis possible, however, thatthe head on the
obverse may be thatof adivinity. '
(3) TEPINAIQN. Laureated head of Apollo. ' /
Rev. Adverse head of alion. AE 2. Plate II, n. 4. Same col
The types of this brass coin are imitated from those of Rhegium, and
indicate an alliance or some amicable relation between these rich and
powerful cities.
(I) Tonnauuzzs. S1cu.u-:. Vz'r.Nu1u1. Tab. 32, n. 1. (2) Supra, page l9.
Laureated head of Apollo.
NOYKPINQN. Rev. Adverse head of alion. AE 2. Plate 11, n. 5.
On aformer occasion (1) I published this coin, and attributed itto
Nuceriain Campania: relating atthe same time the opinion of Mr. Ca
relli, whoascribed ittoacity of Nuceria, situated in Calabria, and
which is supposed tohave transmitted its name tothe modern town of
Nocera(2), Where considerable remains still seen, attestthatan ancient
city once existed (3). The resemblance of the coin tothose of Rhegium
and Terina,was astrong presumption thatitwas of aplace in the vicinity.
Subsequentobservations have fully conrmed this opinion. Several
coins like the present, and agreatnumber of others, inscribed NOYKPINQN,
and usually ascribed toNuceriaAlfaterna have been found atvarious
times, on the site of, or near N ocerain Calabria; aproof of their having
been struck in thatpartof Italy. ~ *
Three cities of the name of Nouxpict, or Nuceria, are mentioned by
geographers : one in Campania, another in Umbria, the third op the Po.
Coins, and the modern appellation, inform us of the existence of afourth
in the territory of the Bruttii. .
__1iQg____ _
Adverse radiated head of the Sun.
Rev. ADE in Oscan letters. An elephant. AE 3. Plate I1, n. 6.
(I) Mdailles Grecques Indites, pag. I4. .site, though notfar distant, on the banks of the Ocy
(2) Ne" the 1'5/91 Svllloi bolll ve miles oln uarus or Savuto. V. Cramer, AncientItaly, tom II,
the coast, on the gulf of St. Euphemia, between pag, 416.
Amanteaand Nicastro, in Calabria. (4) On one side is ahead of Apollo; on the other
(3) Modern geographers have attributed these ruins ahorse, and the legend NOTKPINKIN. V. MIoIIIT,
toTerina; butthatcity musthave been on adifferent Mdailles Grecques, tom. I, pug. 123-24. .
( 25 )
The coins previously ascribed toAcerrae in Campania, are now ascer
tained tobelong toAtella, acity in the same province. In apreceding
numismatic work (1), I exposed the motives which induced me topro
pose this restitution. -
The coins of Atellahithertopublished, offer the same types as those
of Capua, resultof the intimate connection which history informs us
existed between the twocities.
The types before us are entirely new; thatof the reverse is singular;
the elephantseenis tohave reference tothe period when Atellaand other
cities of Campaniatook partwith the Carthaginians in the second Punick
war Itcannotbe of alater age, because, after the defeatof Han
nibal, these cities were deprived of all their political rights, and, among
others, thatof coinage. i
Helmeted and bearded head.
Rev. K02. Thunderbolt. Underneath, aserpent. Al-E 3. Plate 11,
n. '7.
Near the source of the Cylistarnus, supposed tohave been the same as
the small river now called the Racanella, notfar distantfrom Thurium,
in Lucania, was acity called Cosaor Cossa(3).
The presentcopper coin, of afabric peculiar tothe southern partof
Italy, may, with greatprobability, be assigned tothis place. Its name,
precisely the same as thatof the island of Cos, would imply the exis
tence of acolony from the latter, in Lucania. Noancientauthors have
mentioned such acircumstance, butitis notatall improbable, since
there was scarcely aGreek city, however inconsiderable, butwas the
(I) Mdailles Grecques Indites, pag. 25. dern town of Cauanoin Calabria; butmodern
(2) T. Lrvius, lib. XXVI, cap. 16. topographers place its ruins atCivita, aneighbour
(3) Srnruuws BYzxm-. V. Roaa. Cluverius sup- ing village. V. CmMsn, Anc. Ital., tom. II, pag.
posed thatitoccupied the same site as the Il] o- 354. ' '
. ( 27 ) .
parentof one or more colonies, and contributed, by extending the ad
vantages of civilization, tocarry the glory and language of Greece tothe
uttermostparts of the habitable world. '
Several towns of the name of Cossaor Cosaexisted in various parts
of Italy; one, the harbour of the Vulcientes, in Etruria; the other in
Campania, towhich the coins inscribed COZ ANO are referred; the
third in Lucania.
Adverse head of Juno, with an elevated crown.
Rev. PHENSERNU, in Oscan characters. Bellerophon on horseback
combating the Chimaera. AR 2. Plate 11, n. 8. (Lord Northwick.)
A similar coin, butwithoutany legend, has been published by Eck
hell (1), whoascribed ittoCrotona. The inscription, which is fortu
nately added tothe present, indicates avery differentorigin, and refers
ittoCampania, where the Oscan dialectwas in use.
Among the cities of thatprovince, recorded by ancientgeographers,
thattowhich the coin may be ascribed with the mostprobability, is Ve
seris, atown situated atthe footof mountVesuvius, and of which men
tion is made by Livy (2).
The Oscan name on the coin bears greataffinity tothe Latin. The < I>
having been often, changed with the Bor V; and the N before an S being
usually omitted for the sake of euphony. Thus, with the ordinary change
of the termination, Phensernu would be rendered Veseris in the Greek or
Latin dialect.
The female head is thatof the Argian Juno, whohad acelebrated
temple, builtby Jason (3), near the0Silarus, 5ostadiafrom0Posidonia, and
greatly venerated in the neighbouring provinces; as we see by the coins
of Hyria, atown in Campania, perhaps the same as Surrentum.
(1) NoMi. Va-nan. A1n=.cn., tab. III, n. 2i, pag. 142. butPellegrini and Cluverius are, with greatreason
(2) Lib. VIII, cap. 08. Some modern authors have of acontrary opinion.
supposed thatthe term Veseris was applied toariver; (3) Srnano, lib. VI, pag. 262.
( #8 ) ~
The representation of Bellerophon implies the establishmentof aCo
rinthian colony atVeseris, which, like many other cities of Campania,
was probably of Tyrrhenian origin, or subjectfor atime tothatpeople,
whose relations with Corinth are well known (1).
TYNAAPIAO2. Laureated head of Apollo.
Rev. AIA(-DIPNOE. Warrior standing in complete armour. AE. 2. Plate II,
n. 9. (Lord Northwick.) ,
This hithertounique numismatic monumentwas intended torecord
an alliance, or some amicable relation (ji6votaz) between Agathyrnus and
Tyndaris, twocities on the northern coastof Sicily. \
As, in some instances of an early age (2), the name of one city is in the
nominative case AFAGYPNOE, thatof the other, in the genitive TYN
The rstof these cities, named after its founder Agathyrnus, one of
the sons of AEolus (3), was situated between Ala:-saand Tyndaris, near
the promontory now called CapodOrlando. Some remains of itwere
seen atthe time of Fazelli, near St. Martino, buthave now disappeared.
Little mention of this place occurs in history; we only know from
Livy (4), that, in the second Punick war, itbecame the resortof agreat
number of exiles and outlaws from various parts of Sicily, whocommit
ted greatdepredations by seaand land, till, after the reduction of the
island, the Roman consul Laevinus removed them intoItaly.
(I) Drosn. Hsucxnn, lib. III, cap. 46. the authorityof Polybius, calls this place Agatbyrsa.
(2) On the coins of Siris and Buxentum, and those Sometimes we nd the name written /Igathyrnaor
of Cephalmdium and Heraclea. V. Infra, page 30. Jgath)-mum. The coins gives the true reading.
(3)DIox:> om1s SrcuLus,lib. V, cap. B. Stephanus,on (4) Lib. XXVI, cap. 40. Lib. XXVII, cap. 12.
~ ( =9 )
Tyndaris, acity far more celebrated, was situated 3omiles tothe west
of Agathyrnus, and considerable remains of itstill existatSantaMaria
di Tindaro, where statues, vases, and other works of artof greatbeauty,
are frequently discovered. .
Owing tothe deciency of symbols distinctive of either of the contrac
ting parties, itis difcult, in this, as in many similar cases, toascertain
by which city the coin was struck.
The legend, which is elliptical and ambiguous, does notremove the dif
culty (I). Twomodes of explaining itoccur. Supposing the usual
term &v0mv.e tobe implied, the inscription mightbe read APAGYPNOZ
oivenxe -rt; 8-p.q> TYNAAPIAOE, intimating thatthe coin was issued by the
inhabitants of Agathyrnus. -
Should we however suppose thatN6y.tcp.oz, or some similar term, is im
plied, the coin would then belong toTyndaris, and the figure on the re
verse, mightbe an honorary representation of the people (8y.o;) of Aga
thyrnus. Perhaps this lasthypothesis is the mostprobable.
The presentmonument, being the only one of any kind which refers
toAgathyrnus, is the more valuable. The coins of Tyndaris are nume
rous and notuncommon.
EYNOMIA. Head of Ceres with Wheaten wreath.
Rev. FEAQIQN. Androcephalous bull standing on awheat-ear. AR. Plate II, n. to. (Mr. Durand, Paris.)
Owing tothe minuteness of the characters of the legend on the ob
verse, and toan injury which the third letter received in the coinage, I was
induced totake itfor aB, and accordingly in aformer publication (2),
(1) The usual form of inscriptions of this kind, All thatrelates tothis subjectmay be seen in
offers the names of the contracting parties in the ge- Eckhell. Docrnnn NuM. Vim, tom. IV, pag. 33!.
nitive, as IMTPNAIQN, lEPAIIOAElTN,with theterm (2) Mdailles Grecques lndites. Borne, 1812,
OMONOIAsometimes added, atother limes implied. page 32.
< so>
attributed the presentcoin toEuboeaacity of Sicily, in conjunction
with Gela.
Having since had the opportunity of seeing other coins of the same
kind, I discovered my error, and found thatthe third letter instead
of aB, was an N, thatthe fth letter was an M, and consequently that
the true reading was EYNOMIA.
According toHesiod (1) and Pindar (2), E unomiawas one of the Hours,
daughters of Themis. The names of her sisters were Dilc and Eiren,
signifying allegorically, thatJustice, Peace, and good Laws, were the real
sources of prosperity.
In the presentinstance, as the inscription Eanomiaaccompanies
the portraitof Ceres, itis evidently an epithetof the goddess, synoni
mous with thatof Gteaoq6pag, usually attributed toher as the inventress of
A coin, with the same types, is described by Eckhell (3), with the le
gend Z TPA on one side, and EEAINONTIQN on the other, which he sup
posed toimply an alliance between the Syracusans and Selinontines.
Probably the true reading was alsoEunomia, and the coin was struck
by the Selinontines, atthe same time as the presentby the Geloans, on
some particular occasion, such as anew system of legislation, and subse
quentfestivals in honor of Ceres.
The androcephalous bull standing on awheatear, is emblematic of the
fertility produced by the river Gela.
(KE< I> )AAOIAIO. Head of Hercules covered with the lions skin.
Rev. HPAKAEIOTAN. Bull butting (Bos cornupeta AR. 3. Plate II,
n. 11.
This silver coin offers another example of an alliance between two
Sicilian cities (4), expressed in the same manner as the preceding : the
(I) Tueocom, vers 901-903. being defaced, prince Torremuzza, whorstmade
(2) OnMr. XIII, vers 6-11. known this coin, was notaware thatitreferred to
(3) Docrnnu Nrm. Va-r., tom. I, pag. 241. Cephalcedium as well as toHeracles, butattributed it
(4) The three rstletters of the legend on the obverse, solely tothe latter, ADSicn.. V51-.NuM. Auclar II, p. 7 .
( 31 )
name of one, in the nominative (KE< I> )AAOIAIO(N), thatof the other, in the
Of these, Cephaloedium is awell known city still existing under the
name of Cefalu, on the N. coastof the island. The situation of Heraclea
is notsoeasily determined. The only place of this name in Sicily, re
corded by ancientauthors, is one surnamed Minoa(1), between Agri
gentum and Selinus, on the S. coast.
An alliance between places so'remote, and which could consequently
have had little relation with each other, appears improbable, and itmay
rather be inferred, either thatanother city of Heracleaexisted some
where in the neighbourhood of Cephaloedium, perhaps near Thermae, a
placewhich took its name from the hotbaths discovered there by Her
cules (2) : or thatitwas Heraclea, one of the AEolian islands (3): these,
atone time, were very powerful atsea, and entertained extensive relations
with other states. This lastopinion seems the mostprobable.
Adverse lions head.
Rev. MESSEN ION , in archaic Greek characters. Head of abull. AR. 1.
Plate II, n. :2.
A silver tetradrachm of Messanain Sicily,_of greatimportance, as itcon
tributes toremove the uncertainty which existed respecting the time
and circumstances of the taking of Z ancl, and the change of its name
intothatof Messana. =
Evidently imitated from the coins of Samos, and presenting the em
blems of the Samians, while itis inscribed with the name of the Messe
nians, itproves, thatthe twonations inhabited Z ancle for some time in
common and thatthe name of Messanawas given tothe city when itwas
Anothercoin, where the rstletters were preserved, (1) Srnsno, lib. VI, pag. 266. DroDon. Sn.-u|..,
has been since published by Sestini, and restored lib. XVI, cap. 9. _
the true reading. V. Lara-mar. Nunnsz\:.u'., I. Serie, (2) DIoDon. S1cuL., lib IV, cap. 22.
toln. V pag. 39. (3) POMPon Mats, lib. II, cap. 7. I
\ ! ~
' ( 32 )
rsttaken, aboutthe year 494 before our aera, and notas some ancient
authors assert, when Anaxilaus, tyrantof Rhegium, some years afterwards,
took possession of it, and expelled the Samians (1).
The particulars relating tothese various occurences are discussed in a
Memoir of the author, inserted in the transactions of the Royal Society
of Literature, vol. I. part. II, page 93.
Some observations may notbe displaced here, on the signication of
the emblems of the Samians, adopted by the Messenians. Some antiqua
ries have supposed the lion and the bull sofrequently represented on
ancientworks of art, of every country, toallude tothe productive and
destroying powers of nature (2). Others have assigned tothem an astro
nomical reference.
By the ancients themselves, however, whose symbolical language was
in general simple and natural, the gures of these animals were employed
as emblems of valour and strength.
Withoutuselessly heaping up authorities on the subject, itwill sufce
toallege here the expressions of the Pythia(3) :
Of) -yelp rev nuigmv epics: pvog 063% 7\ov-raw
Avnlirnv. I
alluding by this comparison tothe overwhelming and irresistible force
of the Persians; in her answer toLeonidas, when he consulted the Del
phian oracle previous tohis departure for the Thermopylae. This testi
mony is the more apposite, as itis of aperiod nearly contemporary with
the monumentwhich forms the subjectof our enquiry (4).
(I) H1mono'r., lib. VI, cap. 2223. VII, 164. (3) Hnnonorus. lib. VII, cap. 220.
TuucYn., lib. VI, cap. 4, 5. S1-muao, lib. VI, pag. (4) The battle of Thermopylaz was in the year
257. PAusx1v., lib. IV, cap. 23. 480 before J. C. The occupation of Z ancle by the
(2)Pn'1n: Kincirr. Inquiry into0 the symbolical0 Samians was in 494 or 493, and lasted several
language ofAncientArt. Sect. 28. 31. I09--110. years. _
Head of Diana. Behind, abow and quiver.
Rev. MAMEPTINOTM. Cortinaof Apollo. Underneath, A. /E4. Plate 11.
n. 13. (Duke de Luynes.)
A coin with these types and the legend MAMEPTINQN has been publis
ed by Eckhel (1). The presentdiffers by the termination of the legend,
which, instead of being in QN, is in OYM, an old AEolic form (2) in
troduced intoItaly by some of the early Greek colonies.
With the progress of civilisation, the Hellenic dialectsuperseded the
AEolic; but, when, owing topolitical changes, the former fell gradually
intodisuse, the latter, which probably had been retained in some parts
of the -country, revived and became prevalent. Its inuence in the format
ion of the latin language is well known. In the presentinstance, we
nd itin use among the Mamertini, originally abarbarous tribe from
Opicia, and on the coins of the Lucani, atribe of similar origin,
AOYKANOM is inscribed instead of AOTKANQN. Hence alsothe latin
termination in UM of the genitive plural is derived.
. . . .'NQil{ I. Female head, probably of Ceres.
Rev. NAKQN....QN. Horse atliberty. Underneath, ahelmet. AE3.
Plate I1, n. 14. ( Same collection ' '
The name of this place is recorded by Stephanus of Byzantium, on the
authority of Philistus (3); he describes itas being in Sicily, butwithout
stating in whatpartof the island, or giving any particulars respecting it.
Noother author (exceptSuidas, whohas transcribed Stephanus ), nor any
\ . -*
(1) Nun: Vnnzans Axncnon. Sylloge I. tab. I, the coins of Oasa. ( V. Infra. Plate III, n. 3), and
n. ll. of Tylissus in Crete. '
(2) Other examples of this termination occur on (3) V. Naxdm. v
( 34 )
ancientinscription having mentioned it. The editor of the Ethnographer
was induced toexclaim:
Mors etiam saxis marmoribusque venit.
In the deciency of other memorials, its existence however, has been
conrmed by coins, the monuments mostcapable of escaping the ravages
of time and barbarians. Or, as one of our greatestpoets has elegantly ex
pressed in these well known lines: i
Ambition sighd : she found itvain totrust
The faithless column and the crumbling bust:
Huge moles, whose shadow stretclfd from shore toshore,
Their ruins perish'd and their place nomore,
Convindd, she now contracts her vastdesign,
And all her triumphs shrink intoacoin. .
A coin of Naconapreserved in the French Kings collection, and the
only one then known, has been published by Sestini (I); ;itis of an early
age, with the legend NAKONAION.
The presentcoin, alsoin brass, has been since discovered; itis of a
later period, and bears the legend NAKQN(AI)QN with an Q in the second
syllable, according tothe reading in Suidas. From the types, which are
those of the Campanians established atEntellaand ./Etna, there can be
little doubtthatthe three letters NQN on the obverse, are the remains of
An alliance with the Campanians could be productive of noother
than fatal consequences; whereever these barbarous hordes were admit
ed, the deepesttreachery and cruelty marked their steps.
Hence itmay be inferred, thatNaconaexperienced the same melancholy
fate as AEtna, Entella, and other Sicilian cities which fell aprey tothe
Campanians, whomurdered the inhabitants capable of bearing arms,
and took possession of their wives and property (2).
(l) LETT. Nun. Berlin, I705. tom.VII, tab. I,n. 10. before our azra. DroDon. S1cu1.., lib. XIV, cap. I5.
_i (2) In the second year of the 94th Olympiad, 404, Srzruuw Brzmr. V. Ii.v"ra')J.m
' ( 35 )
These Campanians were originally mercenaries engaged by the Athe
nians during their expedition in Sicily (1), They are called Tyrrheni by
Thucydides (2), whoseems tohave considered them as atribe of that
people. After the defeatof the Athenians, they entered the Carthaginian
service; then intothatof Dionysius, who, by their assistance, succeeded
in recovering the tyranny (3). Their number increasing by successive
reinforcements from Campania, they subsequently committed depredat
ions and every sortof excess and cruelty in various parts of the island,
tillthey were destroyed by Timoleon, in the year 336 before our aera.
Several years having elapsed since the engraving of the plates of the
presentwork; the Duke de Luynes, who, in the interval became posses
sor of the coin under consideration, has published it with various
others of the Campanians, and has collected with somuch diligence and
judgmentall the testimonies of the ancients which elucidate this partof
ancienthistory, thatany farther observations become unnecessary.
NAEIQN. I-Iead of Apollocrowned with laurel. Behind, alaurel-leaf
and berry. I _ '
Rev. A gure of Silenus, holding avase and branch of ferula. On
the plinth is inscribed IIPOKAHE. AR 1. Plate ll, n. I5. (Duke de
Luynes.) i
The inscription HPOKAH2 placed on-the plinth of the gure on the
reverse of this elegantsilver didrachm of Naxos, induced its former
learned possessor, Chevalier Carelli, tosuppose thatitreferred toProcles,
aleader of the Naxians, who, corrupted by Dionysius, betrayed the city
intohis hands (5). 0
(I) Dronon S!cur.., lib. XIII, cap. 34. _
(2) Lib. VII, cap. 57.
He ascribes their entering the Athenian service, to
their enmity againstthe Syracusans, probably on ac
countof the defeatof the Tyrrheni before Cumaby
Hieroin 445 A. C. the taking of AEthalia, and the
ravages committed by the Syracusans atvarious
times in Tyrrhenia. D1onoa.Srci.u.., lib. XI, cap. 51
(3) DronoaSrcur.., lib. XIV, cap. 8. XVI, 82.
(Ii) Ainun nzu. IzrrruromaConnISPonDEIZ Anr
Rom, 1829. TomoI, pag. I50.
(5) Hg0xkq 6 rfiv Naioiv iqm1a6|1.evo. DIoDoIL XIV
I5. Olymp. 94. 3. A. C. 403.
' 5.
( 35 )
The objection tothis opinion is, thatthe workmanship and design of
the coin, assign itrather toalater period, than thatof the events in ques
tion, which occurred as early as the archonship of Eucleides, /4o3years
before our aera.
Diodorus (1), whorelates the transaction, says, itis true, thatDionysius
razed the city of Naxos completely. Butsuch expressions mustnotbe
always understood in an absolute sense, and frequentinstances occur in
ancienthistory, of cities repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt. Itis highly
probable then, thatNaxos alsowas reestablished and existed till the time
when its inhabitants repaired toTauromenium as toaplace of greater
strength From Thucydides we may infer that, atthe time when he
wrote, Naxos was still in existence (3). The coin then may be attributed
toalater age, and the name tosome other 'magistrate or chief, perhaps
the grandson of the Procles mentioned by Diodorus.
The head is thatof ApolloA91-ny-m; whose altar was situated atashort
distance from Naxos (4); and whowas held in greatveneration, as the
leader of all the Chalcidic colonies in Sicily.
Helmeted head of Minerva.
Rev. Pegasus. Underneath, three Punick characters. AR 2. Plate II,
n. I6. (Lord Northwick.) i 1
This unique silver didrachm, with the types of Corinth, was struck by
one of the Corinthian colonies in Sicily, while subjecttothe Carthagi
nians. The legend being in Punick characters which hithertohave not
been satisfactorily explained, the name of the place unfortunately remains
Besides the more obvious coins of Syracuse we have those of Agrigen
tum, Leontini and T auromenium, struck in imitation of those of Corinth,
and intended tocommemorate their Corinthian extraction.
(I) T5: (N u7_n xzi 1-51.4 0laim nan-imw.. Loc cit. (3) Lib. VI, cap. 3.
(2) Ommr. 105. 3. Dronon SlcuL., lib. XVI. cap. 6. (4) Tuucrn. Ibid.
A .. k-._-_i._
( 37 )
i-00> ?
Female head.
Rev. APEG-)O. A bull. AE 3. Plate II, n. 17. (Lord Northwick.)
Geographers mention acity of Arethusain the neighbourhood of
Acanthos in Thrace, and another in the island of Euboea(i): probably
the former was acolony of the latter, notonly from the resemblance of
the name, butbecause mostof the cities in the districtbetween the Axius
and the Strymon were of Euboic origin, as the appellation of Chalcidice,
given tothatdistrict, implies.
Either of these cities mightwith propriety lay claim tothe present
coin. In the uncertainty, however, itmay with greater probability be
attributed tothe former, which is better known, and musthave been a
place of consequence, since ittransmitted its name toArethusain Syria,
acity founded by the Macedonian soldiers, whohad served in the army
of Alexander
Arethusawas situated in the districtof Mygdonia, near the lake Bolb,
between Acanthus and Amphipolis. Itwas celebrated for the tomb of the
greattragic poetEuripides Novestiges of itremain, nor are any an
cientmonuments relating toitknown.
The female head on the obverse is perhaps thatof the city: th'e bull
on the reverse is afrequentemblem on the Euboean coins, alluding tothe
fertility, as well as tothe name of the island.
Helmeted head of Minerva.
Rev. API. Quadruped, probably aram. AE 4. Plate Ill, n. 1.
(Mr Hamilton.)
(I) Srzrnan. Btznrr. V. Apitouaa. Scvmx, Sect. 67. (2) Arrnn. Bell. Syr. Pag. 87.
Crunua. AncientGreece, tom. I, page 263. (3) Antholog. Palatin., lib. VII, epig. 5|.
, I
' (33)
The letters API inscribed on the presentcoin, combined with the re
semblance its fabric bears tothose of Acanthus, are the motives forattri
buting ittoArgilos, aGreek maritime town of Bisaltia, on the Strymo
nian gulph between Amphipolis and Acanthus
Argilos was founded by acolony from Andros; and its name, which
in the Thracian language signied amouse (2), was given toitbecause,
while digging in order tolay the foundation of its walls, amouse was the
Argilos appears tohave been aplace of importance and tohave pos
sessed aconsiderable territory on the banks of the Strymon. Itwas for
some time subjecttothe Athenians, butwhen Brasidas invaded the Chalci
dice, the Argilians opened their gates tohim (3), and contributed greatly
tothe success of his undertaking againstAmphipolis.
" a
The coin, Plate Ill, n. 2, was inadvertently placed here: itis of
Euboea. V. lrfrci.
Male gure with the causiaand twospears, standing by ahorse.
Rev. OEEEQM. In an indented square. AR 2. Plate Ill, n. 3.
(Mr Hamilton.) .
A similar coin was published by Paciaudi, with the inscription
OEZ IQM, (5) and attributed toOssa, acity of the Bisaltae, mentioned by
Stephanus. The singular and unusual termination in QM, induced subse
quentantiquaries tocall in question this explanation. Eckhell (6) disposes
the letters in adifferentmanner, he reads EIQMOE, which he supposes to
(.1) HnnoDoTuS, lib. VII, cap I15. Tnucrntn. in Thrace was probably the same as the present.
lib. V, cap. 18. Sruano, lib. VII, excerpt. l6. V. Hun-rim. Catalog. Tan. VII. n. 13.
(2) STEP] -I uw. Bvznrr. (V. Ap-pkg.) (5) Animad. Philolog., page 75.
(3) TuucYn1n,|ib. IV, pag. 103. (0) Docr. Nun. Var. Tom. II, pag. 73.
(4) Acoin attributed by D. Combe toAristaaum
' ( 39 ) -
be amagistrates name, and ascribes the coin toMaroneain Thrace.
Others have read MQEZ EO, and considered itin the same sense.
The presentand several others coins, which have lately come tolight,
shew thatthe true reading is OZ EEQM, and justify the opinion of Paciaudi,
which is farther conrmed (I) by acoin hithertounique of the Bisaltae,
with atype precisely similar.
The termination in M is an old AEolic form of which we have examples
in the coins of the Mamertini (2), of the Lucani, of Tylissus in Crete, and
the presentof Ossa. Ithas notbeen noticed by any grammarians, be
cause, little conversantwith monuments, they derived their rules from
books, in which the archaic orthography was adapted tothe fashion
of the age of the transcriber. v
OPPHEKION. Male gure with the Macedonian causia, holding two
spears, and guiding ayoke of oxen.
Rev. Rude intended square divided intofour compartments. AR t.
Weight433grains. Plate III, n. 4. (The late Mr Payne Knight.)
A numerous class of coins, formerly attributed tothe island ofLesbos,
and which generally representasatyr or acentaur carrying away afe
male, are now ascertained tobe of Macedoniaor Thrace. The legend
of some is OPPHZ KIQN; thatof the others has been read AHTAIQN.
The magnicentsilver octod rachm with the inscription OPPHEKION here
engraved, presents atype totally differentfrom the others. Twoonly
of this kind are known : one, which belonged tothe late Mr Payne Knight,
and is now in the British Museum : the other, in the French Kings col
lection. .
This lasthas been published by Mr Raoul-Rochette (3), and attributed
tothe Orestae, originally aMolossian tribe, which inhabited amountain
(I) Hu1vTnn. Catalog. Tab. XIII, g. 4. the editor read BIEAATIQN instead of OZ EEQM. lbid.
Another coin of the same collection attributed topage 67. -
the Bisaltae, is similar tothe present. The reverse (2) Supra. Pag. 33, and Plate II, n. I3.
being ill struck, and the letters rather uncertain, (3) Lettres in lord Aberdeen. Planche I, n. l.
v ( 4 l
ous districtbetween Epirus and Macedonia, and was afterwards con
quered and incorporated with the latter, by Philip the father of
Alexander (1).
In alate numismatic publication by Mr de Cadalvene (2), this opinion
of Mr Raoul-Rochette has been contested; and the coins in question
are, with much greater probability, attributed toapeople of Thrace.
The site, however, which the author assigns tothe Orestae, in Bisaltia,
is notsupported by any authority. He rejects with reason the fabulous
origin attributed tothis people, and refers their name totheir mountain
ous situation. But, as the greatestpartof Thrace was of the same na
ture, the term of mountainous can never imply the Bisalta-2 in particular.
Nor is the occasional discovery of similar coins in Bisaltiaan argument
of any weight, since we know thatthey abound in almostevery partof
northern Macedoniaand Thrace. ~
'The same author alleges, and atthe same time, rejects the opinion of
some antiquaries thatthey are of Orestias, acity of Thrace, afterwards
called Hadidanopolis. Itis however, the mostprobable opinion, as the exis
tence of this place is perfectly ascertained by ancienttestimony (3), whereas
the Orestias of Bisalticais entirely imaginary. The inference deducible
from the name, is alsofar more favourable toacity of Haemus, the highest
mountain of Thrace (4), than toany other situation in thatcoimtryz we
musttherefore ascribe the coins with the legend OPPHEKJQN tothe Orestias
(I) Snuno, lib. V-II, p. 326. diditcivitatem ;--EtOrestam quidem urbem Hadria
(2) Recueil de Mdailles Grecque5_ Pari5,1338_ nus suonomine vindicari jussit. LnxriuDws, in
pag. 76. Elagabal., cap. I7.
(3) fidpucog :1.zi(5pe;1-iv. i viiv Adgtav0nolq. Apospas- Mons Haemus vastojugoprocumbens in Pontum
mat. in Geogr. Min., tom. IV, pag. 42. 43. oppidum babuitin vertice Aristmum. P1.nnus,lib. IV,
Hepi Adpmvo m').w. cap. ll. Probably instead of Aristaum, the reading
T5 1\.'plv y.urpbv 1l'07.i7_vt0v > 0.-F.aw Opaqriada, should be Oremeum.
O A-yajtpvovog uib; npiv -ii-yugev Ogarnq, A districtof the chain of I-Iaamus was called Hae
Tzn-rzas. Chiliad. VIH, Hist. 247. mimontus or Haamimontanus, evidently atranslation
0i'n-0: -roiwv 1-in Opts-riaulaobui, (aim 31-m> .zi -vi of the Greek appellation (')po-riu. AMMunus Man
1-.'o').t; ixa.).I1-0, 1'06 Bacilloi; Adpwivou IE (')p(a-rou 1'05 CELL. lib. XIV, cap. 37. Sextus Rufus, cap. IX.
LTzppvov0(.) Z oIAHAS, lib. XII, cap. 23. (4) Ex quibus Llarmus in tantum altitudinis abit,
Posteaquam se ( Orestes) apud triauminacircautEuxinum etHadriam ex summovertice ostendat.
Hebrum ex response puricav-it, etiam Orestam con- PoMroalilau, lib. II, cap. 2.
subsequently called Hadrianopolis, till we have authority for the exis
tence of another city or people of this denomination in adifferentpart
of Thrace.
Though nomention of this city occurs in early history, yetits name
and fabulous origin attestits antiquity. Tzetzes(I), itis true, calls it
utxpbv 1ro).i)(_vtov, butitwas probably of some importance, when Hadrian
enlarged itand called itby his name.
The difference between the names of Oreskii and Orestae is noobjec
tion tothe proposed attribution : both are forms derived from the same
word Opetot. The one is peculiar tothatpartof Thrace, which was to
the N. of the Strymon, where we nd greatnumbers of local names ending
in tntog, as Bromiscus, Drabescus, Doriscus, Myrgiscus and many others.
The form in em. was peculiar toMacedonia, and the country S. of the
Strymon as Stephanus of Byzantium has observed We nd there,
the Lyncestae, the Tauristm, the Orestae, and various others. The two
forms were frequently exchanged; we are told by Strabo(3), thatthe
Taurisci and the Tauristae were the same; and Casaubon is probably right
in his opinion thatthe Cordistae of Athenaeus (4) are the same as the Scord
isci of Strabo. The difference in the form of the name offers, therefore,
noobjection. _
The type of the coin before us, alludes tothe abundantherds of oxen,
which constituted the chief riches of the Thracians, and refers, atthe
same time, tothe address of the people in taming the wildestbulls, and
subjecting them tothe yoke. The Thessalians and the Macedonians, who
were of the same race as the Thracians, excelled likewise in similar pur
suits. The Inan is armed with twospears, his head is covered with the
This mode of hunting probably induced the Thessalian poets toattri
bute totheir heroJason the exploitof taming the brazen bulls of Vulcan
(I) Chiliad., lib. VIII, vers. 954. (3) Lib. VII, pag. 345.
(2) Hauoavia: titAiaeaiq qmci. Mwuddvuv 7&p 6 -n'm':; (4) Lib. VI, cap. 25.
_(')p|o'ra.i, AUYXIOTGI. V. Aiov. 3
6 .
( 42 ) "
which guarded the golden eece. The description of Ovid (1), may illus
trate the representation on the coin :
Pendulaque audaei mulcetpaleariadextra,
Suppositosque jugopondus grave cogitaratri
Ducere, etinsuetum ferroproscindere campum.
The extraordinary size of the presentcoin, which is double the weight
of any struck in Greece, attests the wealth of the early Thracians, derived
from their silver mines sorenowned in history.
A coin of Geta, king of the Edones, with the legend FETA2 HAONEON
BAZ IAEIE of the same types, and of the same weightas the present,
which I shall publish atsome future period, will afford me an oppor
tunity of offering some farther remarks on the numismatics of Thrace.
Adverse terminal gure, between awheat-ear and caduceus. ,
Rev. EA. A vase with twohandles. AE 4. Plate III, n. 5. (Mr. Ha
milton. )
The differentemblems represented on this small brass coin, being those
of Samothrace, and of various-cities of the neighbouring coastof Thrace, it
may, with greatprobability, be attributed toSala, atown belonging tothe
Samothracians. Herodotus informs us thatitwas situated on the
coastof Thrace, between ./Enos and Selymbria, in adistrictcalled Doris
cus, where Xerxes reviewed his army, and caused his eettobe retted.
The terminal mode of representing Mercury was peculiar tothe Pelasgi,
whoinhabited Lemnos, Imbros and Samothrace, where they established
the Cabiric mysteries, and subsequently introduced intoAthens the gure
and rites of thatdivinity (3). The wheat-ear alludes toCeres, in whose
honor the Cabiric mysteries were originally founded. The vase on the
(1) Metamorphorseon, lib. VII, vers. H7-119. (3) Hanono-rus, lib. II, cap. 52; lib. VII, cap. 52.
(2) Lib. VII, cap. 59. Pxusum, lib. I, cap. I7.
! ._..___,
_ ( 43) I
reverse is perhaps the Kipvog, used in the Samothracian and Eleusinian
mysteries (I); on another coin of Sala(2) the same vase is placed before
agure of Ceres, and itoccurs alsoon other coins of Thrace. .
A Satyr drinking outof acrater.
Rev. TE. A goat. AR. 3. Plate Il1.n. 6. (The late Mr. Payne Knight.)
Torone is acity frequently mentioned in the history of the Persian
and Peloponnesian wars. Itwas situated on the southern extremity of the
Sithonian peninsula, in the Chalcidice and from its importance gave
its name tothe gulph on which itstood.
The type of this rare silver coin alludes tothe worship of Dionysus,
established atavery early period in Thrace, whence itpassed intoGreece.
The legend TE shews thatitwas called Terone by its inhabitants,
according tothe fEolic dialect, instead of Torone, as itis always written
in authors; thus we Il(l_,Ep7_op. vo; for Opxouvoq, and in the Latin language
the interchange of E and O is frequent.
MAAI. A dog of the fox kind.
Rev. A bull butting. Above, awheat-ear. AE 2. Plate 111, n. 7.
( Chevalier Palin, atRome.)
This coin, hithertounique, with the legend MAAT, is undoubtedly of
Madytus, aconsiderable town of the Thracian Chersonnesus on the Hel
lespont, between Sestos and Ela;-us (4), near apromontory called Cynos
sema, from abarrow supposed tobe thatof Hecuba(5), whothrew
herself intothe seafrom thatspotand was transformed intoadog.
(I) A-rnalueus, lib. XI, cap. 52 et56. (4) Hnaono-rns,lib. VII, cap. 33; lib. IX, cap. I21.
(2) Huzrrnn. Catalog. Tab. XLVI, g. 15. The Srnrumus, Byzant. ' ' _
editor inadvertently ascribed ittoSalain Phrygia. (5) STnAno, lib. XIII, pag. 595. Eunrrrnns, He
(3) Hnnonarus, lib. VII, cap. 22, l22.TnucYnInzs, cuba, vers. l24l.
lib.IV.cap. I10, Ill ; lib.V,~ cap. 3. Scnax, sect. 67.
( 44 ) ' "
The dog represented on the coin, alludes probably tothe metamor
phosis of Hecuba, and tothe name of xuvo; o"I'1p.agiven toher tomb.
The bull and wheat-ear on the reverse, are appropriate emblems of
the fertility for which the Chersonnesus of Thrace was sorenowned.
FALQ KAIEAPI. Laureated head of the emperor Caligula.
Rev. BAEIAEQE. Eagle holding awreath in its beak, and in its talons
asceptre. AE_4. Plate III, n. 8. (Mr. Hamilton.)
Of the various kings whowere suffered toretain their dominions
in the time of Caligula. the only one towhom this coin can be ascribed,
is Rhoemetalces II, king of Thrace (1).
This prince was the son of Rhescuporis, whowas dethroned by Tibe
rius aboutthe year 19 of the Christian aera; Rhoemetalces was appointed
tosucceed him, and, in the year 38, received aconsiderable accession of
territory from Caligula. He was the lastking of Thrace, which, on his
death, was reduced toaRoman province.
The coin before us was intended toattestthe gratitude of Rl10eme
talces tothe emperor. The form of the inscription is dedicatory, and
may be read BAEIAEQE aivelivrog FAIQ KAIEAPI. The omission of the name
of the prince is singular, a11d appears imitated from the coins of Alexan
der, where, sometimes, the regal title alone ( mt-r ioxv) is expressed.
The eagle of the reverse is the emblem of Rome, presenting tothe king
of Thrace the sceptre and crown, insigniaof regal power.
i~ _"'*
Laureated head of Apollo. '
(I) Cxnr. Hist. des Rois dc Thrace, pug. 78. VISConTI. Iconographie Grecque, tom. III, pag. 302.
( 45 ) -
Rev. < I> IAIl'IHOY. Male gure in acar drawn by twohorses. Above
MNAEIMAXOE. Under the horses, PO, and arose AV 2. Plate III,
n. 9. (Lord Northwick.) '
This gold stater with the usual types of Philip of Macedon, the father
of Alexander, is remarkable from its having been struck atRhodes, as
the initials PO, and the rose, emblem of thatisland clearly demon
strate. ! -
Nocircumstances in the history of Philip can accountfor the distinguish
ed honour paid tohim by the Rhodians, and which this numismatic mo
numentrecords. The conquests of thatprince were never extended
beyond the limits of Greece, and, far from having been on friendly terms
with the Rhodians, they frequently opposed his ambitious views; and,
when Philip invested Byzantium, they united their fleettothatof the
Athenians, and obliged him toraise the siege (I). '
After the death of Philip, affairs took adifferentturn, mutual interest
produced aclose alliance between his son Alexander and the Rhodians.
Their frienship is \vell known. The sword of the conqueror of Asia
was apresentfrom thatpeople (2), and, as amark of condence in
them, he deposited his will under their care (3).
From these considerations we are enabled toconclude, thatthe present
coin was struck after the death of Philip, as atribute tohis memory and
acomplimenttohis son Alexander, of whom we have alsomany coins
issued by the Rhodians. Itmightalso, and for the same motives, be ass
igned tothe reign of Philip Aridaeus, the successor of Alexander; the
Rhodians having persevered in their attachmenttothe Macedonian dy
nasty till its destruction under Perseus. '
The presentexample affords additional conrmation tothe opinion,
thatmany of the coins of Philip, as well as of Alexander, were issued
after their death. -
The name of MNAZ IMAXOE is thatof -the prytanis, or chief magistrate
of the Rhodians : itfrequently occurs on the coins of Rhodes.
(1) DloDon- SICuL, lib. XVI, cap. 77. (3) Dionom S1coL., lib. XX. cap. 81.
(2) Psunncu, in Alexandra.
(46) ,
Adverse female head, with flowing hair. -
Rev. < I> IAIl'IHOIIOAITQN. Jupiter seated on arock and holding asceptre.
Before him, athunderbolt. AB. 2. Weight, 89 grains. Plate III, n. 10.
( Mr. Thomas). . ,,
Several towns of Macedonia, or of the countries annexed toitby con
quest, were named after Macedonian kings or queens. Among these we
nd four called after Philip, 'viz. twoin Thrace, founded by Philip, the
father of Alexander, Philippopolis, and Philippi illustrious in the annals
of Christianity: and twoin Thessaly, Thebae Phthioticae, and Gomphi (1),
denominated from Philip V, son of Demetrius.
Itwould be difculttodetermine towhich of these places the elegant
and unique coin here engraved mightbe attributed, if its perfectresem
blance tothose of Gomphi did notassure us thatitwas of thatcity (2),
which, for some time, bore the name of Philippopolis, butafter the
subversion of the Macedonian kingdom, resumed its ancientappella
Some geographers (3), itis true, consider Gomphi and Philippopolis
tohave been distinctcities, the passage of Stephanus being corrupt. The
presentcoin, however, is agreatargumentin favor of their identity.
The difculty in the passage of Stephanus is easily removed, by substitut
ing Geccliag instead of Gecnpttag which is evidently an error of the tran
scriber. _In general the testimony of Stephanus is of the greatestweight,
and should notbe rejected; excepton the strongestgrounds.
The female head on the obverse is probably apersonication of the
city. In the engraving given by Pellerin (4), from an ill preserved coin
(1) Srzrrn1vBYzx1n'. V. d> v.7u.1r1r0'no).q. V. Snsrun. Lettere Numism., 1817, tom. III,
(2) Pn1.1.1mnv, tom. I, pl. XXVI, n. 5. pag. 39.
Acoin ascribed by the same author toAmphea (3) Canaan. AncientGreece, tom. I, pagi 361.
is alsoof Gomphi. The legend is FOMMTOTN. (4) V. note 2.
( 47 ) '
of Gomphi with the same types, itis metamorphosed intoaMedusa, on
accountof the owing hair. From the reverse itappears thatJupiter
was the tutelary divinity of the city.
, 1. Head of Neptune. Behind, atrident.
Rev. KI. Female head. AR 4. Plate Ill. n. :1. (Lieut. Col. Leake.)
2. Head of Jupiter with laurel wreath.
Rev. KIEPIEIQN. Female gure kneeling. AR. 3. Plate III, n. 12.
(Same collection).
3. Bearded head, perhaps of Neptune. - >
Rev. Legend effaced. Same reverse as the preceding. AE. 3. Plate I11,
n. 13. (Same collection.)
4. Laureated head of Apollo. _
Rev. KIEPIEQN. Jupiter standing, supporting with one hand an eagle,
and with the other vibrating his thunder. Before, the same gure as in
n. 2 and 3. AE 2. Plate Ill, n. 14. (Mr. Hamilton.)
Nocoins of this city had been published, till Col. Leake made known
seven varieties of silver and copper, in the transactions of the Royal Society
of Literature (1). Atthe same time he has given amostinteresting ac
countof the discovery of the site of the city, and has illustrated all thatre"
lates toits ancienthistory in the mostample and satisfactory manner;
I shall conne myself toashortextract, referring the reader tothe ori
ginal memoir of the learned author.
Stephanus of Bysantium (2), the only author whohas mentioned Cie
rium, informs us thatitwas the same as the Thessalian Arne. Ittook its
rstname from the nymph Arne, adaughter of fEolus, and the mother of
Boeotus by Neptune; Boeotus gave tohis subjects the name of Boeotians, and
their descendants being compelled toabandon Thessaly, settled i_n that
I Vol. I, rt. I, 8 e I51. 2) V. Avii. Pa P3 P
( 43)
partof Greece, called after them Bceotia, where they founded another city
of Arne. In later times the name of the Thessalian Arne was changed into
thatof Cierium, from the river Cierius, called sometimes Cuarius or Cu
The site of Cierium, previously unknown, was alsodiscovered by Col.
Leake. Twoinscriptions relating toit(1), and various coins inscribed
KIEPLEIQN, found atMataranga, enabled him toascertain thatthe bar
rows and various remains of an ancientcity, which are seen there, were
of Cierium. llatarangais avillage consisting of four or ve hamlets, on
the leftbank of the Apidanus, one of the largeststreams which , flowing
from the mountains of Dolopia, all join the Peneius, notfar from the
site of the ancientPharcadon. On the S. side of Matarangais around in
sulated hill, on the summitof which are the foundations of the walls of
the acropolis or citadel. On the slope, and round the footof the hill, are
many vestiges of alarge town , where coins and fragments of antiquity are
frequently found. _
Justbelow the position of the city, the Apidanus is joined by asmall
er stream, withoutdoubtthe Cuarius or Cierius, which seems tohave
bounded the city on the \V. side. On the banks of this river was atemple
of MinervaItonia, whose worship was from hence transferred by the
Thessalian Arnaei toCoroneiain Boeotia, where they gave alsothe name of
Cuarius toariver. i
From one of the inscriptions discovered, itappears thatNeptune the
father of Arne , was particularly venerated here under the epithetof
Cuarius. His head is represented on the coin N I, and on the reverse is
the portraitof Arne. Besides Neptune, the coins before us shew that
Jupiter and Apollowere alsoworshipped by the Cierenses. The nymph
Arne received alsodivine honours; and on all the coins she is represented,
either as the principal type, or as an accessory symbol.
(I) One refers toadispute between the cities of of Metropolis, atadistance of I0 or I2 miles to
Cierium and Metropolis respecting the limits of their the VV. of Mataranga, and exactly in the position
territories. Itis of the reign of Tiberius. which Strabohas indicated.
Col. Leake subsequently discovered the remains (2) IIOZ IZ IAXINI ROYEPIDI KE< b.\_UlS BTRIFOT.
-The attitude of the gure of Arne is extremely graceful; she appears to
be playing with osselets, (astragali) adiversion frequently attributed to
nymphs. Pausanias describing agroup of the Graces, says thatone held
an osselet(i), and adds, thatitis an amusementand an emblem of youth,
before old age has damped every enjoyment.
In apicture -of Herculaneum, Hileairaand Aglaia, the daughters of
Niobe are represented playing atthe same game (2). -
The inscription on the coins is sometimes KIEPIEQN, and on others
KIEPIEIQN. P'ellerin has published one similar ton 4, butin bad pre
servation, and KIEPI only legible, which he ascribed toCius in Bithy
nia(3). Another, with the same types, in the British Museum (4) has
been attributed tothe Brettii. They are both of Cierium.
The discovery of the various monuments relating tothis city has en
abled Gol. Leake tocorrecttwopassages in Livy (5); where, instead of
Cieriaor Cierium, copyists have substituted Pieria.
Itis remarkable thatthe name of Cierium, aplace which musthave
been of greatimportance, is notfound in any author, exceptStephanus;
this may be accounted for by the celebrity of the name of Arne, which,
though disused on the spot, continued tobe better known tothe restof
Greece. .
A horse feeding. Above, abee.
Rev. In an indented square, AA(PI)2EON. A sandal. AR 2. Plate III,
n. 15. (The late Mr. Payne Knight.) '
The types and legend differ somuch from those of Larissain Pelas
giotis, of which we have somany coins, thatdoubts may be entertained,
(I) Aotpdyaldv rtpmpaxiuv -rs mi arapivoiv, 0l; ailapi represented playing with aball (cqaaipa) on the coins
ov3dv fro) npdazcrtv ix 'fIlpoig, -:06rwv lvru rbv aicrpai-;a7.ov of Larissa. Panama, pl. XXVII, n. 20.
na.i-ymv. PAuSAR. lib. VI, cap. 24. (3) Peuples etVilles, tom. II, pl. XLI, n. 13.
(2) Pitture dErcolano, tom. I, tav. I. (4) Tab. IH, n. 23.
For the same motive the nymph of Larissa, is (5) Lib. XXXII, cap. 15; lib. XXXVI, cap. I4.
. 7
- " < 50 >
whether the presentcoin is notof LarissaCremaste in Phthiotis (1), adis
trictof Thessaly, aneiently subjecttoAchilles.
The constantlegend of the Larissaean coins, is AAPIZ MQN; instead of
which we nd here AAPIEAEON, and atype entirely new. The singular
representation of asandal is difculttoexplain (2). The mostprobable
conjecture is, thatitrefers tothe story of Jason, who, in crossing the
Anauros, lostone of his sandals : an incidentcelebrated in the Thessal
ian mythi The bee over the horse, does notappear tobe simply
the symbol of amagistrate, butconstitutes aprincipal type.
1. Male gure with the causia, retaining abull by the horns. _
_ Rev. < I> E. The fore partof ahorse. Behind, alions head; in an in
dented square. AR 3. Plate Ill, n. 16. (CountWiezai, Hedervar.)
2. Laureated head of Apollo.
Rev. QEPAIOTN. A female gure placing her hand on the spoutof a
fountain. Underneath, AITO, or AZ TO, in awreath. AR. 3. Plate Ill,
n._ 17. Royal Collection, atParis. j
The rstof these, presents the usual types of the Thessalian mint, al
lusive tothe excellency of the breed of horses of thatcountry, and the
address of the Thessalians in bull-hunts. The celebrated fouhtain Hy
pereia(4), an objectof greatveneration tothe Pheraei, is gured in the
back ground, by alions head, from which astream of water is flowing.
The second is remarkable for the inscription < I> EPAIOI'N instead of
< I> EPAIQN_, adialectic form which occurs on coins of Gomphi, and in
(1) 5'"u ,lib- IX, P8g- 435 and 440- The sandal was alsodedicated toMercury as the
(2) Sandals, sometimes of gold or other precious protector fotravellers.
materials, are enumerated among the sacred offer- (3) PunnzCYDES, frag. 42. PInDAn, Pyth. IV, 133
'35 ( " 1 lt-~ "z ) t divinities: 9 P Cially toVenus and I70. Aron. Ruon., lib. I, vers 8--1 l. A1> oLz.on., lib. I.
Diana. V. Air-ruonoun Pu.um, lib. VI,epig. 201, (4) Hoxna. Iliad Z , vers 457. Pumxa. Pythia
2 61 210- Od. IV, vers. 221.
( 51 l
inscriptions, where we read AHAOYNI by contraction for AHOAAQNI (1).
Itrepresents alsothe fountain Hypereiaand anymph standing by it.
The letters on the wreath, under the lions head, are notdistinct, and it
is doubtful whether the reading is AITO or AZ TO ; consequently noopinion
respecting itcan be offered (2).
Apollo, whois represented on the obverse, musthave been one of the
chief divinities of Pherae, where he served Admetus, son of Pheres, founder
of the city, and tended his ocks for the space of ayear. By his assis
tance, Admetus obtained Alcestis in marriage, and the power of substitut
ing aperson todie in his stead (3).
Laureated head of Apollo.
Rev. EKIAQI. A caduceus and terminus. AE 3. Plate Ill, n. 18.
(Mr. Hamilton.)
The coins of this island are extremely rare. The presentis remar
kable for the terminal gure of Mercury peculiar tothe Pelasgi This
representation agrees with the testimony of Scymnus of Ghios (5), with
regard tothe Pelasgic origin of the rstinhabitants of the island.
Laureated head of Apollo. Behind, TA.
Rev. OAYMHAETAN. A conical pillar. A laurel wreath encircling the
whole. ./E 3. Plate III, n. 19. (Mr. Hamilton.)
(I) W.u.Ponns Travels, page 506. Boncxn. In
script. Antiq., pag. 860.
(2) These twocoins of Pherze have been publish
ed by M. de Cadalvene. Rejecting the explanation
of the type of n 1, given by Eckhell and all other
antiquaries, he supposes ittorepresentBacchus.
The inscription of n 2, he reads AITO, and consid
er: itas indicating, thatthe wreath or crown was
in honour of the Etolians, as areturn for services
rendered tothe Phera:i. Todiscuss similar opinions
is_ unnecessary, as they carry with them their own
refutation. V. Mdailles Indites, pag. I29.
(3) Arouonon. Bibl. lib. I, cap. IX, I5. PBInICY
nus, in Schol. Euripid. Alcest., vers. 2.
(4) V. Supra, page -'12.
(5) Vera583.
We are indebted toStephanus of Byzantium for the knowledge of
many names of cities unnoticed by any other ancientauthors extant.
Among these, is Olympe in Illyria, atown towhich the presentunique
coin may undoubtedly be referred, as itis in every respectsimilar to
those of the neighbouring cities.
The legend is here OAYMIIAETAN, from Oltupnrtiaq, one of the gentile ad
jectives from Olympe The form in ETAI, as before observed (2), is
noticed by Stephanus as peculiar toMacedonia, whence itextended to
Illyria, in consequence of the intercourse naturally existing between the
twocountries, and their common origin.
Antiquaries donotagree in their explanation of the objectrepresent
ed on the reverse. Some have considered itas apharos, or beacon,
others as an obelisk, or agoal of the stadium (meta). Perhaps itis
one of the conical stones called yuitbq (3), sacred toApollo, and origi
nally the rude form under which he was worshipped. Itis seen alsoon
the coins of Ambracia, Apolloniaand Oricus, cities of the same coasts,
and always in conjunction with the head of Apollo. . i
Laureated head of Apollo. Before, alyre.
Rev. QPIKIQN. A conical pillar. A laurel wreath encircling the whole,
AE 3. Plate Ill, n. 2o. (Mr. Hamilton
Oricus was aplace of considerable importance in Illyria, and pos
sessed an extensive territory called Oricia. Itis frequently mentioned
by ancientauthors
The presentis perfectly similar tothose of Apollonia, Ambracia, and to
thatof Olympe, precedently described; shewing thatthe latter is undoub
tedly of the same country, and conrming fully the testimony of Ste
phanus. _
(I) (5> .u|-um, 1:67.14 lnupiaq. Tb tome , 67.uy.-nai0q ~71 (3) Smnas and HAHPoCKATIoI. V. A-yuuiig.
67W11-1=i~ - (4) Hnnono-r., lib.IX cap. 93. Sctux, sect.27.
(2) Supra, page tl, note 2. S'.lzPuA1\'. BYzur.
4 < 53).
Helmeted head of Minerva._ Behind, A. Above, awarrior with a
spear and shield. _
Rev. Pegasus. AR 2. Plate III, n. 21. (Mr. Hamilton.)
The mostancientcoins ofAmbraciaare those called Ham, with Corin
thian types, commemorative of the foundation of the city by acolony
from Corinth. They are, in general, easily distinguished from those of
the other Corinthian colonies in Eastern Greece, Whose names commence
with an A, by their having the initial or diacritical letter on the obverse;
acustom which Argos, Anacto_rium, and others, have notfollowed.
A coin of this kind, with awarrior accompanied by the legend FOPFOE,
has been published by M. Raoul-Rochette (1), whothinks thatthe gure
represents the leader of the Corinthian colony, called by ancientauthors
Golgus, T orgus or Gorgasus, butwhose real name Gorgas, as stated by
Scymnus alone (2), is ascertained by the coin in question. This opinion of the
learned author is highly probable and satisfactory, and for the same mo
tives, the warrior on the coin before us, may be referred likewise toGorgus.
Helmeted head of Minerva. Behind, avine branch.
Rev. AK in monogram. Pegasus. AR 2. Plate I V, n. I. (Mr. Hamilton.)
The explanation of monograms requires, in general, much caution, as
the letters which compose them may frequently be disposed in somany
various ways, thatthe real meaning remains uncertain. In the present
instance, although the monogram may be resolved in differentsenses,
(I) Annales de l0Institutde Corresp.Archol, pour (2) Scnmus Cains, vers 454.
lan 1829. Cahier III, pag. 312.
( 54 ) i
yet, as the types of the coin shew thatitis of one of the Corinthian colo
n1es in Eastern Greece, itmay with greatprobability be attributed to
Actia, or, as itis usually called Actium, acity belonging tothe Anactorians,
and celebrated foratemple ofApollo, and from having given its name tothe
battle, where the lastsparks of the liberties of mankind were extinguish
ed for somany centuries. _
M. Cousinery, whose constantzeal and exertions have contributed so
much tothe advancementof the numismatic science, refers the coin to
the Acarnani. The objection tothis opinion seems tobe, that, al
though various cities of Acarnaniahad been fourided by Corinthian
colonies, yet, the general confederacy of the Acarnanian nation could not
lay claim toaCorinthian origin. Itappears rather from Thucydides
thatthey were never on good terms. Perhaps acoin with alegend at
greater length may come tolight, and determine the question more fully.
Itmay be noticed here, thatthe numerous colonies of Corinth, which
issued coins commemorative of their origin, observed, almostinvariably the
example of the parentcity, in placing the initial of their names under
the Pegasus on the reverse. The exceptions are, when the name of the
place is inscribed atgreater length on the obverse. For farther particu
lars, the reader is referred tothe learned discussions on this subjectby
Mr. Cousinery and Mr. Raoul-Rochette.
AAYZ AIQN. Helmeted head of Minerva. Behind, aleaf.
Rev. Pegasus. Underneath, A. AR. 2. Plate IV. n. 2.
The legend atfull length, conrms the opinion of the judicious Eck
hell(2), whoattributed acoin with Corinthian types and the letters AAT
tothis city.
The origin of Alyziais notmentioned, butwe see by its coins, thatit
(I) Essai hist. etcrit. sur les Monnaies de laLigue (2) Noni. VETEn. AJuzcD., paraI, Vienna, I775,
Achenne,etc. Paris, 1826. Page 131. pag. 122.
( 55 ) .
was acolony from Corinth. Itwas aplace" of importance (1), and near
itwas atemple of Hercules from which aRoman general took various
works of artby Lysippus
Obverse head of Medusa.
Rev. A. Pegasus. AR. 4. Plate IV. n. 3. (Mr. Thomas
Unpublished imitation of the types of Corinth, of which Leucas was a
Helmeted head of Minerva. Behind, ahelmet.
Rev. HAAEI, in monogram. Pegasus. AR.2. PlatelV. n. 4. (Mr.Ha
milton ).
The monogram is here of more easy explanation than in n 1. The
letters HAAEI, of which itis obviously composed, can refer tonoother
place than toPaleiros, acity of Acarnania, situated between Solium and
Itis called H@ 7.w.9o; by Strabo(3), butHmpoq by Thucydides (4), con
sistently with the coin before us. We know little of the history of this
place, exceptthat, in the Peloponnesian war, the Paleirenses sided with the
Athenians, who, toreward their services, gave them the neighbouring city
of Solium, which they had taken.
From the coins we discover, thatlike the greatestnumber of towns oi
thatdistrict, Paleiros was acolony of Corinth
Helmeted head of Minerva.
(1) TuucYn., lib. VII, cap. 31. Scrux, sect. 34. (5) Mr. Cousinery has attributed this coin to
(2) Srnano, lib. X, pag. 459. the _Epi1-ota; butthe objections tothe claim of the
(3) Lib. X, pag. 459. Acarnani toaCorinthian origin, apply equally to
(4) Lib. II, cap. 30. the Epirotae. (Supra, page 54 )

Rev. Pegasus. Underneath, AOK. AR. 2. Plate IV. n. 5. ( Mr. Ha
milton _
The Locrians, todistinguish their coins from those of the Leucadians,
generally place their name atfull length. In the presentinstance, the three
rstletters only are inscribed on the reverse. j
EPX. A hbrse atliberty. Above, awheat-ear.
Rev. Boeotian shield. AR. 1. Plate IV. n. 6. (The late Mr. Payne
Knight I -
This unique silver tetradraehm was attributed by its learned possessor
toErythrae in Boeotia. From an attentive examination of the letters of
the legend, itappears, however, thatthe last, instead of an Y, is aX, and
consequently refers toOrchomenus, once one of the richestand most
powerful cities of the known World (1).
According tothe Boeotian dialect, we nd EPX instead of OPX. The
name of the magistrate is written YAOPO for EYAQPOY. The 1' simple ins
tead of the dipthong E1 is adialectic form of which noother example occurs.
The absence of the Q bespeaks an early period.
The shield on one side is the common emblem of the Boeotians. The
horse, seldom seen on Boeotian coins, refers tothe Thessalian origin of
the Orchomenians, and totheir skill in horsemanship; whence Pindar(2)
gives toOrchomenos the epithetof K> o.1'=< .m> ;. i
The wheat-ear, emblem of fertility, is the constanttype of the early
coins of this city. v
A coin in Dr. Hunters collection attributed toBoeotiawith the legend
EPXO, which the editor has taken for the name of amagistrate (3), is also
of Orchomenus. .
(1) HoMER, Iliad, lib.IX, vers 381. Pms.nr.,lib. IX, (2) Olymp. Od. XIII, vers 2.
cap. 34. (3) Tab. XIII, fig. 12.
'< ' 57 )
KQHAIQN. The fore partof abull. '
Rev. Boeotian shield. AR 4. Plate IV, n. 7. (Mr. Burgon.)
Copae was asmall butancienttown on the borders of alake,
called from itCopais : Homer enumerates itamong the Boeotian cities
which contributed tothe expedition againstTroy (1). In the time of
Pausanias (2), ithad fallen intodecay: he describes itas having once
belonged tothe Orchomenians. _
Nocoins of this place were previously known.
1. KOPO. Adverse head of Medusa.
Rev. Boeotian shield. AR 3. Plate IV, n. 8. (Same collection.]
2. KO. Same type as the preceding.
Rev. Boeotian shield. AR. 4. Plate IV, n. 9. (Mr. Hamilton.)
Coronea, avery ancientcity of Boeotia, recorded by Homer (3), was
founded atthe same time as Qrchomenus by the Minyan colony from
Thessaly Coronus, whogave ithis name, was grandson of Sisyphus
and brother of Athamas. Hence, atasmall distance from it, was ace
lebrated temple of MinervaItonia, called after one of the same name in
Thessaly In this temple the general assembly of the Boeotians was
held. ,
The head of Medusaon the twocoins of this city, published here
for the rsttime, alludes tothe veneration in which Minervawas held; it
refers alsotoatradition recorded by Pausanias (6), Iodama, apriestess
of the goddess, having gone by nightintothe sacred enclosure Erinevoq] ,
(1) Iliad. lib. II, vers. 502. (5) There was alsoariver Cuarius, near Coronea,
(2) Lib. IX, cap. 24- I called after one of the same name atArne or Cierium
(3) Iliad, lih. II, vers 503. in Thessaly. V. Supra, pag. 47 and 48.
(4) Pausun, lib. IX, cap. 34. (6) Lib. IX; I. c.

( 53) _ .
Minervaherself appeared toher with the head of the Gorgon Medusa
over her tunic : atthis sight, Iodamawas converted intostone. A daily
ceremony instituted tocommemorate this singular event, still existed in
the time of Pausanias.
Female head.
Rev. HAA. An ox. AE 4. Plate IV, n. IO. (Mr. Hamilton.)
The coins of this celebrated city are in silver and very scarce; the
present, which is of copper, has never been published. The head on
one side is thatof the nymph Plataea, daughter of the river Aso
pus (1). The ox on the reverse, alludes tothe fertility of the Pla
taean territory. Among the sacred offerings atDelphi, was abrazen ox
dedicated by the Plataeans (2), after the glorious victory which they ob
tained, in conjunction with the Greek army, over the Persians in the
territory and neighbourhood of Plataea. '
1. Bearded headiof Bacchus.
Rev. GE. The infantHercules strangling two serpents. AV 4.
Weight, 46 grains. Plate 1 V, n. rt. (Mr. Thomas.)
2. Head of Ceres veiled, and with wheaten-wreath.
Rev. GHBAIQN. A warrior landing from avessel. AR. 3. ~Plate IV,
n. 12. (Royal Collection, atParis.)
Gold coins, though abundantin AsiaMinor, were extremely rare in
Greece itself, even atAthens, before the reign of Philip. The presentiis
the rstof thatmetal of the Thebans which has been published; it
represents the twodivinities natives of Thebes, and is certainly/anterior
tothe destruction of the city by Alexander.
(1) Pwwh lib- IX. cap- 1- (2) PAUSAn. lib. X, cap. I5.
( 59 )
As the types of n 2 are differentfrom those usually seen on Theban
coins, itmay be questioned whether the coin is notof some other place
of the same name, either in Thessaly or Aoeolis.
I have however attributed ittothe Boeotian Thebes; the portraitof
Ceres being often represented on Boeotian coins, and under the denomi
nation of Thesmophoros, thatgoddess having had atThebes acelebrated
temple (1), said tohave been anciently the house of Cadmus and his
successors. _
The warrior on the reverse may consequently be Cadmus, whois
represented stepping outof the vessel which broughthim from Phoe
The coin appears tohave been struck after the restoration of Thebes
by Cassander.
Bucranium, or bone of an oxs head.
Rev. AI. A dolphin. AE. 3. Plate IV, n. 13.
The honour of one of the mostuseful inventions, thatof coinage, is attri
buted tothis island. Its coins which are of silver, and all of an early peri
od, attestby their numbers the opulence of the _/Eginetans. After the loss
of their naval superiority, their mintseems tohave ceased, exceptissuing
copper occasionally. The types of the present, which is of this metal,
allude tosacrices in honour of Neptune.
1. S DOMIT. AUG. Bare head of Domitian.
'4 Rev.... QOL COR. Warrior endeavouring torescue achild from the
mouth of aserpent. AE. 2. Plate IV, n. :4. (Mr. Hamilton.)
2. IMP. CIES. TRAIAN. HADBIAN. Laureated bustof Hadrian.
Rev. ISTHMUS. Bearded gure sitting on arock, and leaning with each
hand on arudder. AE 2. Plate. IV, n. 15. (Same collection.)
Pmsm. lib. IX. cap. 16. 8
(6o) \
3. . . . . . . L SEP SEV AV. Laureated and bearded head of Septimius
Rev... L.... COR. Same type as n 1. AE 2. Plate IV, n. 16. (Same
collection.) i
The colony established atCorinth by Julius Caesar, though composed
almostexclusively of Romans, appears _tohave been extremely solicitous
topreserve the memory of the various early mythi relating tothatonce
celebrated city. Hence, the coins of Corinth presentagreater number of
rare and interesting types, than those of any other Greek city of the same
The reverses of n 1 and 3, struck under the emperors Domitian and
Sept. Severus, relate tothe origin of the N emean games. The seven chiefs
on their march from Argos toThebes, passing by Nemea, of which Ly
curgus was king, were in wantof water (1); Meeting Hypsipyle nurse to
the kings child, and enquiring of her, she offered tolead them toaneigh
bouring fountain; and while she accompanied them, leftthe child on the
grass. During her absence, aserpentcame and killed the child. On
their return tothe spot, Adrastus and the other chiefs seized with indigna
tion, destroyed the serpent, and, toconsole Hypsipyle, instituted perio
dical games in honour of the child, whose name they changed intothat
of Archemorus.
These games, which in later times became socelebrated under the name
of Nemean, were originally under the direction of the Argives, Corin
thians, and Cleonaei (2) whopresided, either jointly or alternately. Sub
sequently, itappears, thatfor along time, the Argives alone enjoyed that
honor. Itmay be inferred, however, thatoccasionally the Corinthians
asserted their rights, and thatthe presentcoins were issued on the oc
Adrastus is represented attacking the serpent, whois in the actof de
(I) Arou.onoa., lib. III, cap. VI, 3et4.1-Item. (2) Argum. II etV in Schol. ad Nem. Pindar.
Cap- 74- P-\u5AN-,lll - H, Cap. 15. Consult. Dissert. Agent, pag. 52.
. (6: )
vouring the child. The same subjectis gured on acoin of Argos (1),
struck under the emperor Severus and probably for the same motives.
A ne has-relief relating tothe same fable, is in the SpadaPalace atRome;
twoGreek warriors attack the serpent, whoencircles the child; Hypsipyle
is represented expressing her grief atthe sight(2).
N 2 offers agure of the Isthmus personied; holding in each hand a
rudder (II-48).wv) alluding tothe situation between twoseas. In apaint
ing described by Philostratus (3), the Isthmus personied was seen in a
recumbentposture betwen Lechaaus and Cenchrea, represented by the
gures of ayouth and anymph.
. . COMMODO ANTON. Radiated head of the emperor Commodus.
Rev. COL . A.A . PATR. ./Eneas carrying his father Anchises, and
leading his son Ascanius. AE 2. Plate IV, n. 17. (Mr. Hamilton.)
As aRoman colony, the Patrenses by this type recorded the suppos
ed Trojan origin of Rome.
A lion walking.
Rev. A dove, in awreath. AR 4. Weight, 6 grains. Plate IV,
n. 18. (Mr. Thomas.)
A silver hemi-obolus differing from the usual coins of the Sicyonians,
which constantly representthe chimaera.
. ARGOS. _
Head of Junowith an elevated crown.
Rev. APFEIQN. Twodolphins in opposite directions. Between them,
(l)Sxs-1-1111, MuseoFontana, Parte I, Tav. ll, n. 18. run, Notiz Sulle Antichita, per 1805. Tav. 32.
(2) WrncxanMnn. Monum. Inedit,u 83. Gun- (3) Icones, lib. II, cap. I6.
( 52 )
awolfs head. ARI. Weight,I88 grains. Plateil V, n. 19. '(Mr. Tho
mas. ) g _
The resemblance of the types tothose of various cities of Crete, in
duced antiquaries toattribute similar coins, when they rstappeared, to
Argos in Crete. Several of the same kind having been since found in
the vicinity of Planizza, they are restored tothe more illustrious Pelopon
nesian Argos.
Juno, whose portraitis on the obverse, is well known as the principal
divinity of the Argives.
Atasmall distance from the city, she had atemple called the He
raeum, one of the mostmagnicentin Greece. Here was the celebrated
chryselephantine statue of the goddess by Polycleitus (1); she was re
presented seated on athrone, and holding asceptre and pomegranate.
On her crown, the Hours and Graces were gured.
The head on the coin before us, is probably imitated from thatof
the statue in tiuestion, and may convey ajustnotion of the form of the
crown (2), although its ornaments are different. The same headdress
which is peculiar toJuno, is found on the coins of agreatnumber of
cities of Sicily, ltaly, Greece and Asiaminor.
The dolphins on the reverse, allude tothe worship of Neptune, who,
originally contended with Junofor the possession of Argolis Incens
ed againstInachus and the Argives, whohad decided in favor of his
rival, Neptune inundated the greatestpartof the country, till Junoap
peased him, and -caused the waters toretire : the Argives then dedi
cated atemple tohim under the appellation of Prosclystius, or the inun
dator (4), on the spottowhich the Waters had advanced.
The wolf's head, placed between the dolphins, is the ordinary em
blem of Argos. -
(I) Pnzsnlns, lib. II. cap. 17. male divinities. V. Pwsm. lib. II, cap. I0.
(2) A ckown of this form was called also-rr0'M; (3) PAuSAIuS, lib. II, cap. 15 gt22,
itis seen on almostall archaic gures of fe- (4) Hp0mauo-dag. PAusn., lib. II, cap. 22.
( 63)
Head of Ceres, adorned with ears of. corn.
Rev. MEZ EANIQN. Jupiter holding with one-hand an eagle, and with
the other athunderbolt. Before hi-m, atripod. In the area, IQQM, and
AION. Underneath, A_and amonogram. AR 1. Plate] V, n. 20. (Mr. Ha
milton ). _ ,
Jupiter was the chief divinity of the Messenians,-whopretended that
he was born in their country on mountIthome where atemple was
erected tohim. Hence the epithetof Ithomates under which -he was ve
nerated in Messenia, and is designated by theinscription 160M-(initials of
l6o)p.ai1'11;) which accompanies his image on this rare and unpublished
nu mismatic monument. Perhaps the gure on the coin is taken from the
statue by Ageladas which was placed in his temple on mountIthome.
The tripod before him, alludes tothose offered tohim by the victors, at
the annual games called Ithomea, instituted in his honor. This represen
tation, usual on the coins of the Messenians, recalls tomind the answer
of the Pythia,when consulted by Aristodemus during thesiege of Ith_ome(2).
Thatthe gods would give Messeniatothose who, the, rst, should
place ahundred tripods before the altar of Jupiter Ithomates. - A Spart
an having obtained information of this answer, introduced himself secret
ly intoIthome, and atnightoffered tothe god ahundred small tripods
of clay, which heghad concealed in abag. Shortly after, Ithome fell.
Ceres, whose portraitis on the obverse, and her daughter Proserpine,
were alsoheld in high veneration by the Messenians. These divinities
had atemple atMessene (3) and their mysteries celebrated atCarnasium
i11 Messenia,were considered inferior in sanctity tothose only of Eleusis(4).
The inscription AION indicates the name of the chief magistrate of the
Messenians. _
(I) Psusun, lib. IV, cap. 33. (3) Pstlsam, lib. IV, cap. 3|.
(2) PAuSAI-, lib. IV, cap. I2. (4) PAus.uv., lib. IV, cap. 33
( 64 )
FA. Eagle with expanded wings, holding aserpentin its talons.
Rev. Jupiter seated, with his rightarmextended supporting an eagle.
AR 1. Plate IV, n. 21. (Lord Northwick ).
The casual sightof an eagle or other bird of prey destroying ahare, a
serpent, or other animal of inferior strength, was usually interpreted by
Grecian soothsayers, as afavourable omen. Hence , as in the presentin
stance, similar representations are frequently seen on coins and other
works of art. _
The gure of Jupiter on the reverse, is probably acopy of one of the
numerous statues of thatdivinity(1), which had been dedicated atOlym
pia. Its attitude is differentfrom thatof the usual representations of Jupiter.
. . AO1 CEHTI . CEBHPO. Laureated head of the emperor Severus.
Rev. TPOIZ HNIQN. Theseus taking leave of /Ethra. AE2. Plate 1 V,
n. 22. ( Mr. Hamilton.)
Theseus was the national _heroof the Troezenians, as well as of the
Athenians; and his memory was equally cherished by both nations. His
mother ] Ethrawas daughter of Pittheus king of Troezene, and till the age
of manhood he was broughtup in thatcity (2). When banished from
Athens, he took refuge atTroezene, where the tragic events of Phaedra
and Hippolytus took place
From these motives, Theseus was considered as acitizen of Troezene,
and on the presentcoin of thatcity, he is represented taking leave of his
mother /Ethra, and receiving her instructions, atthe momentof his
departure for Athens, in order topresentto./Egeus the sword and sandals,
(I) Plmsun, lib. V, cap. 2|. (3) Argum. ad Hippolyt. Euripid.
(2) Pwsnn, lib. I, cap. 27; lib. II, cap. 32.
( 55 )
tokens by which he should be recognised as his son A coin of this
city (2), struck under the same emperor, represents Theseus in the actof
removing the stone under which +/Egeus had deposited the sandals
and sword The same subjectis alsoseen on Athenian coins.
Helmeted head of Minerva.
_Rev. MAN. Neptune seated, holding adolphin and leaning on his tri
dent. AE 3. Plate IV, n. 23. ( Mr. Hamilton.)
Pellerin, whopublished asimilar coin in imperfectpreservation (4),
has taken the gure on the reverse, for Jupiter. Here the tridentand
dolphin, which are distinctly seen, prove ittobe of Neptune, surnamed
Equestris, whohad amagnicenttemple with an oracle, builtoriginally
by Agamedes and Trophonius, atashortdistance from Mantineia
Head of Juno, with veil and diadem.
Rev. XAAK . . . . N. Male gure in aquadriga. Underneath, EENOKPA
THE. The whole encircled by an oaken wreath. AR 1. Plate III, n. 2.
( The late Mr. Payne Knight.)
This unique silver tetradrachm was attributed by its learned possessor
toChalcis in /Etolia(6); butwithoutalleging his reasons for an opinion
soimprobable on many accounts, and among others, because though we
have coins of the /Etolian nation, none have been found of the various
cities which composed it. '
(I) A1> o1.1.ono1i., lib. III, cap. I6.I-Ircnms, cap.37. (5) PxuSAn., lib. VIII, cap. I0. Acoin in the
TZ BTZ zS, ad Lymph. Pembroke Collection has, on one side, the head
(2)SasruI1, MuseoFontana, tom.I, tav.II, n. I8. of Minerva: on the other, MAN, with Neptune
(3) Itis represented alsoon abas-relief publish- standing and vibrating his trident. Part. H, tab. 20
ed by Winckelmann. (Mon. Ined.,pag. I30 ), and (6) Numi Vet. In Mus. R. P. Knight. Londini,
on various gems. I830. Pag. 47.
(4) Tom. I, pl. XXI, n. I0. .
/ u
- 9
Itmightperhaps with more probability have been given tothe Chalci
dians of Thrace, butthe workmanship proves ittobe of aperiod when the
Chalcidic confederacy had ceased toexist.
Under these circumstances, itcan be referred tonoother than tothe ce
lebrated capital of Euboea, and with the greater reason, on accountof the
portraitof Junorepresented on it; this goddess having been the principal
objectof veneration of the Euboean cities, and of Chalcis in particular, as
appears from their coins, and from apassage of Hellanicus recorded by
Stephanus (1).
The type of the reverse alludes toavictory atthe public games, perhaps
tothe Hpaiia, festivals celebrated in honor ofJuno.
Male gure on horsback, holding atrident.
Rev. Rude indented square. . AR. 1. Plate!/, n. t. (The late Mr. Payne
The representation of Neptune the equestrian , (IIo< m83v Z mnog) would be
an inducementtorefer the coin toRhaucus in Crete, butthe workmanship
seems toindicate adifferentorigin, either in Thrace or Macedonia. Till
some other coin with alegend comes tolight, itmusttherefore remain
among the uncertain.
CYTHNUS, msum.
Laureated head of Apollo.
Rev. KY. Balaustium, or pomegranate ower. AE 3. Plate V, n. 2.
(Mr. Hamilton.) .
A coin with the same types, and the legend KTGN, is the motive for
attributing the presenttoCythnus, one of the Cyclades. The balanstium
emblem of Rhodes, would otherwise have referred ittoCyane in Lycia, in
the vicinity of, or perhaps subjecttothatisland.
(I) V. Xaui; (I) Mm. Pzunmol, pan II, tab. I6.
Youthful head of Bacchus. '
Rev. Monogram and quiver. AE 2. Plate V, n. 3. (Mr. Hamilton.)
The monogram, when dissolved, presents the letters < I> ANAIOPI, which,
combined with the types frequenton coins of Pontus, refers the coin to
Ar. KA. c en. cerornroc. Laureated bustof Severus, with the paluda
Rev. IGPOKAIOAP. KOMANGQN. Female gure radiated, holding with
one hand aclub, and with the other resting on ashield. Exergue, ET.
BOP. (Anno172 AE I, Plate V, n. 4. (CountWiczai, atHedervar.)
There were twocities of the name of Comana, one in Pontus (1) on the
river Iris; the other in greatCappadocia, on the Sarus in avalley of
mountTaurus : both were consecrated tothe goddess Enyo, in whose
service an immense number of priests and ministers of both sexes (Ee968ou1m)
were maintained. Straboreckons ve or six thousand in each city,
and the high priestenjoyed regal honors.
Towhich of these cities, the coins with the denomination Hier0caesa
reaappertain, is difculttodecide. Consistently however, with the
generally received opinion, the presentnumismatic monumentis ascribed
tothe Pontic Comana. '
The gure on the reverse is deserving of greatattention, as itrepres
(1) Swnsno, lib. xn, pag. 551-559. (2) Sumo, Iib- XII, pas 535
< 58 )
ents, withoutdoubt, the goddess Enyo(i). Like mostof the divinities
of this partof Asia, where amixture of Greek and Persian superstitions
prevailed, she united various attributes. The rays on her head, identify
her with Selene or the Moon : the shield is the emblem of Enyoor Bel
lona. The club may be considered in the same light, and perhaps alludes
toacustom existing in Cappadocia, mentioned by Strabo, of using a
similar instrumentin sacrices.
The date BOP (172) is thatof the aeraof Comana, which, according
tochronologists, commenced in the year of Rome 788. The presentcoin
is therefore of the year 96oof Rome, 15" of the reign of Severus, ancl
207 P. C.
ABTAO2. Youthful male head with laurel wreath.
Rev. ABYAH. Twobullss heads in opposite directions. AE. 3. Plate V,
n. 5. (Mr. Hamilton.)
When the origin of atown was uncertain, an imaginary herowas
called intobeing, and supposed tohave been its founder. Tothe number
of those already known, may be added Abydos, represented on the pre
sentcoin of the city of thatname : the head appears tobe aportrait
of some living personage, whom gratitude or flattery has represented
under the character of founder of the city.
AYT. K. AIPH. KOMOAO. Laureated head of Commodus, with the
Rev. em OTPA . AHMHTPIOI. .APT6Mt'2N. Twogures standing, Diana
(I) In all the editions of Strabowe nd Evuoik izpbv Mr. Coray,whoconsiders itas synonymous with Mis
6 ixeiv0tKdy-d.vz &voy.aiZ ouei, lib. XII, pag. 535. In fact, the god Mjv venerated in Caria, and other
Instead of Kdpmq, some manuscripts have Mutiv provinces of Asia, was the same as the Moon, who
or M6, and the lastreading has been adopted by was considered androgynous.
( 69 )
Ephesia, and Bacchus. Underneath, KAMHNQN. XE 1. Plate V. 12.6.
(Royal Collection, atParis).
Various coins inscribed KAMHNQN, have appeared of late years (I),
and are attributed, with greatprobability, toacity of /Eolia, called
Canaor Canae by ancientauthors, near apromontory of the same name,
in adistrictcalled Canaea, situated ahundred stadiafrom Elaea(2). Ac
cording toStrabo, itwas founded by Locrians from Cynos, and subse
quently received acolony from Dium in Euboea(3).
From its coins we learn, thatthe city was called Came by the inhabi
tants, as itis by Athenaeus (4); although Herodotus(5), Straboand other au
thors call itCana; the difference in the orthography is of noWeight, be
cause the M and the N Were frequently interchanged.
The coins of Came hithertopublished, were struck under the emperors
Hadrian and Severus: they represent/Esculapius, Hygeiaand aterminal
gure, perhaps Mercury. The presentis of the reign of Commodus, and
shews thatthe Ephesian Dianaand Bacchus were alsovenerated by the
Cameni. The chief magistrate was the 2-qm-r-nyb; or praetor. '
1. Upper partof afemale gure, holding ears of corn and clusters of
Rev. Fore partof awinged seahorse. AV. 2. Plate V, n 7. ( The late
Mr. Payne Knight. )
2. Adverse head of Jupiter Ammon.
Rev. The same as the preceding. AV. 2. Plate V, n 8. (Lord North
wick. )
3. Bearded head of Bacchus, crowned with ivy.
Rev. AAMWAKHNQN. ApolloCitharoedus. Before him, apalm branch.
(l) SESTIIL Lett. Numism., tom. IX, tab. ll, (3) Lib. X, pag. 645, etlib. XIII, pag. 614.
n. 2 et3. I820. _ "(/.) Lib. I, cap. 54. '
(2) Snnso, lib. XIII, pag. 614. (5) Lib. VII, cap. 42.
( 70 ) _
Behind, amonogram. In the exergue, CQKPATOI TOY EGNOQANOI.
fl" AR: 1. Plate V, n 9. (The late Mr. Payne Knight.) "
" The gold stater n 1 remarkable for elegance of design, presents an en
tirely new and mostinteresting type. The female gure rising outof the
ground, is withoutdoubtCore or Proserpine, whois represented returning
from Hades, and appearing on the earth, either after her rape by Pluto,
or on her annual journey, when she proceeds toOlympus, topass the re
maining partof the year with thegods Besides her usual attributes,
the ears of corn, she is here represented with grapes, perhaps consistently
withthe tradition which supposed her tobe the mother of Dionysus by
Jupiter (2). Noother monumentexcepting actile vase represents this
return of Proserpine
The winged seahorse on the reverse is the well known emblem of
Lampsacus. The motives for adopting itare notknown.
The stater n 2 of the same metal, is alsodistinguished by beauty of
design. It-shows thatAmmon was one of the divinities of the Lampsa
The silver-tetradraehm n 3presents aportraitof Bacchus, identied
with Priapus, the impure and disgraceful objectof veneration in this
Apollois represented on the reverse, holding alyre and plectruin, and,
in the same costume as atDelphi This god had atemple and oracle
of greatcelebrity, in the Adrastean plain near Parium where he was
venerated under the name of Actaeus (5), and he is represented under
this denomination, on arare coin of thatcity (6).
- Helmeted head of Minerva. "
(1) Aronnononus, lib. I, cap. V, 3. HoMEn, Hymn Proserpine whoemerges from the earth. The names
in Ceres, vers -fi457. of the several personages are inscribed over them.
(2) Dxonoa. Slcur.., lib. HI, cap. 63. Czcnno, dc (6) Mn.1.urc1w. Md. Ind., tab. II, n. 10 etll.
Nat. Deor., lib. III, 23. (5) Scrnxno, lib. XIII, p. 588.
(3) Belonging toMarquis del Vasto, atNaples. It (6) Mdailles Antiques de feu M. Allier de Hame
offers the gures of Ceres, Hecate, Mercury, and roche. Paris, 1829. Pl. VII, n. 13.
' < 71 ) _
Rev. IIAPI. Female gure, seated, with aserpententwined round her,
and another ather feet. AE3. Plate V, n 10. (Mr. Hamilton.)
The gure represented on the reverse is one of the Ophiogenes, who
are described by Strabo(1) and Pliny (2) as arace of men inhabiting the
territory of Parium on the Hellespont. The founder of this race, as their
name implies, was originally aserpent, whowas transformed intoaman.
Strabosupposes him tohave been one of the Psylli whoinhabited the
Syrtes in Lybia.
The Ophiogenes like the Psylli could handle withoutdanger every kind
of serpent, and by the simple touch, as by aspell, could cure the bite of
the .mostvenomous reptiles; in the same manner as is still practised in
Egypt, and in various countries of the Eastby jugglers. The Marsi in
Italy were noted alsofor the same faculty. Numerous particulars on the
subjectmay be found in ancientauthors
Female gure holding awreath, seated on abase, inscribed EAEYQEPI...
Underneath, the sh called Pelamys. ,
Rev. Rude indented square. AV. 1. Weight, 246 grains. Plate V, n 13.
(Royal Collection ,' atParis.)
The pelamys, characteristic type of the coins of Cyzicus, refers tothat
city , though its name is notexpressed, this singular double stater, which
is peculiarly interesting, as itoffers the earliestrepresentation known of
Liberty, adivinity whogives tolife its greatestcharm, whois the object
of universal desire, butunfortunately is seldom found, as she xes her
abode there only, where her inseparable companions Religion and Piety
are tobe found with her.
She is seated on abase or altar (4) inscribed EAE1'6EPI.., and which re
calls tomind the 'lI> aavv5w x.pn-1&8 E7.w6epia; of Pindar. She holds acrown or
(1) S-rnuao, lib. XIII, pag. 288. cap. 27. Tznrzns. Chiliad., lib. IV, Hist. 135. LUCA
(2) Hist. Nat., lib. VII, cap. 2. nus, lib. IX, vers 891.
(3) Emu. Hist. Animal., lib. I. cap. 57; lib. XVI, (4) I-ragm. Iucert. LX.
( 72 ) '
wreath of laurel, emblem of Victory, or any fortunate event, and is
described by Simonides as an attribute of liberty '
O61o.; A8EtF.tivTOD xslvou 'raiq> o;, 05 8v.< iz (Boulez;
Em, Eleuspiaq aip.< p 6&'r0 crcpavov. ~
The inscription and wreath may, atthe same time, refer topublic
festivals, like the Eleutheriainstituted atPlataea(2), in commemoration
of the victory obtained over Mardonius.
The presentmonumentwas evidently intended tocommemorate the
recovery of liberty by the Cyziceni; butfrom the deciency of historical
testimony on the subject, the precise date of this eventcannotbe. as
certained.- Probably however, itwas atthe peace which followed the
expedition of Cimon (3) and was concluded in the 4" year of the 824
Olympiad, 449. A. C.
1. Laureated head, probably of Apollo.
Rev. EMYPNAIQN. Homer seated, holding with one hand, avolume or
scroll; and with the other, resting on astaff. AR 2. Plate V, n. II
( Mr. Hamilton. ) i
partof afemale _gure veiled, holding up with one hand, awheat-sheaf,
and supporting with the other arm, acornucopia.
Rev. em A - MGCTPIO1'- ANGYHATOT. Female gure seated, holding
apateraand battle-ax; on her head, the polus. AE 1. Plate V, n 12.
( Same collection. ) .
Though notdesignated by an inscription, the gure on the reverse
of n I is thatof Homer, whois represented in the same attitude as on
the copper coins of this city, inscribed with his name. The head on the
(I) Fragm. 38, edit, Gaisforc. (3) \DxoDol\. S1cm.., lib. XII, cap. 4.
(2) Srnmo, lib. IX, pag. 4_l2.

_ ( 73) ~
obverse is of ApolloCitharoedus, gured as usual, with the female costume
and head dress.
The silver coins of Smyrnawith this type, are of extreme rarity, and
ofamuch earlier period than those of brass, which are coaeval with the
Roman emperors, and ale mentioned by Strabo.
The elegantoriginal of n 2 may be considered in the lightof amedal,
rather than of acoin, as the inscription shews thatitwas intended to
congratulate the emperor Domitian on some particular occasion, such as
anew year, or recovery from sickness. Itwas originally covered with a
silver laminaor plating, of which some remains are still seen.
As acompliment, atthe same time tothe empress Domitia, her portrait
is represented under the character of Ceres, with awheat-sheaf and
cornu-copia. The inscription states thatthe Smyrneans wish (exovrai
understood) health toDomitian Caesar Augustus.
The sitting gure on the reverse, may be thatof the city of S_myrna
personied; she has the polus on her head, and holds the battle-ax em
blem of the Amazon Smyrnatowhom the foundation -of the city was at
tributed. The proconsul A. Mestrius Florus (1), whose name is on the
coin, was governor of Asiaatthe time. '
1. A lion walking. Above, abird ying, perhaps acrane.
Rev. The fore partof awinged boar, in an indented square. AR 1.
Plate V, n 14. (Mr. Trattle.) .
2. Head of alion, before it, the sylphium, and aheart.
Rev. Head of an unknown animal, and twoserpents, in an indented
square. AR 1. Plate V, n 15. (Mr. Thomas).
The rstis of acity of Ionia, perhaps of Samos, on whose coins the
winged boar of Clazomenae is sometimes in conjunction with the lion,
emblem of the Samians.
Noconjecture can be offered respecting the origin of the second
(l)Sun1-olius, in Vespasiano, cap. 22.
( 74 )
The unknown animal on the reverse, resembles thaton acoin with the
inscription AATZ ION in Dr. Hunters collection (1). I
Head of Venus with diadem, necklace and ear-rings. '
Rev; Lions head and fore legs. Underneath, EOBQAO. AR. t. Plate V ,
n 16. (The late Mr. Payne Knight. )
The head of Venus, however elegant, cannotbe considered as offering
acopy from the celebrated statue of the goddess by Praxiteles, .because
the coin is mostprobably of an epoch anterior tothatartist, and there
fore imitated from amore ancientoriginal.
Coins of Cnidus of this size and weightare of extreme rarity; the
presentis moreover remarkable by the inscription EOBQAO, an old ./Eolic
form for EYBOTAOI, the name of amagistrate. The types are, in other
respects, those usually seen on the coins of this city.
Fore partof awild boar; on the extremity, KAB.
Rev. Rude indented square. AR 2. Plate V, n". 17. (The late
Mr. Payne Knight.)
Cabalis was the capital of an extensive districtof the same name,
situated between Lyciaand Phrygia, subsequently more known under the
denomination of Cibyratis (2). The Cabalenses were rich and powerful at
avery early period, and probably of Greek origin. According toHero
dotus(3), they were Maeonians or Lydians; and Straboconsidered them
tobe the same people as the Solymi of Homer.
The presentunique silver didrachm is attributed tothis city.
(I) Tab. LXVI, pag. 18. the valley of the Maaander. Tour in AsiaMinor,
(2) SrnAuo, lib. XIII, pag. 028. 630. pag. 147.
Col. Leake has placed Cabalis between Milyas and (3) Lib. III, cap. 90; lib. VII, cap. 77.
( 75 )
Laureated head of Jupiter. 4
Rev. AAAAE. Victory erecting atrophy. AE 3. Plate V, n . 18.
( Mr. Hamilton. )
Adada, according toPtolemy, was in Pisidia, tothe Eastof Selen
cia(1); butthe precise situation is unknown. The presentcoin, with
the inscription AAAAE, may be referred tothis city; and atthe same
time, itconrms one hithertounnoticed, with the same legend and types,
in the Pembroke Collection (2). i
Itis doubtil whether acoin of the emperor Valerian, described by the
Abb Belley (3), is of Adada. From the legend AAA..EQ.N, itmay be of
Adana, and this explanation is the mostprobable, on accountof the
solitary letters IB usually seen on Cilician coins. T
AAPIANQN. Head of Mercury with the caduceus.
Rev. AIOKAIEAPEQN. A vine branch with cluster of grapes. AE 3.
Plate V, n. 19. (Mr. Hamilton.)
From the portraitof Hadrian, whois represented in the character
of Mercury, probably the chief divinity of the Diocaesareans, this rare
coin may be assigned tothe reign of thatemperor, from whom the city
received the title of Hadriana.
The primitive name of Diocaesarea(4) is notrecorded by ancient
authors. Perhaps itwas called Cennates, the same name as the people
and districtof which itformed the capital. On the coins of Dioces
(I) Lib. V, cap. 5. (2) Pars H, tab. I.
In all the editions of Strabo, we nd Ada3ai-rm, (3) Acadmie des Inscriptions etBelles-Letlres,
Bpiada, instead of which Wesseling very properly tom. XLII, pag. 53.
proposed toread Adaida, Tl)!-Elpiddl. Lib. XII, 570. (4) MIoIIIT, tome III, pag. 577.
'sarea(1) W6 nd itentitled MI'ITPo1ro7.|.; KENNATQN. The Kevvwreig were
perhaps the same as the Karevveig of Strabo(2), whose texthas been
altered by copists. The name of Diocaesareawas probably given toit
by Tiberius. All the coins of this city are very rare.
Laureated head of Jupiter. _
Rev. EYEEBEIAE. The Samian Juno. 3. Plate V, n. 2o. (Same
collection. )
This city, situated atthe footof mountArgaeus, was rstcalled Ma
zaca; afterwards Eusebeia, from one of the kings of Cappadociawho
assumed thattitle; and subsequently Cazsareaby Tiberius.
The presentcoin, hithertounpublised, shews thatthe worship of the
Samian Junohad extended tothis partof Asia. _
Jointmale and female heads in prole, with royal ornaments.
Rev. BAEIAEQE AHMHTPIOYZ QTHPOE. Ceres seated, holding acornu
copiaand scroll. AR. 1. Weight, 253grains. Plate V, n. 21. (Mr. Tho
mas. )
Visconti, in his Iconographie Grecque (3), attributed toDemetrius I,
king of Syria, and Laodice his queen, the portraits represented on a
cameobelonging tothe empress Josephine. The judicious opinion of
the learned antiquary is fully conrmed by the presentunique numis
matic monument, which has been since discovered (4). _
Ancientauthors have transmitted few particulars respecting Laodice.
Her name, for (which we are indebted solely toLivy (5), has induced
U) Ml 1'1'l'1 mm- HI Pa8- 577- mismatist, M. Allier de I-Iauteroche, in the Appen
(2) Lib. XII, pag. 570. dice tohis Essai .rurl'e.rpl1'ca!ion d'une Tessr-e An
(3) Tome II, pag. 324; Pl. XLVII, n. 12. tique. Paris, 1820.
(4) Ithas been published by the late learned nu- (5) Epilln-1 lib- L
( 77 )
Visconti tothink she was daughter of Seleucus IV,and consequently sister
as well as wife toDemetrius; by this marriage she had three sons, De
metrius II etAntiochus VII, whoboth afterwards occupied the throne
of Syria, and Antigonus. After the death of Demetrius in the year 162.
A. C. Laodice survived twoyears; when shewas puttodeath with
her_son Antigonus by Ammonius, minister of Alexander Balawhohad
usurped the crown. l
The gure of Ceres (anysimg) on the reverse, as Visconti has observed,
was the symbol adopted by Demetrius from its allusion tohis name.
The presentmonumentis the more valuable, as the representation
of female portraits on Syrian coins is extremely rare. Such an unusual
honor was probably paid toLaodice, on accountof her being the
daughter, wife, and sister of kings.
The other instance is thatof Cleopatradaughter of Ptolemy Philo
metor, and wife of three princes whoreigned in Syria.
A, for O, 6 termination for A2, and
H2, 3, 11.
ABrnos, in Troas, named after a,sup
posed hero, 68.
AcH1zLoUs, how represented. 17vene
rated atDodona, 18- Games in his
honour, i5id.his worship'introduc
ed intoItaly by the Pelasgi, ibid.
Ac'r1U1\1, or Actia, in Acarnania, 53.
Anans, in Pisidia, 75.
Ammsrus, kills the serpentof Nemea,
60. .
} Eo11v,1 , (the Island of), 59-r the artof
coinage invented there, ibid.
Z ENEAS, with Anchises and Ascanius, 61.
1EoL1c n1.u.1zc'r, prevalentin Italy, 3,
1 1, 33in various countries, 39, 43,
56, 74.
} EsARos, river 11ear Crotona, 20.
AGATHYRNUS, in Sicily, 28. '
AFH, on coins of Terina, perhaps the
name of afountain, 23(2).
AIYIEIZ , conical stone sacred toApol
lo, 52.
Ayv y_p~np.at1.'i'rnq, and Eteqaavirng , differ
ent, 18.
ALEXANDER, his friendship towards the
Rhodians, 45.
ALEXANDER, king of Epirus, assists the
Tarentines, 1 1 -- killed atAcheron
tia, 12.
ALLIBAS, near Puteoli, its coins, 7 -a
river of the infernal regions, ibid.
AnYzu, in Acarnania, aCorinthian co-_
lony, 54.
AAYEIQN, coins with the inscription, 74.
AmBnacm, in Epirus, colony of Corinth,
53its coins how distinguished, ibid.
ANDROCEPHALOUS Bull, emblem of a
river, 4 of the Acheloiis , 19- of
the river Gelas, 30.
ANAXILAUS, tyrantof Rhegium, 32.
A1> o1.1.o, Archegetes, 36 serves Ad
metus, 51 Actaeus,' atParium, 7o.
Ancnlzmonus, killed by aserpent, 6o
-Nemean games in honour of him,
Ibid. .
Ansrauss, in Thrace, 37.
ARGILUS, in Thrace, 37.
Ancous, Junoand Neptune contend for
its possession, 62.
Ancos , temple of Juno, near to, 62.
ARGONAUTS, their naval action with the
' Tyrrhenians, 16.
ARNE, see Cieria, 47.
ARNE, daughter of Z Eolus, 47 re
presented on coins, 49.
Asr1\.u;aL1, emblems of Nymphs, of the
Graces, etc., 49.
ATELLA, in Campania, the coins ascribed
toAcerrae, belong toit, 25.
A6-)A()N AXEAOIO, on acoin of Me
tapontium, 17.
' B.
BISALTIA, in Thrace, 37, 38, 39, 40.
Bonn , emblem of strength, 5 Ery
manthian, its remains preserved at
Cuma, 5Calydonian, its remains pres
erved atTegea, ibid.
Bo12o'rlll1v DIALECT, 56.
BRUNDUSIUM, in Iapygia, I0.
BRUTTII , or Brettii, 19.
BULL (Androcephalous) emblem of ari
ver, 4of the Achelous, 19of the
river Gelas, 30. I
BULL, the emblem of force, 32of fer
tility, 37, 5s. '
I C.
Camus, in Lycia, 74its inhabitants
were Maeonians, 74or the Solymi of,
Homer, ibid.
CADMUS, represented on coins of The
bes, 59.
COELIA, in Peucetia, 9.
CALATIA, in Campania, 4twocities
of thatname, z'bid..
CAME, in Mysia, 68 called Cane by
authors, 69. its origin and situat
ion, ibid.
CAMPANI, in the Athenian service in
Sicily, 34take Entella, .7Etnaand
_ various cities in the Island, 35their
cruelty and treachery, ibid. des
troyed by Timoleon, ibid.
KENNATEI2, probably the same as the
KATENNEIE of Strabo, 75.
CEPHALOEDIUM, in Sicily, 30.
CERES, surnamed Eunomia, atGela, 30.
Thesinophoros atThebes, 58-her
mysteries in Samothrace, 47-in
Messenia, 61 .'
KEPNOZ , avase used in the myster
ies, 43.
CHALCIS , in Euboea, Junoits chief di'
vinity, 63. _
Cnzluum , in Thessaly , anciently called
Arne, 47. Inscriptions and coins
relating toit, ibid.its site ascer
tained, ibid.
CM1)Us, in Caria, 74.
Coms, given as prizes atpublic games,
COLON] !-IS, imitate the institutions of the
parentcountry, 15-of Corinth, 53,
55, 56.
COMANA, in Pontus, 65- dedicated to
Enyo, ibid.surnamed Hierocarsarea,
its aara, ibid.
COMANA, in Cappadocia, 66.
Conn, in Boeotia, 57.
CORA, in Latium, of Hellenic origin, I.
aLatin butnotaRoman colo
ny, 3
CORINTH, in Achaia, various types of its
coins, 57.
CORINTHIANS, their colonies, in Acarna
nia, 53, 55, 56 their respective
coins how distinguished, 54preside
atthe Nemean games, 58. ~
CORONEIA, in Boeotia, 57. -
Cosa, in Lucania, probably acolony
from Cos, 26.
INDEX. 111
CROTONA, in MagnaGraecia, 20.
CUME, in Campania, 4.
CYNOSSEMA, the barrow of Hecuba, 43.
Cxrnnos, one of the Cyclades, 66.
CYZ ICUS, in Mysia, 71-recovers its li
berty, 7 1the pelamys emblem of its
coins,. ibid.
D, changed into'T, 7.
DEMETRIUS I, Sornn, king of Syria, 76.
DIOCESAREA, in Cilicia, 75- surnamed
Hadriana, ibid.perhaps its ancient
name was Cennatis, 75.
DIOSCURI, on coins of Nuceria, 8of
Tarentum, 1 1,of the Bruttii, 20
altar erected tothem, ibid.
DOMITIA, represented under the charac
ter of Ceres, 73.
E, instead of O, 43.
EAGLE, considered afavourable omen, 64_
IETHRA; mother of Theseus, 64.
E1.1s, in Peloponnesus, 64.
ELEUTHERIA, games celebrated atPla
taea, 72.
EAEYGEPIA, represented on acoin of
Cyzicus, 71.
Euro, venerated in the twocities of Co
mana, 67greatnumber of priests
and ministers in her service, ibid.
how represented, 68. I
EP1n1Us NUNCIONUS , heroof the Nucer
ians, 8. .
Enos, or Love, on coins of Tarentum,
EnrMAn'rr11111v' Bonn, its relics preserved
atCuma-2, 5. '
EuBazs in Sicily, the coins attributed
toit, are of Gela, 29.
EUNOMIA, epithetof Ceres, 30.
EURIPIDES, his tomb atArethusa, 37.
EUSEBEIA, in Cappadocia, 76. _
GELA, in Sicily, 29..
Grras, king of the Edones, 42.
GLAUCUS, amarine divinity, one of the
Argonauts, 16. represented on
coins of Heraclea, 16.
Gonn -COINS, of Greece very rare, 58.
GOMPHI , in Thessaly, called Philippo
polis, 46. _
Goncus , founder of Ambracia, 53.
. H.
HADRIANOPOLIS, in Thrace, anciently
Orestias, 40. '
HJEMUS (Mount), 4o.
H11:1111 MONTANUS, adistrictof Thrace, 40.
HECUBA, her tomb near Madytus, 43
- her metamorphosis, 44.
HERACLEA; in Lucania, 15 surnamed
Min6a, in Sicily, 31 _an1Eolian Island,
Hlancnuzs, his exploits near Cumae, 5.
founder of Neapolis 8 (1), -- his
statue by Lysippus atTarentum, 12
his combatwith the Acheloiis re
presented, 18.
Himonorus, his testimony conrmed, 1 5.
HIEROCESAREA, surname of Comanain
Pontus, 65. '
Hrrnnam (the fountain), 5o. -
HYPSIPYLE , nurse of Archemorus, 60.
HYRIA, in Campania, perhaps the same
as Surrentum, 27.
I, instead of L. 3.
INFERNAL REGIONS, supposed tobe near
Cumae, 7.
Ionama, converted intostone, 57.
Irnomz, (Mount), birth place of Jupiter,
63-histemple there, ibid.
ISTHMUS, of Corinth personied, 6|.
JASON, his naval action with the Tyrrhe
nians, 16 - builds atdmple tothe
Argian Juno, near the Silarus, 27
loses asandal in crossing the Anau
ros, 50.
JUPITER AmmoN, venerated atLampsa
cus , 67: _
JUPITER Ithomates, tripods offered to
him, 63. _
JUNO, her temple near Posidonia, 27
contends with Neptune for Argolis, 42.
-venerated atChalcis, 66.
L, changed intoI, 3. l
LAMPSACUS, in Mysia, its emblem asea
horse, 70.
LAODICE., Queen of Syria, 77.
Luusss, twocities of this name in Thes
saly, 49.
Lum Colonies, distinctfrom Roman,
2 ,
Lnncss, in Acarnania, 55.
LION, symbol of valour, 4, 32.
LIPARUS, or Liparon , king of Syracuse,
coin falsely attributed tohim, 20.
Locni EPIZ EPKYRII, their victory over
the Crotoniatae, 20 coins of, 21.
LIVY, corrected, 2 (2), 49.
M. .
M , exchanged with N , 38 , 69.
Itliiciznormm DIALECT, 41 (3), 52.
Manvrus, on the Hellespont, 43.
MAMERTINI, in Sicily, 33. -
MANTINEA, in Arcadia, temple of Nep
tune near it, 65. _
MELES or Mama, in Samnium, 3.
MERCURY, how represented by the Pe
lasgi, 51. 3
MESLIA or MEDMA, 21 its name de
rived from afountain , 22 its si
tuation, ibid. ~
MESSANA, in Sicily, its coins imitated
from those of Samos, 31. '
MESSENIA, in Peloponnesus, 63.
METAPONTIUM, in Lucania, its coins, i7.
METROPOLIS, in Thessaly, its site ascer
tained, 48
MINERVAITONIA, her .temple near Coro
neia, 48, 57.
MINYANS, from Thessaly, settle in Bazo
tia, 47, 48, 57.
MYSTERIES, of Samothrace, 42 - of
Ceres in Messenia, 63.
NACONA, in Sicily, 35 occupied by
the Campani, ibid. -
N A105, in Sicily, 35 --- when destroyed,
N1~:x1=o1.1s, in Campania, 8 its alliance
with Tarentum, 8 , (1),
NEMEANGA1111-zs, their establishment, .60.
NEPTUNE, surnamed Prosclystius, 63
his contestwith Juno, ibid.
Hippius, 65, 67. .
Nucmus, surnamed Alfaterna, in Cam
pania, its coins in the Oscan dialect, 8
in Calabria, 9 , 25 four cities of
this name in Italy, 25.
NY1v11> 11s, their emblems , 49.
_ O.
O, for OI, 18, 56, 74.
O, termination of latin nominatives, 3,
(1) changed intoA, 7 intoA l,
or Z E, ibid. intoE, 43instead
of OI, 18, 56, 74.
OM , instead of QN, 33.
OYM , instead of SIN, ] EoIic genitive, 33.
OYN, instead ofQN, 50.
QN , changed intoOYM, 33-into
OYN , 5o.
OLYMPE, in Illyria, 51.
OPHIOGENES , inhabitants of Parium ,
their origin, 71.
Onscuz, of Dodona, 18 of Delphi,
32tothe Messenians, 63.
ORCHOMENOS, in Boeotia, 56 -of Thes
salian origin,ibiJ.called x.a)J.1f-rmlog,
Onnsxn, see Orestae.
O111~:s'r1n, aMolossian tribe, 39 - of
Thrace , 40.
OBESTIAS, in Thrace, founded by Ores
tes , 4ocalled Hadrianopolis, ibid.
Oiucus, in Illyria, 52.
Oscan", DIALECT, on coins of Calatia, 4
of Phistelia, 5of Nuceria, 8 -
of Atella, 26 of Veseris, 27.
Ossx, in Bisaltia, 38.
Ox, emblem of agriculture, 37, 58
brazen gure of, dedicated by the Pla
tzeans atDelphi, 58.
_ P. '
PAESTUM, its name acorruption of Po
sidonia, 7.
PALEIROS, in Acarnania, 55 aCorin
thian colony, ibid.
PARIUM, in Mysia, 71 inhabited by
the Ophiogenes, ibid.
PATIUE, in Achaia, 58.
PELAMYS , distinctive emblem of the
coins of Cyzicus, 71.
PERIPOLI , various signication of the
term, 13. '
P1m11> o1.111M, afortress of the Locrians ,
13. _ -
PHANAGORIA, in the Cimmerian Bos
phorus, 67.
Pmznm, in Thessaly; 50.
PHILIPII, of Macedon, 44 gives his
name tovarious cities,46.P1111.11> V,
PHILIPPOPOLIS, in Thessaly, name given
toGomphi, 46.
Pn1s'r1z1.1.1, in Campania, probably Pu
teoli, 6, 7.
PICENTINI, their alliance with Posidonia,
PIBRIA, probably acorruptreading for
Cieria, in Livy, 49.
PITANE, ademos of Sparta, 13.
PITANATE , aSpartan colony in Magna
Graacia, 13Cohortoi, atthe battle
of Platara, 14.
PLATJEA, in Boeotia, 58. 72.
PLINY, corrected , 10.
POSIDONIA, its name gradually corrup
ted intothatof Paestum , 6. '
IIQAOI, Corinthian coins socalled , 53.
Pnocmzs, leader of the Naxians , 35.
PROSERPINE , her return from Hades , 67
- mother of Dionysus by Jupiter ,
PUNICK INSCRIPTION, on aSicilian coin,
PUTEOLI , its Oscan name , Phistelia, 6.
, R.
BHAUCUS, in Crete, 66.
Rnomzs , coin of Philip struck there, 45.
RHODIANS, oppose Philip of Macedon,
45 their attachmenttoAlexander,
Bncnueuncas II, the lastking of Thrace,
RuBi, in Peucetia, 9 acolony from
Achaia, 10.
EKOZ , termination peculiar toThrace,4 1.
ETAI, Macedonian termination, 41, 52.
SALA, in Thrace, 42.
SALENTINI, in alliance with Tarentum,
1 1. _
Santos, coins of, 31, 73.
SANDAL, lostby Jason , 5ooffered in
temples , ibid. ,
SCIATHUS , island of Pelasgic origin , 51.
SCYLLA, adivinity peculiar toItaly, 16.
SICYON, in Achaia, 61.
SMYRNA, in Ionia, 72 Homer repre
sented on its coins, ibid.-medal of,
in honor of Domitian, 73.
Sons, in Latium, 1.
STATERS (Gonn), of Philip II, 45 of
Lampsacus, 69 - of Cyzicus, 71.
SURRENTUM, its ancientname Hyria, 27.
T, instead of D, 7 changed intoD,
25. -
TARENTUM, in Iapygia, its coins imita
ted by various other cities; 8 , 14
its numerous alliances, 8frequent
wars with the neighbouring states,
12, 14.
TERINA, coins of, 22.
THEB11: in BOEOTIA, 58.
THESEUS, represented on acoin of Tree
zene , 64.
THUCYDIDES , his censure of Herodotus,
TORONE, in Thrace, 43. I
TRIPODS , offered secretly toJupiter Itho
mates, 63.
TRCEZ ENE, in Argolis, 64.
TYNDARIS, in Sicily, 28 its alliance
with Agathyrnus, ibid.

TYRRHENIANS, their naval combatwith
the Argonauts, I6cities in Campania
founded by them , 28.
T, instead of EY, 56.
Vase (Ficriuz), representing the return
of Proserpine, 70 VENUS, venerated atSpartaand Taren
tum, 11.
VICTORY, with athunderbolt, I3
withoutwings,a3- with various
attributes, ibid. -considered as an
emblem of prosperity, ibid.
VESERIS, in Campania: coins of, 27
perhaps of Tyrrhenian origin , 28 .
VISCONTI Q.), his opinions cited,
-ao, 76.
VULCAN, on coins of Phistelia, 7.
WINKELMANN, monuments published by
6|, 65 '
Z . ~
Z ANCLE, in Sicily, its name changed into
thatof Messana, 32 - error on the
subjectcorrected by coins, ibid.
Printed ll) Lilli. Firmin Diilol
26, note on l. 24, The Coans in conjunction
with the Rhodians founded Salapiain
Dannia. S-rnno, lib. x1v, p. 654. The
Rhodians established alsoacolony
near Sybaris, in the territory of the
. . A weer
3, l. 4, for Tape and Tapaq, read Tdpaand
- note 2, l. 1, for Compultecia, read Com
note 3, I. 5, for Greek, form , read Greek
5, l. 1 , for strenght, read strength.
_ l. 19,_/br Cummans, read Cumaeans.
-note 3, l. 6,_/br zinv, read dnav.
7 , note on I. 26, Athenaus speaks of a
wine called Oulbanus (Oii)\6avl> < ;) in the
vicinity of Cumaa. Lib. 1, 48, pag. 26.
-note 3, for dyopa, read dyopei.
note 4 ,for vaxpdq, read vsxpog. ,
11 , I. 3,_/br universel, read universal.
_ l. 7 , _/br xp1i8ep.voi, read xp1 8sp.vov.':
8,for earrings, read earrings.
=16 , for eipncubvn , read elpscttiivn.
- 27 , _/br Tapavriwv, read 'l'apav1:ivmv.
note 2, l. 4, _/br a6sv86v1| , read cq2ev
13, note 4,1. 2,/br 6 8-4p.oq, read a8y.o< .
14 , l. 26,for setteled, read settled.
15 , l. 26 ,zr vithout, read without.
-note 2,1. 2,far 3;, read 8;.
17 , l. 4,_/br bulls, read bull's.
l. 22,for &).).o1:i &v8p(p, read 41101 &v
- l. 23, for Mcnuou, read Saexiou.
- l. 24 , for xpnvaiou, read xp-qvafou.
18, l. 9, for dyvoq, read dyifivoq.
l. 18, for oiyf-':v , read dyv.
19, l. 18,for writen, read written.
23. note 2, l. 11, for Bouxpwq, read Boxepox.
Chones. May notthe original reading
of the latter name have been Kdxuv. P
28, _note 3, l. 4,for gives, read give.
32 , l. 7, for displaced, read misplaced.
I. 24, for Persians; read Persians,
38, note 4 refers top. 41,1. 3.
4o, note 3, I. 1, /br "8pucoq, read O8puc6< .
-_ Opsq1:fa, read Opwrfa.
-l. 8, for A8pwivou, read 1\8p|.avoii.
41 , note 2, l. 1, for Atdqdg, read Aiacrrdq.
-- (I)-qcrl, read l)1|cf.
43, l. I5 , for Eplopivqq, read Epxopevoq.
45 , l. 17 , for frienship, read friendship.
46 , l. 23, for Oeaciaq and Gsmpriaq, read
Qsocahfae and Gas-rcpt -riaq.
47 , note 2,_/br lpv-)1, read "Apv'q.
5o, note 2, l. 7, for fo, read of.
52, note 1, l. 1,_/br "O)\up.-i;-q , read O).6p.'m|.
'62, note 4, for llpoxluirriog, read Hpox.).6a~:|.o.
66, note on l. 3, Acoin of Chalcis, struck
under the reign of the emperor L.
Verus, has on the reverse asitting
gure of Junowith the inscription
HPA. Ecnnnnn. Num. Vet. Aneed.
tab. x, g. 2o.
68, note 1, l. 1,_/brispbv, read ispov.
_ _ I, 5,_/br Mv , read M-4v.
7o, note 1, l. 2, for Ceres, read Cererem.
75, note 1, l. 4, _/br Tv.p.6pia8a, read Tip.
' Bpta.
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