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Modifiers of the Verbs

Exercises
1. Consider the modifiers of the verbs in the following sentences. (For the purposes of this exercise,
exclude the grammatical subjects.) Which of the modifiers are obligatory and which are optional? Which
of the modifiers are complements and which are adjuncts?
1. Sir Thomas agreed with Edmund.
2. Mr. Elton delivered a charade to Emma for a friend.
3. She thrust the documents into her briefcase.
4. Raskolnikov killed the old woman with an axe.
5. Mr. DArcy met the Gardiners at Pemberley in the summer.
6. Frank sent a piano to Jane Fairfax.
7. The porter placed the letter on the secretarys desk.
8. Harriet imagined that Mr Elton would propose to her.
9. The picnic was held at Box Hill in the summer.
[Treat was held as a single verb.]
10. He executed great vengeance upon them with furious rebukes.
11. We were expecting the worst that day in 1968.
12. The report details the proposals for the chief executive.
Answer
1. 1. Sir Thomas: obligatory, complement
with Edmund: not obligatory, but agreed requires with. This information goes into the lexical entry for
agree.
2. Mr. Elton: obligatory, complement
a charade: obligatory, complement
to Emma: optional but excluded by many verbs and therefore a complement
for a friend: optional, adjunct
3. She: obligatory, complement
the document: obligatory, complement
into her briefcase: obligatory, complement
4. Raskolnikov: obligatory, complement
the old woman: obligatory, complement
with an axe: optional, adjunct
5. Mr. DArcy: obligatory, complement
the Gardiners: obligatory, complement
at Pemberley: optional, adjunct in the summer: optional, adjunct
6. Frank: obligatory, complement
a piano: obligatory, complement
to Jane Fairfax: excluded by many verbs, complement
7. The porter: obligatory, complement
the letter: obligatory, complement
on the secretarys desk: obligatory, complement
8. Harriet: obligatory, complement
that Mr. Elton would propose to her: obligatory, complement
9. The picnic: obligatory, complement at Box Hill: optional, adjunct in the summer: optional, adjunct
10. He: obligatory, complement great vengeance: obligatory, complement
upon them: obligatory, complement
with furious rebukes: optional, adjunct
11. We: obligatory, complement the worst: obligatory, complement
that day in 1968: optional, adjunct
12. The report: obligatory, complement the proposals
for the chief executive: obligatory, complement
or
the proposals: obligatory, complement
for the chief executive: optional, adjunct