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# Direct Current Generators

Introduction
The energy converted from mechanical to
electrical is known as generator action.
The energy converted from electrical to
mechanical is known as motor action.
Electrical Energy Mechanical Energy
Motor action
Generator action
Electromagnetic Induction
Whenever the conductor cuts the
magnetic flux lines, a voltage will be
induced in that conductor.
e = vind = N d /dt
Motional Voltage
When the conductor moves from its initial
position to final position in the magnetic
field, the motional voltage can be
expressed as
e = Blv sin
e = induced voltage in V
B = magnetic flux density in Wb/m
2
l = active length of the conductor in m
v = speed of the conductor in m/s
= angle b/w conductor and magnetic field
Examples
A conductor of 0.65m is length is moving in a
magnetic field with a speed of 35m/s. The
magnetic flux density of the field is 0.18
Telsa. Determine the induced voltage in the
conductor.
A 1.5m length of the conductor moves at a
velocity of 20m/s with an angle of 35
0
.
determine the induced voltage if the
magnetic flux density is 0.9Wb/m
2
Practice Problem
A 200V is induced by the conductor of
16m in length when moves at a velocity of
25m/s with an angle of 65
0
. Determine the
magnetic flux density.
Lenzs Law
It determines the direction of
the induced voltage.
The voltage will be induced if the
conductor moves in the magnetic field
and cuts the flux lines. As a result of
this voltage, current will flow through
the conductor if the conductor circuit is
closed.
The magnetic field produced by this
current will always oppose the motion of
the conductor. This is known as Lenzs
law.
DC Voltage Output from DC Generator
To generate the voltage by the generator,
following things are necessary
A magnetic field
Conductor or group of conductors
Motion of conductor w.r.t. magnetic field
Consider a coil rotating that is rotating in a
clockwise direction in uniform magnetic field
with a constant speed as shown in figure.
At position 1, the coil is moving in parallel to the
lines of flux and it is not cutting any lines of
flux. As a result generator emf is zero.
At position 2, the voltage induced is maximum
because coils A and B are moving at right
angles to the lines of flux.
At position 3, the generator voltage is again
zero, because it is in reverse of position 1. The
coil A is at bottom instead of the top.
At position 4,
The induced voltage is again maximum because it
is in reverse of position 2.
Position 5 is same as position 1.
Voltage induced in the coil is an AC form. An
alternating current will flow through the load
when load is connected across the ends of the
generator coil. This induced voltage can be
converted into DC by a device known as
commutator.
Sinusoidal voltage
Pulsating voltage
DC Generator Construction
Stator
It is the stationary part of the dc
generator, which provides mechanical
support for the machine and contain field
poles.
Rotor
It is the inner part and normally rotates
within the poles and provides the slots in
its outer periphery.
Armature winding
These are the insulated copper
conductors that are placed inside the
slots. Within the slots, these are
conducted either in lap or wave winding.
Commutator
It is used as a converter and made up of
hard copper segments. Its function is to
covert the AC voltage generated in the
armature windings into DC voltage across
load circuit. It is also known as
mechanical rectifier.
Brushes
These are made of carbon and kept in
touch with the commutator by suitable
pressure of the control spring. Their main
function is to provide proper electrical
connection between the commutator and
Induced EMF of a DC Generator
electromagnetic induction
Ec = d / dt
Net emf generated is equal to the product of
emf per conductor and the number of
conductors in series per parallel path.
Eg = PZN
60A
The electromagnetic torque will be
Tem = PZ Ia
2A
Parameters used in DC Generators,
E
c
is the induced emf per conductor in V,
E
g
is the induced emf in V,
P is the number of poles of the generator,
is the flux per pole in Wb,
N is the speed in rpm,
Z is the total number of the armature
conductors,
A is the number of parallel paths,
A 4-pole wave wound generator having 40
slots and 10 conductors placed per slot.
The flux per pole is 0.02 Wb. Calculate the
generated emf when the generator is
driven at 1200rpm.
A 6-pole, lap wound generator has 600
conductors on its armature. The flux per
pole is 0.05Wb. Calculate generated
voltage when the speed of the generator
is 1000rpm. Also find the electromagnetic
torque if the generator supplies a current
of 120A
Practice Problem
The armature of a 6-pole lap-wound
generator has 90 slots. The armature is
rotating at a speed of 600rpm to generate
a voltage of 200V. If each coil has 5 turns,
calculate the flux per pole of the
generator. Also, find the electromagnetic
torque it the armature current is 115A.
Types of DC Generator
Separately Excited DC Generator
Its field winding is energized from an independent
external dc source.
R
f
is the field resistance,
R
a
is the armature
resistance,
R
L
I
a
is the armature current,
I
L
V
t
is the terminal voltage,
E
g
is the induced voltage,
From circuit,
I
a
= I
L
V
t
= E
g
I
a
R
a
Power developed by armature
P
d
= E
g
I
a
P
L
= E
g
I
a
I
2
a
R
a
= I
a
( E
g
I
a
R
a
) = V
t
I
a
Self Excited Generators
Its field winding is generated from the
output of the generator itself. Types are,
1. Series generator
2. Shunt generator
3. Compound generator
Series generator
The field winding is connected in series with the
armature so that the same armature current can
flow through the winding as well as the load.
Ia = Isc= IL
Terminal Voltage:
Vt = EgIa (Ra + Rse)
Power developed by
armature:
Pd = Eg Ia
PL = Ia[EgIa (Ra + Rse)] =
Vt Ia
Shunt Generator
The field winding is connected in parallel with the
armature winding.
Shunt field current
Ish = Vt / Rsh
Armature current
Ia = IL + Ish
Power developed by armature
Pd = Eg Ia
PL = Vt IL
Compound Generator
The generator with both series and shunt field
windings. It is divided into two types,
short shunt and long shunt compound generators.
Series field current Ise = IL
Shunt field current
Ish = Eg/Rsh
Ish = (Vt + Ise Re)/Rsh
Terminal voltage
Vt = Eg Ia Ra Ise Rse
Power developed in
armature Pd = Eg Ia
PL = Vt IL
Long Shunt Compound Generator
Field winding is in parallel with both in series and
armature winding.
Series field current
Ise =Ia=IL+ Ish
Shunt field current
Ish = Vt /Rsh
Ish = (Vt + Ise Re)/Rsh
Terminal voltage
Vt = Eg Ia (Ra + Rse)
Power developed in
armature Pd = Eg Ia
PL = Vt IL
Practice Problem
A 40kW, 230V shunt generator has a field
resistance of 60 and a armature
resistance of 0.04 . Calculate the
generated voltage.
Saturation Curve of a DC Generator
When the current through the shunt field coil is
zero i.e. If = 0, a small magnitude of voltage is
denoted by the point a. As the shunt field
increases the induced voltage increases
proportionally represented by point b and c.
After the point c, by increasing the
current, the induced voltage increase in a
smaller magnitude represented by point d
which is also called saturation point.
After point d, by increasing current the
magnitude of the induced voltage will be
the same.
By decreasing current, the voltage will
follow the line which meet with point e.
Field Circuit Resistance
The shunt field resistance is normally
considered as the field circuit resistance. In a
self-excited dc generator, the voltage buildup
process depends on the field circuit resistance.
At lower value of R
f
generator will build up
the maximum voltage E
o
.
If the R
f
build up voltage will be reduced.
After sometime the R
f
line become tangent
to the open circuit characteristics or
magnetization curve and generator will not
build any more voltages.
This is called critical condition of the dc
generator. The critical speed is the speed
at which the field circuit resistance
becomes the critical resistance.
Voltage Buildup Process
Consider a shunt generator, which is running
at a constant speed to buildup a voltage. The
buildup process can be described by following
steps:
The armature of the generator is driven at a
certain speed without the shunt field. A small
magnitude of voltage E
r
will appear across the
generator terminals due to residual flux in the
poles.
Now generator is driven with a shunt field. A
small magnitude of current will flow through the
field winding which will produce the mmf. This
mmf sets up a flux, which will aid the residual
flux.
The increased mmf increases the total flux
which will increases the generated voltage.
The increased generated voltage will
increase thei
f
. As a result, mmf will be
increased and it will increase the V
g
.
This buildup process will continue until
to get the V
NL
. The V
NL
can be obtained
from the point from the point of
intersection b/w the lower value of R
f
line
and the magnetization curve.
After that by increasing i
f
the voltage will
not increase, it is due to the magnetic
material property.
Reasons for Failure of Buildup
Process
Absence of residual flux
Initially, small magnitude of residual flux
is required to buildup the voltage from
zero to small magnitudes. Sometimes, a
separate dc voltage source is used to get
a residual flux for short period of time.
Higher value of shunt field resistance
If the shunt field resistance is higher than
the critical resistance the generator will
not buildup any voltage.
Reverse field connections
If the field winding is connected in such a
way that the flux produced by its
magnetomotive force opposes the residual
flux. The generated voltage will decrease
rather increasing.
Theory of Commutation
The coils or conductors moves from one
pole to another during the operation of
the generator. The direction of the current
in the coil reverses by the combined
action of the commutator and brushes.
The brushes normally fixed on the
commutator segments. The brushes move
from one segment to other segment of the
commutator when the coil rotates in
clockwise direction.
A short period of time is required for the
reversal of the current. The coil
undergoing commutation will induce the
voltage due to rate of change of current
i.e. L di/dt. This voltage in known as
reactance voltage. As a result of
reactance voltage, spark occurs at the
brushes of the machine.
Armature Reaction
It is the opposite action that comes from the
armature conductors of the dc generator. In a dc
generator, the current in the armature conductors
produces an undesirable effect in its operation.
The flux due to main poles act inside the field
system of the generator to generate the voltage.
The current flowing through the armature
conductors creates flux.
This armature flux acts in opposition to the main
flux. As a result, the resultant flux is distorted.
Therefore, the opposite action of the armature flux
on the main flux is known as armature reaction.
The terminal voltage is slightly reduced due to
armature reaction. At no load condition, the
current in the armature conductors is zero.
There is only one flux f produced by the field
winding that is uniformly distributed over the
pole phases.
Flux due to Field, Armature and
Resultant Flux
Techniques to Cancel the Armature
Reaction
Some techniques are,
Brushes may be shifted from neutral position at no-
condition.
Interpoles or commutating poles may be inserted in
between the main poles.
Use of compensating windings with the armature
winding.
Cancellation of Armature Reaction
Compensating Windings
These are used to cancel the armature
reaction due to armature flux on a large
generator. These are placed on the slots
of the pole faces of the main field poles.
The compensating winding is connected
in series in such a way that the current
through the compensating winding is
opposite to the current in the armature
conductors.
The flux produced is equal and opposite to the
armature flux. As a result, the armature flux
cancelled completely.
Interpoles
The interpoles are called the commutating
or narrow poles that are placed between
the main field poles. The interpole
winding is connected in series with the
armature winding. The current through
the interpole setup a flux. The flux is
equal and opposite to the flux due to
armature winding, thus canceling the
armature flux completely.
Characteristics of a Series Generator
Initially, the generator is driven without
the load, no current will flow through the
series field. As a result, the mmf force in
the series field is zero. In this case, the
terminal voltage will be equal to E
r
which
is produced by the residual flux.
Then the generator is driven with load.
This generator will delivers current to the
load through series field. The series field
will produce the flux that aids the residual
flux. The generated voltage will be
increased to E
g
.
Uses
The series generator is used for welding and
electro-plating purposes. It is also used for
boosting of a dc transmission lines to
compensate the transmission line drop.
Characteristics of a Shunt Generator
The shunt generator has higher value of field
circuit resistance that the armature circuit
resistance. So, less current will flow through the
shunt field winding and most will pass through
the load circuit. The terminal voltage can be
calculated by,
V
t
= E
g
I
a
R
a
Current through the armature conductors
develop the flux that distorts and weakens
the main field flux. As a result, the
resultant flux is reduced. The terminal
voltage reduces slightly. It also reduces
cut to armature circuit resistance drop.
reduces and in result it reduces the field
current, as a result, Vt will also be reduced
and gradually it will reach to the saturation
region of the magnetic materials.
The IL is increased to reduce the Vt until to
get the breakdown point. At this saturation
point, the magnetic circuit fall its
saturation property.
The terminal voltage reduces sharply
towards zero with a change in the field
current.
Voltage Regulation of a DC Generator
It is used to identify the change in
terminal voltage with increase in the
It is defined as the change in voltage from
percentage of full load terminal voltage.
V
R
= (V
nl
V
fl
) x100
V
fl
Losses of a DC Generator
Copper Losses
When current flows through the copper
wire, I
2
R losses occur in that wire.
Armature copper loss.
Shunt copper loss.
Series copper loss.
Interpole field copper loss.
Compensating field copper loss.
Mechanical Losses
These occurs due to following reasons
Friction between the shaft and bearings,
commutator and brushes and the
rotating armature and surrounding air.
Iron or Magnetic Loss
This loss is divided into two types, eddy
current loss and hysteresis loss.
Eddy current loss
A voltage will be induced due to rotation of
the armature in the magnetic field. As a
result of this voltage, a small magnitude
of current will flow through the body of
the armature core. This current is known
as eddy current and the power loss due to
this is known as eddy current loss.
P
e
= keB
2
m
f
2
t
2
V
Hysteresis Loss
The armature conductors are changing
their position between the poles. Due to
new position of the conductor, the
magnetic field also changes. Therefore,
this loss occurs due to reversal of
magnetic field.
P
h
= B
m
1.6
f V
Efficiency of a DC Generator
It is defined as the ratio of output power
to input power. The efficiency of
Generator output,
P
o
= V
t
I
L
Variable loss,
P
v
= I
a
R
a
Constant loss = P
c
2
Input power,
P
in
= P
o
+ P
v
+ P
c
Generator efficiency,
= P
o
/ P
in
The efficiency will be minimum when the
denominator of the efficiency is minimum.
The efficiency will be maximum when the
constant loss is equal to variable loss.
Practice Problem
A speed of a 10kW, 220V, 4-pole wave
wound generator is 1000rpm. The
armature has 400 conductors the full
copper loss is 500W. Determine the flux
per pole and the efficiency of the
generator. Consider the shunt field
resistance of 60 and the total brush drop
of 2V.
Practice Problems