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ACI-318-11

Longitud de desarrollo de varillas


corrugadas a tensin
Proyecto: fecha: Sep-13
Fy = 59684 psi 4200 kg/cm^2
f 'c = 3013 psi 212 kg/cm^2
yt = 1
ye = 1
dim. = 1 in
l = 1 conc. Peso normal
Fy yt ye / l(f 'c)^.5 = 1087.39
caso = 2
0 20 0 0 20
l d = 54.37 dimetros
usar 44 dimetros
ACI 12.2.2
Factors for Use in the Expressions for Determining Required Development Lengths for
Deformed Bars and Deformed Wires in Tension (ACI 12.2.4)
(1) t = reinforcement location factor
Horizontal reinforcement so placed that more than 12 in. of fresh concrete is cast in the member
below the development length or splice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3
Other reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0
(2) e = coating factor
Epoxy-coated bars or wires with cover less than 3db, or clear spacing less than 6db . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5
All other epoxy-coated bars or wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2
Uncoated and zinc-coated reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0
However, the product of te need not be taken as greater than 1.7.
Para aplicar la frmula 12-1, seguir el siguiente procedimiento:
(3) s = reinforcement size factor
CASO 1
CASO 2
CASO 3 CASO 4
No. 6 and smaller bars and deformed wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8
No. 7 and larger bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0
In SI units
No. 19 and smaller bars and deformed wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8
No. 22 and larger bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0
(4) (lambda) = lightweight aggregate concrete factor
When lightweight aggregate concrete is used, shall not exceed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.75
However, when fct is specified, shall be permitted to be taken as 6.7 *
fct = resistencia promedio a la tensin (traccin)
Its in SI
but not greater than . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0
When normal weight concrete is used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0
(5) cb = spacing or cover dimension, in.
Use the smaller of either the distance from the center of the bar or wire to the nearest concrete surface,
or one-half the center-to-center spacing of the bars or wires being developed.
In the following paragraphs, all of the terms in ACI Equation 12-1 that have not previously
been introduced are described. their values for different situations were given in
the previous page.
1. Location of reinforcementHorizontal bars that have a least 12 in.[3] of fresh concrete
placed beneath them do not bond as well to concrete as do bars placed nearer the bottom
of the concrete. These bars are referred to as top bars. During the placing and vibration
of the concrete, some air and excess water tend to rise toward the top of the concrete,
and some portion may be caught under the higher bars. In addition, there may be some
settlement of the concrete below. As a result, the reinforcement does not bond as well to
the concrete underneath, and increased development lengths will be needed. To account
for this effect, the reinforcement location factor, t, is used.
2. Coating of barsEpoxy-coated reinforcing bars are frequently used today to protect the
steel from severe corrosive situations, such as where deicing chemicals are used. Bridge
decks and parking garage slabs in the colder states fit into this class. When bar coatings
are used, bonding is reduced and development lengths must be increased. To account
for this fact, the term ethe coating factoris used in the equation.
3. Sizes of reinforcingIf small bars are used in a member to obtain a certain total crosssectional
area, the total surface area of the bars will be appreciably larger than if fewer
but larger bars are used to obtain the same total bar area. As a result, the required
development lengths for smaller bars with their larger surface bonding areas (in proportion
to their cross-sectional areas) are less than those required for larger-diameter bars.
This factor is accounted for with the reinforcement size factor, s.
4. Lightweight aggregatesThe dead weight of concrete can be substantially reduced by
substituting lightweight aggregate for the regular stone aggregate. The use of such aggregates
(expanded clay or shale, slag, etc.) generally results in lower-strength concretes.
Such concretes have lower splitting strengths, and so development lengths will have to
be larger. In the equation, is the lightweight concrete modification factor discussed in
Section 1.12.
5. Spacing of bars or cover dimensionsShould the concrete cover or the clear spacing
between the bars be too small, the concrete may very well split, as was previously
shown in Figure 7.6. This situation is accounted for with the (cb +Ktr)/db term in the
development length expression. It is called the confinement term. In the equation, cb
fct c f / '
fct c f 8 . 1 / '
represents the smaller of the distance from the center of the tension bar or wire to the
nearest concrete surface, or one-half the center-to-center spacing of the reinforcement.
In this expression, Ktr is a factor called the transverse reinforcement index. It is used to
account for the contribution of confining reinforcing (stirrups or ties) across possible splitting
planes.
Ktr = 40Atr / sn
where:
Atr = the total cross-sectional area of all transverse reinforcement having the
center-to-center spacing s and a yield strength fyt
n = the number of bars or wires being developed along the plane of splitting. If steel
is in two layers, n is the largest number of bars in a single layer.
s = center-to-center spacing of transverse reinforcing
The code in Section 12.2.3 conservatively permits the use of Ktr = 0 to simplify the calculations,
even if transverse reinforcing is present. ACI 12.2.3 limits the value of (cb + Ktr)/db
used in the equation to a maximum value of 2.5. (It has been found that if values larger than
2.5 are used, the shorter development lengths resulting will increase the danger of pullout-type
failures.)
The calculations involved in applying ACI Equation 12-1 are quite simple, as is illustrated
in Example 7.2.(del libro de Mcormac y Brown, 9a edicin)
In SI units, Ktr = Atr fyt / 10sn
dimetro de estribos = 3/8 in
ramas verticales = 2
Atr = 0.221 in^2
db = 1 in acero longitudinal
cb = 1.5 in recub. o dist a c-c de vrs long.
ys = 1
espaciam. Entre estribos "s" = 8 in
cant de vrs long "n" = 3
Ktyr = 40 Atr/sn = 0.368
Fy yt ye ys / l(f 'c)^.5 = 1087.3945
(cb+Ktr/db) = 1.87 in o.k.
debe ser =< 2.5
l d = 44 dimetros
ACI-318-11, 12.3
Longitud de desarrollo de varillas
corrugadas a compresin
Proyecto: fecha: Sep-13
l = 1 Concreto de peso normal
Fy = 411.85 Mpa
f 'c = 35 Mpa
diam de varillas = 1.5 in
12.3.2 SI
eq. 1 (0.24fy /l(fc)^.5 )db
eq. 2 (0.043fy)db
db = 38 mm
eq. 1 eq. 2
635 673 mm
Esta longitud puede ser multiplicada por:
rel= As req./As real
rel L dc
0.7 471 mm
0.75 505 mm
0.8 538 mm
0.85 572 mm
0.9 606 mm
12.3.1 L dc no debe ser menor de 200 mm
12.2.3 Si el ref est confinado por una espiral de dimetro. => 6 mm y una separacin =<100 mm
o estribos de 13 mm espaciados a no mas de 100 mm
multiplique por: 0.75
L dc = 505 mm