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Ex. No.

1
SIMPLE PENDULUM

Aim:
To verify the relation
T=2 L/g
Where=periodic time in sec
L=Length of pendulum cms
Description of set up: (Refer Fig.1)
For conducting the experiment, a beach ball is supported by nylon
thread into the chuck. It is possible to change the length of pendulum
by drawing the threat through chuck. This makes it possible to study
the effect of variation of length on periodic time. A small ball may be
substituted for larger ball to illustrate that the period of oscillation is
independent of the mass of the ball.

Procedure:
1.Attach the beach ball to one end of threat.
2.Loosen the nut at the top of chuck and draw the threat to
adjust the length.
3.Allow the ball to oscillate T
by knocking the time for say 10 oscillations.
4.Repeat the experiment by changing the length and changing the
size of the ball.
5.Complete the observation table.
Model calculation:
T=2 L /g
For L=40cm
T(l) =2 x 40/980 = 1.26 s
T(experimental)=t/n

Result:









S. No Lg L
In cm.
No. of
Oscillation

T

oscillations
T ( e x p ) =
t/n
T (the )















Aim:
1. To det s g of given pendulum.
2. T v l T=2 (k + OG) /g(OG)
Where T =periodic time sec.
K =Radius of gyration about C. G.cm.
OG =Distance of the C. G .of rod from support.
L =Length of bar
Description of the set up: (Refer Fig. 2)
The compound pendulum consists of 16 mm diameter steel bar. The bar is
supported by the knife edge. It is possible to change the length of suspended
pendulum by supporting the bar in different holes.

Procedure:
1.Support the rod in any one of the holes.
2.Note the length of suspended pendulum and determine
OG.
3.Allow the bar to oscillate and determine T by knowing the
time for say 10 oscillations.
4.Repeat the experiment with different length of suspension.
5.Complete the observation table given below.
Model calculation:
Ex. NO. 2
COMPOUND PENDULUM
1. Experimental From the relation,
T = 2 (+ OG) / g(OG)
K(exp) =

) = L/23

2.V l T =2 ( + OG) / g(OG)

P () =L /23
And find T(the)compare it with the experimental.

Result:
















SI. No. L in cm

OG No. Of
Oscillations

T
O s c.

T ( e x p )
T =t/ n
K ( e x p ) K (the )



Ex. No.3
BIFILAR SUSPENSION

Aim:
To determine the radius of gyration of given bar by using bifilar
suspension.

Description of set up:
A uniform rectangular section bar is suspended from the
pendulum support frame by two parallel cords. Top ends of the cords
pass through the two small chucks fitted at the top. Other ends are
secured in the bifilar bar. It is possible to adjust the length of the cord
by loosening the chucks.
The suspension may also be used to determine
the radius of gyration of any body. In this case the body under
investigation is belted to the center. Radius of gyration of the combined
bar and body is then determined.

Procedure:
1.Suspend the bar from chuck and adjust the length
L conveniently. Note the suspension length of each cord must
be the same.
2. Allow the bar to oscillate about the vertical axis passing
through the center and measure the periodic time T by knowing the
time for time for say 10 oscillations.
3. Repeat the experiment by mounting the weights at equal
distance from the center (d/2 as shown)
4. Complete the observation table.

Model calculation:
bl sss T= 2 (/) (L/g)
Where 2a =distance between wires in cm
L=length from the suspension in cm
() = L/ 23

Result:








S.No. L mm T(sec)
For n osc.
No.of osc

Periodic
Time T=t/n
(sec)
Theoretical
T (Sec)










Ex. No. 4
LONGITUDINAL VIBRATION OF A HELICAL SPRING


Aim:
Tostudy the longitudinal vibrations of helical spring and to determine
the frequency or period vibration (oscillation) theoretically and by
experimend.

Description of apparatus: (Refer Fig. 4)
One end of open coil spring is fixed to the screw which
engageswith screwed hand wheel. The screw can be adjusted vertically
in any convenient position and they clamped to upper beam by means
of lock wheel. Lower end of the spring is attached to the platform
carrying the weights. The platform is guided in the lower beam. The
whole unit can be clamped at any horizontal position by using the
upper and lower clamping nuts. Thus the design of the system
incorporated vertical and lateral positioning of the unit ti suit the
convenience.

Procedure:
1.Fix one of the ends of helical spring.
2.Determine free length.
3. Put some wt. to platform and note down the deflection.
4.Stretch the spring through some distance and release.
5.Count the time required (in sec.) for some say 10,25
oscillations.
6.Determine the actual period.
7.Repeat the procedure for different time.

Model calculations:
1. Find km (mean stiffness) of the spring as follows:-
Km = (K1+K2+k3) / 3 Kg/ cm
Where K1 = w1/ s1 K2 = W2/S2 K3 =K3/S3

Length of spring =
2. T l b sg equal
T Tl = 2 (W/ x g)
3. xl vl T exit
=Time for number of ose = t/n-
No. of osc
For W= Km=
F theoretical = 1/ T (the) =
F exit = 1/ T (exit) =
Result:
S.No Wt. Attached
in kg,+Wt. of
the
Platform
Deflection of
the spring in
mm.

K

NO.of
Oscillations
N
Time
required
s

Periodic
Time
T=t/n
sec











Ex.No.5 UNDAMPED FREE VIBRATION OF EQUIVALENT
SPRING MASS SYSTEM

Aim:
To study the undamped free vibrations of equivalent spring mass
system.
Description of set up: (Refer Fig 5)
Expt.1:The arrangement is shown in fig. 5. It is designed to
study free, forced, damped and undamped vibrations. It
consists of M.S rectangular beam supported at one end by a
turn union pivoted in ball bearing. The bearing housing is fixed
to the side member of the frame. The other end of the beam is
supported by the lower end of helical spring. Upper end of
spring is attached to the screw.

Expt2. The exciter unit can be mounted at any position along the beam
additional known weights may be added to the wt. Platform under
side of the exciter.

Procedure:
1. Support one end of the beam in the slot of turn union
and clamp it by means of screw.
2. Attach the other end of beam to the lower end of spring.
3. Adjust the screw to which the spring is attached such
that beam is horizontal in the above position.
4. Weigh the exciter assemble along with discs and bearing
and weight platform.
5. Clamp the assembly at any convenient position.
6. Measure the distance L1 of the assembly from pivot.
Allow system to vibrate freely.
7. Measure the time for any 10 osc. And find the periodic
time and natural frequency of vibrations.
8. Repeat the experiment by varying L1 and by also putting
different weights on the platform.
Note: It is necessary to clamp the slotted weights to the platform by
means of nut so that weights do not fall during vibrations.
Formula used:
W =Weight of exciter assembly along with wt. platform.
M = Mass of exciter assembly along with wt. platform.
L1 = Distance of w from pivot.
L = Distance of spring from pivot = Length of beam.
NeglectingMI of beam.

{(

)(

)}


Where m
e
= equivalent mass at the spring = m (L1/L)
Result:
S.No
W+Wt.
of the
platform
Length
LI
No. of
Oscillations
n
Time
Required

sec
Periodic
Time
T = t/n
sec
Natural
Frequency
(Expt.)
1+2














EX.NO.6 FORCED VIBRATIONS OF EQUIVALENT SPRING
MASS SYSTEM

Aim:
To study the forced vibrations of equivalent spring mass system.
Description of the set up:
The arrangement is as shown in the fig 6. It is similar to that
described for expt. No. 5
th
exciter unit is couplet to D .C variable speed
motor through the flexible shaft. Speed of the motor can be varied
with the dimmer stat provided on the control panel. Speed of rotation
can be known from the speed indicator on panel. It is necessary to
connect the damper unit to the exciter. Amplitude record of vibration
is to be obtained on the strip - chart recorder.
Procedure:
1. Arrange the set up as described for expt. No. 5
2. Connect the exciter to D.C Motor through flexible shaft.
3. Start the motor and allow the system to vibrate.
4. Wait for 1 to 2 minutes for the amplitude to build for particular
forcing frequency.
5. Adjust the position of strip chart recorder. Take the record of
amplitude Vs. Time on strip chart by staring recording motor.
Press the recorder platform on the pen gently. Pen should be
wet with ink. Avoid excessive pressure to get good record
6. Take record by changing forcing frequencies.
7. Repeat the experiment for different damping.
Damping can be changed by adjusting the holes on the piston
of the damper.
8. Plot the graph of amplitude Vs frequency for various damping
conditions.
Graph:
Plot the graph of amplitude V s. frequency for each seating.

Result:












Forcing frequency
c. p. s
Amplitude
mm



Prepare similar observation tables for various damping conditions.







Ex. No. 7 TORSIONAL VIBRATION ( UNDAMPED ) OF SINGLE
ROTOR SHAFT SYSTEM

Aim:
To study the torsional vibration (undammed) of single Rotor shaft
system.
Description of set up:
Fig. No. 7 shows the general arrangement for carrying out
the experiments.
One end of the shaft is gripped in the chuck and disc free to
rotate in ball bearing is fixed at the other end of the shaft.
The bracket with fixed end of shaft can be clamped at any
convenient position along the beam. Thus length of the shaft can be
varied during the experiments. Specially designed chuck is used for
clamping the end of the shaft. The ball bearing support to the flywheel
provides negligible damping during experiment. The bearing hosing is
fixed to side member of the main frame

Procedure:
1. Fix the bracket at any convenient position along the beam.
2. Grip the shaft at the bracket by means of chuck.
3. Fix the rotor on the other end of the shaft.
4. Twist the rotor through some angle and release.
5. oscillations.
6. Repeat the procedure for different length of shaft.
7. Make the following observations.

a. Shaft dia. d = 3mm
b. Dia. Of the disc D = 200mm x 10mm Thick
c. Wt. Of the disc W = 2. 425kg
d. Modulus of rigidity for shaft G = 0.8 x 10 g 1 /s.

Model calculation:
1. Determination of torsional stiffness Kt
= T/ = GIP/L =
Where, IP Pl = /32
2. Determination of T theoretical
T() = 2 (I/) when I =(W/g) x (D/2)
= 2(I/)
3. Determination of T experimental
T (e x p) = t/n sec.


Result:

S. No Length of shaft
L mm
No. of
Oslls

T
Oscillations
Periodic time
T(expt) sec


















TORSIONAL VIBRATION (UN DAMPED) OF
SINGLE ROTOR SHAFT SYSTEM

AIM:
To study the torsional vibration (undamped) of the single rotor
shaft system

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP:
The figure shows the general arrangement for carrying out the
experiments. One end of the shaft is gripped in chuck and disc free to
rotate in ball bearing is fixed at the outer end of the shaft is gripped in
chuck and disc free torotate in ball bearing is fixed at the outer end of
the shaft.
The bracket with fixed end of shaft can be damped at any
convenient position along the beam. Thus the length of the shaft can
be varied during the experiments specially designed chuck is used for
clamping the end of the shaft. The ball bearing support to the
flywheel provides negligible damping during the experiments. The
bearing housing is a fixed one to the side member of the main frame.

PROCEDURE:
1. Fix the bracket at any convenient position along the beam.
2. Grip the shaft at the bracket by means of chuck.
3. Fix the rotor end of the shaft.
4. Twist the rotor through some angle and released.
5. Note down the time required for 'n oscillations.
6. Repeat the procedure for different length of shaft.
7. Make the following observations
a. Shaft diameter (d) = 3mm =0.3cm
b. Diameter of disc (d) =200mm =20cm
Thickness =10mm =1cm
c. Weight of the disc (W) =2.425 Kg
d. Modulus of rigidity for shaft (G) =0.8 x 10Kg cm
Assume
Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.81
e. Length of the shaft (L) =91cm





TABULATION:

SI. NO Length of
shaft (L)
Cm
No. of
Oscillations
n '
Time for
n
oscillations
Periodic
time T
Sec



SI.
NO
Length Of
Shaft (L) cm
K
kg
cm
Theoretical
T sec
T
sec
F F


MODEL CALCULATION:

1. Determination of Torsional Stiffness( K )

K = (T ) = (GI/L)
Where ,

I = Polar moment of inertia = (IId / 32)
G =Modulus of rigidity
L =Length in cm

2. Determination of T

T =2( I K )

Where,
I = w/g x (D2)
The= 2 (I/K )

3. Determination of T
T =(t / n ) sec
Frequency F = (1/T)

RESULT:
Thus the torsional vibration (un damped) of the single rotor shaft
system was studied.




FORCED VIBRATION OF EQUIVALENT
SPRING MASS SYSTEM

AIM:
To study the forced vibration of equivalent spring mass system.

APPARATUS REOUIRED:
1. Spring mass system setup
2. Vibrometer
3. Hole plate
4. Vibration indicator
5. Power oscillator
DESCRIPION:
The arrangement is shown in figure. It is designed to study
free, forced damped andundamped vibrations. It consists of
mild steel rectangular beam supported at one end by turn union
pivoted in ball bearing. The bearing housing is fixed to the side
member of the frame. The other end of the beam is supported
by the lower end of the helical spring. Upper end of the spring is
attached to the screw. The exciter unit is coupled to easy
variable speed of the motor through the flexible shaft. The
speed of the motor can be varied with the dimmer set provided
on the control panel.

It is necessary to connect the damper unit of the exciter
amplitude recorded vibration is to be obtained on the strip
charp recorder.


TABULATION:
Single hole system

SI.
NO
Forcing frequency Cycles/s Amplitude mm Displacement
m



Double hole system;


SI.
NO
Forcing frequency
Cycles/s
Amplitude
mm
Displacement
m


PROCEDURE:
1. Arrange the setup has described above.
2. Connect the exciter to the DC motor through the flexible
shaft
3. Start the motor and allow the system to vibrate
4. Wait for 1to 2 minutes for the amplitude to builtfor
particular forcing frequency
5. Adjust the position of Stripcharp recorder. Take the
recorded amplitude verses time on the strip chart by
starting recording motor. Press the recorder platform on
the pen gently. Pen should be wet with the ink. Avoid
excessive pressure to get record
6. Take record by change in forcing frequency
7. Repeat the experiment for different damping. Damping
can be adjusting the holes on the piston of damper
8. Plot the graph amplitude Vs Frequency for each setting

GRAPH:
Plot the graph of amplitude Vs Frequency for each setting.


RESULT:
Thus the forced vibration of equivalent of equivalent spring mass
system was studied
STATIC AND DYNAMIC
BALANCE MACHINE

AIM:
To check the experimentally the normal of calculation the position of
the counter balancing weight is rotating member system.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Static and dynamics balanced machine
2. Steel balls
3. Weighing balance
DESCRIPTION:
The apparatus basically consists of a steel shaft momented in
ball bearing in a shaft. The rectangular main frame of set six blokes
are clamped in any position of the shaft also easily detached products
is fitted one side of the rectangular frame. Shaft carries a disc and
remark the disc in ground to take the card are provided with the two
cylindrical metal contains of exactly same heights of scale is fitted to
the lower member of the main frame and when we used in junction
with the circular projector scale allows the exact longitudinal and
angular position of each adjustable block to the determined.
The shaft is prevent under the main frame through the belt for
static balancing of individual weight, the main frame is suspended the
support frame of the clams and this position. The motor driving belts
is removed. For dynamic balancing of the total the main frame is
suspended. The two links are adjusted such that main frame on the
supporting frame are in the same plane.

PROCEDURE:
Static Balancing:
Remove the driver belt, the value of each block is determined by
clamping each block is determined by clamping of the shaft and with
the load and the contain system suspended over the protector disc.
Themember of steel bar, which are equal weights are place into one
of the container to exactly balance the blocks on the shaft. When the
blocks become horizontal the number of balls n ' will be giving the
value of weight of the block.

For finding out or during static balance,
1. Remove the belt
2. Screw the combined block to its pulley with groove
3. The chord ends of the path to the above combined blocks
4. Attach the block to the shaft at any convenient position and
vertical downward direction
5. Put steel balls in one of the pans till the block starts moving up
to the material at convenient angle
6. No. of balls gives the Wr value of the block one
Repeat the procedure for 2 to 3 time and find any number of balls
and also for the other block.
Dynamic Balancing:
It is necessary to leave the machine before the experiment using the
value of as above and if the angular position and of variation of
rotation of 3 to 4 blocks for balancing of complete system.
From the calculation we finally clamps all the blocks on the shaft
in the appropriate position. Replace the motor belt transfer the main
frame to its hanging position and then by running motor we can verify
these calculations are correct and the blocks are respectively
balanced.

TABULATION:
SI.
NO
Plane no. Wr Distance from
No.
couple




RESULT:
Thus the position of the counter balancing weight in rotating mass
system was calculated.
DETERMINATION OF CRITICAL SPEED
OF THE SHAFT
AIM:
To determine the Critical speed of the shaft.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Experimental setup
2. Stroboscope

END CONDITION:
The one end of the shaft is fixed and the other end is simply
support.

FORMULA USED:
For supported and fixed end conditions,
1. Deflection due to UDL = (5wi /384EI)
2. Speed = (0.4985/ S ) (rpm)
Where,
S = deflection of shaft (m)
W = Load (N)
I = Length of shaft (m)
E = Young s modulus (N/m)
I = Moment of Inertia (m)
OBSERVATION:
Length of the shaft, I=
Diameter of the shaft, d =
Weight of the shaft, W =
Youngs modulus, E =
Experimental speed, N =

CALCULATION:
Moment of Inertia I = (IId /64)
Deflection = (5WI/384EI)
Speed N = (499.85/) x 60 rpm

PROCEDURE:
1. The given shaft is mounted on the apparatus with the
required end condition.
2. The motor is started end its speed is gradually
increased. If the rpm is increased and deflection of
shaft has been found increasing and with the further
increase in speed it has been observed that the
deflection of the shaft has become very large.
3. The shaft at this speed is deflected into a single bow
and starts whistingline of a skipping rope. Speed at
this point is noted with the help of the stroboscope.
4. And this speed is called critical speed of the shaft.
RESULT:
Thus the critical speed of the given shaft is determined by
1. Theoretically =
2. Experimentally =