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Unit 11

Prehistory and Ancient History


By M Jos
Mora
The Palaeolithic era
The Palaeolithic era started more than two mIllion years ago.
Humans beings move around to find food.
They used Stone and bone tools to hunt animals.
They lived in caves and huts.
They discovered fired.
The Neolithic era
The Neolithic began about 10.000 years ago.
People developed
agriculturE and stayed
in the same place.
People invented
pottery. They used pots
to cook and store food.
People formed
Settlements.
The Metal Ages
The Metal Ages began about 6.000 years ago.
People used metals.
They used copper tools
and later bronze and iron tools.
They invented the wheel, the sailboat
and plough to cultivate land.
They Exchange goods.
They lived in villages with
walls for protection
Villages with walls
Early civilizations
Early civilizations appeared about
5000 years ago in the Middle
East, India and China.
Writing was an extremely
important invention.
It marks the end of Prehistory
and the beginning of History.
Ancient Egypt
The great civilization of
Ancient Egypt
developed along the River
Nile more than 5.000 years
ago.
It was ruled by powerful
kings called pharaohs.
Egyptians invented
a type of writing called
Hieroglyphics.
They created the Pyramids.
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece was not an
empire. It was a group of small
states that developed after 800
BC.
The Greeks invented an
early formof democracy.
There were many great
philosophers, writers and
artists.
The Romans
Roman civilization
began in the
city of Rome in
the 8th century BC.
Before
Christ
In the year 27 BC
Augustus was the emperor
Augustus
Over several centuries,
Rome conquered
many areas
around the
Mediterranean.
Rome was a great
empire between
27 BC and 476 AD.
Roman Language
was Latin
Gallia est omnis divisa in partes
tres, quarum
unamincolunt Belgae, aliam
Aquitani, tertiamqui ipsorumlingua
Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur.
Latin
The areas conquered by Rome
gradually adopted Roman culture.
Many modern languages
come from Latin.
Roman Culture
Religion
Roman were polytheistic like Greeks.
They worshiped their
gods in temples.
Jupiter
Juno Neptune
Urban life
The romans built temples, public baths,
aquaducts and circuses.
There were theatres
There were
amphitheatres
There were circuses
There were
Bridges
Roads
Aqueducts
Roman built public works to dominate the
Empire better.
Roads between cities improved trade.
Roman society
The Roman society was divided into:
Patricians
Slaves
Plebeians
They were the most
important citizens.
They had most of the land.
They had
political
and military
Jobs.
Patricians
They lived in villas in the country.
The lived in Domus in the towns
Plebeians
Plebeians
They worked in trade
They were farmers
They were free citizens.
trade
They
sell
and
buy
Things.
Slaves
Slaves
They were not citizens.
They were:
miners
servants
They were the properties
of their masters.