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C C C

E E E
T T TR R R

1715 Dell Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008
408/376-4040 408/376-4050
, USA
Phone: Fax: Email: sales@cetr.com
Application Note
Center for Tribology, Inc.
WWW.CETR.COM
LEADERS IN TRIBOLOGY TEST
INSTRUMENTATION AND SERVICES
Seal Durability Test
Fig. 1. Photo of Micro-Tribometer UMT-2
The goal is to evaluate and compare the old and new designs of lip-seal rings. The test
objective is to measure the effects of shaft speed, temperature and normal load on the seal-
shaft dimension, elasticity, friction coefficient and wear.
The Micro-Tribometer mod. UMT-2 (Fig. 1) is used extensively for tribology and materials
research from macro- to micro and nano scales for such diverse applications as petroleum
products, thin and thick coatings, ceramics, automotive, aerospace, electronics, etc. This
universal, high precision and automated instrument can accommodate both ideal friction
pairs like pin-on-disc, ball-on-disc, 4-balls, ring-on-block, disc-on disc and the real industrial
assemblies like piston ring on cylinder, screw in nut, pin in chain, sliding and rolling bearings,
shaft in seal, etc. The UMT accommodates both upper and lower samples of practically any
shape with dimensions ranging from 0.1 mm to 150 mm. It can provide any combination of
rotational and linear, including reciprocating, motions with speeds ranging from 0.5 micron
up to 50 micron. The applied load is servo-controlled with a closed-loop feedback
mechanism, and is programmable from 1 mN to 1 kN. During testing, the following
tribological parameters can be measured in-situ:
- Friction force, torque and coefficient,
- Wear depth,
- Contact acoustic emission,
- Contact electrical resistance or capacitance,
- Temperature,
- Digital video.
1715 Dell Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008
408/376-4040 408/376-4050
, USA
Phone: Fax: Email: sales@cetr.com
Center for Tribology, Inc.
PAGE 2
Seal samples of two types (Fig. 2), old design
lip-seal and new design lip-seal, with the latter
one subdivided into burned and unburned,
have been tested. The wear study utilized a so-
called block-on-ring testing mode (Fig. 3).
Fr i ct i on f or ce, nor mal f or ce, wear
(deformati on) and temperature were
measured.
A static deformation test (displacement vs.
load) was done to evaluate the seal
deformation under radial loads at both
ambient and elevated temperatures. The
graphs of displacement versus load are shown
in Fig. 4. Under the same radial load, the new Fig. 2. Samples of Lip
Seals

Static Deformation for New Lip Ring (Unburned)
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
Load (N)
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200

Static Deformation for New Lip Ring (Unburned)
Load (N)
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200
Static Deformation for New Lip Ring (Burned)
100C
20C
100C
20C
D
s
p
c
e
e

m
)
i
l
a
m
n
t
(
m
D
s
p
c

m
i
l
a
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
Static Deformation for Old Lip Ring
100C
20C
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
Load (N)
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200
D
s
m
i
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
)
Fig. 4. Seal Deformation Plots
Then a series of 3-hour wear tests were
done, under different normal loads (10 to
40 N) keeping both temperature and shaft
speed constant, at different speeds (1,000
to 5,000 rpm) keeping the load and
temperature constant, and finally in
0
different chamber temperatures (75 C to
0
150 C) keeping both normal force and
speed constant. Typical plots of friction,
wear and temperature for the old-design
and new-design seals are presented in Fig-
s 5 and 6. The summarized results are
shown in bar charts. With increase in load,
friction reduced, wear and contact
temperature increased (Fig. 7). With
increase in speed, friction increased a
little, both contact temperature and wear
increased (Fig. 8). An increase in chamber
temperature did not have much of effect
(Fig. 9). New lip seals always performed
better than the old ones in terms of wear,
friction and temperature.
C C C
E E E
T T TR R R
Application Note
LEADERS IN TRIBOLOGY TEST
INSTRUMENTATION AND SERVICES
C C C
E E E
T T TR R R
1715 Dell Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008
408/376-4040 408/376-4050
, USA
Phone: Fax: Email: sales@cetr.com
Application Note
Center for Tribology, Inc.
PAGE 3
LEADERS IN TRIBOLOGY TEST
INSTRUMENTATION AND SERVICES
Fig. 3. Photo of Micro Tribometer Setup for Seal Wear and Friction Test
Time (min)
Wear Test for Old Lip Ring at Fz = 40N
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
29 59 89 118 148 178
C
o
F
Wear test for Old Lip Ring at Fz = 40N
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.500
0.600
29 59 89 118 148 178
Time (min)
Wear test for Old Lip Ring at Fz = 40N
0
30
60
90
120
150
2
9
5
9
8
9
1
1
8
1
4
8
1
7
8
Time (min)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
C
)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
m
)
Wear Test for New Lip Ring at Fz = 40N
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0 30 59 89 119 148 178
Time (sec)
C
o
F
Wear Test for New Lip Ring at Fz = 40N
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.500
0 30 59 89 119 148 178
Time (min)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
Wear test for Old Lip Ring at Fz = 40N
0
30
60
90
120
150
111
2
9
5
9
8
9
1
8
4
8
7
8
Time (min)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(
C
)
Fig. 6. Plots for Friction, Wear and
Temperature for the New Design
Fig. 5. Plots for Friction, Wear and
Temperature for the Old Design
C C C
E E E
T T TR R R
1715 Dell Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008
408/376-4040 408/376-4050
, USA
Phone: Fax: Email: sales@cetr.com
Application Note
Center for Tribology, Inc.
PAGE 4
LEADERS IN TRIBOLOGY TEST
INSTRUMENTATION AND SERVICES

Bar Chart of COF with varying Load
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
10 20 30 40
Load (N)
C
O
F

Bar Chart of temperature with varying load
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
10 20 30 40
Load (N)
Fig. 7. Bar Chart for Varied Load


Bar Chart for temperature with varying speed
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
1000 2300 3600 5000
Shaft speed (rpm)
Old design lip seal
New design lip seal



Bar Chart of COF with varying speed
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
1000 2300 3600 5000
Shaft speed (rpm)
C
O
F
Fig. 8. Bar Chart for Varied Speed


Bar Chart of COF with varying temperature
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
75 100 125 150
C
O
F
Temperature (C)
Fig. 9. Bar Chart for Varied Chamber Temperature


Bar Chart of temperature with varying temperature
0
50
100
150
200
250
75 100 125 150
Temperature (C)

Old design lip seal
New design lip seal
Old design lip seal
New design lip seal
Old design lip seal
New design lip seal
Old design lip seal
New design lip seal
Old design lip seal
New design lip seal
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