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Reading Comprehension - Benefits of Fasting
Develop your reading skills. Read the following text on the benefits of fasting and do the
comprehension questions
Climate change and global warming
Climate change

Wikipedia defines climate as follows:

Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind,
rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elements in a given region over a
long period of time. Climate can be contrasted to weather, which is the present condition of these
same elements and their variations over shorter time periods.

Climate may be inherently variable as evidenced by the irregularity of the seasons from one
year to another. This variability is normal and may remain partially understood. It is related to
changes in ocean currents, volcanic eruptions, solar radiation and other components of the
climate system. In addition, our climate also has its extremes (such as floods, droughts, hail,
tornadoes and hurricanes), which can be devastating. However, in recent decades, a number of
indicators and studies show more and more evidence of climate warming across the globe. A
disturbing phenomenon that challenges human habits and activities which are responsible for
greenhouse gase emissions.
The green house effect

The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation
by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet's lower atmosphere and surface. It was proposed by
Joseph Fourier in 1824 and was first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896.

Naturally occurring greenhouse gases have a mean warming effect of about 33 C (59 F).
But Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has increased the amount of greenhouse gases
in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2, methane, tropospheric ozone,
CFCs (chlorofluorocarbon) and nitrous oxide. The concentrations of CO2 and methane have
increased by 36% and 148% respectively since 1750. These levels are much higher than at any time
during the last 650,000 years, the period for which reliable data has been extracted from ice cores.
Over the last three decades of the 20th century, GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita and
population growth were the main drivers of increases in greenhouse gas emissions. CO2 emissions
are continuing to rise due to the burning of fossil fuels and land-use change.
Consequences of global warming

There are two major effects of global warming: the increase of temperature on the earth by
about 3 to 5 C (5.4 to 9 Fahrenheit) by the year 2100 and Rise of sea levels by at least 25
meters (82 feet) by the year 2100. Other consequences are listed below:
Sea levels are rising due to thermal expansion of the ocean, in addition to melting of land
ice.
Amounts and patterns of precipitation are changing.
The total annual power of hurricanes has already increased markedly since 1975 because
their average intensity and average duration have increased.
Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns increase the frequency, duration, and
intensity of other extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, heat waves, and tornadoes.
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Higher or lower agricultural yields, further glacial retreat, reduced summer stream flows,
species extinctions.
Diseases like malaria are returning into areas where they have been extinguished earlier.

Sources: Wikipedia | Time for change

Comprehension:
Climate is by definition variable.
a. True
b. False
Climate change observed in the last decades is natural.
a. True
b. False
Global warming is caused by industrialization.
a. True
b. False
Greenhouse effects have no impacts on our health.
a. True
b. False

Reading Comprehension - Pollution and its Negative Effects
Develop your reading skills. Read the following text on pollution and its effect on the
environment. Then answer the comprehension questions

Pollution is the degradation of natural environment by external substances introduced
directly or indirectly. Human health, ecosystem quality and aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity may
be affected and altered permanently by pollution.

Pollution occurs when ecosystems can not get rid of substances introduced into the
environment. The critical threshold of its ability to naturally eliminate substances is compromized
and the balance of the ecosystem is broken.

The sources of pollution are numerous. The identification of these different pollutants and
their effects on ecosystems is complex. They can come from natural disasters or the result of
human activity, such as oil spills, chemical spills, nuclear accidents ... These can have terrible
consequences on people and the planet where they live: destruction of the biodiversty, increased
mortality of the human and animal species, destruction of natural habitat, damage caused to the
quality of soil, water and air ...

Preventing pollution and protecting the environment necessitate the application of the
principles of sustainable development. we have to consider to satisfy the needs of today without
compromizing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This means that we should
remedy existing pollution, but also anticipate and prevent future pollution sources in order to
protect the environment and public health. Any environmental damage must be punishable by
law, and polluters should pay compensation for the damage caused to the environment.

Comprehension
The damage caused by pollution might be irreversible:
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a. True
b. False
The ecosystem
a. can always cope with pollutants
b. may not always be able to cope with pollution.
Pollution
a. is always caused by humans.
b. may sometimes be caused by natural disasters.
An ideal solution to prevent pollution would be to
a. refrain the development of some counries.
b. continue develpmental projects.
c . take into consideration the future generations need to live in a healthy environment.

Reading Comprehension - 7 ways to protect the environment
Develop your reading skills. Read the following text about how to protect the environment
and do the comprehension questions
Seven ways to protect the environment

We all want to protect our planet, but we're mostly too busy or too lazy to put up big
change that would improve our lifestyle and save the environment.

These are 7 simple habits to implement in your everyday life which will make a difference.
There is nothing new here but if you follow at least some of these tips, you can be proud of
yourself participating in the protection of the environment.
Use compact fluorescent light bulbs:
It is true that these bulbs are more expensive, but they last much longer and they can save
energy and in the long term your electricity bill would be reduced.
Donate:
You have tons of clothes or things you want to get rid of. If they are still usable, give them
to someone who needs them. You may also choose to give them to associations. These
associations may sell them and collect a little money. Not only will you protect the environment,
but you will also contribute to a good cause.
Turn off your devices:
When you do not use a house device, turn it off. For example, if you don't watch TV, turn it
off. Turn off the light when you leave a room (even if you intend to return.) It's an easy habit to
take up which will help you save a lot of money.
Walk or cycle:
Driving is one of the biggest causes of pollution. If you want to use your car, ask yourself the
following question: do I really need my car? Walk or use your bike if the journey is a short one.
Detergent:
Follow the recommended dose of detergent to wash your clothes or dishes.
leaky faucets:
Watch leaky faucets, which can cause a significant increase in the the water bill. An average
of 120 litres of water can be wasted due to a dripping faucet.
Rainwater:
Think of recovering rainwater. This water can be used for different purposes.

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This list is far from being exhaustive but in addition to saving the environment, all these tips
will help you save money.

Comprehension:
Fluorescent light bulbs waste more energy
a. True
b. False
Donate means:
a. give.
b. take.
The 7 tips suggested
a. to save money.
b. protect the environment.
c. to save money and protect the environment.

Reading Comprehension - World Cup in South Africa
Develop your reading skills. Read the following text and do the comprehension questions
The 2010 world cup (South Africa)

The 2010 world cup football (soccer) competition will take place in South Africa between
June 11 and July 11, 2010. This will be the 19th FIFA World Cup. It is an event that is held every
four years.

This will be the first time that the world cup is held in an African country. South Africa
competed against Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia and Libya ( Tunisia and Libya offered to co-host the
competition) for the organization of the event. Following the decision of the FIFA Executive
Committee not to allow co-hosted tournaments, Tunisia withdrew from the bidding process. The
committee also decided not to consider Libya's solo bid as it no longer met all the stipulations laid
down in the official List of Requirements. After one round of voting, the winning bid was
announced by FIFA president Sepp Blatter at a media conference on 15 May 2004 in Zrich. South
Africa was awarded the rights to host the tournament as it got 14 votes, defeating Morocco (10
votes) and Egypt (0 votes)

During 2006 to 2007, a lot of rumours circulated in various news sources that the 2010
World Cup could be moved to another country. Some people expressed concern over the
planning, organisation, and pace of South Africa's preparations. Others even expressed concerns
over the safety of world cup visitors. In fact, South Africa has a high rate of criminality. However,
FIFA officials repeatedly expressed their confidence in South Africa as host and showed their trust
in the ability of the country to organize the competition successfully.

Adapted from Wikipedia

Comprehension:
South Africa is the
a. first country to hold the world cup.
b. first African country to hold the world cup.
There were
a. five countries competing to hold the event.
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b. three countries competing to hold the event.
The country which was a real opponent to south Africa in winning the bid was
a. Egypt
b. Morocco
FIFA officials are
a. confident in the ability of South Africans to hold the event.
b. Sceptical about the ability of South Africans to hold the event.

Reading Comprehension - Information Technology
Develop your reading skills. Read the following text and do the comprehension question
Information Technology

If you want a brief history of information technology, here is one. Humans were the first
"computers". Then machines were invented to carry out the computaional tasks. Now these
machines have given way to new form of information tachnology. Information has become
accessible from anywhere.

Information technology deals with the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of
vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of
computing and telecommunications. Thanks to the continuous development of computers, the
original computing systems became minicomputers and later personal computers took the lead.
Nowaday mobile phones are dethroning the personal computer and computing is evolving faster
to become disembodied more like a cloud, becoming accessible more easily whenever needed.
Information technology in this sense has transformed people and companies and has allowed
digital technology to influence society and economy alike.

Comprehension:
Information technology is changing principally because of:
a. the changing needs
b. new technological advances
According to the author the first computers were:
a. calculators
b. humans
Development of information technology is the resual of:
a. advances in computing systems
b. development of machinery in general
Computing systems are taking the form of clouds means:
a. computers have become smaller
b. computing power will be disembodied.

Reading Comprehension - Education
Develop your reading skills. Read the following text and do the comprehension questions
Education

Education encompasses both the teaching and learning of knowledge, proper conduct, and
technical competency. It thus focuses on the cultivation of skills, trades or professions, as well as
mental, moral & aesthetic development.

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Formal education consists of systematic instruction, teaching and training by professional
teachers. This consists of the application of pedagogy and the development of curricula.

The right to education is a fundamental human right. Since 1952, Article 2 of the first
Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee
the right to education. At world level, the United Nations' International Covenant on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13.

Educational systems are established to provide education and training, often for children
and the young. A curriculum defines what students should know, understand and be able to do as
the result of education. A teaching profession delivers teaching which enables learning, and a
system of policies, regulations, examinations, structures and funding enables teachers to teach to
the best of their abilities. Sometimes educational systems can be used to promote doctrines or
ideals as well as knowledge, which is known as social engineering. This can lead to political abuse
of the system, particularly in totalitarian states and government.

Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first years of formal, structured
education. In general, primary education consists of six or seven years of schooling starting at the
age of 5 or 6, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. Globally, around
70% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising.

In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education consists of
the second years of formal education that occur during adolescence.It is characterised by
transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the
optional, selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g., university, vocational
school) for adults.

Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage, or post secondary education, is the non-
compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing a secondary
education, such as a high school or secondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to
include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training.
Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively,
these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions. Tertiary education generally results in the
receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees.
Comprehension:
a definition of education includes:
a. the process of teaching,
b. the process of teaching and learning
Everywhere in the world children go to primary schools:
a. at the same age
b. the age may differ.
tertiary education refers to:
a. primary education,
b. secondary education,
c. post secondary education.
Tertiary education is:
a. optional.
b. compulsory