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Vol. 38, September 1987 9 Birkhfiuser Verlag Basel, 1987
Exact solutions of the unsteady two-dimensional
Navier-Stokes equations
By W. H. Hui *), Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Dept.,
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona U.S.A.
1. Int roduct i on
Most existing exact analytical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations
have been obtained for various special cases for which these equations can be
linearized, e.g., in the case of parallel laminar flow. Taylor [1] first observed that
the nonlinear convective terms in the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
for incompressible fluid vanish when the vorticity is a function of the stream
function alone. For the simple case of vorticity proportional to the stream
function, he obtained an exact analytical solution that represented a double
infinite array of vortices decaying exponentially with time.
Kovasznay [2] extended Taylor's idea by considering the vorticity to be
proportional to the stream function perturbed by a uniform stream. He was also
able to linearize the Navier-Stokes equations and obtain an exact solution for
steady flow which resembles that downstream of a two-dimensional grid. His
method was further modified recently by Lin and Tobak [3] who gave two new
steady flow solutions: the first represents the reversed flow about a flat plate with
suction and the second represents the wavy flow over a plate with a periodic
variation of suction and blowing along the plate.
In this paper we also study the two-dimensional steady and unsteady incom-
pressible viscous flow in which the vorticity is proportional to the stream func-
tion perturbed by a uniform stream. We shall prove that there exist only two
types of steady flow solutions: Kovasznay grid flow solution and Lin and Tobak
reversed flow solution, and that Lin and Tobak wavy flow solution with periodic
suction and blowing is incorrect. For unsteady flow, new classes of exact analyt-
ical solutions are given representing perturbation over a uniform stream. In the
frame of reference moving with the uniform stream they are shown to be pseudo-
steady in the sense that the flow pattern is steady but the magnitude of motion
decays, or grows, exponentially in time. They include Taylor standing vortex
array solution as a special case.
*) On leave from University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
690 W. H. Hui ZAMP
2. Formul ati on
Fo l l o wi n g Li n a n d T o b a k [3] we n o n - d i me n s i o n a l i z e t he s t r e a m f u n c t i o n
by t he k i n e ma t i c vi s cos i t y v, vel oci t y c o mp o n e n t s u a n d v by s o me c ha r a c t e r i s t i c
vel oci t y V, l e ngt hs x a n d y by v/V, a n d t i me t by v / V 2. Wi t h u = ~ - a n d
v - ~ x ' t he t wo - d i me n s i o n a l Na v i e r - St o k e s e q u a t i o n s b e c o me
v 2 , )
~2 ~2
( 1 )
whe r e V z - + - - is t he La p l a c i a n o p e r a t o r , a n d t he r i ght h a n d si de of (1)
~X 2 ~y2
is t he u s u a l J a c obi a n. As p o i n t e d o u t by Ko v a s z n a y [2], wh o f ol l owed Ta y l o r [1],
t hi s n o n l i n e a r e q u a t i o n can be l i near i zed f or f l ow h a v i n g t he f ol l owi ng p a r t i c u l a r
vor t i ci t y d i s t r i b u t i o n
V2~ = K( q - Uy ) (2)
whe r e K a n d U ar e r eal c o n s t a n t s * ) , wi t h K =~ 0 t) a n d U t o be i dent i f i ed l at er
wi t h t he n o n - d i me n s i o n a l u n i f o r m s t r e a m vel oci t y. We shal l t a ke t he pos i t i ve x
di r e c t i on t o be i n t he free s t r e a m di r e c t i on so t h a t U > 0. Wi t h t hi s vor t i ci t y
di s t r i but i on, t he Na v i e r - St o k e s e q u a t i o n (1) r e duc e s t o
(~
- v 2 q , = - u ( 3 )
I t is cl ear t h a t a ny s t r e a m f u n c t i o n ~, t h a t s i mu l t a n e o u s l y sat i sfi es Eqs. (2)
a n d (3) is a s o l u t i o n of t he Na v i e r - St o k e s e q u a t i o n (1). Conver s el y, a ny s o l u t i o n
of t he Na v i e r - St o k e s e q u a t i o n (1) t h a t obeys t he vor t i ci t y d i s t r i b u t i o n (2) mu s t
al so sat i sfy Eq. (3). Ou r t a s k is t h e n t o f i nd anal yt i cal s ol ut i ons t o t he s ys t em of
l i near Eqs. (2) a n d (3). To f aci l i t at e s o l u t i o n p r o c e d u r e , we r e n d e r t he s ys t em
h o mo g e n e o u s by i n t r o d u c i n g 7 j = ~k - Uy , wh e n c e
e ~ - + U - ~ x = K e
V2 ~ = K ~ .
( 4 )
( 5 )
3. 1. Deri vat i on o f all possi bl e sol ut i ons
~0 = 0. He nc e , i f U = 0 Eq. (4) has o n l y t he t r i vi al sol u- F o r s t e a dy f l ow, ~ -
*) The case of complex K is discussed i n Appendi x A.
*) The special case K = 0 corresponds to the wel l -known i rrot at i onal flow.
Vol. 38, 1987 Unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations 691
t i on l e a di ng t o 0 = 0, i.e. n o flow. We shal l t he r e f or e c ons i de r U > 0. I n t h a t
case, U c o u l d be t a k e n e qua l t o u n i t y wi t h o u t l oss of ge ne r a l i t y; t hi s wo u l d
a mo u n t t o us i ng U as t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c vel oci t y i n n o n - d i me n s i o n a l i s a t i o n . We
shal l , howe ve r , ke e p U expl i ci t i n o r d e r t o f aci l i t at e c o mp a r i n g t he s t e a dy f l ow
r es ul t s wi t h t he u n s t e a d y f l ow r esul t s i n w167 4 a n d 5.
Wi t h U > 0, t he s o l u t i o n t o Eq. (4) is
~t' = F (y) e ~x/U . (6)
Su b s t i t u t i n g Eq. (6) i nt o Eq. (5) we get
< )
F" ( y ) + ~ - K V( y ) = O (7)
wh i c h is r eadi l y sol vabl e. Ac c or di ngl y, we ha ve t he f ol l owi ng gener al s ol ut i ons
of t he s t r e a m f u n c t i o n
(a) F o r K = - k z <O
~b(x, y) = Uy + ae -k2x/v cos { k x / l + k2/ U 2 y + b} (8)
(b) F o r 0 < K = k 2__< U 2
Uy + e k2x/v ( ae kvl-k2/v2y + be- kVl - k2/ V2Y}, (k 2 < U 2) (ga)
O( x , y ) = g y +e W( a y +b ) , (k 2 = u 2) (9b)
(c) F o r K = k 2 > U 2
~b(x, y) = Uy + ae k~x/v cos { k x / k 2 / U 2 - 1 y + b} (10)
whe r e a a n d b ar e a r bi t r a r y c ons t a nt s .
3.2. Di scussi ons
So l u t i o n (8) c a n be us e d f or t he ha l f s pace x > 0 t o r e pr e s e nt a u n i f o r m
s t r e a m u = U a n d v = 0 wi t h a p e r t u r b a t i o n p a r t whi c h is pe r i odi c i n y a n d
decays e xpone nt i a l l y as x i ncr eases. Li kewi se, s o l u t i o n (10) c a n be us e d f or t he
ha l f s pace x __< 0 t o r e pr e s e nt a s i mi l ar flow. On t he o t h e r h a n d , s ol ut i ons (9)
r e pr e s e nt s a u n i f o r m s t r e a m pl us a p e r t u r b a t i o n whi c h gr ows for x > 0 a n d
decays f or x < 0, e xpone nt i a l l y, a n d wh i c h is n o t pe r i odi c i n y.
I t is s een t h a t Ko v a s z n a y [2] gr i d fl ow s o l u t i o n be l ongs t o t he t ype of
s o l u t i o n (8), whe r e a s Li n a n d T o b a k [3] r e ve r s e d f l ow s o l u t i o n a b o u t a fl at pl a t e
wi t h s u c t i o n be l ongs t o t he t ype of s o l u t i o n (9a). Typi c a l a n d i nt e r e s t i ng s t r e a m-
l i ne p a t t e r n s f or t hese fl ows ar e t o be f o u n d i n t hei r paper s . So l u t i o n (10) i n t he
x __< 0 ha l f p l a n e is qua l i t a t i ve l y t he s a me as (8) i n t he x __> 0 ha l f p l a n e a n d is t hus
n o t f u n d a me n t a l l y new. F r o m t he a b o v e anal ys es we see t h a t t he r e is n o o t h e r
pos s i bl e s o l u t i o n t o t he Na v i e r - St o k e s e q u a t i o n (1) f or t wo - d i me n s i o n a l i n c o m-
pr essi bl e s t e a dy fl ow f or wh i c h t he vor t i c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n obeys Eq. (2).
692 W.H. Hui ZAMP
We note, in passing, t hat the second sol ut i on of Lin and Toba k [3] represent -
ing wavy flow wi t h peri odi c suct i on and bl owi ng is, apar t from not at i onal
differences and some obvi ous misprints, the real par t of the sol ut i on (9a) wi t h
U 2
a = 0 and a compl ex K = k 2 = ~ - + i qU, i.e.
= Uy + b exP[ 89 - x / U z + 4q2y) ] cos qx.
It is shown in Appendi x A t hat al t hough the compl ex st ream funct i on corre-
spondi ng t o a compl ex K may satisfy bot h (2) and (3), nei t her its real par t nor
its i magi nary par t is sol ut i on of the Navi er - St okes equat i on (1). The above solu-
t i on of Lin and Toba k is t hus not a sol ut i on of the Navi er - St okes equat i on. This
fact is, of course, also verified by direct subst i t ut i on of above sol ut i on i nt o Eq. (1).
4.1. Derivation of plane wave solutions
For unst eady flow, Eq. (4) is a first or der part i al differential equat i on for
whose general sol ut i on is
7 s =G( X , y ) e Kt, X =x - Ut . (11)
Subst i t ut i on of (11) i nt o (5) shows t hat G must satisfy Hel mhol t z equat i on (also
called t he r educed wave equat i on)
O2G ~2G
~X ~ + --~y2 = KG. (12)
Pl ane wave sol ut i ons t o Eq. (12) exist in the form
G= g ( 0 , ~ = Xc o s 0 + y s i n 0 (13)
where - rc < 0 < re. Subst i t ut i on of Eq. (13) i nt o (12) yields
g"(O - Kg ( O = 0. (14)
There are t wo cases:
(a) K = - k 2 < 0.
The sol ut i on t o Eq. (14) is
= A(O) Cosk + B(O)) (15)
and the sol ut i on for the st ream funct i on is
O (x, y, t) = U y + A (0) e - k2, cos k {(x - U t) cos 0 + y sin 0 + B (0) } (16)
where A and B are ar bi t r ar y real const ant s dependi ng on 0.
Vol. 38, 1987 Unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations 693
(b) K = k z > O.
The sol ut i on t o Eq. (14) in this case is
0 (~) = A (0) e k r + B (0) e - k ~_ (17)
and the sol ut i on for the st ream funct i on is t herefore
ip(x, y, t) = Uy + ek2t(A(O) e k~(x-vt) ~o~O+y~ino~ + B(O) e -k~(x-v' ) r sin0~).
(18)
The special case of K -- 0 cor r esponds to i r r ot at i onal flow; indeed, it is the
following uni form flow
tp = U y + A ( (x - U t) c o s O+ y s i nO) + B. (t9)
4.2. Int erpret at i on o f solutions
Consi der t he sol ut i on (16) for K = -- k z < 0. It represent s a uni form st ream
U in the posi t i ve x di rect i on plus a per t ur bat i on t hat decays exponent i al l y in
t i me at a rat e equal t o k 2 = - - K whi ch is, as seen from Eq. (2), a measur e of the
st rengt h of t he local vort i ci t y or flow rot at i onal i t y. The per t ur bat i on flow is t hat
of a pl ane wave, of wavenumber k, pr opagat i ng at the phase vel oci t y c equal t o
U cos 0 in the di rect i on maki ng an angle 0 wi t h the posi t i ve x-axis. This phase
vel oci t y U cos 0 is j ust equal t o the component of t he free st ream vel oci t y U in
the di rect i on n, i.e., c = U 9 n, where n = (cos 0, sin 0) is the uni t nor mal of the
wave front. This means t hat signals are carri ed by the undi st ur bed uni form flow,
regardless of the magni t ude of the per t ur bat i on wave.
Recalling t hat the time t in Eq. (16) is scaled by v / V 2, we see t hat the rat e
of decay in real time, due t o the act i on of visocity v, is equal t o k z v / v 2. Thus,
shor t er waves, i.e. larger k, die out much faster t han l onger waves, as expected.
Apar t from this decay in the magni t ude due t o effects of viscosity, the per t ur ba-
t i on flow is peri odi c in bot h spat i al di rect i ons x and y, and in time t. This is in
cont r ast t o the st eady flow case for which, as seen from t he general sol ut i ons
(8)-(10), peri odi c vari at i on of flow in x di rect i on is not possi bl e if the vort i ci t y
di st ri but i on (2) is t o be obeyed.
At a given time t the st r eam funct i on ~ in Eq. (16) may be wri t t en as
tp = Uy + Ae- k~t c o s k {~o + (B - Ut cosO)}
(20)
where
~ o = XCOS 0 + y s i n 0 .
(21)
The st reaml i ne ip = 0o at t i me t is given paramet ri cal l y by Eqs. (20) and
(21) wi t h r as the paramet er. Typi cal st reaml i ne pat t er ns are given in
694 W. H. Hu i Z AMP
Fi g ur e 1 a
Y
2O
o
-I0-
~:20
St r e a ml i ne s f or Eq. (20), U = 1, A = 10, B = 0, k = n/ 4, 0 = n/ 6. (a) t = 0.
Fi g ur e 1 b
(b) t = 3.
Y
20-
I0-
5 -
~: 20
~-=0
Fi gs . 1 a, b. T h e v e l o c i t y c o m p o n e n t s are g i v e n b y
~r Ake-k2,
u - - U - s i n 0 s i n k { { o + B - - Ut c o s 0 }
Oy
~r - Ake- k2t cosO s i n k { { o + B- Ut c o s 0 } . / ) - - ~ X
(22)
(23)
Th i s s o l u t i o n r e pr e s e nt s t h e w a v y f l o w o v e r a p l a t e at y = 0 wi t h a p e r i o d i c
v a r i a t i o n o f s u c t i o n a n d b l o w i n g a l o n g t h e p l a t e w h o s e s t r e n g t h d e c a y s e x p o -
n e n t i a l l y i n t i me . Th e s u c t i o n a n d b l o w i n g at f i xe d l o c a t i o n s a l s o a l t e r na t e
Vol. 38, 1987 Unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
695
periodically with time. If t he per t ur bat i on flow is st rong enough, i.e. if
[A k sin 0[ > U (24)
reversed flow occurs at earl y time (Fig. 1 a). However, such reversed flow must
di mi ni sh at l at er time (Fig. i b), as t he per t ur bat i on dies out exponent i al l y with
time. On t he ot her hand, if condi t i on (24) is not satisfied, no reversed flow occurs
at any time.
Sol ut i on (18) for K = k 2 > 0 also represent s pl ane wave mot i on in whi ch
signals are carri ed by t he undi st ur bed uni f or m stream, regardless of t he magni -
t ude of t he per t ur bat i on. However, t he flow is not peri odi c in space or in time.
Fur t her mor e, per t ur bat i ons in t he flow grow exponent i al l y in time, whi ch is
unphysi cal for large time. It can t herefore have onl y limited usefulness in t hat it
may be used to describe some regi on of a flow field over a short time.
4.3. Superposition of plane waves
As Eq. (12) is linear t he pl ane wave sol ut i ons obt ai ned in section 4.1 may be
superposed to generat e mor e sol ut i ons to (12). Thus, if K = - k 2 < 0~ we get
G = GI ( X, y ) = i A(O) cos k ( X cos0 + y si n0 + B(O)}dO. (25)
This represent s combi nat i ons of t he pl ane waves discussed in section 4.2, in all
directions 0, with variables ampl i t ude A (0) and phase B(O) for each direction.
Similarly, for K = k 2 > 0, we get
G = G2(X, y) = i {A(0) e k(x e o s 0 + y s i n 0 ) _[_ B(O) e -k(x c o s 0 + y s i n 0 ) } dO. (26)
We not e t hat al t hough the above sol ut i ons (25) and (26) cont ai n ar bi t r ar y
funct i ons A(O) and B(O), t hey are not general enough to i ncl ude t he st eady
flow sol ut i on of section 3 as a special case. This is because, as seen from (11), (25)
and (26), for 7' to be i ndependent of time, it is necessary that' U = K and
G (X, y) = eXf (y) whi ch is, in general, not t he case. However, any st eady flow
sol ut i on of section 3 for any U and K is also a special sol ut i on of t he unst eady
Eqs. (4) and (5), we can t herefore enl arge t he above solutions (25) and (26) by
superposi ng to t hem t he st eady sol ut i on (8), (9) or (10). In this way we obt ai n
t he following class of unst eady flow solutions - called class A sol ut i ons in what
follows.
(A) If U> O.
(a) f o r K= - - k 2 < 0
~( x , y , t ) = Uy + ae- k~/ U c o s { k x / l + kZ/ U2y + b}
+ e -k2t Gl ( x - Ut , y) (27)
6 9 6 W. H. Hu i Z AMP
(b)
for 0 < K = k 2 = U 2
Uy -t- ae kzx/U {ae k ~ y q- be - k ~ r }
+ e k~t G2 ( x - U t , y ) , (k 2 < U 2)
0 ( x , y , t ) =
U y + e t r x ( a y + b)
+ e v~t G z ( x - U t , y ) , (k 2 = U 2)
(28a)
(28b)
( c )
for K = k 2 > U 2
6( x, y, t) = U y + a e k~x/v cos { k x / k 2 / U 2 - 1 y + b}
+ e k~t G 2(X -- Ut , y ) .
(29)
( B) I f U = 0
(a) for K = k 2 < 0
~b(x, y , t ) = e - k2t G l ( x , y )
(30)
(b) for K = k 2 > 0
O ( x , y , t ) = e k2' G 2 (x, y). (31)
We not e t hat Tayl or sol ut i on represent i ng a doubl e infinite ar r ay of vortices
is obt ai nabl e as a special case of Eq. (30). Indeed, wi t h k - n V/2v B(0) = 0,
Vd '
( 4 ) 1
A( 0 ) = ~ - 6 0 - + 6 0 + , Eq. ( 30) r e duc e s t o
7~ X d e - 2~z2vt/d2
~k(~, y) = A o cos --d- cos
(32)
whi ch is Tayl or [1] sol ut i on, where 2 and y are di mensi onal coordi nat es, and t-
di mensi onal time.
Sol ut i on (27) in case (A) for K = - k 2 < 0 and U > 0 is the sum of a uni form
st ream U and a per t ur bat i on flow, the l at t er consisting of Kovas znay st eady flow
pl us an ar bi t r ar y combi nat i on of pl ane waves G1 whi ch decays exponent i al l y in
time. The relative i mpor t ance of t he st eady flow t o the unst eady pl ane wave
combi nat i on depends on the relative magni t udes of a and A (0). As time in-
creases the unst eady flow diminishes and the st eady par t becomes domi nant . An
anal ogous di scussi on can be given t o the sol ut i ons (28) and (29) for U > 0.
The case (B) wi t h U = 0 requires special at t ent i on. It may be t reat ed as the
limiting case of (A), as U ~ 0+, onl y in the appr opr i at e hal f space. Thus,
Eq. (30), whi ch hol ds for all x and y, is the limit of Eq. (27) as U ~ 0 + onl y in
the hal f space x > 0 but not in x < 0. Likewise, Eq. (31) is t he limit of Eq. (29)
as U ~ 0+ onl y in the hal f space x < 0 but not in x >___0.
Vol. 38, 1987 Unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations 697
4. 4. Reduct i on to ps eudo- s t eady f l o w
Sol ut i ons (30) and (31) for U = 0, bei ng the pr oduct of e +kzt mul t i pl i ed by
a t i me-i ndependent function, represent a ki nd of pseudo- st eady flow in the sense
t hat t he flow pat t er n is st eady but the magni t ude of the mot i on decays or gr ows
wi t h time exponent i al l y. It is interesting t o not e t hat in t he general case when
U > 0, the unst eady flow is al so a pseudo- st eady one when vi ewed from a frame
X y movi ng wi t h velocity U. Indeed, t he st ream funct i on 7" of flow relative t o this
movi ng frame is obt ai nabl e from Eqs. (27) and (29) under the t r ansf or mat i on
X = x - Ut and 7" = 0 - Uy. The result is as fol l ows:
(a) for K = - k 2 < 0
7"( X, y, t) = e - k h [ae -g2x/v cos {k x / l + k z / u Z y + b} + G 1 ( X, y)] (33)
(b) for 0 < K = k 2 ~ U 2
[ e~t[e~2X/V { a f l , ~ y + be-~V1-k~/V~y}
7"( X, y, t) = + G2( X, y)], (k 2 < U 2) (34a)
e vh [eVX(ay + b) + G2( X, y)], (k 2 = U z) (34b)
(c) f o r K= k 2 > U 2
7"( X, y, t) = e k~ [ae k2x/v cos {k x / k 2 / U 2 - 1 y + b} + G2( X, y)]. (35)
The st ream funct i ons 7" in (33) t o (35) are all equal to e mul t i pl i ed by a
funct i on of X and y alone, as such t hey clearly represent pseudo- st eady flows in
the sense expl ai ned above.
5. Unst eady fl ow: class B
We now deri ve anot her class of sol ut i ons t o Eqs. (4) and (5) as follows. We
first wri t e the general sol ut i on t o (4) for U > 0 as
7" = t t ( X, y) e Kx/v = H ( X, y) e r x / v +I~ (36)
where, from (5), H satisfies
O 2 H ~ 2 H 2 K ~ H ( )
- - K K
8 2 2 -[- - - ~ y 2 q- --U --OX + ~ 5 - 1 H = 0. (37)
The st eady flow di scussed in sect i on 3 is now i ncl uded in the r epr esent at i on (36)
as a special case when H is i ndependent of X, whence H = F (y).
Pl ane wave sol ut i ons t o (37) exist in the form
H= h ( ~ ) , ~ = Xc o s 0 + y s i n 0 (38)
698 w. H. Hui ZAMP
s ubs t i t ut i on of (38) i n (37) yi el ds
2 K c ~ K )
h"(~) + U ~ 5 - 1 h(~) = 0. (39)
Bef or e pr oc e e di ng t o sol ve (39) we not e t ha t except i n t he t ri vi al case whe n
0 = 0, a pl ane wave s ol ut i on in t he f or m ~ = h (~) e Kx/ v c a n n o t be obt a i ne d f r om
a ny pl ane wave s ol ut i on of t he f or m 7 / = g (~) er r di scussed i n sect i on 4, a nd vice
versa, as t hi s woul d r equi r e eKX/V/e ~t be a f unct i on of ~ = X cos 0 + y sin 0 al one
whi ch is i mpos s i bl e except whe n 0 = 0. Ther ef or e, t he pl ane wave s ol ut i ons a nd
t hei r s upe r pos i t i on t o be gi ven bel ow bas ed on (36) f or m a new a nd di st i nct class
of s ol ut i ons - class B - t o t he uns t e a dy f l ow Eqs. (4) a nd (5), a nd hence t o t he
Na vi e r - St oke s e q u a t i o n (1).
We al so not e t ha t t he s t eady fl ow s ol ut i ons of sect i on 3 ar e a speci al case of
t he pl ane wave s ol ut i on (38) whe n 0 = ~ a nd hence H = h ( y ) - F ( y ) .
Sol ut i ons t o Eq. (39) ar e of t he f or m
h(~) = const , e me/v (40)
wher e, f r om (39)
m 2 + 2 i n K c o s 0 + K ( K - U 2) = 0. (41)
Th e t wo r oot s of (41) ar e
ml . 2 = - - g cos 0 __ x / K ( U 2 - K sin2 0). (42)
De p e n d i n g on t he si gn of K ( U 2 - K sin2 0), we ha ve t he f ol l owi ng cases"
( a ) K = - k 2<0.
I n t hi s case
m12 = k 2 c o s 0 -1- i k N / U 2 "~- k 2 s i n20 (43)
a nd
h = h l ( ~ , O ) = A ( O ) e k 2 r 1 7 6 1 7 6 + k 2 s i n Z O / U 2 ~ + B(0)} (44)
(b) 0 < K = k 2 "< U 2.
I n t hi s case
k 2 (45)
rnx.2 = - c o s O + k x / U Z - k 2 s i n 2 0
a nd
h = h 2 ( ~ , 0 ) = e - k z ~ eosO/U [A(0) e k Vx - k 2 s i n 2 ~ + B( O) e - k V l - k 2 sinZO/UZ~] .
(46a)
Sol ut i on (46a) hol ds f or a ny 0 < k 2 ~ U 2 a nd a ny - zc < 0 < rc except whe n
k 2 ~-- 0 2 a nd 0 = ___ re/2. I n t ha t case m 1 = m 2 = 0 a nd h -- const . Howe ve r , a
Vol. 38, 1987 Unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations 699
non- t r i vi al s ol ut i on f or h exi st s a nd can be obt a i ne d di r ect l y f r om (39) whi ch
r educes t o h" = 0. He nc e
h = a y + b. (46b)
(C) K = k 2 > O 2 ,
I n t hi s case, we have ei t her
k 2 COS 0 "~ k %/ U 2 k 2 sin 2 0 (47 a)
ml , 2 = -- _ --
a nd hence
h = h2(~, 0) (47b)
f or [0[ -5_ 0o or rc - 0 o < l01 __< re, or
- k 2 cos 0 + i k , , / k 2 sin 2 0 U 2 (48 a)
ml , 2 = __ - -
a nd hence
h = h 3 ( { , O) = A ( O) e -k2~ ~176176 cos {k x/Fk2 sin 2 0 / U 2 - 1 { + B( 0) } (48b)
f or 0 o < 10[ < rc - 0o, wher e
0 o = s i n - 1 U
k" (49)
As i n sect i on 4, s upe r pos i t i on of pl ane wave s ol ut i ons f or all - rc < 0 < rc
yi el ds mo r e s ol ut i ons f or H (X, y) a nd hence, f r om (36), f or 7 j . Thus we have
(a) f o r K= - k 2 < 0
H = H I ( X , y ) = i h l ( X c o s 0 + y s i n 0 , 0 ) d 0 (50)
a nd
7s ( X, y, t) = e - k : ' H I ( X , y) e - *: x / v . (51)
(b) f or 0 < K = k 2 ~ U 2
H = H 2 ( X , y ) = i h 2 ( X c o s 0 + y si nO, O)dO (52)
a nd
~t ' (X, y, t) = e k2t H z ( X , y) e kax/v. (53)
(c) f or K = k 2 > U 2
-7c +0o Oo i
H - - H a ( X , Y ) = ~ + ~ + h 2 ( X c o s O + y s i n O , O)dO
-r~ - 0o n- Oo
- 0o n - 0o
+ ~ + ~ h 3 ( X c o s 0 + y s i n 0 , 0 ) d 0 (54)
- ~ + 0 o 0o
700 w. H. Hui ZAMP
and
7t ( X , y , t ) = e k2t H 3 ( X , y ) e k2x/ v. (55)
We not e t hat t he st eady flow sol ut i ons of section 3 ma y be recovered from
these mor e general sol ut i ons (51), (53) and (55) for unst eady flow9 For instance,
with A( 0 ) = ~ 6 ( 0 - ~ ) and B( r c/ 2) = b we get, f r om (44) and (50),
H i ( X , y) = e cos {k~/ 1 + k 2 / U 2 y + b } , whence (51) reduces to 7 ~ = a e - k 2 x / v
9 cos {k ~/1 + k Z / U z y + b } , whi ch corresponds to t he st eady flow sol ut i on (8).
Equat i ons (51), (53) and (55) show t hat in all cases 7 ~ is equal to e +-k~t
mul t i pl i ed by a funct i on of X and y. As 7 ~ is t he st ream funct i on of t he unst eady
flow when viewed f r om t he frame of reference movi ng wi t h velocity U, we
concl ude t hat unst eady flow of class B is also pseudo- st eady in t hat frame of
reference in t he sense t hat t he flow pat t er n is st eady but t he magni t ude of t he
mot i on decays, or grows, exponent i al l y in time.
6. Concl usi ons
Classes of exact anal yt i cal solutions to t he t wo-di mensi onal i ncompressi bl e
Navi er-St okes equat i on are obt ai ned for flows in whi ch t he local vort i ci t y is
pr opor t i onal to t he st r eam funct i on per t ur bed by a uni f or m st ream U. They are
valid for any Reynol ds number and i ncl ude all existing solutions as special cases.
For st eady flow it is shown t hat t here exist onl y t wo possible types of such
sol ut i ons: Kovasznay downst r eam flow of a t wo-di mensi onal grid and Lin and
Tobak reversed flow about a flat plate wi t h suction.
For unst eady flow, t he t wo new classes of solutions are shown, when viewed
from a frame of reference movi ng wi t h t he undi st ur bed uni f or m st ream U, to be
pseudo- st eady in t he sense t hat t he flow pat t er n is st eady but t he magni t ude of
mot i on decays, or grows, exponent i al l y in time.
Ack nowl edgements
The aut hor wishes to t hank K. Y. Fung, M. Tobak and S. P. Lin for t hei r
useful comment s on t he work. He is also grateful to t he reviewer for his val uabl e
comment s on t he first draft of t he paper, especially t he sections on unst eady flow.
Appendi x A. The ca se of compl ex K
We first not e t hat t he analyses l eadi ng t o t he general solutions (8) (10) hol d
t rue for compl ex K as well as real K, and t hat a compl ex sol ut i on 7 ~ to (4) and
(5) also leads t o a compl ex st r eam funct i on q, ( = ~ + U y ) satisfying t he Navi er-
Vol. 38, 1987 Unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations 701
Stokes equat i on (1). However, a compl ex st r eam funct i on does not represent a
real flow. We shall now furt her show t hat nei t her t he real par t nor t he i magi nar y
par t of t he compl ex st ream funct i on ~ is a sol ut i on to t he Navi er-St okes equa-
tion, and hence nei t her can represent a real flow.
Let 7 s = ~ + i ~ be a sol ut i on to (4) and (5) cor r espondi ng to a compl ex
K = Kr + i Ki , Ki + O. Then
t-17 2 - U
( 8 ) U~ ( 12) - v 2
V 2 ~ = K r ~ - K~ (A3)
V 2 ~ = K r ~ + K~ . (A4)
To see if the real par t of t he st ream function, G = ~ + Uy , is a sol ut i on of (1)
we subst i t ut e (A 3) for 172 0r i nt o (1) and use (A 1) and (A 2) to simplify t he result
to get
~ ( Z ' ~ ) 0. (A5)
Ki ~( x , y) -
For K~ 4= 0, condi t i on (A 5) is equi val ent to t hat
( x , y ) - 0. ( A 6)
Now, t he general sol ut i on for T in st eady flow is given by Eq. (6) with F ( y )
satisfying Eq. (7). Let K - K 2 / U 2 = ( m + i n) 2, where m and n are real, t hen
m 4= 0 for K~ 4= 0. The sol ut i on to Eq. (7) is
F ( y ) = A e (m+i")y + B e -(m+i ")y
(A7)
Let I = K r / U , k = K i / U, A = a e i4' and B = b e ~z, where a, b, ~ and X are real, t he
real and i magi nar y par t of 7 j are
= a e l x+" y cos( kx + n y + ~b) + b e t x - my cos( kx - n y + )0
= a e l x+" y si n( kx + n y + c~) + b e l ~ - " y si n( kx - n y + 7.).
(AS)
(A9)
El ement ar y but t edi ous cal cul at i ons show t hat Eq. (A 6) cannot be satisfied by
and ~ in (A8) and (A9) for Ki :t = 0. We t herefore concl ude t hat t he real par t
of t he st ream funct i on ~ is not a sol ut i on of t he Navi er-St okes equat i on (i).
Similarly, t he i magi nar y par t ~ is not a sol ut i on of Eq. (1) either.
702 W. H. Hui ZAMP
Re f e r e nc e s
[1] G. I. Tayl or, On the decay of vortices in a viscous fluid. Phil. Mag. 46, 671- 674 (1923).
[2] L. I. G. Kovasznay, Laminar flow behind a two-dimensional grid. Proc. Cambri dge Phil. Soc. 44,
58- 62 (1948).
[3] S. P. Li n and M. Tobak, Reversed flow above aplate with suction. AI AA J. 24, 334- 335 (1986).
Abs t r a c t
This paper studies t he t wo-di mensi onal incompressible viscous flow in which the local vort i ci t y
is pr opor t i onal to the st ream funct i on pert urbed by a uni f or m stream. It was known by Tayl or and
Kovasznay t hat the Navi er-St okes equat i ons for flow of this kind become linear. Fr om the general
sol ut i on to the linear equat i ons for steady flow, we show t hat there exist only t wo types of steady
flow of this kind : Kovasznay downst r eam flow of a t wo-di mensi onal grid and Li n and Tobak
reversed flow about a flat pl at e wi t h suction. In the unst eady flow case, new classes of exact
anal yt i cal solutions are f ound which include Tayl or vort ex array sol ut i on as a special case. It is
shown t hat these unst eady flows are, as viewed f r om a frame of reference movi ng with the un-
di st urbed uni f or m stream, pseudo-st eady in t he sense t hat the flow pat t ern is steady but the
magni t ude of mot i on decays, or grows, exponent i al l y in time. All these solutions are val i d for any
Reynol ds number.
R6sum6
Dans ce t ravai l nous 6tudions l ' 6coul ement pl an d' un fluide vi squeux incompressible dans
lequel la r ot at i on locale est proport i onel l e fi la f onct i on de cour ant perturb6e par un cour ant
uni forme. Conf or m6ment aux t r avaux de Tayl or et Kovasznay les 6quations de Navi er-St okes pour
cet 6coulement~ devi ennent lin6aires. Par consbquent nous utilisons la sol ut i on g6n6rale pour
d~mont rer que seul ement deux cat6gories d' 6coul ement st at i onnai re peuvent exister: l ' 6coul ement
de Kovasznay en aval d' une grille plane, et l ' 6coul ement invers6 de Lin et Tobak pour une pl aque
pl ane avec aspiration. Nous ~tudions aussi l ' 6coul ement non st at i onnai re et nous d6couvrons des
classes nouvelles de solutions exactes qui cont i ennent , en particulier, le r6seau de t ourbi l l ons de
Tayl or. Enfi n nous d6mont rons que ces 6coulements sont pseudo-st at i onnai res dans un syst6me de
coordonn6es en mouvement avec le cour ant uni f or me non pert urb6; ce qui signifie que l ' ampl i t ude
de l ' 6coul ement st at i onnai re croi t ou d6croit exponent i el l ment dans le temps. Tout es ces solutions
sont valides pour t ous les hombres de Reynol ds.
(Recei ved: J ul y 21, 1986; revised : December 22, 1986 and Mar ch 27, 1987)