The need to provide a good power factor correction is required in a growing number of applications, as in telecommunications. The boost PFC circuit, widely used to fulfill this requirement, is developed at low and medium power. However, PFC generates electromagnetic interferences in the power converters. We must put an expensive and bulky EMI filter. The purpose of this paper is to present a new methodology by calculating the EMI with a developed software. Experiments are performed to verify the consistency with the result of the simulation tool. An industrial PFC for a 600W unit with 230Vac 50Hz input and 380V output has been used for this study.

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The need to provide a good power factor correction is required in a growing number of applications, as in telecommunications. The boost PFC circuit, widely used to fulfill this requirement, is developed at low and medium power. However, PFC generates electromagnetic interferences in the power converters. We must put an expensive and bulky EMI filter. The purpose of this paper is to present a new methodology by calculating the EMI with a developed software. Experiments are performed to verify the consistency with the result of the simulation tool. An industrial PFC for a 600W unit with 230Vac 50Hz input and 380V output has been used for this study.

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INDUSTRIAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTOR.

Didier MAGNON(1) , Antoine PUZO (2).

(1)

Laboratoire de Microélectronique de Puissance

7 avenue Marcel Dassault BP 407 - 37204 TOURS Cedex 3,

(2)

SAFT Power Systems Group

ZI n°1- 10 rue Jean Perrin 37173 Chambray les Tours Cedex

E-Mail : stephane.brehaut@etu.univ-tours.fr

Keywords

«EMC/EMI, Power factor correction, Modelling, Simulation».

Abstract

The need to provide a good power factor correction is required in a growing number of applications, as

in telecommunications. The boost PFC circuit, widely used to fulfill this requirement, is developed at

low and medium power. However, PFC generates electromagnetic interferences in the power

converters. We must put an expensive and bulky EMI filter. The purpose of this paper is to present a

new methodology by calculating the EMI with a developed software. Experiments are performed to

verify the consistency with the result of the simulation tool. An industrial PFC for a 600W unit with

230Vac 50Hz input and 380V output has been used for this study.

I. Introduction

In power electronics, filters are commonly used for two purposes : to reduce the emission and

propagation of electromagnetic interferences (EMI) and to reduce the susceptibility of the converters

with respect to external EMI. The presence of filters is dictated by the proper operation of the

converters under the worst EMI constraints. In our case, the power supply studied is constituted of

both cascaded converters and it is used as a battery charger in telecommunication. The first one is a

power factor corrector (PFC) and the second one is a DC-DC insulated converter. Previous studies [1]

showed that the worst pollution came from PFC in the power supply. To reduce the EMI pollution, we

use expensive and bulky filters. All these facts demonstrate the importance of research in the

development of the EMI analysis of power converters working as power factor conversion.

There have been recent efforts to provide a more methodical design process by implementing

optimisation techniques [2][3]. The method proposed in this paper is based on frequency model for

EMI prediction and can thus be easily implemented in a common mathematical tool as MATLAB.

Using this software, it is possible to determinate with accuracy the conducted EMI before building an

industrial PFC without filter. This information can contribute to acquire a better understanding of the

system behaviour in high frequency. This software enables the simulation of the Line Impedance

Stabilization Network (LISN) and the EMI receiver. We can determine full EMI spectrum in dBµV in

accordance with the CEI CISPR 22 standard [4] in function of all parasitic elements.

The paper is presented as follows. In the first part, we present the system under study and its

specifications. Then, in the second part, the methodology for modelling of the EMI approach is

described and developed in a schematic method. Our purpose is a general application on other

converters. At least, the comparison between simulation and measurement results are showed and

analysed.

Development of a conducted EMI model for a industrial power factor corrector BREHAUT STEPHANE

A. Interest for a follow-up EMI study of a PFC.

The power supply studied is a basic structure of a typical two-stages front end converter for DC

distributed power systems [5]. The first structure is constituted of a PFC boost converter by the need

for a good power factor correction. It is in series with a full-bridge DC/DC converter, a transformer

and a rectifier 48VDC 12A (figure 1).

High

Voltage Vbus

AC line PFCBoost Full Bridge

DC/DC

If we do a spectral analysis, we can say that the spectrum of the global converter has a similar form

with the spectrum of the PFC (figure 2). In fact, the two peaks observed for the full power supply at

12MHz and at 18MHz are at the same resonance than the peaks of the PFC. There is a difference of 10

to 15dBµV between the two spectra. The surface of the global converter’s layout is more important

than that of the layout of the PFC. So, the parasitic capacitors between the ground board and the layers

are more important. These parasitic elements produce common mode pollution [6]. We can conclude

that the PFC generates the predominant EMI. We concentrate our research on the modelisation of the

PFC.

Frequency global

system result.

Frequency PFC

result.

We can notice that the peaks of EMI of the global converter are nearer. Indeed, the switching

frequency of the inverter is 100KHz whereas the switching frequency of the PFC is 40.5KHz.

B. Description of the PFC.

The system to be designed consists in a boost PFC converter with a part of an EMI filter as showed in

Figure 3, which gives an electrical schematic of the circuit. We keep a part of the EMI filter because

we need the capacitor above the bridge rectifier for the tripping of the voltage measured by the

controller. The capacitors below the bridge will permit to do many tests of robustness. The designed

specifications include : output power (Po), input voltage (Vin), line frequency, output voltage (Vout).

The controller components are not included in Figure 3. The constant-frequency average-current-mode

control for continuous-current-mode operation is the control strategy for the switch. The

characteristics of the converter used for this application are given in table I. We use a battery to supply

the controller in order to limit pollution.

Development of a conducted EMI model for a industrial power factor corrector BREHAUT STEPHANE

Inrush limiting

Input Voltage[VAC] 230 limiter circuitry

C 106

C 102 Load

Switching frequency 40.5 C 105 Capacitor

Control

Fs [KHz] filter

C 107

Input current [Arms] 3.2 Ac Capacitor

230Vac 50Hz filter

source

The snubber composed of a ferrite and a parallel diode with the free wheel diode of the commutation

cell allows to reduce the peak of the inverse overlay of the power diode. The diode in parallel allows

to discharge the accumulated energy in the ferrite.

This section is a description of the proposed tool. The main parts of this procedure are presented in the

following steps. The principle is to work directly in the frequency domain. The software enables to

determine the conducted EMI in dB/µV for the PFC converter, in accordance to the CISPR 16-2

standard.

A. Boost modelling and assumptions.

The first step for conducted EMI prediction is to propose a complete electrical equivalent circuit

including the converter itself with all the parasites, the measurement equipment (Line Impedance

Stabilisation Network-LISN), the cabling impedance between LISN and converter and the

commutation cell. We do many hypotheses in order to limit the complexity of the modelisation. In

spite of the effect of saturation of core, we assume that the value of the boost inductance requires a

unique value in high frequency. The system configuration between the mains and the bridge rectifier is

assumed to be symmetrical with respect to ground. We consider that only the switching cell of Boost

converter with a snubber generates disturbances. We admit that the impedance of the network is

endless.

LISN Commutation cell

ground

rectifier inductances and capacitors

Fig.4. Equivalent scheme for EMI modelling, including parasitic components, LISN and converter.

Development of a conducted EMI model for a industrial power factor corrector BREHAUT STEPHANE

The propagation paths correspond to electrical connections between interference components and the

switching cell. The study of propagation paths requires a previous knowledge of the high frequency

behaviour of every components and interference elements. These elements are the parasitic capacitors

and inductances, the passive and active components, the circuit layout, the bridge rectifier and the line

impedance stabilization network (LISN). The components and layouts were carefully measured. This

electrical scheme is presented Figure 4.

Each element of the circuit respects the impedance variation along the frequency range (150KHz

30MHz). The switch and the diode are two sources of pollution. These sources produce the pollution

in the commutation cell. The layouts are assimilated to inductances and the ground board is

represented by capacitors.

We suppose that the rectifier does not generate disturbances but the impedances of diode rectifier are

included in the simulation. The duty cycle frequency’s of PFC is 10ms, so, the cycle of pollution is

10ms too. During this time equals to the half period of mains, diodes are always in the same position,

open or closed, so the position of the diodes is static in the modelisation. For each frequency, electrical

elements can be modelled by their impedance. The resolution of the equivalent electrical circuit

estimates the EMI level in the LISN resistors. We use a matrix method [7] designed with Kirchoff law.

The models presented with the equation 1 and figure 5 are considered.

U=Z.I (eq.1)

with U : sources of pollution produced by the commutation cell.

Z : The converter is converted into an impedance matrix.

I : Currents of common and differential mode.

Z59

Z48

I33 I25 Z4 7

I26 I39

I40

Z66 Z72 Z73

Z67

Vd2 Z63

7

Z12 Z51 Z17 Z21 Z24 Z27 Z30 Z33 Z43 Z57 VD Z62 Z68 Z69

I2 I4 I6 I3 I8 I10 I12 I14 I16 I18 I20 I22

Z56 I32

Z50 Z2 Z5 Z9 Z52 0

Z13 ZZ

18 Z22 Z25 Z28 Z31 Z34 Z38 Z45 I36

1

I27

I2 VK

I29 Z60 Z60 Z16 4 Z44 Z64//Z65

Z61

19 Z23 Z26 Z29 Z32 Z35 Z39 Z46 Z55

1

I3 I5 I7 I31 I9 I15 I17 I19 I21 I23

9 I11 I13

Z7 Z11 Z15 Z54 Z20 Z36 Z40 Z71 Z7 0

Z42

I37 I38

Z74 Z75

B. One sort of Matrix for a frequency range.

We develop a simulation, between 150KHz and 30MHz, which takes the impedance evolution

of elements in function of frequency into account. The impedance models such as the boost

inductance, figure 6, are very complicated. To obtain a more simplified model, we decide to

work on many frequency ranges. We use accurate models on some frequency ranges limited.

Development of a conducted EMI model for a industrial power factor corrector BREHAUT STEPHANE

So, the impedance models of the component are more accessible and the time of calculation is

better. An example of an equivalent model of the boost inductance is given in table II.

range 1MHz 10MHz 12MHz 18MHz 30MHz

Model

used

C. Use of dynamics matrices for the model of semiconductor.

To account for the effects of the commutation cell with regard to the rest of the system placed between

this cell and the mains, the commutation cell can be replaced by equivalent voltage sources with

impedances in series. The first equivalent voltage source VK (t) (figure 7) is located between the

collector and the source of the switch. The second voltage source Vd (t) is situated between the anode

and the cathode of the diode. The sources of pollution of the semi conductor are represented by a

trapezoidal waveform with the ringing. The rise and fall times of the simple waveform have been

adjusted in function of real commutations.

Impedance VB(t)

Vk switch closed

t t t

VC(t)

Impedance

switch open

We must use a dynamic matrix because the impedance of both switch and diode changes depending on

whether they are open or closed. The source of disturbances of the switch Vk (t) is realised by the

Development of a conducted EMI model for a industrial power factor corrector BREHAUT STEPHANE

superposition of two sources : the first one for the opening and closing and the second one for the

ringing at the conducting and the opening state. Then, we use the theorem of superposition to make the

summation of harmonics created by the rise, the fall and the ringing of the switch.

First we can characterize these voltage sources in the frequency domain by means of the Laplace

transform and then by applying the appropriate conversion to the Fourier representation. The previous

voltage waveform is represented by an addition of sinusoids, each of them being a multiple of the

fundamental frequency (in our case, the line frequency).

D. Theoretical and experimental EMI results and their comparisons.

We make several high frequency (HF) schemes of the PFC with an increasing precision. We show the

evolution of the accuracy of the simulation. The first scheme, figure 8, is a simplified model defined

by a square matrix (20-20). The second model, figure 4, is defined by a square matrix (40-40). In the

simplified model, we keep the source of disturbances of the MOSFET, the parasitic capacitors of the

bridge rectifier, of the power switch and of the bus capacitors. We have a simulation similar to the

measurement between 150KHz et 500KHz (figure 9).

Simula tion

Measurement

Standart CEI

CISPR 22

For the complete HF scheme, the validity of the EMI model is expected and was experimentally

verified in high frequency range (150kHz 30MHz). Figure 10 shows the EMI envelope of the PFC.

Firstly, the comparison between disturbance levels and standard limits [6] clearly shows that the

Development of a conducted EMI model for a industrial power factor corrector BREHAUT STEPHANE

studied converter without the filter does not respect the standard. Secondly, the simulation is nearer to

the measurement.

Simulation

Measurement

Standart CEI

CISPR 22

The three peaks at 8MHz, 12MHz and 18MHz are due to some resonance loops of disturbance around

the commutation cell. In simulation, we find the three main peaks of resonance, so we can use this tool

to determinate the passive elements which produce the resonance. The oscillating circuit is excited by

the gradient of voltage of the power switch of the converter.

Two solutions can be used to eliminate these peaks of resonance. The first one is to modify the

damping factor, with the modification of one of the elements R,L,C of the loop [8][9]. The bigger the

coefficient, the less important the peak of resonance is. The second solution is to move the resonance

frequency above 30MHz because the filtering is theoretically easier [10]. To reduce the effects of the

parasitic loops which may cause EMI noise, the loops area needs to be as small as possible.

We keep a part of the PFC filter to know the viability of the model studied. We had changed each

value of each capacitor of the filter figure 3 and we have compared the measured and simulated

spectrum. We had done the EMI measurements of robustness with a other prototype which is lightly

different by her layout. So, the comparaison is qualitative.

In the following example, figures 11 and 12,we have change the value of the differential capacitor of

220nF (C105 ) by a value of 440nF.

capacitor of 220nF

capacitor of 440nF

Fig.11. Measurement of EMI for two different values of the differential capacitor C105 .

Development of a conducted EMI model for a industrial power factor corrector BREHAUT STEPHANE

capacitor of 220nF

capacitor of 440nF

Fig.12. Simulation of EMI for two different values of the differential capacitor C105 .

We can see that in the two case, measurement and simulation, the EMI disturbance is less important

from 12 MHz on. In the second example, figures 13 and 14, we replace two capacitors (C106 , C107 ) , of

common filter, of a value of 4.7nF by two capacitors of 1nF.

C107 capacitors of 4.7nF EMI with the C 106 and

C107 capacitors of 1nF

Fig.13. Measurement of EMI for different values of the common capacitors C106 and C107 .

C107 capacitors of 4.7nF EMI with the C 106 and

C107 capacitors of 1nF

Fig.14. Simulation of EMI for different values of the common capacitors C106 and C107 .

We notice an increase of the EMI pollution between 150KHz and 8MHz as the disappearance of the

peak at 18MHz. On the contrary, there is an increase of the spectrum of pollution between 26MHz and

30MHz for the simulation. For the capacitors of filtering, the putting up is sensible. If we change the

position of the capacitor, figure 15, we modify the length of the capacitor legs and its parasitic

inductance. The parasitic inductance, varying from 1 to 2nH, has not effect at low and medium

frequency (150KHz-10MHz) but changes the result of EMI at high frequency (10MHz-30MHz).

common capacitor.

Development of a conducted EMI model for a industrial power factor corrector BREHAUT STEPHANE

V. Conclusion

The results obtained by the EMI tool are very closed with the experimental results and tests of

robustness which demonstrate the validity of this tool on the range 150kHz-30MHz. With this new

model which includes active and passive components, we can make a detailed and quantitative

pollution analysis of the PFC. Now, it is possible to change or add new passive or active components

easily. We can change the commutation frequency [11] to show the repercussion on the EMI

comportment. If we want to add an additional branch, we must develop a new matrix computation.

The purpose of this work is to investigate how and under which conditions, EMI constraints can be

lowered. We want to achieve a model of the global system of the battery charger with the same

methodology. Thus, we will be able to identify the causes of pollution of this circuit and to reduce the

EMI before putting in a less expensive filter.

REFERENCES

[1]. D. BARILLET-PORTAL, «Rapport de stage», DESS micro-électronique de L’Université de Bordeaux,

2000.

[2]. J-C CREBIER, «Contribution à l’étude des perturbations conduites dans les redresseurs commandés, Thèse

de L’Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, 1999.

[3]. S. BUSQUETS-MONGE, J. C. CREBIER, S. RAGON, E. M. HERTZ, J. WEI, J. ZHANG, D.

BOROYEVICH, Z. GURDA, P. K. LINDNER, A. ARPILLIERE, «Optimization Techniques Applied to the

Design of a Boost Power Factor Correction Converter», PESC 2001 IEEE 32nd Annual, Volume: 2, 2001 pp.

920-925.

[4]. CEI CISPR 22, «Radio disturbance characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement (edition 3), 1997.

[5] R. WATSON, «New Techniques in The Design of Distributed Power System», Thèse de l’Institut

polytechnique de Virginie, 1998.

[6]. F.COSTA, «Contribution à l’étude des perturbations conduites par les convertisseurs H.F.» Thèse de

doctorat 3ème cycle, Avril 1992, Université d’Orsay.

[7]. J-C CREBIER, M. BRUNELLO, J. P. FERRIEUX,«PFC full bridge rectifier EMI forecast analysis», EPE

99.

[8]. A. PONS, «Optimisation de la fonction de filtrage dans les convertisseurs de traction», Alcatel, 1998.

[9]. A.PUZO, «C.E.M Chargeur, Méthode de dépollution à la source », Alcatel Alsthom recherche, 1997.

[10]. E. M. HERTZ, «Thermal and EMI modelling and analysis of a boost PFC circuit designed using a genetic-

based optimisation algorithm, Thèse de l’Institut polytechnique de Virginie, 2001.

[11]. E. M. HERTZ, S. BUSQUETS-MONGE, D. BOROYEVICH, «Analysis of the Tradeoffs between Thermal

Behavior and EMI Noise Levels in a Boost PFC Circuit», Proceeding of the IEEE industry Applications

Conference, 2001.

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