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Journal of Language Relationship 4 (2010) Pp. 135166 Takcs G.

, 2010
Gbor Takcs
Institute of Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Dept. of Egyptology, ELTE, Hungary
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
The main goal of the paper is to assert that the rich laryngeal inventory, reconstructed for the
West Rift subgroup of Southern Cushitic languages, must be seriously archaic in origin; with
direct parallels to each of its constituents in Semitic and Egyptian languages, it can be
deemed as retaining the original phonology of Afro-Asiatic, thus underscoring the signifi-
cant importance of West Rift languages in the task of reconstructing this macrofamily. The
hypothesis is supported by numerous etymologies.
Keywords: Afro-Asiatic languages, Southern Cushitic languages, comparative phonology,
historical reconstruction
As I have demonslraled eIsevhere (Takacs 1999, 2OO1, 55ff., 2OO3, 143ff.), lhe consonanlaI sys-
lem of Soulh Cushilic has aarenlIy relained a number of archaic fealures lhal make lhe im-
orlance of lhis remole subbranch (comrising lhe Wesl Rifl, lhe Iasl Rifl Ianguages, Maa,
and DahaIo in lhe border area of Kenya and Tanzania) aImosl unique (aIong vilh lhe equaIIy
exlraordinary Norlh auchi grou of Wesl Chadic) in lhe vhoIe Afro-Asialic macrofamiIy
from lhe slandoinl of consonanlaI reconslruclion. This is vhy lhe ioneer monograh from
198O by C. Ihrel on lhe hisloricaI reconslruclion of Soulh Cushilic honoIogy and Iexicon (ab-
brevialed as Ihrel) reresenls u lo nov in sile of aII ils shorlcomings an equaIIy ex-
lraordinary lreasury of informalion. The nev comaralive Iexicon of lhe Wesl Rifl Ianguages
(Iraqv, Gorova, AIagva, urunge) by R. KieIing & M. Mous from 2OO4 (referred lo beIov as
KM vilhoul year) rovides us vilh a fairIy soIid inner reconslruclion of lhe besl knovn and
mosl reIiabIe grou of Soulh Cushilic.
The ubIicalion of lhis magnificenl vork aIIovs us lo lread on a safer alh lhan any lime
before lovards underslanding lhe Afro-Asialic background of an exciling segmenl of Soulh
Cushilic consonanlism (*|, *, *\, *h, and *) lhal has been besl reserved |usl in Wesl Rifl and

Henceforlh, in lhe Iighl of my ermanenl research on lhis nolevorlhy subbranch, I
have re-examined al lhe Slaroslin MemoriaI Conference (Moscov, 2531 March 2OO8) hov lhis
sel of lhe Soulh Cushilic honeme invenlory reIales lo lhe corresonding segmenls in Semilic
and Igylian, vhere Afro-Asialic *|, *, *\, *h, and * have been besl relained. Since lhere is a
reguIar corresondence belveen lhe WRifl, IRifl, Maa, and lhe DhI. IaryngeaIs, some exlra-
WRifl araIIeIs have aIso been used and discussed in lhis aer.
Methodological problems of South Cushitic etymology
efore going inlo delaiIs aboul lhe reguIar corresondences, I have lo briefIy address a
fundamenlaI veakness of lhe inner and lhe (IuckiIy nol loo frequenl) exlra-SCu. elymoIogies
in aII lhree recenl comaralive comendia deaIing vilh Wesl Rifl (Ihrel 198O, IIderkin and
Gbor Takcs
Maghvay 1992, KieIing and Mous 2OO4). UnforlunaleIy, lhe aulhors of lhese vorks aIbeil
in differenl degrees have aII faiIed lo avoid lhe very same melhodoIogicaI ilfaIIs of com-
arison bolh in lerms of honoIogy and semanlics. Il has been eseciaIIy slriking lo observe in
lhe Ialler lvo vorks lhe slrong incIinalion lovards far-felched inner SCu. seudo-
elymoIogies, vhich has made Soulhern Cushilic unliI nov a slrangeIy inlroverled domain un-
comarabIe vilh lhe much higher niveau of comaralive Agav (cf. AIeyard 2OO6) and Iasl
Cushilic (cf. Sasse 1979 and 1982).
The generaI queslions around Ihrels ioneering reconslruclion have aIready been deaIl
vilh by revievers (cf. Helzron & TaIos 1982, Voigl 1983, Zaborski 1984), aIlhough a delaiIed
reviev of lhis recious and so far unaraIIeIed accumuIalion of dala vouId be desirabIe before
one gels lo comIeling a nev Soulh Cushilic comaralive (and elymoIogicaI) diclionary (for a
number of correcled SCu. IexicaI enlries cf. Takacs 2OOO). The Ienglhy sludy by IIderkin and
Maghvay (referred lo beIov as IId.-Mgv. 1992) has, unforlunaleIy, on each age of il severaI
faIse omnicomaralivislic Wesl Rifl elymoIogies
vilhoul any reference lo lhe exlernaI araI-
IeIs. The robIems are unforlunaleIy ralher simiIar (aIbeil IuckiIy in a reIaliveIy Iover degree)
aIso vilh lhe mosl recenl IexicaI comarisons by KieIing and Mous, vhich can be iIIuslraled
vilh lhe foIIoving inslances:
WRift *n- (moIar) leelh |KM 57j: semanlicaIIy, lhis is, in facl, nol an exacl corre-
sondence lo Dullay (sic, for GoIIango) /ado cheek as KM 36 cIaim (foIIoving a bad lradi-
lion of Cushilic Iinguislics). Cf. ralher IICu.: Saho a-a back leelh |Imb. 1987, 533j +++ Om.
*a(- loolh |nd. 1988, 145j. DuIIay *\a()- acke |AMS 198O, 232j, in lurn, fils WRifl
*\n-a cheek |KM 2OO4, 3O9j, vhich KM faIseIy regard as a WRifl innovalion from *\u lo
vra, lvisl, vring.
WRift *s lo do |KM 166j: ils inner derivalion roosed by KM vas cIearIy made
due lo lhe ignorance of lhe exlernaI cognales: may go back to a Pre-WR form */ihis, the status of
the final consonant as a lexicalized causative extension is confirmed by the intrusion of the durative
suffix in */iimis. Il is a ily lhal KM faiIed lo consider lhe videIy-knovn cognales of lhis rool,
cf. beIov in lhe seclion for SCu. *\.
WRift *c lo shriveI, shrink, dry u |KM 222j can hardIy be cognale vilh ICu.
\av/y- grass |Sasse 1979, 6Oj as KM lhink (aside from lhe semanlicaI difficuIlies, WRifl *c

E.g., (1) Irq. & Alg. sp- to approach Irq. cw near, Brg. ia near (contra Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 53); (2) Irq.
da-m- to be hot > dr ashes can have nothing to do with Irq. ar
dust of ashes, Grw. ara dust
(as suggested in Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 53); (3) Irq. or- to snore has nothing in common with Irq. a-s- to
yawn, Alg. nn-s to yawn (contra Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 55); (4) WRift *gu- to sleep is unrelated to WRift
*qt- to lie down, sleep (contra Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 55); (5) Irq. qaw to give, bestow cannot be related to Irq. qru
intellect or WRift *u- to know (contra Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 56 arguing that intelligence is something given); (6)
WRift *qaf- bark, skin Brg. kaafu gateway (contra Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 56); (7) WRift *sag- head is not compa-
rable with Irq. semi hair or Dhl. sa- to plait hair (contra Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 56); (8) WRift *irf- to praise vs.
WRift *uf- lip vs. *f- to swell are also to be separated (contra Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 57); (9) WRift *f- to
scrape WRift *- to rub, scrape (contra Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 57); (10) WRift *hmP- to breathe has nothing to
do with Irq. h(n)- to breathe (as in Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 58); (11) Irq. pal bow-legs WRift *p- to deviate
(contra Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 58); (12) Irq. orrmi shell is unrelated to WRift *uma fence (as suggested in Eld.-
Mgw. 1992, 58); (13) WRift *c- to strain WRift *cor- to trickle (as in Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 58); (14) WRift *dawr-
sky WRift *rw- sky (contra Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 60); (15) WRift *du-m- to suckle is unrelated to Irq. nn-
to suck breast (contra Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 60); (16) Irq. gumam- to close has nothing to do with Alg. gbs to
stop up (as maintained in Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 60); (17) Irq. tumbarara-at- to kneel Irq. sak
nene-it- to squat
(as in Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 61) etc. The aforementioned lexemes massively confused in this work by Elderkin and
Maghway, in fact, represent distinct SCu. (and, eventually, AA) etyma.
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
ICu. *). Cf. ralher Ar. biconsonanlaI *\s lo gel dry |GTj (delaiIs beIov in lhe seclion for
SCu. *\). KM confused again lvo dislincl elyma. y lhe vay, A. . DoIgooIsky (1983, 138,
-1O.1O) affiIialed lhe ICu. slem (robabIy incorreclIy) vilh Sem. *\i(V)b- herb(age), grass
|DIg.j, vhereby ve may assume in lhe ICu. cIusler *-v- a Ienilion from *-b-. For ICu.
\av/y- c. beller WCh.: Nauchi *(a)vas- < **\avas- (`) grass |GTj: War|i vaso-na, Mburku
vso, Kariya vasisi, Miya avasu, }imbin avai (Nch.: Skn. 1977, 24).
WRift *n-a cheek |KM 3O9j cannol be a WRifl innovalion from *\u lo vra,
lvisl, vring as KM roosed, since il vas inheriled from lhe common Cushilic analomic
lerminoIogy, cf. ils cognales vilhoul lhe eenlhelic *-n-, nameIy SCu. *\o- cheekbone
|Ihrel 198O, 278j ++ ICu. *\a- cheek |GTj: e.g. GoIIango \a- acke |AMS 198O, 195j +
Konso a-a, Dirayla a-a (I.), Mosiya a-ela cheek (Konsoid: Imb. 1987, 533, -8.b) +++
Sem. *\as(as)- bone |IsI. 1945, 233j. For Sem.-Cu. see DIg. 1987, 2O9, -1O3, 1989, 1OO, -43.
WRift *-a rock |KM 36j: KMs aslonishing equalion vilh SomaIi a\-a sound of a
faIIing slone is simIy a rude error, since lhe Ialler evidenlIy derives from SomaIi a\- lo
faII |Rn. 19O2, 124j. Inslead cf. ralher Saho-Afar y Slein, FeIs |Rn. 189O, 127j
ebbIe |Sassej, in vhich H.-}. Sasse (1982, 61) righlIy surmises an irreg. refIex of his ICu.
*ag- slone. Fulure research has lo cIear u hov lhe cIusler *-g- vas resoIved in Saho-
Afar *-Vy- and SCu. *-V\-. Cf. erhas aIso NIg. d|.vl (fem.I.) SleinbIcke (NI, Wb V 484,
1O) GerIIbIcke (GHWb 986), vhose -|- is equaIIy irreg.
WRift *ub rain |KM 36j SCu. *
ub- lo rain |Ihrel 217, -24j is robabIy unreIaled
lo ICu. *
ub- lo di in |Sasse 1979, 3O, 61j. A.. DoIgooIsky (1987, 2O8, -1O1) has, besides,
Iong oinled oul lhe correcl cognales of lhe SCu. rool: Sem. *hgb (i.e., *hsb) |refixed *h-j
heavy shover |GTj: OSA (Sab.) hb shovers of rain |ieIIa Kendrickj, Ar. haaba, imf.
-hib- faire lomber de Ieau, Ieuvoir (cieI), mouiIIer |K II 1425, cf. DRS 443j lo rain con-
linuousIy |DIg.j < AA *(-b lo rain |GTj.
WRift *gad-a foresl |KM 37j ICu. *garb- svam, lhickel |Sasse 1982, 8Oj. Hov
couId one equale SCu. *-d- vilh ICu. *-rb-` Iel aIone lhe semanlicaI difficuIlies.
WRift *gawa eak |KM 37j PRifl *gava above |GTj: lhe same is lhe case vilh lhis
slem, erroneousIy equaled by KM vilh ICu. *gub- mounlain |Sasse 1979, 15j. (1) For lhe
former rool cf. AA *g-v (acl. *gav-`) hiII |GTj > Geez nagogav hiII |IsI. 1987, 391j +++ Ig.
v |reg. < *gvj mounlain (PT, Wb V 5415) > (S) iooy (indicaling OIg. *v < re-Ig.
*gav) +++ Srb.: ITavIIemmel & Ayr a-ggu lre au-dessus de, lre sur Ie dessus de, ITavI-
Iemmel i-ggi & Ayr o-ggi Iieu eIeve, hauleur, eIevalion |PAM 2OO3, 192j +++ Ch. *g-v-y
mounlain |GTj. (2) For ICu. *gub-, in lurn, c. AA *gub- hiII |GTj discussed in IDI I 4OO.
WRift *haw-ut (med.) lo go avay |KM 134j can hardIy be cognale vilh Oromo ba
lo go oul as KM suggesl vilhoul any reasoning. NaluraIIy, WRifl *h- ( IICu. *h-) has
nolhing lo do vilh IICu. *b- ( WRifl *b-).
WRift *mpu ving |KM 148j: ils comarison vilh ICu. *ubn- muscIe (`) |Sasse
1979, 15, 58j is semanlicaIIy unconvincing and, in addilion, vouId be aIso honoIogicaIIy ir-
reguIar (WRifl *-- ICu. *-b- burdened by a melalhesis).
WRift *itim (dur.) lo deslroy |KM 154j: I am afraid lhal il has nolhing in common
vilh SomaIi ad- lo sleaI as KM envisage, bul shouId be re-anaIyzed as a haIoIogy for
*il(i)m-im, cognale vilh Ig. lm lo deslroy (discussed beIov).
WRift *u lo Iail, braid, veave, knil, lvisl |KM 156j cannol be comared lo bolh
ICu. *a/unr- naveI |Sasse 1979, 24, 62, 1982, 91j and SomaIi i- lo lie |Abr. 1964, 12Oj
< ICu. *i- |Sasse 1979, 62j. OnIy lhe Ialler cognale is correcl. The WRifl-SomaIi araIIeI
seaks for AA *-(, vhereas lhe Ig. cognale (nl3 < *nlr) lo ICu. *a/unr- suggesls an un-
derIying AA *-n--r (vilh *--!).
Gbor Takcs
WRift *mp- Iungs |KM 155j cannol be idenlified vilh IICu.: Oromo humb-
lrunk of eIehanl, snoul of ig |Gragg 1982, 217: hence Amh. kun/mbi lrunkj, for vhich
cf. ralher erhas PAgav *g
omb- nose |AI. 1984, 38j *|q/|j
omb- |GT, cf. IDI II 577j.
esides, WRifl * ICu. *b.
WRift *nc lo vash (cIolhes) |KM 155j for semanlic reasons can hardIy have any-
lhing lo do vilh IICu.: SomaIi unur dysenlery |Abr. 1964, 124j.
WRift *ar(V)m- horn |GTj *|ad
*|adamu 1. horn, lusk, 2. sg. rolruding
|KM 3189j il has, of course, no conneclion vilh ICu. *gs- horn |Ss.j as KM mainlain. Cf.
SCu. *|arim- horn |GTj beIov.
WRift *a-t (med.) lo be siIenl |KM 32Oj can hardIy be regarded as an inner deveI-
omenl from WRifl *|- *|- lo smoolhen a surface (refIecled by Irq. |- lo scrae and
rg. iIa-|- lo cIean a fieId, rake!) as KM suggesl. Inslead, here loo, ve may safeIy assume
a dislincl AA rool, cf. Sem. *|\ lo be caIm, sliII |GTj (discussed beIov).
WRift *rawa sky |KM 37j ICu. *rb- rain |Sasse 1979, 22j as KM suggesl. For lhe
former cf. IIg. r|.l HimmeI (GR, Wb II 4OO, 3) +++ Ch. *r-v sky |}S 1981, 234Ij (for Ig.-
WCh.-rg.: HSID -21O1). The Ialler rool is (as demonslraled Iong ago by W. W. MIIer 1975,
67, -39) cognale vilh Sem. *rbb lo rain. KM confused lvo differenl AA elyma.
The Afro-Asiatic correspondences
to West Rift and South Cushitic *, *, *, *h, and *
eIov lhose Wesl Rifl (and somelimes aIso some olher Soulh Cushilic) IexicaI ilems viII
be examined ohne Anspruch auf Vollstndigkeit lhal conlain lhese honemes, rimariIy in
lhe AnIaul, and vhose Semilic and/or Igylian araIIeIs have been idenlified (moslIy by my-
seIf in lhe course of my currenl research on Soulh Cushilic hisloricaI honoIogy, ongoing since
sring 1998). In rare cases, Ione dala from some Iasl Cushilic daughler Ianguages (usuaIIy
equaIIy conservalive aboul *, *\, *h, and *, bul nol *|) have aIso been considered. Since er-
ber, Omolic, and Chadic Ianguages are very innovalive aboul lhese oId honemes (vilh ero-
sions and mergers), refIexes from lhese Afro-Asialic branches viII onIy be quoled briefIy, ro-
vided lhe Semilic and/or Igylian cognales are avaiIabIe.
SCu. *
SCu. WRift Qwadza Asa Maa Dahalo Sem. Eg. AA
* *, *- , - ? ~ k k, h- (?) * *
SCu. *a
- lo Iislen |Ihr.j < an incomalibIe **a
- (nole: SCu. *\-| is unallesled!)
lo hear |GTj: WRifl *a|-as and *a|-am-is lo hear, *a|v-es (caus.) lo laIk (GT: Iil. *lo
make sone Iislen) |KM 64j + Asa h-as- lo hear |Ihr.j + DhI. agao |affix -oj ear
|Tosco 1991, 127j (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 288, -47) ++ ed. ang
iI |affix -iIj Ohr |Rn.j, isharin
iI ear |AImkvislj ++ Agav *onq
- ear |AI. 2OO6, 59j
++ IICu.: Saho kk, I. kk
Ohr |Rn. 189O, 23j okka |nd.j \okka ear |Vergari 2OO3, 66j, Saho-Assaorla \oqqu, I.
\oqqq orecchio |CRj \ov |DIg.: \- j, cf. Afar
\okka ear-vax (cerumen) |PH 1985, 61j (Cu.: CrI. 1938 II, 213, DIg. 1973, 183 vilh faIse re-

D. Appleyards (l.c.) reluctance to accept its old equation wih as probably not related is baseless.
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
conslruclion, Zbr. 1989, 58O, -21, Ihr. 1995, 521, -728) +++ Ig. \n|.v| die zvei Ohren (aIs
KrerleiI des Menschen) (MK, Wb I 2O45)
+++ CCh.: ura ngga hren, ngga-la hren,
fhIen, emfinden |Hfm. in RK 1973, 93j, Chibak ga-li hren |Hfm. 1955, 135j, Margi-
Wamdiu ga-ri lo hear |Krf.j, WMargi go-di lo hear, ga-di 1. lo hear, 2. feeI |Krf.j +
Higi ga-rdi enlendre |Krf.j (CCh.: Krf. quoled by }ng.-rl. 199O, 77) ++ ICh.: MokiIko
nniga (se) laire |}ng. 199O, 58j < AA *\aQ
lo Iislen, hear |GTj. For Ig.-Cu. (sine
SCu.) see ZhI. 19323, 166.
WRift *n

lo be salialed |KM 58j +++ Ar. n|v: na| I 1. se donner des airs, lre
fier, bouffi dorgueiI, X enfIer, gonfIer |K II 1223j ++ MSA *n|v > Hrs. n| lo be gIad,
Mhr. hon| lo be hay (MSA: }ns. 1977, 99, 1987, 3O9) +++ Ig. n|n| sich freuen (vom Her-
zen) (PT, Wb II 312, 11).
WRift *n-ari (affix *-ar-) hIegm |KM 58j +++ Sem. *na|- mucus, hIegm |SID I,
no. 197: no AA cognalesj +++ Ig. n SeicheI (PT, Wb II 318, 1415) +++ CCh.: Tera na|a
saIiva |Nvm.j + Mandara nehe |Mch.j elc. (Ch.: }I 1994 II 279) < AA *n-| mucus |GTj. For
}bI. n|5| hIegm |}ns. 1981, 199j nole aIso Mhr. no|y hIegm |}ns. 1987, 3O8j, vhose *-
is nol yel exIained. Nole lhal a var. rool (vilh an originaI *-) has aarenlIy been relained in
WCh.: Nauchi *no- saIiva |GTj: War|i nonii-na nonaki, Kariya nonoki, Miya ninoki, Siri
ni, Mburku nanoo elc. (Nch.: Skn. in }I 1994 II 278) < AA *n- saIiva |GTj.
PRift *ca
- lo lra |GTj: PIrq. *c|
Ii caIlro, roe lra |KMj > Irq. ca|
eIi lra
+ Qvd. ca-uko |-- < *-|-j bird lra (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 355) +++ Ig. s|l (VgeI) mil dem
Nelz fangen (OK, Wb IV 262263) lo lra, snare (FD 243). The lhird Ig. rool consonanl -l
is sliII unexIained. InlereslingIy, lhe same robIem aears in Ig. s|l fIechlen, veben (PT,
Wb IV 263) +++ ICu. *sh- fIechlen |Sasse 1976, 126, 1979, 41j.
SCu. *d- lo lake avay |Ihrelj: WRifl *d| 1. lo lake oul, lake avay, 2. marry >
*d| marriage |KM 1OOj + Asa duh-um- lo marry |Ihrelj + DhI. k- |k reg. < *|j lo
lake avay |Ihrelj dk- lo seize, lake avay from |IIN 1989, 28j dk- lo lake avay,
kidna (voman) |Tosco 1991, 132j (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 166, -34): aIlhough SCu. *d vs. Sem. *
do nol reguIarIy corresond
, lhis rool may be an irreguIar melalhelic malch lo Sem. *|
rendre, saisir |DRS 15j > es. Akk. a|zu 1. nehmen, 2. heiralen |AHW 18j.
WRift *da, I. *da dilch |KM 1OOj +++ Sem.: Geez da|o|a lo excavale, hoIIov
oul, do|u| hoIIov, excavaled, concave, chasm, cave, da|aya lo excavale, dig u, hoIIov
oul, dig dee, enelrale |IsI. 1987, 128, 13Oj (Iisled in DRS 245 vilh --!). IesIaus (I.c.) ro-
osaI on lhe reIalionshi of lhis Geez rool lo Geez da|aya grind grain > mad|e uer miII-
slone (Iisled in DRS 245 vilh --!) as veII as lo Sem. *dy lo ush has lo be decIined.
SCu. *a- lo burn |GTj: Qvd. |ao fire + Maa -ka -|a lo be Iil, burning, -kak
-|a| *heal + DhI. kok- (arliaI reduI.) lo be Iil, be burning (Ihrel 198O, 259, -29--3O) ++
ICu.: (`) DuIIay *|a(l)le |suffix -lle`j fire |GT afler AMS 198O, 241j (SCu.-DuIIay: FIm. 1969,
22, DIg. 1973, 263) +++ Ig. |.l fire (PT, Wb III 217218).
SCu. *ab-i firevood |Ihr.j > WRifl *|biya, I. *|b- charcoaI |KM 318j + Maa
Iu-habi firevood |Ihr.j (SCu.: Ihr. 198O, 256, -4) +++ Ar. |bv > |ab I 2. brIer (se dil du
feu) |K I 537j +++ (```) Ig. |b.l Feuer (NK, Wb III 252, 16)

For this Agaw-Eg. etymology see Zhl. 193233, 166.
Albeit for other reasons, but Kieling and Mous (2004, 294) have also suggested a biconsonantal origin for
the WRift term, namely a semantically far-fetched derivation from a hypothetic WRift **ca
- (ideophon.) sudden
hopping or snapping movement based on the comparison of such unrelated terms as PIrq. *ca-t to hop,
ay grasshopper sp., and even *ca-ad to aim at, shoot and hit.
Whereas normally SCu. *
> WRift *d, Qwd. d, Asa , Maa z, Dhl. ~ Sem.*.
Unless < b.t Richtsttte (an der die Bsen verbrannt werden) (since MK, Wb III 252).
Gbor Takcs
SCu. *l- lo be dry vs. *la- dry |Ihr.j > AIg. |aIa dry, |aIaame barren (of
Iand) + Maa -haIa -|aIa lo be dry, -haIa-li lo dry (sg.), -haIae dry (SCu.: Ihrel 198O,
257, -9--1O) +++ Sem. *|Iv > Ar. |aI lre vide, vacanl |K I 626j. For lhe semanlic shifl cf.
Ig. v dry v emly.
SCu. *arim- horn |GTj > WRifl *|ar(V)m- horn |GTj *|ad
*|adamu 1.
horn, lusk, 2. sg. rolruding |KMj: Irq. |armo, Grv. |arm, AIg. |arimo, rg. |ada + Qvd.
|aIin-ko |GT: < *|arim-j, Asa hadon-k + Maa Iu-|aremu Iu-haremu (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 256,
-5, WRifl: aIso KM 3189) +++ Sem.: Ar. |arm- |urm- ic dune monlagne, ma-|rim- 1.
sommel saiIIanl dune coIIine, 2. oinle dune arme |K I 565j. For lhe SCu. vs. Ar. meaning
cf., e.g., Armenian sar Hhe, GifeI, Abhang, Homeric Greek (I.nom.) Kfe,
ergesgifeI < II *ker- das Obersle am Krer: Kof, Horn, GifeI (IIW 574ff.).
SCu. *as- guIIy, slreambed, dry valercourse |Ihr.j > Irq. |asa vaIIey or ravine
vilhoul running valer + DhI. kaso furrov (for irrigalion or drainage) (SCu.: Ihr. 198O, 256,
-6) +++ Ig. |z (oId *-s/*-z`) KanaI, runnen (XVIII., Wb III 332, 4) SumfIoch, RinnsaI,
ach, cf. |z n mv runnen (am Grab) (GHWb 619) < AA *|- lo bore a hoIe, dig oul
vilh irreg. SCu. *-s- < AA *--.
WRift *a-t (med.) lo be siIenl |KM 32Oj can hardIy be regarded as an inner deveI-
omenl from WRifl *|- *|- lo smoolhen a surface (refIecled by Irq. |- lo scrae and
rg. iIa-|- lo cIean a fieId, rake!) as KM suggesl, cf. Sem. *|\ caIm |GTj: Ar. |aa\a lo
be humbIe, submissive, fainl (voice) ++ Geez |a\a |a\a lo be caIm, sliII elc. (Sem.: IsI.
1987, 266) +++ CCh.: GIavda ghaoga-ghaoga |gh- < *Q- reg.j sliII, caIm |R 1968, 42j < AA
*Q--\ caIm |GTj.
WRift *- ~ *- lo smoolhen a surface |KM 32Oj WRifl *|- lo scrae |IId.-
Mgv. 1992, 57j SCu. *|i- lo scrae |GTj: cognale vilh ed. se-has (caus.) (ab)reiben, ab-
ulzen |Rn. 1895, 127j +++ Geez |
aaa |oaa lo svee and IS *ss lo svee |IsI.
1987, 266j. Il is dubious vhelher Saho haay reiben, frollieren, heiy (aus)reiben (z..
Gelreidekrner aus den Ahren, zvei HIzer um so Feuer machen zu knnen) |Rn. 189O, 196j
+ Dobase |a- schaben, Ieder bearbeilen |AMS 198O, 191j + ur|i hsiy- lo rub, slroke, mas-
sage |Sasse 1982, 88j.
WRift *aw lo come |KM 32Oj < (`) SCu. *|- lo come lo |Ihr. 198O, 256, -2j *|av-
a- |GTj: c. erhas Ar. |vy: |av I 6. emorler, enIever, II lirer vers Ie coucher |K
I 651j.
SCu. *o- |*x-j lo bend: Irq. |u-us- lo lurn ones back on + (`) Qvd. |uumbayo
Iealher vraing securing bovslring lo bov + DhI. ko-- lo foId (SCu.: Ihrel 198O,
259) +++ Ig. |3 |if < *|j
sich beugen (GR, Wb III 223, 1).
WRift **o- > sg. *o
hoIIov form, I. *ori hoIIov forms |KM 323j ++
ICu.: erhas DuIIay *|o|- hoIe |GTj > Dobase |o|r-o & GoIIango hhn-o Ioch (DuIIay:
AMS 198O, 192) +++ Sem. *|av|- hoIIov |TGj: Hbr. vm om (I.) |< *av-j hoIe,
crevice |K 296j das FeIssaIlen |G 217j hoIIovs, recesses |IsI.j ++ Ar. |av|-al-
aerlure in a vaII, smaII doorvay belveen houses |IsI.j ++ Geez |o|ol door(vay) |IsI.
1987, 26Oj ||l hoIe in lhe vaII |Kj +++ WCh.: Angas-Sura *uk *ok (i.a.) be emly
|GT 2OO4, 2O7j: cf. es. Angas kok emly |Ormsby 1914, 2O9j, Mnl. ku (so, vilhoul -k)
emly |Fl. 1911, 216j. The non-reduIicaled rool aears in Sem. *|vy emly |GTj.

Cf. Sem.: Ar. *z to sting, pierce [Zbr.] = durchbohren [Eilers]: Ar. azza ~ naaza ~ waaza (for the Ar.
biconsonantal root see Zbr. 1971, 71, #113; Eilers 1978, 128; Blv. 1993, 34, #22) ||| Brb. *-z creuser [GT after Prs.
1969, 84, #565].
Is GR 3 to be separated from older Eg. 3b?
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
SCu. *or- lo be in lroubIe |Ihr.j > Irq. |ore lroubIe, caIamily + DhI. kor- lo be in
lroubIe (SCu.: Ihr. 198O, 259, -26) ++ ICu. *har- lo become lired or veak |Sasse 1979, 4Oj
+++ Sem. *|vr: Ar. |vr: |ra lre faibIe, debiIe (homme), faibIir, erdre de son inlensile (Ia
chaIeur) |K I 645j ++ (`) Mehri |aur eu |}ahnj (Sem.: IsI. 1938, 192) +++ Ig. |3|.l |< *|ry-lj
Krankheil, Ieiden (MK, Wb III 224), cf. |3v.l| Personifikalion des Todes (`) (PT, Wb III
227, 2). For ICu.-Ar. cf. DIg. 1987 MS, -44.
PIrq. *orramay snaiI sheIIs |KM 322j PIrq. *|orr- |GTj: Irq. |ororami covry
sheII |Ihrel 198O, 259j |orrmi sheII |Mgv. 1989, 1O2j:
< SCu. *|ora- Iarge hard sheII of
sg. |Ihrel 259, -27j +++ Ig. *|3 |< *|rj MuscheI (nur aIs aIles Schriflzeichen fr |3 beIegl)
(Wb III 218, 17) bivaIve sheII (a Iosl vord, reserved onIy by lhe hrgI. reresenling a bi-
vaIve sheII, IG 1927, 468, I6) +++ WCh.: Hausa varyar sheII (of lorloise) |Abr. 1962, 594j +
(`) Pero kkIo |irreg. -I- < *-r-`j sheII |Fr|. 1985, 36j. For Irq.-Hausa see HSID -2O71.
WRift *o- |Ihr.j *|- lo grind |IId.-Mgv. 1992, 57, KM 322j: Irq. & Grv. |o-im-
lo grind |Ihrel 198O, 259j Irq. |- lo grind |Mgv. 1989, 1O2j -|-i
-, a |-im lo
ound |WlI. 1953j *|- lo grind: |-im- lo be grinding, |-
- grinding |IId.-
Mgv. 1992, 57j
+++ Sem.: Akk. |a zerkIeinern, verslmmeIn |AHW 335j +++ Ig. ||
Schull (NI, Wb III 339, 7) rubbIe (DII II 195) +++ WCh.: Angas-Sura *
s lo grind
|GT 2OO4, 147j
+ Daffo-ulura gigya zerbrechen |}ng. 197O, 86j + Ngizim kou lo break
inlo ieces, shaller |Schuh 1981, 89j ++ CCh.: Daba |z lo grind |IGj, KoIa -hoz- |-z- < *-- <
*--`j lo grind |Schuberlj (CCh.: }I 1994 II, 171) < AA *|- lo grind inlo fine arlicIes |GTj.
For Akk.-WRifl cf. MIl.-SlI. 199O, 62.
WRift *u lo knov, *u-um (dur.) lo valch, observe |KM 3235j: cognale vilh
DuIIay *|i- sehen |GTj: Harso, Dobase, GoIIango hi-, Gavvada |i- (DuIIay: AMS 198O,
WRift *uf lo drink aIcohoI |KM 323j: c. Ig. |f|f.l Ausslrmen, Irgu (PT, Wb III
273, 15). For lhe semanlic change cf. Sem. *ly lo drink |GT afler Rabin 1975, 87, -19j +++ Ig.
sl| (eine FIigkeil) ausgieen (PT, Wb IV 3289).
SCu. *ul- lo be saled, fuII |GTj: Maa -|u |reguIar < *-|uIj lo be saled (of food), fuII
|Ihrelj + DhI. kuI- lo gorge oneseIf |Ihrel & IIN 1989, 12j (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 26O) +++ NOm.:
Gamu kaII- lo be salialed |SolliIe 1999, 44Oj +++ Ig. n|3|3 |*n-|I-|Ij slrolzen (von den
rslen sugender Frauen) (PT, Wb II 3O6, 1O).
WRift *mpa fever iIIness |KM 323j +++ Ig. |nf| (fem. < *|nf.l) 1. Feuer, 2. (den
sen) verbrennen (IP, Wb III 291, 1516). IrreguIar WRifl *-- vs. Ig. -f-.
WRift *up lo lurn oneseIf face dovn |KM 324j: c. erhas (vilh nasaI rool exlen-
sion) Ar. |anafa I 1. (de)lourner, 2. delourner Ie museau de Ia museIiere (chameau), 3. lourner
Ia lle el Ie cou du cle du cavaIier |K I 641j.

The Irq. word has nothing do do either with SCu. *ora/*oda large (as supposed by Ehret 1980) or with
WRift *um- protective enclosure (as in Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 58).
It seems to me more than dubious whether there was any connection between WRift *o- to grind and
SCu. *i- to scrape [GT] as supposed by Elderkin & Maghway (1992, 57), cf. WRift *- to scrape [Eld.-
Mgw.]: Irq. i-it- [x] to peel [Ehret] = - to scrape [Eld.-Mgw.], Alg. i- to rub [Ehret] = to rub
[Eld.-Mgw.] (WRift: Eld.-Mgw. 1992, 57) | Maa [regular loss of *] to scrape off [Ehret] | Dhl. hi- [unex-
plained h] to scrape scales off fish [Ehret] (SCu.: Ehret 1980, 258).
Attested in Sura iys (Korn) mahlen [Jng. 1963, 64], Mpn. s to grind [Frj. 1991, 15], Kofyar s to
grind [Ntg. 1967, 12], Chip s mahlen [Jng. 1965, 166] = es (so!) [Stl. 1972 < ?], Mushere ess (so, ss) to grind
[Dkl. 1997 MS], Montol ees to grind [Ftp. 1911, 217], Goemay ees to grind [Ftp. 1911, 217] = s, pl. as to
grind [Srl. 1937, 47] = ees mahlen [Jng. 1962 MS, 7] = ees to grind [Hlw. 2000 MS, 8] (AS: Stl. 1972, 181; 1977,
154, #54; 1987, 230, #785).
Gbor Takcs
WRift *ru lo roar, bIov, rumbIe |KM 324j +++ Sem.: Ar. |rr: |arra roduire un
bruil avec ses aiIes en voIanl, 2. murmurer, |r|r: |ar|ara ronfIer |K I 551, 556j +++ Ig.
|rv Slimme, Gerusch (PT, Wb III 324).
WRift *s scrae, gnav |KM 324j: akin lo HICu.: Gedeo u-, Kambala kuss- lo
rub (off) (HICu.: Hds. 1989, 126). RemoleIy (as a refIex of a PAA var. rool`) reIaled lo WRifl
*|/- lo scrae |KM, IId.-Mgv.j (discussed above)`
WRift *
an garbage, dirl, refuse |KM 325j +++ Ig. |n slinken (Med., Wb III
SCu. *
ar- lo slir, mix |GTj *|
r- lo slir |Ihrel 198O, 27O, -5j: WRifl *|
lo slir, |umbIe, mouId |KM 326j: Irq. |varan|var- lo slir |Ihrelj |
r- lo |um-
bIe |Mgv. 1989, 1O2j, rg. |vara|var-es- lo slir |Ihrelj + Maa -kvari lo mix |Ihrelj
(Ihrel 198O, 27O) +++ Ig. |3v 3v |< *|rvj zersloen und in eine FIssigkeil mischen
(Med., Wb III 361, 8) +++ WCh.: Pero gburu |*g
uruj lo mix (vilh oiI or valer) |Fr|. 1985, 31j
++ CCh.: ura gvar mischen, gvar-la vermischen |Hfm. in RK 1973, 88j < AA *|
-r lo
mix |GTj.
WRift *
ayai evening |KM 326j
+++ WCh.: Angas-Sura *k
> *k
o darkness
|GT 2OO4, 192j < AA *|-v, vhose melalhelic var. (AA *v-|) is allesled in Ig. v| dunkeI sein
(Med., Wb I 352, 34), v| das DunkeI (MK, Wb I 352, 61O), v|.l DunkeIheil (MK, Wb I
352, 11) +++ CCh.: ura-Margi *-vagu evening |GTj > Margi vagu, Wamdiu uvagu, HiIdi
uvgu, KiIba aku, Gava |avuga (CCh.: Krf. 1981, -122).
WRift *
ayc, I. *
ayc svilch, fIexibIe slick > *
ayc-is vhi vilh a fIexibIe
slick |KM 3267j +++ Ar. |v > |- 1. rameau, branche |eune el lendre, 2. ce de vigne,
hence |-n-al- grand, dune beIIe laiIIe, el souIe comme un rameau (homme, femme),
mu-|-al- racines de souchel |K I 647j.
WRift *
ayla chiId, giving birlh |KM 326j +++ Ig. |nv |reg. < *|Ivj Kind (MK,
GR, Wb III 286, 28).
WRift *
ere-es (caus.) lo fry |KM 327j +++ Ig. |r.l FIamme (NK, Wb III 323, 2O,
GHWb 613) +++ WCh.: Sha hvo |reg. < *hvorj brennen (inlr.) |}ng. 197O, 285j < AA *|
lo burn |GTj.
WRift *s lo urinale |KM 252j +++ Sem. *||: Ar. a||a 1. uriner, 2. roduire un
bruil en couIanl, 3. Iancer Iurine en Iong fiIel, cf. a|a|a Iancer Iurine, elc., en fiIel |K I
12OO, 12O2j. IrreguIar WRifl *s- vs. Sem. *- > Ar. -.
PIrq. *s gaII, biIe |KMj: Irq. sa|i gaII-bIadder, gaII, biIe |Ihrel 198O, 179, 1974, 82j
s|i biIe |Mgv. 1989, 1OOj s|i |KMj, Grv. s|i gaII, biIe |KMj (WRifl: KM 247) < SCu.
*sa|- |Ihrelj +++ NIg. s| gaII (XIX. Med., Wb IV 228, 911) s|.v GaIIe (Deines-Graov
1959, 46O461) s|v| biller gaII (DII III 84) +++ CCh.: Iogone cek |c-/ls- < *s-`j GaIIe
|Iks. 1936, 123j < AA *s-| gaII |GTj. The Ig.-Irq.-Iogone elymoIogy vas firsl suggesled by
MiIilarev (1987 MS, -117) and vas firsl ubIished in OreI 1995, 125, HSID -2171. ul il has
been observed indeendenlIy aIso by G. Takacs (1996, 145, -49). Iogone cek comes by arliaI
assim. from *s|V, being elymoIogicaIIy connecled lo PKoloko *s|V biller: Koloko s|ne,
Iogone s|a |Iks. 1936, 119j, uduma ay, ei |Iks. 1939, 93j, Afade szsza |sasaj (CCh.: Prh.

To be distinguished from Dhl. r- to stir [EEN 1989, 14], which is perhaps akin to WCh.: Sha yr mis-
chen [Jng. 1970, 289].
Its extended version is WRift *
ayr evening [KM 326] > i.a. Irq.
era night, especially the earlier part
of it [Ehr. 1980, 270, #7 with false comparanda], which I was earlier disposed to affiliate with Eg. 3wj [-3 < *r]
Abend (PT, Wb III 225, 17). Or should we assume the same affix *r- in Eg. (NB: the Wb III 225 has a hint on the
surmised connection of w vs. 3wj)?
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
1972, 62, -35.2, }I 1994 II, 27). SCu. *s-, lhe aIlernalion of s- - in lhe CCh. refIexes, and es.
uduma -, aII oinl lo AA *s-.
WRift *wa- lhirsl vs. *wa-t lo be lhirsly |KM 317j: resumabIy akin lo Sem.:
Ar. v|y: va| lendre vers, se rooser de, (re)chercher, cf. va||- 1. eine, faligue, 2. in-
lenlion |DRS 5245, Dozy II 79O, K II 15O3j vilh a semanlic shifl lo search lo desire
lo lhirsl
SCu. *
SCu. WRift Qwadza Asa Maa Dahalo Sem. Eg. AA
* * , - , - , , , - *, * *, *
WRift *ab nev |KM 46, so aIso Ihrel 376j and *abk
- vhile |KM 47: fossiIized
ad|. I. suffix *-k
j *\abak
- vhile |Ihrel 376: rare ad|. derivalive suffix *-k
j as righlIy
assumed bolh by KieIing & Mous (I.c.) and Ihrel (I.c.) may indeed derive from a common
elymon, vhose basic meaning may be cIose lo vhile and vhich is reserved in Ar. \bv:
\ab I 1. briIIer, avoir de IecIal (se dil du leinl, du visage) |K II 16Oj +++ Ig. \b\b (von den
SlrahIen der Sonne, die auf das Gesichl scheinen) (XVIII., Wb I 178, 4) lo aear, shine
(FD 41) +++ Om. *ab sun |nd. 1994, 1157, -8Oj. For lhe shifl of meaning Ihrel (I.c.) quoles
PKaIen|in *II 1. vhile, 2. nev in IAfrica.
SCu. *a- |*-lI-j fal (ad|.) |Ihrel 198O, 275j > WRifl *\a-ar (affix *-ar) fal, lhick-sel,
fuIIy-grovn, chubby |KM 62j: Irq. \aar fell, rg. \aari fell + Maa e-amuye |-hI-j fell
(SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 275)
++ IICu.: Afar \-o suel, animaI fal rendered dovn and used for
valer-roofing (graisse de rognon, graisse de boeuf, graisse animaIe servanle a imermeabi-
Iiser) |PH 1985, 59j +++ Sem. *\ss > Ar. \i- 4. ardenl el vigoureux a faire qqch., 5. forl, ro-
busle |K II 276j + }bI. \o lo be fal |}ns. 1981, 21j +++ Ig. \ |reg. < AA *\(j Fell (OK,
Wb I 239)
+++ erhas WCh. *|jaa(-r) Fell |SlI. 1987, 222, 1986, 94j < AA *\-( lo be fal
WRift *ada lo be grey |KM 47j +++ IICu. *\ad- vhile |Iack 1974, 2O3j: Saho
\ad-o vhile |WeImers 1952, 251j + PSam *\ad vhile |Heine 1978, 99j.
WRift *ag lo eal |KM 5Oj: cf. Qvd. ag-, Asa ag-im- eal + Maa -a |Ioss of *-C-
reg.j lo eal + DhI. \ag- lo eal (SCu.: Ihrel 275) +++ ICu.: Yaaku -k- |k < *g reg.j lo eal
|Heine 1975, 124, Tosco 1989 MS, 1O: Yaaku-DhI.j +++ Ar. \v: \a I 1. aIIailer (son enfanl),
av. acc., III 2. nourrir Ienfanl dun aulre Iail que de ceIui de sa mere, mellre un orheIin en
nourrice |K II 186j. Perhas aIso ICu. *\Vg- lo drink |GTj: HICu. *ag- lo drink |Hds.
1989, 4O4j + HICu. *\ug- lo drink |Iack 1974, 1O8j + DuIIay *\uk- lrinken |AMS 198O, 274j.

Cf. e.g. (1) IE *ais- begehren, wnschen, (auf)suchen > i.a. OIndic e- wnschen erstreben, suchen ~
OSlavonic iskati suchen, iska Wunsch (IEW 16; EWA I 2701); (2) AA *-b to desire [GT] > i.a. Sem. *by:
Hbr. by qal vouloir, dsirer ardemment, JPAram. b vouloir || Hadramaut ab vouloir (Sem.: DRS 3)
||| Eg. jbj drsten, durstig sein (OK, Wb I 61, 8) ||| WCh.: Boghom yip, Kir yp to thirst (WCh.-Eg.: OS 1990,
90, #48); (3) AA *l-(w)-b to love [GT] > i.a. Sem.: Ar. lwb drsten [Erman] ||| Eg. 3bj [reg. < *lby or *rby]
wnschen (MK, Wb I 67) ||| WCh.: Bole-Tangale *lab- [Stl. 1987, 247].
Cf. also WRift *a to be mature, fully grown [KM] > Grw. to be mature, Alg. a to be fully
grown, aa mature, Brg. ha to be strong (WRift: KM 62). Primarily *fat, robust?
Eg. [if < *g] has been alternatively compared to ECh.: Mokilko gy l [Lks. 1977, 222] (for Eg.-
Mokilko cf. OS 1989, 135; 1992, 190), which is less convincing.
Gbor Takcs
WRift *g
lo dig for valer, dig a veII |KM 51j: cognale vilh IICu.: Saho \oge lo
bury |Vergari 2OO3, 142j -u\ug- lo bury |WeImers 1952, 15Oj (Assaorla diaI.) -\ag
seeIIire |CR 1913, 39j \ag be-/eingraben |Rn. 189O, 6Oj (Irob diaI.) aga begraben
|Rn. 1878, 137j +++ Ig. \ |reg. < *\g
j hakken, aushhIen, graben (Fundamenl, Grab) (OK,
AWb I 297) +++ WCh.: Angas-Sura *hok |*h- < *\- (`), *-k < *-g- reg.j lo dig (vilh a hoe`) |GT
2OO4, 157j. AP: PKuIiak *ug lo dig |Ihrel 1981, 99j.
WRift *alu, I. *alal ol |KM 54j: c. erhas Ig. \n |reg. < *\Ij Arl Gef (OK,
Wb I 187, 12).
WRift *miya, I. *m 1. fruil, 2. boiI (disease) > i.a. rg. \miya 1. fruil, 2. lesli-
cIe, PIrq. *\am\mimo leslicIe |KM 5556j: ils rimary sense may have been *round, cir-
cuIar ob|ecl, cf. Ar. \vm: \m-al- 1. gerbe, bolle (de bIe, de foin), 2. cne forme ar Ie lurban
rouIe en siraIe, 3. lle de cavaIier coiffee dun lurban, 4. oulre gonfIe dair |K II 413j. Nole-
vorlhy mighl be Ig. \mm ein lierischer KrerleiI (von Gans, Fisch, Wurm u.a.): Ii, Rogen
(`) (Med., Wb I 186, 1416), aIlhough il has been recenlIy rendered as brain.
WRift *n- (moIar) leelh |KM 57j: lhis is hardIy an inner innovalion derived from
WRifl *\a- lo be malure as KM suggesl, bul ralher cognale vilh IICu.: Saho a-a back
leelh |Imb. 1987, 533j +++ Om. *a(- loolh |nd. 1988, 145j: Omelo *a- & Dizoid *a/-u &
Aroid *a(-i loolh |nd. 2OO3, 122, 219j (Cu.-Om.: DIg. 1973, 3O7, FIm. 1969, 2627, 1974, 9O,
1976, 32O) +++ Ar. \ mordre a qqch., saisir avec Ies denls, el y enfoncer Ies denls |K II
276j +++ WCh. *H/\a(- lo bile, chev |SlI. 1991 MS, 7, 1995, 61j < AA *\-(n)-( lo bile, chev
|GTj. This sel of cognales is robabIy lo be searaled from SCu.: DhI. un(- |- < *\- vouId be
irreg.j lo chev |IIN 1989, 27j ++ HICu. *in(- lo chev |Hds. 1989, 413j, for vhich cf. er-
has Ig. n.l |-- reg. < *-(-j loolh (OK) via ossibIe mel.
WRift *nta, I. *nt lermile hiII |KM 57j: ils conneclion lo Sandave anla caIa-
bash vilh vide moulh referred by KM is nol loo IikeIy. C. ralher Ar. \unll- 1. elile
monlagne dans Ie deserl, 2. enibIe, difficiIe a gravir (coIIine) |K II 38Oj.
WRift *ay-i, I. *ay- fIover, bIossom |KM 65j +++ Ig. \ Irzeugnis des Ackers
(GR, Wb I 159, 14), cf. \\| Kind (`) (IP, Wb I 169, 5). Any conneclion lo Ar. \ayiyy- lro fai-
bIe |K II 416j`
PIrq. *ayl- vedding dance |KM 65j +++ Ar. \yiI-al- 2. fiIIe, femme, 3. famiIIe,
\ayyaI- femme, enfanl ou loule aulre ersonne donl Ienlrelien esl a Ia charge dun ere de
famiIIe, \iyI- famiIIe, femme, enfanls el loule Ia domeslicile a Ia charge dun ere de fa-
miIIe |K II 423j.
SCu. *E
|*-lI-j |*-
- < *-(-j unrie, rav |GT afler Ihrel 277j: WRifl *\ lo be un-
rie |KM 1O2j > Irq. & AIg. \e + Maa ie (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 277): reIaled lo ed. yaa
feuchl, nass, unreif sein |Rn. 1895, 241j ++ IICu.: PSam *\ayi unrie |Heinej: SomaIi
\ayn \in, RendiIIe i |- < *\-j (Sam: Heine 1978, 77) +++ Sem.: Ar. aa I lre Iein
de vigueur, de |eunesse (se dil dun homme, dune Ianle), II lre dans Ia bien-lre, ros-
erer, a- frais, lendre, nouveau, Iein de vigueur el de sanle (homme), loul |eune, ne re-
cemmenl (veau, elc.), v: a lre enlier, comIel el en bon elal |K II 4734, 477j +++
Ig. \ vohIbehaIlen, unversehrl, inlakl sein (MK, Wb I 237238, so aIso GHWb 165)
orig. *fresh (`) |GTj +++ WCh.: Diri yaa unrie, vel |Skn. 1977, 47j < AA *-(y)-(
fresh |GTj.

The comparison of Eg. to Sem.: Ar. alaa (Alb. 1918, 238; Ember 1930, #5.a.14; Clc. 1936, #137; Vrg. 1945,
135, #9.b.2, 146, #24.a.1) or to Sem. *zz to be strong, powerful (Ward 1962, 412, fn. 3; 1968, 69) cannot be ac-
cepted, since the Eg. root was neither *n nor was Eg. a reflex of Sem. *z.
Lit.: Hodge 1968, 27 (Eg.-LECu.-Ar.); Dlg. 1987, 209, #104 (LECu.-Ar.-SCu.).
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
WRift *t < **aw-it (med.) lo descend |KM 1O1j **\a|(v)hj-il (```) |GTj +++ Ar.
\vh II: \avvaha 2. faire haIle, sarrler a Ia fin de Ia nuil, ares avoir voyage endanl loule
sa duree, 3. lre arrle, relenu dans un endroil |K II 415j. For lhe semanlic shifl cf. Ig. |n|
1. niederschveben, sich niederIassen auf, 1. HaIl machen bei elvas (OK, Wb III 287).
WRift *s lo do |KM 166j ++ IICu.: Saho is- i- (so, no *\-) lo do, make |Sassej
ie lo make, do |Vergari 2OO3, 1O7j, oni as- lo reare, make |Sassej + HICu. *ass- (var.
*iss-) lo do |GT, cf. Sasse 1982, 1O7, Hds. 1989, 51j +++ Sem. *\y lo make, do |GTj > Ug.
\y G lo make, rocess, vork |DUI 19Oj, Hbr. \y qaI lo make, manufaclure |K 89Oj ++
OSA: Sab. \s
y 1. lo make, do, 2. acquire, buy |SD 2Oj Madhabi \s
y 1. faire, 2. rendre
ossession de qqch. |Arbach 1993, 17j. The Sem.-AIg. elymoIogy vas firsl suggesled by A.}u.
MiIilarev (1986, 74).
WRift *c lo shriveI, shrink, dry u |KM 222j +++ Ar. \sv \sy 1. se durcir el secher
(se dil des Ianles), 3. se durcir, conlracler une eau dure ar suile du lravaiI (se dil des
mains), aIso \ys IV secher, erdre sa verdure (se dil des cereaIes) |K II 258, 42Oj (WRifl *c
Ar. s < AA *c reg.).
SCu. *o- cheekbone |Ihrel 278j ++ ICu. *\a- cheek |GTj: e.g. GoIIango \a-
acke |AMS 198O, 195j + Konso a-a, Dirayla a-a (I.), Mosiya a-ela cheek (Konsoid:
Imb. 1987, 533, -8.b) +++ Sem. *\as(as)- bone |IsI. 1945, 233j.
WRift * lo curse, insuIl |KM 222j may evenluaIIy derive from AA *\- lo caII,
ask |GTj > Ig. \ rufen (MK, Wb I 227, 4) lo summon (FD 48) +++ ICu.: (`) Yaaku -s-
lo beg sy. (lr.) |Heine 1975, 121j -is- lo ray |Ihrel 1987, 117, -491j +++ WCh.: oIe ee-
rufen |Iks. 1971, 133j + oghom yi:s rufen |Smz.j (WCh.: }I 1993, 14O, 1994 II, 58). The Ig.-
WCh. araIIeI vas suggesled aIready in OS 1992, 193, OreI 1995, 1OO, -8. For lhe semanlic shifl
in WRifl cf. lhe same change of meaning in SCu. *v\- lo curse, reviIe |Ihrelj < AA *v-\ lo
shoul |GTj.
SCu. *ora ashes |Ihr.j > WRifl *\ura ashes |KM 31Oj + Asa vura-lo |vu- < *u- <
*\u-j ashes |Ihr.j + Maa iora ashes |Ihr.j (SCu.: Ihr. 198O, 279, -34) ++ (`) ICu. *\r- sleam,
smoke |Ss. 1982, 161j (S-ICu.: Ihr. 1987, 117, -493) +++ Ig. \3| FeuersgIul (IP, Wb I 166, 9).
WRift *u 1. lo vra, 2. lvisl, vring |KM 311j: cf. HICu. *un(i(- (`) |eenlhelic
*-n-`j lo lvisl |Hds.j: Hadiya in(i(-, Kambala in(((-, Sidamo hn(- (HICu.: Hds. 1989, 159),
vhich indicales lhal WRifl *\u < *\u( here. A refIexalion vilh non-gIollaIized AA *-- has
been relained by Ar. \anaa I Iier, courber, III mellre Ia bras aulour du cou de qqn. el Ie
saisir |K II 384j.
SCu. *um- lo slo (inlr.) |GTj: Irq. \om- lo slo (inlr.) + Maa -uma lo sland,
come lo slo, -umali lo slo (lr.) (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 278) +++ Ig. v\m.l |eIovas Iav: <
*\umj Verhinderung, Iinschrnkung (XVIII., GHWb 185)
SCu. *ur- slrenglh |GTj: Irq. & AIg. \uru + Maa u |reg. < *urj (SCu.: Ihrel 198O,
279) +++ Ig. \3 |< *\rj greal (OK, Wb I 161162).

Cf. Sem.: Ar. wawaa to shout [Ember 1930, 32] ||| Eg. w3 [< *w] Bses reden, schmchen,
schmchlich reden (MK, Wb I 279, 1417) = to curse (FD 57) ||| PCu. *wa-/*w- to yell [Ehret] > Bed. wu
to cry out [Ehret] || ECu. *wa- to shout [Sasse 1979, 42] || SCu. *w- to curse, revile [Ehret]: Asa wa-am-
[Ehret] | Dhl. w- to insult, curse [EEN 1989, 43] (SCu.: Ehret 1980, 313; Cu.: Ehret 1987, #585) vs. WRift *-
(different ablaut pattern of the same root?) to call, warn [KM 219] ||| Ch. *wa to call [Nwm. 1977, 23]. The AA
comparison was first suggested in Mlt. 1984, 157.
The meaning of the NEg. hapax is corroborated by the regular SCu. reflex. We may postulate an underly-
ing Eg. verbal root *wm to hinder, keep up, stop, whose Coptic reflex has already been identified by
W. Westendorf (KHW 271) in (S) > einschrnken, verringern, refl. sich zurckhalten, nach-
sichtig sein, nachgeben.
Gbor Takcs
WRift *urufi Iizard (s.) |KM 31Oj: resumabIy reIaled lo Ar. \araf- (< \rf vilh
inelymoIogicaI *-s- + addilionaI -, cf. I. \arifu, dimin. \uayrifu) sorle de Iezard sur IequeI
Ies demons voyagenl |K II 28Oj.
PRift *ba- lo exceI, exceed |Ihr.j > WRifl *ba\ lo surass, exceed, vin |KMj: Irq.
ba\- lo exceI, exceed |Ihr.j b\ lo surass, defeal |KMj, Grv. b\ lo surass, exceed,
vin |KMj, AIg. ba\- lo overcome |Ihr.j ba\ lo surass, exceed, vin |KMj, rg. ba\ lo
surass, exceed, vin |KMj + Qvd. ba-al- lo increase in size |Ihr.j (WRifl: KM 66, SCu.-
Orm.: Ihrel 198O, 338) ++ IICu.: (`) Oromo bay-e Ienly, abundanl |Ihr.j by- many,
much |Hds. 1989, 96j +++ Sem. *by das Ma berschreilen |Gj: Hbr. b\y qaI (das
Wasser) anschveIIen, d.i. berkochen machen (Feuer), nifaI anschveIIen, sich vorschieben
(v. einem Mauerslck) |G 1O6j ++ Ar. by: ba das Ma berschreilen (auch von einer
Wunde) |Gj 1. sorlir des bornes, 2. deasser ses droils, abuser, orimer |DRS 76j < AA
*b--(y) lo exceed |GTj.
WRift *bo- anlisociaI behaviour |KMj > Irq. bi\iri greed, AIg. bi\a aduIlery, rg.
bi\a madness, Iunacy (WRifl: KM 73) +++ Sem. *b\v > Ar. ba\v- crime, ba\ commellre
un crime, un eche, Thamudic b\v commellre un crime, OSA b\v allaquer ar surrise,
se revoIler (Sem.: DRS 74).
WRift *bo- bIack |GTj: Irq. bo\-, rg. bo\-i (WRifl: FIm. 1969, 22, -6, KM ) +++ Ar.
b bs (rool exl. - vs. -s`): baia lre lachele de noir, grislre, cf. bas- couIeur noire
|DRS 76: isoIaled in Sem.j +++ WCh.: Fyer vii |< *b
iH < *b-v-`j bIack |}ng. 1968, 9, -91j
+ cf. oIe buum bIack |II in }I 1994 II, 28j: < AA *b- bIack |GTj.
WRift *daar ashes |KM 78j ++ ICu. *dar\- |mel. < **da\r-`j ashes |Sasse 1979, 16j
+++ Sem.: Ar. da\ira I 1. fumer beaucou (se dil du bois verl, quand iI ne brIe as bien), 2.
fumer el ne as donner de fIamme (se dil dun briquel consislanl en une esece de bois qui
saIIume ar Ie frollemenl) |K I 7OOj fumer sans donner de fIamme |DRS 293: isoIaled in
Sem.j. In lhe Iighl of ICu. *-r\- and lhe Ar. cognale, lhe derivalion of lhe WRifl lerm from
*da\- lo burn, roasl does nol seem fuIIy evidenl.
WRift *daba lo circumcise |KMj lo derive |GTj > Irq. daba\ lo Iack, rg.
daba\ lo circumcise (WRifl: KM 8O) +++ Ar. da\aba I reousser, eIoigner |K I 698j.
SCu. *de- lo be fal |Ihrelj: WRifl *du\iya fal, oiI, I. *du\ay ieces of fal |KM 99j
> Irq. de\-ela fal, Iard |Ihrelj dila fal, cf. di oiI |WlI. 1953j di\i oiI, fal |Mgv.
1989, 112j, urunge d & dgia Fell |Mnh. 19O6, 331j + Asa da-ara heavy |Ihrelj +
DhI. e\\-em- lo be fal |Ihrelj e\-em- lo be fal |IIN 1989, 28j (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 165,
-22) +++ Sem. *d\d\ lo move vilh heavy sles, vilh difficuIly |GTj: Ar. da\da\a courir
dun as Iourd ++ Amh. da (da) aI marcher Ienlemenl, avec difficuIle, arIer difficiIemenl
(Sem.: DRS 28929O) +++ (```) OIg. *d| |reg. < *d\j allesled onIy Iale as IIg. l| fell, gemslel
(von Ochsen) (GR, Wb V 325, 15).
WRift *gaaw lo valch, observe |KM 111j +++ Ig. v\ |reg. < *gv\j offenbar sein
(IP, Wb I 4O6, 15).
WRift *ki lo relurn, *ki-is (caus.) lo bring back |KM 175j +++ Sem.: Ar. k\\ IV
relenir qqn. el Iemcher daborder qqch., k\k\: ka\ka\a 2. relenir, conlenir qqn. el
Iemcher daborder qqch. |K II 9O6, 9O8j.
WRift *k
ai ~ *k
aay hare |KM 187j: erhas connecled lo Sem.: Ar. kv\: k\a re-
cuIer de eur, el seIoigner de qqch. |K II 944j.
WRift *li lo hale |KMj > Irq. Ii\ay (m) aying back, hale among neighbours, re-
venge, AIg. Ii\ lo hale, rg. Ii\ lo be unhay (WRifl: KM 194) ++ IICu.: (`) PSomaIi
*ne\- |unIess < *ne\eb-j hassen |Imb. 1986, 445j +++ Ig. n\\.v |< *I\\j medisance (`) (CT IV
2Oc, AI 78.1995) sIander (`) (Osing) > Dem. I\ Slrafe, VerIeumdung (DG 26O:1O) un-
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
ishmenl, sIander (CID) > (SAI) o Neid, osheil, VerIeumdung (KHW) envy, sIan-
der (CD 134b) (S) o vs. (F) c 1. envie, mechancele, 2. caIomnie (DIIC 93, Ig.-Cl.:
KHW 74, Osing 1978, 187) +++ WCh.: Angas ka-Ia (refix ka-`) accusalion |AIC 1978, 23j <
AA *I-\ lo sIander from halred |GTj.
SCu. *lo- lo bring lo |GTj: rg. Iu\- lo aIy, AIg. Iu\- lo aIy + Qvd. Io- lo
give + DhI. Io\- lo bring lo (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 2O6) ++ Agav: Qvara I geben, caus. I-
bringen |Rn. 1885, 92j +++ Ig. |v\ |< *Iv\j beschenken mil (m) (XVIII., Wb I 51, 8) lo
revard (FD 13) |v\ eIohnung (GR, Wb I 51, 1O) < AA *I-v-\ lo hand over lo |GTj.
PIrq. *naay chiId |KM 214j: c. erhas Ar. na\\- faibIe, debiIe, infirme (se dil dun
homme) |K II 1291j.
WRift *ni lo move in a circIe |KMj allesled in rg. nni\-id lo encircIe + WRifl *ni\-
im lo dance |KM 217j > rg. ni\-im lo have sexuaI inlercourse has a slriking araIIeI vilh
simiIar semanlic deveIomenl in Sem. *n\y > Akk. *n/ D aufhelzen, aufslacheIn, auf-
ulschen, anregen, i nuli |emand, der die Ieule mil Wilzen o.dgI. anregl, Wilz-
macher |Soden 1955, 3889j ++ Ar. n\y: na\ I 3. exciler, X 1. courir a el Ia el orler son
cavaIier on ne sail ou |K II 13OOj +++ Ig. n\v sich GaukIerveise herumziehen (PT 7O2a,
UKAPT VI 138) lo caer vilh (AIPT 132) lo cavorl (`) (AIIen 1984, 57O) bondir (``)
(}acq 1986, 31) herumloIIen (GHWb 395, AWb I 6OO), cf. n\v.l| fahrender GaukIer (AAG
1O7, 247, AWb I 599) > (`) n\v saccouIer (Iale NK, AI 77.2OO5) sich aaren (GHWb
395). Cf. aIso Sem.: Hbr. nv\ lo quiver, vave, move unsleadiIy ++ IS: Tna. na\n\e lo
shake, make faII, reverse (Sem.: IsI. 1958, 33). The PT haax and lhe IIg. verb have been
connecled by Salzinger (2OO3, 222). IvenluaIIy, lhe underIying AA rool may have rimariIy
signified an exciled rhylmicaI circuIar molion.
Rift *o- lo cIean |Ihr.j > rg. bo\-em-is- + Qvd. o- (Rifl: Ihr. 198O, 34O, -2): re-
sumabIy a mel. of AA *\-b lo be cIean |GTj > Sem.: Akk. G ebbu lo be cIean, ure, D ub-
bubu lo cIean, urify |AHW 18O1j +++ Ig. \b.v urificalion, urily (OK, FD 4O), v\b (lo
be) ure (OK, FD 57) reinigen, rein sein (Wb I 28O2) +++ CCh.: PHigi *y|aj- |mel. < *Hab-j
lo vash |GTj: Higi-Nkafa you-, Kasiki yau-, FaIi-GiIi yea-, Higi-Ghye yaa- + achama
o lo vash + Kuseri ubau lo vash (CCh.: Krf. 1981). A videIy acceled AA elymoIogy.
SCu. *w- lo siII oul, fIov |Ihrelj > WRifl *va\ lo vomil, fIood, gush oul |KM
312j + Qvd. vaa-muko river |Ihrelj + Maa -va lo urinale |Ihrelj (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 313):
cognale vilh ICu. *va/i\- valer |Sasse 1982, 186j > IICu.: cf. e.g. Afar va\ river |Mkr.
1987, 298j + HICu. *va-a valer |Hds. 1989, 423j. There vas aIso an AA var. rool vilh *y-,
cf. IICu. *y\- lo fIov avay |Sasse 1982, 192j +++ Ig. |\| vaschen (OK, Wb I 39)
. A..
DoIgooIsky (1988, 631, -17) affiIialed ICu. *y\- vilh lhe Sem. *hy\ assuming a secondary
refix *h- (for vhich, hovever, cf. ralher SCu. *ho|\j- lo our |GTj beIov). Il is enlireIy
IausibIe lhal PAA *v-\ *y-\ *h-\ vere uIlimaleIy reIaled.
SCu. *
SCu. WRift Qwadza Asa Maa Dahalo Sem. Eg. AA
* * -h- -/h- (?) h, h, * > *

For Eg.-Akk.: Alb. 1918, 222, fn. 1; 1923, 67; Holma 1919, 37; Ember 1930, #5.a.17; Blv. 1991, 88, #16; 1993, 53,
#16. For Eg.-CCh.: OS 1992, 200.
For the shift of meaning cf., e.g., PIE *plew- rinnen, fliessen > i. a. Gk. ich wasche, OHGerm.
flouwen, flewen waschen, splen, Lith. pluju (caus.) wasche, sple (IEW 8356).
Gbor Takcs
WRift *b hea, bundIe |KM 75j +++ WCh.: Wa|a a bv-a |irreg. b-`j lo iIe u,
hea u (asl) |Kvh. 199O, 24Oj < AA *b-v- lo hea u |GTj: remoleIy cognale lo lhe re-
fIexes of AA *-(v)- lo hea u |GTj > Ig. .l die Garbe des Korns (OK, Wb I 533, 11)
gerbe (AI 78.1489) der Garbenhaufen (des Korns), Kornmiele (GHWb 287) +++ Nrb. *a-
ffa < **a-fvaH slack of sheaves |GTj: MgiId a-ffa, I. i-ff-an slack of grain-sheaves |Harries
1974, 222j + Iznasen & Rif & Senhazha a-ffa, I. a-ffiv-in meuIe de gerbes a deiquer |Rns.
1932, 297j + QabyIe la-ffa, I. la-ffv-in las de bois |DIl. 1982, 189j ++ CCh. *a (`) lo iIe u
|GTj: Margi a lo iIe u, foId |Hfm. in RK 1973, 134, -123, -131, -135j + ana a ramasser,
rassembIer |Hfm. in rl.-}ng. 199O, 86j.
WRift *c-a dry dung |KMj: Irq. cea dry covdung |Ihrel 198O, 355j, Grv. ca
dry dung |KMj, AIg. ca cov dung |KMj, rg. c dung of shee and goals |KMj
(WRifl: KM 296) +++ Ig. s.v (I.) Dreck (NI, Wb IV 211, 12).
WRift *cuiya finch, *cu- finches |KM 3O2j +++ Ig. s.l Arl VogeI (der geoferl
vird) (XXII., Wb IV 2O9, 8).
WRift *a-as (caus.) lo forbid, revenl |KMj: Irq. a-s lo kee callIe herd lo-
gelher, revenl callIe from going aslray, AIg. a-as & rg. a-as lo forbid, revenl
(WRifl: KM 2OO4, 275) +++ Sem.: (`) Ar. v II 2. faire alre Ies besliaux |K II 12j (unIess <
Ieine |our) +++ Nrb.: Tamazighl : la-a (no I.) roleclion, aIIiance insliluee enlre deux
lribus, surloul conlre Ies voIs |Tf. 1991, 86j (nol found in QabyIe, Tuareg).
WRift * lo buiId, do, reare, *eilu buiIding, conslrucling, eim characler,
nalure |KM 282j +++ Sem.: Ar. y: I 1. faire qqch. avec Ie Ius grand zeIe, lre lres-
serieusemenl occue de qqch., III 1. saIiquer avec assiduile elc., IV 2. faire qqch. avec Ie
Ius grand soin |K II 1295j.
WRift *ffa < **faafa lo inlrigue, ersuade > es. rg. hiffa lo leII or give
avay secrels, lallIe, bIab |KM 1O3j +++ Sem.: Ar. fv II: fa 2. indiquer qqch. ar des aIIu-
sions, faire une aIIusion a qqch., fav- and fuav- sens (des mols, des aroIes, dun dis-
cours), inlenlion, ce que Ion se roose dans une hrase, dans un discours, cf. erhas
fafaa 3. lre sincere dans son amilie > faf-al- bavard, Ioquace |K II 551, 549j.
WRift *f-is (caus.) lo lear, sIil |KM 1O6j +++ Sem.: Ar. fy: fa 1. lre vasle, sa-
cieux (.ex. Ia caverne), 2. reandre > es. fay- incursion, invasion de Iennemi qui se
reand dans loules Ies arlies du lerriloire |K II 644j. The rimary sense of lhe underIying
AA rool (*f-y-) mighl have been *lo oen vide.
WRift *ga lo shake off, lhrov off > *gga lo Iel faII, dro off, *ga-al lo scoId,
rebuke |KM 112j +++ Sem.: Ar. v: a 2. devier, secarler de Ia Iigne droile, II de-
chausser (Ie ied), c.-a-d. en ler Ia chaussure |K I 35Oj +++ Ig. v |reg. < *vg < *gv via
eIovas Iavj (den SugIing) enlvhnen (PT, Wb I 4O9, 14).
WRift *guulay knobbed cIub |KM 121j: ils semanlicaIIy dubious equalion vilh ed.
guIhe uer arm (suggesled by KM) cannol be acceled. Inslead, I vouId ralher lhink of a
basic sense *huge round knob. C. Ar. aI- (oulre) ronde, Ieine, ayaI- gros, massif,
imosanl |DRSj aI- grande oulre a eau, ayaI- 1. rocher, ierre enorme, 2. grand,
enorme (se dil de loule chose) |K I 257j ++ MSA: }ibbaIi giaI- lonneaux |DRSj, Sql. geI
devenir forl |IsI. 1938, 1O8j (Sem.: DRS 112).

Is NEg. s.w just the met. of OEg. s [*s] Exkremente, Kot > (S) (PT, Wb III 164) ||| (???) Bed. h
[irreg. ] dnner Kot [Rn.] = liquid faecal matter [Rpr.] (Bed.-Eg.: Zhl. 19323, 170)?
Semantically, less likely seems an equation of the Eg. root with Sem.: Hbr. gy: go (qal part. with suffix)
der mich hervorzieht [GB 137] || Ar. aa to draw [Zbr.], cf. also w: a I & VIII arracher, draciner,
extirper [BK I 2578] | MSA: Jbl. wg: eg to snatch, take by force, sg to snatch from [Jns. 1981, 288, 69]
(Sem.: Zbr. 1971, #53).
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
SCu. *[ay]d- lo be fal |GTj *ed- |Ihr.j > Irq. ar-em-is- |-r- reg. < *-d-j (caus.) lo
fallen + DhI. e- lo be fal, eune fal (erson) (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 3O1, -16) +++ ICu.
*ay- fal |Sasse 1979, 46j. Irreg. SCu. *-d- vs. ICu. *--.
WRift *af-a slicks of lhe roof conslruclion of a house |KM 146j: cf. Dobase a-e
kIeiner Zveig |AMS 198O, 163j.
WRift *af lo sread |KM 146j > cf. es. Grv. f lo cover, Iay on lo: equaled by
KM vilh Oromo f lo sread. GT: cf. aIso Ar. affa couvrir de lous cles dun voiIe, dun
rideau (une Iiliere, elc.) |K I 455j.
WRift *agili > onIy Irq. agIi slring of beads |KM 331j +++ Ar. aI- iI- iiI-
anneau, boucIe denlrave, enlrave |K I 384j. KMs comarison vilh IICu.: SomaIi arg-o
roe may onIy be vaIid rovided -rg- < *-Ig-.
WRift *am- lo be Iosl, *am-is (caus. suffix *-is-) lo exlinguish |KM 1478j lo be
soiIed |GTj
: rg. amu lo be soiIed, Iosl, am-is- lo soiI, Iose lhe use of, AIg. am-is-
lo gel Iosl, forgel (WRifl-IICu.: KM I.c., Ihrel 198O, 334, 379) ++ ICu. *am-/*um- bad
|Sasse 1979, 38j: cf. PSam *um bad |Heine 1978, 64j +++ Ig. m.l UbeI, UngIck (GR, Wb
III 8O, 12) +++ Sem.: (`) Geez amy lo seak iII of |IsI. 1944, 5556j. For Ig.-ICu. see Ta-
kacs 1995, 161, -c, 1996, 9O, -c.
SCu. *ame falhers brolher |Ihrelj: Maa hame my uncIe + DhI. ame falhers
brolher (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 299) ++ ed. hamo falher/molher-in-Iav |Rr.j +++ Ig. *m
|aIalaIized< *mj allesled as m falher-in-Iav (fem. m.l molher-in-Iav) Cl. (S) gon
falher-in-Iav (OK, Roquel 1977, VcI. 199O, 53, Ward 1996, 43, fn. 8) +++ Sem. *am- falher-
in-Iav |GTj. The Sem.-Ig. malch has aIready been knovn.
Perhas Cu. < Ar.`
WRift *mpu ving |KM 148j vas equaled by KM vilh ICu. *ubn- muscIe, Iimb,
vhich is bolh semanlicaIIy and honoIogicaIIy (WRifl *-- ICu. *-b-) unIikeIy. C. ralher Ig.
vieIIeichl ein Worl fr Hand (`) (NK, Wb III 69, 17).
WRift *ap, I. *apapu soiI, ground, earlh, Iand |KM 149j +++ Sem.: resumabIy
Ar. iff- cle (dune chose), ff-al- cle, bord, marge, f-al- bord, marge, exlremile
|K I 4556, 516j +++ Ig. .l| 1. aIs ez. der WeIl, 2. (vereinzeIl) aIs uersle Grenze eines
Gebieles, das Auersle der WeIl, cf. l3 m .lf die Irde in ihrer ganzen Aus-
dehnung (GR, Wb III 69).
WRift *araci vealher |KM 15Oj: c. erhas Ar. ars- ge, momenl, lems |K I
4O7j. Cf. Hungarian id lime id(|aras) vealher.
SCu. *as- lendon (bov slring) |Ihr.j: Irq. asini sinaI cord + Asa asu-k lendon
(bov slring) + Maa Iu-hasi lendon (bov slring) + DhI. aso lendon (bov slring) (SCu.:
Ihrel 198O, 3OO) +++ Ig. s |GT: GW s3j Faden, Schnur (z.. zum Aufreihen von PerIen)
(NI, Wb III 166, 4) lhread, cord, slring (DII II 139).
PIrq. *asm-a robIems, lroubIe |KM 15Oj: cf. erhas Ar. usm- maIheureuses
(nuils), ma-sm- maI nourri el qui ne grandil as (enfanl) |K II 427j.
PIrq. *a lo vorry |KM 15Oj: cf. Ar. v VII 3. faire allenlion, arehender,
sinquieler de qqch., y I avoir eur, lre effraye, erhas aIso y III 2. faire allenlion,
V 3. avoir honle devanl qqch., VI eviler qqch., se garder de qqch. |K I 513, 526, 436j.
WRift *ay- ~ *aw- rov, famiIy Iine |GTj *ayi rov, Iine |KMj: Iraqv ai 1. a
alriIinear cIan, 2. IooseIy, ones kinsfoIk |WlI. 1953, 87j ay kinsfoIk, cIan |Ihrelj ayi

WRift *am- is to be separated from WRift *hamu-: Alg. hamu hardship, distress, Irq. hamusoo un-
lucky person (contra Ehret).
Lit.: Erman 1892, 116 (Cpt.-Sem.); Chn. 1947, #127 (Eg.-Sem.-Bed.); Ward 1968, 69 (Eg.-Sem.); Rsl. 1971, 303
(Eg.-Sem.); Blv. 1989, 16, #11 (Eg.-Sem.).
Gbor Takcs
Iine, cIan |KMj +++ Ig. v|.l vv.l |reg. < *uy/v-j FamiIie, Sie (MK, Wb I 346, 9) +++
Sem. *ayy- cIan |GTj: Hbr. ay famiIy, kinsfoIk |K 3O9j ++ Ar. ayy- lribaI communily,
descendanls of one falher |Smilh/Kj lribu (grande subdivision) |K I 523j. From lhe
same rool derives lhe isogIoss of lhe foIIoving enlry. Iil. for lhe AA elymoIogy: Imber 1911,
93, Vrg. 1945, 138, -12.a.1, MIl. 1984, 16 (Ig.-Sem.), HSID -1256 (Ig.-Iraqv). The reconslruc-
lion of SCu. *a- reIalive, kin |Ihrel 198O, 299j is baseIess.
WRift *e-s- (caus. suffix -s-) lo finish, bring lo an end |KM 152j +++ Sem.: Ar.
vy: av reunir, rassembIer |K I 522j +++ Ig. sv| (caus. refix s-) lo coIIecl, assembIe
(MK, FD 258). For lhe semanlic shifl in WRifl cf. Ig. kmm lo comIele > lo ul an end lo
(MK, FD 286).
ERift *el- lo cIean |Ihrelj: Asa hiI-us- |h reg. < *j lo slrain, fiIler ++ IICu.: SomaIi
aI- lo vash (Cu.: Ihrel 198O, 335) +++ Ig. 3.l| Ieicher, Wscher (OK, GHWb 5O1, cf. Wb
III 7, 7): nomen acloris of an unallesled *3 |< *Ij lo cIean vhile |GTj
+++ Sem. *II: Akk.
eIIu |*aII-uj cIean, ure, Syr. II aeI lo vash, cIean, Aram. of Targum II absIen,
aeI vaschen, absIen. For Sem.-IICu.-IRifl see DIg. 1987, 198, -24, 1988, 631, -18.
WRift *itim (dur.) lo deslroy |KM 154j +++ Ig. lm vernichlen, beseiligen (Unre-
ines, Dursl), verliIgen (OK, AWb I 911). Nol yel cIear vhelher lhe equalion of Ig. lm vilh
Ar. m (suorled by a number of IgyloIogisls
) is correcl.
WRift *iyaa maIe reIalive, maIe sibIing vs. **iyaa > *i sisler |KM 154j >
i.a. Irq. iya brolher |Ihr. 198O, 299j iya brolher, cousin |KMj +++ Sem.: Sql. iyo
fralernile |IsI. 1938, 172j. UIlimaleIy reIaled lo AA *-y cIan |GTj (deaIl vilh s.v. WRifl
*ay- *av- famiIy Iine above)`
WRift * lo scralch, rub |KM 155j ++ IICu.: Oromo hsa lo caress, slroke (animaIs
lo caIm dovn) |Gragg 1982, 214j +++ Sem.: Ar. v III 1. exciler, ousser qqn. conlre qqn. ou
a qqch. |K I 513j.
WRift *mb-t lo cravI |KM 155j +++ Ig. nm.v |nm < *nb reg.j cravIer, nmnm
lo cree (CT, DCT 338).
Alg. ungululay kile |Ihr. 198O, 3O2, -25 vilh faIse DhI. cognalej +++ Ig. nr |<
*knIj Arl FaIke (OK, Wb V 384, 12) +++ WCh.: Angas-Sura *koIo < *kaIa *keIe *kiIi
(`) |reg. < *k-I--nj faIcon, havk |GT 2OO4, 171j
+ Dera kaIine |-e < *-gej kile |Krf.j +
urma oIel |< *kVIV- via mel.`j kile |Krf.j ++ CCh.: PidIimdi kiIengirli havk |Krf.j elc.
(Ch.: Krf. 1981, -2O2, -2O3).
SCu. *k
a- lo be lired, have a resl |GTj: WRifl *kva-as lo have a resl |KM 186j >
AIg. kva-as- lo resl + Maa -kvaha lo be lired, kvahamu liredness (SCu.: Ihrel 198O,

Semantically a little bit weaker is the possibility of comparing Eg. *3 to Sem. *wr: Syr. ewr white,
Ar. iwarra to be intensely white (Sem.: Rabin 1975, 89, #98).
Ar. aama casser, craser, broyer [BK I 452] = to break, destroy [Ember] > am-at- (year of) dearth,
drought, sterility, uam-at- a vehement fire that breaks in pieces everything that is cast into it (as name of the
fourth stage of Hell), um- what is broken in pieces, perishing [Lane 5945]. For Eg.-Ar. see Albright 1918,
238, #68; Ember 1930, #10.a.29, #14.a.26, #25.b.7; Vergote 1945, 143, #21.b.5. Note that the inner Eg. derivation from
tm vollstndig sein by a prefix - (Sethe 1910, 80, fn. 2; Vycichl 1936, 110) can be regarded as semantically satis-
factory. Th. Schneiders (1997, 204, #75) hazardous equation with Hbr. tm (hapax, meaning obscure) is even
worse, not to mention that Eg. Sem. *.
Attested in Angas kal hawk (Hs. irna) [Flk. 1915, 207] = kl (KS) falcon sp. (not eaten by the kn-
n people, who live among all Angas), kal ~ kal (K) falcon, nkl Milan [Jng. 1962 MS, 16, 28], Sura
kl Falke [Jng. 1963, 78], Mupun nkl kite, hawk [Frj. 1991, 44], Kofyar keloeng [kl] hawk [Ntg.
1967, 18], Mushere kle hawk [Dkl. 1997 MS] = kele hawk [Jng. 1999 MS, 7], Chip nkli kite [Krf.], Goe-
may keleng (so, e) a hawk [Srl. 1937, 97] = kil kite [Krf.] = kle kite [Hlw. 2000 MS, 16].
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
266) +++ Sem.: Ar. kiki- kuku- 1. vieiIIe femme decreile, 2. chameIIe lres-vieiIIe,
kuu- (I.) vieiIIes femmes decreiles |K II 86987Oj +++ Ig. kk aIl, hinfaIIig, gebre-
chIich verden (XIX., Wb V 138, 1O12).
WRift *k
a 1. lo lhrov, 2. forge |KM 186j +++ Sem.: Ar. kv: ka I 2. Ionger qqn.
dans Ieau ou Ie |eler dans Ia oussiere, III 2. |eler des gros mols, des in|uries a Ia lle de
qqn. |K II 941j.
WRift *le- lo search |GTj: Irq. IiIih- (sic, -h-!) lo Iook for |WlI. 1953, 91j IeIe- lo
seek |Ihr. 198O, 2O5j II- lo search, Iook for |Mgv. 1989, 117j, AIg. Ie- lo choose
|Ihrelj (WRifl: Ihrel 198O, 2O5, -21) +++ Ig. n| |*Iy`j vnschen, erbillen (MK, Wb II 288
289) +++ WCh.: erhas Nauchi *Ie- < **Ie- (`) |GTj: War|i Iey- IIoa IeoIeo lo
hunl |Skn. 1977, 27j
. From AA *I- lo search for |GTj.
WRift *s- lselse-fIies, sg. *s-imo |KM 247j +++ (```) Ig. s|.l ein Insekl (Med.,
Wb IV 21O, 13).
WRift *ui, I. *uy deserled homeslead |KM 263j: erhas reIaled lo Ar. y:
a 1. ouvrir, 2. lre ouverl, aan Iarge, sacieux, amIe |K I 12OOj.
WRift *wra- lo ass |KM 315j +++ Ig. v3 |reg. < *vrj in: v3- vom Passieren
des Wassers durch die Rinder (OK, Wb I 257, 6) den See () Passieren (durch die Rinder)
(AWb I 3O4).
WRift *yy shover of rain |KM 328j +++ Sem.: Ar. ay- ay- Iuie |Iane
681, K I 523j +++ Ig. v.l rain (PT, Wb III 49). For Ig.-Ar. see Imber 1916, 74, 193O,
-14.a.15, MIl. 1987, 1O5. Ig. v.l rain is lo be combined aIso vilh Ig. v| fIieen (since
MK, Wb III 48).
Irregular WRift * < AA *h
WRift *la veII, valerhoIe |KM 147j: Ihrel has h- in lhe Anlaut, vhereas KM consis-
lenlIy -, cf. Irq. haIa, I. haIeIi veII |Ihrelj aIngv aIa veII |KMj elc. Ils comarison
vilh IICu.: RendiIIe ar hoIIov vhere valer coIIecls in lhe rainy season |PG 1999, 136j (sug-
gesled by KM)
seems Iess robabIe lhan lhal vilh IRifl: Qvd. |aIi-lo (sic, |-/x-) valerhoIe
|KohI-Iarsenj *haIi-lo |Ihrelj + DhI. heIeI-- lo fIov |Ihrelj (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 3O6) < SCu.
*/h|ajI- (lo fIov from a) veII |GTj +++ Sem.: Ar. hII V: lahaIIaIa sourdre, |aiIIir (se dil de Ieau
dune source, des Iarmes qui couIenl des yeux), VII 1. lre verse ar lorrenls, se reandre (se
dil de Ia Iuie), 2. lre baigne de Iarmes (se dil des yeux), 3. reandre, verser, faire lomber de Ia
Iuie, haII-al- and haII- remiere Iuie de Ia saison |K II 1434, DRS 415j
+++ (`) Ig. hn.v
|reg. < *hI-vj WeIIe, FIul (NI, Wb II 481, 1O11) +++ Srb.: Ahaggar l-hIa, TavIIemmel lIa
|conlracled < *la-haIaj smaII brook, sring (Srb.: MIl. 1991, 165) +++ WCh.: erhas Goemay
haI valery |SrI. 1937, 74j < AA *haI- lo fIov (rimariIy of valer from ils source`) |GTj.
WRift *aw lo be veak |KM 15Oj +++ Sem. *hvy: Tigre hav se faner |DRS 386j.
SCu. *aw-/*y- husband |GTj = *- (sic) |Ihr.j > WRifl *avala, I. *- husband
|KM 15Oj + DhI. o |-- reg. < *-y-j, I. i husband |Ihr.j o, I. \i ama man,

Cf. perhaps Eg. kw keuchen (vom ermatteten Herzen) (Med., Wb V 138, 5; GHWb 887) unless it is of
onomatopoetic origin.
For the semantic shift to search for > to hunt, cf., e.g., the entry for Eg. bs in EDE II 284.
Cf. also Eg. 3j [reg. < *ly] flieen, fluten vom Nil (GR, Wb III 13), 3j.t bewsserte Stelle an einem
Brunnen in der Oase (NK, Wb III 13, 11).
D. Cohen (DRS 415) listed this Ar. hll under Sem. *hll III as a distinct root, carefully separating it from Sem.
*hll II with the basic sense to appear on the horizon.
Gbor Takcs
husband, |udge |IIN 1989, 26j (SCu.: Ihr. 198O, 299, -2) ++ ed. hiyi (comm.), hiy-ob/ol (acc.)
husband, vife |Rr.j +++ Ig. h| (vrillen OK h, MK h|, NK h3|) GemahI, Galle > (S) oi
refIecling oId |*h|j (OK, Wb II 475, 1O) < AA *hiy- husband |GTj, vhereby SCu. *-a/- is aIso
irreguIar. For ed.-Ig. see Imber 1917, 21, Cohen 1947, -92, IS 1971, 241, -1OO, MIl. 1986, 72,
OS 1992, 169, HSID -1174.
WRift *awi grass (s.) |KM 151j ++ IICu.: Afar havy (h-!) herbs, sices |PH
1985, 12Oj.
WRift *ay-t lo lraveI |KM 151j: c. erhas IICu.: Saho hay gel moving! |Ver-
gari 2OO3, 96j.
WRift *, I. *o nice, good |KM 154j > Irq. oo good, beaulifuI, fine, rg.
oinay goodness, AIg. o goodness (WRifl: Ihrel 198O, 3O2, -28 vilh faIse reconslruc-
lion) +++ Sem. *hy |DRSj: Ar. ha lre beau, bien fail, dune forme eIeganle, de beIIe aar-
ence, haua lre beau, bien fail, dune forme eIeganle, hayyi- hay- beau, bien fail
(homme), hay-al- hi-al- 4./2.beIIe forme |K II 1463, Dozy 781, Fagnan 1923, 182j ++ Sql.
hiyoh sIendide (`) |IsI. 1938, 142j +++ Nrb.: Tamazighl heyya lre bien, bon, salisfaisanl,
meiIIeur, de bonne quaIile |Tf. 1991, 227: nol borroved from Ar.j
(Sem.-rb.: DRS 398).
SCu. *H (?)
There is a grou of lhree Ig.-SCu. cognales, vhere on lhe SCu. side Ihrel did nol recon-
slrucl eilher *\- or *h-. SCu. *H- is allesled in lhe Anlaut onIy and can be isoIaled on lhe basis
of a reguIar corresondence of WRifl *- DhI. h-. The Ig. cognales have \-, bul lhe SCu. re-
fIexes are nol evidenl: lhey do nol fil vilhin lhe reguIar refIexalions of eilher SCu. *\- or *h-.
Henceforlh, lhese SCu. refIexes oinl neilher lo *\ or *h. Therefore, I have marked lhis iniliaI
IaryngeaI vilh lhe symboI *H-. Il is uncIear al lhe momenl vhy ve have a second sel of cor-
resondences for vhal ve vouId normaIIy execl lo reresenl SCu. *\-. Sem. IexicaI evidence
vouId be needed lo decide vhelher lhis henomenon has anylhing lo do vilh lhe dislinclion
of *\ vs. * in Sem.
SCu. WRift Qwadza Asa Maa Dahalo Sem. Eg. AA
*H *- - ? ? h- ? - ~ - (1) */* (?)
SCu. *Ham- lo nibbIe |Ihr.j: Qvd. am- lo chev + DhI. ham- lo loss a orlion of
food in lhe moulh (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 297) ++ ed. m gierig fressen, essen |Rn.j ++ IICu.:
SomaIi \n |-n- < *-m-j lo eal |Abr.j +++ Ig. \m verschIucken (OK, Wb I 183184) +++
WCh.: Paa ma lo eal |}ng. 1967, 198j ++ ICh. *aym- lo eal |GTj: Somray om + Sokoro
oymi + DangIa me, MokiIko omi, Migama yme elc. (ICh.: }I 1994 II, 119, 121) < AA *\-m
lo eal |GTj.
SCu. *Har-/*Hr- goal |GTj: Irq. & rg. & AIg. & Grv. ara |I.j goals + Qvd. aIi-lo
|*-r-j goal + DhI. hri ri goal, shee (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 297, 1974, 73, FIm. 1969, 29) +++
Ig. \r goal (Med., Wb I 2O8, 1O) +++ WCh.: KuIere var he-goal |}ng.j ++ ICh.: IeIe r (I.)

The position of NBrb.: Qabyle e-hwu plaire, tre agrable [Dlt. 1982, 295] is dubious (Dlt.: < Ar. hw vs.
DRS: ~ Sem. *hy).
Lit. for this AA etymology: Mnh. 1912, 233; Behnk 1928, 139, #16 (Eg.-Somali); Zhl. 19321933, 166 (Eg.-
Bed.); Chn. 1947, #60 (Eg.-Bed.-Somali); Djk. 1965, 44 (Eg.-Bed.-Somali); Dlg. 1970, 623, #74 (Eg.-Bed.); HSED #1064
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
goals, carin |WP 1982, 74, }I 1994 II, 167j +++ (`) Guanche: Tenerife ara goal |MIl.j
< AA
jar- goal |GTj.
SCu. *HUl- lo smeII bad |GTj: Qvd. oI- lo be rollen + DhI. huI- lo smeII bad, huII-
a odor (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 298) +++ Ig. \v3 |< *\vIj verderben, fauIen (PT, Wb I 172, 34),
var. v3 |< *vIj fauIig sein (PT, Wb III 5O) v3.v FuInissgeruch, Geslank (Med., Wb
III 51, 67).
SCu. *h < AA *h
SCu. WRift Qwadza Asa Maa Dahalo Sem. Eg. AA
*h *h h, h- ? h- h- *h h *h
WRift *bahut lo be sluid, fooIish |KM 68j < **bahul-ul (med. suffix *-ul) via haIoI-
ogy |GTj +++ Sem. *bhl > Ar. bahila bahula lre sluefail (borroved inlo NSyr. bhil) |DRS
5O ace K I 17Oj. Cf. erhas aIso AA *b-h-l lo oose, quarreI vilh |GTj > Sem.: Ar. bahala
caIomnier, assaiIIir |DRS 5Oj +++ IIg. bhl Widersacher o.. (GR, Wb I 467, 11) +++ WCh.:
Hausa aaaaluu |arliaI reduI. < *bah(l)bahl-j quarreIsome laIking |Abr. 1962, 51j.
SCu. *bh- hoIe |Ihr.j *bh
- |GTj > WRifl *boho lo be fuII of hoIes vs. *bohv
vaIIey, hoIe in lhe ground vs. *bohnla *- il(faII), hoIe in lhe ground |KMj: e.g., Irq.
bho, I. bhi hoIe |WlI. 1953j boho hoIe |Ihr.j boh
, I. bohe hoIe |Mgv.
1989, 111j, AIg. bohunda hoIe |Ihr.j (WRifl: KM 7475) + DhI. v-i |< *bohv-j smaII hoIe
nol in lhe ground |Ihr.j v-i 1. noslriI, 2. smaII hoIe |IIN 1989, 34j (SCu.: Ihrel 198O,
139) ++ IICu.: Afar bh-a hoIe, unclure, bh-le lo be erforaled, unclured |PH 1985,
73j + HICu. *bh-e dilch |Hds.j: ur|i b-e dilch, Hadiya bhe-e dilch, Kamballa bh-
ula dilch, Sidamo b-e aqueducl, bu-a veII, bu-e veII, sring of valer (HICu.:
Hds. 1989, 51, 355) +++ Sem. *bhv/y lo be emly |GTj: Hbr. bh Ieere |G 85j emli-
ness, vasleness |K 111j + Ar. bahv- 2. Iaine, vasle elendue de ays, 3. cavile de Ia oi-
lrine, 4. (I. buhiyy-) cavile (du venlre ou reose Ie foelus), bahiya lre vide (maison sans
meubIes), dechire (lenle), bhin 1. vide, 2. donl Ie creux ou Iorifice esl sacieux |K I 174j
bahv- esace degage, lrouee, elc. |DRSj (Sem.: DRS 47) +++ Nrb.: Tamazighl (Ayl
Hadiddu) a-buhu lrou, orifice, ouverlure |Tf. 1991, 12j +++ Ch. *
a (`) emly room
|GTj > WCh.: TangaIe v hoIe |Krf.j, Gera buva hoIe |Krf.j, Kirfi boo |-- < *-h-j hoIe
|Krf.j, GaIambu bo ama veII (acl. *hoIe of valer) |Schuh 1978, 157j (oIe-TangaIe: Krafl
1981, -266) ++ CCh.: Chibak mbva mbva Zimmer, Raum |Hfm. 1955, 125, 136j + Mofu-
Gudur mbuva aisseIIe |rl. 1988, 199j, Mafa mbohav aisseIIe |rl.-Ieis 199O, 245j < AA
*b-h-v lo be emly (of sace) |GTj. The Tamazighl-Hbr. elymoIogy vas firsl suggesled by
K. Nal-Zerrad (DR I 38).
WRift *had 1. lo ass, roceed, 2. accomany, hence: *had-a accomanying,
*had-is (caus.) lo give |KM 129j SCu. *hd- lo go aIong vilh, accomany |Ihrel 3O5, -9j:
lhe same semanlic shifls are allesled in lhe AA cognales, cf. Sem. *hdv |DRSj: Aram. (Tar-
gum) ba-h
d avec, chez, Ia-h
d a, vers, en direclion de ++ Ar. ahd bi- resenler, Ig.
Ar. hada, hda offrir, Maghrebi Ar. hd conlinuer, ne as cesser de + Mehri hod relrou-
ver Ie droil chemin, lourner Ia age (Sem.: DRS 374) +++ WCh.: PGoemai *hl (`) lo ush,
move |GT 2OO4, 156j.

Unless < PGuanche *ta-ha-an coll. sheeps as suggested by Militarev (1991, 168, fn. 4).
Lit.: OS 1992, 182 (Eg.-Ch.); HSED #1112 (Ch.-Eg.-SCu.).
Gbor Takcs
SCu. *ham(|])- lo rien |GT: uIlimaleIy bicons.`j *ham |Ihr.j > WRifl *hamd
lo rien vs. *hamana |KM: < **hamd-inaj rieness |KM 13Oj + DhI. ham- lo rien,
hame rie |IIN 1989, 14, Tosco 1991, 135j (SCu.: Ihr. 198O, 3O5, -7--8) +++ Sem.: Tigre
hmhm mrir, orler de Ia semence |DRS 422j. Cognale lo lhe foIIoving rool`
WRift *ham- lo be varm |GTj *hm- lo be(come) hol > *ham-, *hmi, and
*hamriya heal, *ham-is (caus.) lo cook, burn, sel fire lo |KM 13O1j (WRifl: aIso Ihrel
198O, 299) +++ Ig. hm hei sein, brennen (XVIII. Mag., Wb II 489, 15) < AA *h-m lo be
varm, hol |GTj. For Ig.-Irq. see HSID -1285 (vilh faIse reconslruclions). Cf. WRifl *hum-im
lo cook |KM 144j`
WRift *hama lo slir |KM 131j: cf. Ar. hamaa I 1. reunir, ramasser, rassembIer, VIII
2. se remuer, sagiler avec bruil, se mIanl Ies uns aux aulres (se dil du euIe rassembIe en
fouIe) |K II 1447j.
WRift *harau dev |KM 133j +++ Sem. *hr > Tigre hara (inlr.) lremer dans Ieau,
lre lres humide, samoIIir |DRS 447j. Cf. aIso Sem. *hrr > Ar. hurr- grande quanlile deau ou
de Iail elc. |DRS 459j.
WRift *har- al once, al firsl |KM 132j ++ ICu. *hor- lo be in fronl |Sasse 1979, 62j.
WRift *haw-ut (med.) lo go avay |KM 134j ++ IICu.: Saho hav-ee lo go avay,
hav-ie lo lake avay |Vergari 2OO3, 95j +++ Ig. hvhv davonIaufen (von den Fen) (MK,
Wb II 485, 1).
WRift *hay (excIam.) excuse me, sorry for you |KM 134j +++ Sem. *hvy: Hbr. hy,
Syr. hvy ah! maIheur! + Ar. havay-ka gare a loi! elc. (Sem.: DRS 386).
WRift *h lhis |KM 135j SCu. *ha lhis, cf. *ho lhis referred lo, *h lhal |Ihrel
198O, 3O4, -1 & 3O9, -39 & 31O, -46j: lhis is a common AA deiclic morheme, cf. ICu.: e.g.
GoIIango h-ma 1. dorl(hin), 2. hierher |AMS 198O, 2O1j +++ Sem. *h demonslralive eIe-
menl |GTj (Sem.: DRS 346) +++ WCh.: Angas-Sura *ha lhis |GT 2OO4, 151j, elc.
Dhl. hl- lo seize, calch hoId of |Ihrel 198O, 3O7j hI- lo hoId, seize |IIN 1989, 15j
++ IICu.: Sam *heI- lo gel |Heinej: SomaIi heI-, RendiIIe heI-, oni heI- (Heine 1978, 63,
Sasse 1979, 4O) +++ Ig. h3| |< *hIyj (den Gegner) annehmen (MK, Wb II 475, 1) +++ WCh.:
Angas eeI eI (hiII) lo seize, snalch |FIk. 1915, 175j eI (P) ergreifen, schnaen |}ng.
1962 MSj ++ CCh.: Gisiga haI nehmen (Hirse, Irdnsse) |Iks. 197O, 123j < AA *h-I lo seize
WRift *hle-es (caus.) lo vinnov, sifl grains by lossing |KM 135j: c. Sem.: Tigre
hyII: heII |eler, heIIib heIIil vda |eler raidemenl Iun ares Iaulre |DRS 4O2j.
WRift *hmp lo brealhe |KM 137j +++ Ilh.-Sem.: Tigre hanfoa haIeler, rerendre
haIeine, se reoser, cf. honfofoyl forle lemle |DRSj +++ Srb.: Ahaggar honoff-ol lre
essoufIe, ousser des elils gemissemenls Iainlifs |Prs. 1969, 6O, -3O7j. Tigre-Ahaggar: DRS
SCu. *hir- lo sev |GTj *hr- |Ihr.j > WRifl *hir-il lo sev |KM 142j + Maa -hi lo
sev |Ihr. 198O, 3O7, -28j (bul DhI. has hu- lo sev |Ihr. 198O, 31O, -48 vilh faIse elymoI-
ogyj!): c. erhas Sem. *hyr: IDalhina hayyar rearer, mellre en ordre, PaIesl Ar. hayyar:
effiIocher Ia Iaine our faire Ie feulre (Sem.: DRS 4O5).
SCu. *ho- lo divine |Ihr.j > rg. ho\- lo curse, heaI + Asa ho- lo divine + Maa
-hoi lo divine (SCu.: Ihr. 198O, 31O, -45) +++ (`) Ar. hv\: h\a lre inquiel, lroubIe comme
qqn. qui a eur, 2. lre agiIe, vif, 3. allaquer qqn., h\- inimilie, hosliIile, mi-hva\- ma-
hv\- lumuIle, vacarme des combals |K II 1458, DRS 39O: isoIaled in Sem.j.
SCu. *ho[]- lo siII |Ihr.j > Asa ho- lo our + Maa -ho -hoomi lo vomil,
-hooli lo urge (SCu.: Ihr. 198O, 31O, -44) +++ Sem. *h(y)\ lo fIov |DIg.j > es. OSA
(Sabaean) hy\ 1. couIer, secouIer (eau), 2. aIIer, selendre (Iimiles), 3. offrir un sacrifice,
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
mhy\ Iibalion (`) |SD 57j, Ar. h\\ I: ha\\a vomir, hv\ I: h\a 4. avoir un vomissemenl, II
causer un vomissemenl a qqn., faire vomir, V saider our vomir, se faire vomir, hav\-
huv\- hay\\-al- vomissemenl, hy\ I: h\a 3. couIer el se reandre, 1O. vomir |K II
1428, 1458, 14678j (Sem.: DRS 39O, 4O4, 439).
SCu. *hopi slaIk |Ihrelj > WRifl *hoi-na handIe |KM 142j: rg. hoi-na handIe,
hafl + (`) Maa ihi Ieaf (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 3O9) ++ IICu.: Oromo hof-a slaIk, slem
|Ihrelj hof- 1. kind of sear for lhroving, made of sharened vood onIy, 2. slaIk (miIIel or
corn, Iooks Iike sugar cane) |Gragg 1982, 211j hoff- slaIk |ilima 2OOO, 146j (SCu.-Oromo:
Ihrel 198O, 3O9) +++ Ig. hv.l| Arl GesleII (auf dem die gllIichen VgeI zu hocken fIegen)
(PT, Wb II 489, 8) hvly-oIe (FauIkner, AIPT 259) KIellerbaum (auf dem die gllIi-
chen VgeI zu silzen fIegen) (GHWb 492, AWb I 749) < AA *hV- slaIk |GTj.
Dhl. holl 1. vilh, 2. and |IIN 1989, 16, Tosco 1991, 135j +++ Sem. *hI > Hrs. heI, heIl
vilh, in lhe comany of, al, em-heI from amongsl, Mhr. hI lo, vilh, in lhe comany of,
in(lo) lhe resence of, al (MSA: }ns. 1977, 51, 1987, 155).
PRift *h-t lo dveII, Iive al, in |KM 143j < **hav-al (refI.) |GTj < SCu. *hav- lo slay
|Ihrel 198O, 381j ++ ed. hy sein, exislieren, hy Iebendig |Rn. 1895, 132j hai(y) lo be
(on lhe firsl of lhe nev moon), hy-am (refI.) lo aear (heavenIy body onIy, es. nev
moon) |Rr. 1928, 2OOj ++ IICu.: SomaIi hay sein, esse |Rn. 19O2, 211j, RendiIIe -hai lo be
|Zbr. 1975, 72j +++ Sem. *hvy lo be(come) |GTj > Akk. ev, hence em devenir ++ Hbr.
hy, Aram. & Syr. hov lre, devenir, survenir elc. (Sem.: DRS 386) +++ Srb. *h
lre dans |Prs.j *i-h|j (f. inl.) |GTj: Ahaggar i-h, TanesIeml & TavIIemmel & Ayr &
Ghal i-ha (Prs. 1969, 43, -119). Cf. aIso lhe isogIoss (AA *y-v lo be |GTj, var. lo AA *h-v`) of
Ig. |v |irreg. < *h|v`j sein (OK, Wb I 4243) +++ WCh.: Daffo-ulura yo sein, lo be |}ng.
197O, 223j. For lhe AA elymoIogy see Imber 1911, 89, 193O, 4.g.2 (Ig.-Sem.), ehnk 1928, 138,
-5 (Ig.-Sem.-ed.), Cohen 1947, -94 (Sem.-Ig.-rb.-Cu.), MIl. 1986, 72, -3.a.2.a (Sem.-Cu.), Iz.
1989, 217 (id. + RendiIIe), Clv. 1988, 76 (Ig.-Sem.).
PRift *hu- lo faII |GTj PRifl *hu- lo faII |Ihrel 198O, 381j > WRifl *h lo faII
|KM 143j: Irq. h- |DIg.j hu- |Ihrelj, Grv. & AIg. h- |DIg.j hu- |Ihrelj, rg. hu- |Ihrelj +
Asa hu- |Ihrelj (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 381, DIg. 1973, 243) +++ Sem. *hvv/y lo faII |DRS 385j
+++ Srb.: Ahaggar i-hi lomber dans/sur |Prs. 1969, 43, -12Oj < AA *h-v lo faII |GTj.
WRift *hub lo carry, bring |KM 143j > i.a. Iraqv & Gorova hv lo carry, bring,
hva (f) Ioad, hv burden, Iuggage ++ (`) ed. haviye |-v- reg. < *-b-j ack-saddIe
|Rr. 1928, 2OOj +++ Sem. *vhb lo give |GTj > i.a. Hbr. yohab fardeau, cf. Ar. uhb-al-
equiemenl (Sem.: DRS 5O8) +++ WCh.: Paa hva-hva (reduI., m), I. hva-hvi Ioad
|MSkn. 1979, 18Oj (Paa hvV- veakened < Nch. *hbV-`) < AA *h-b (orig. *hub`) lo bring,
carry Ioad |GTj.
PIrq. *huay big earlhen ol |KM 145j: c. Sem.: PaIesl. Ar. hi olerie |DRS 463j
+++ ed. hayi lo make ollery-vare |Rr. 1928, 2O1j.
WRift *hnguruu cenlraI iIIars of lhe house |KM 145j: c. Sem. *hngr: Tigre han-
gora Iance de bois (|ouel denfanl) |DRS 431j.
WRift *hur-im (dur.) lo cook |KM 145j cannol be comared vilh IICu.: SomaIi kar
lo become boiIed as KM did (WRifl *h- SomaIi k-), for honoIogicaI reasons (WRifl *h-
ICu. *k-). Inslead, cf. ICu. *hUr- lo kindIe |GTj > PSam *huri schren (Feuer) |Heine 1977,
292j lo kindIe |Heine 1978, 63j + DuIIay *hr- |GTj > Dobase hor-as- (caus.) kochen,

Etymological lit. for this AA widespread AA root: Erman 1892, 114; Ember 1913, 116, #53; 1930, #3.e.2; Alb.
1927, 224; Clc. 1936, #21; Chn. 1947, #93; Vcl. 1958, 374; 1990, 49; Ward 1969, 265, fn. 5; Mlt.-Stl. 1990, 66; OS 1992,
200; HSED #1163.
Gbor Takcs
GoIIango hr- vrmen (DuIIay: AMS 198O, 162, 2O2) +++ Sem.: Ar. haraa I 4. cuire lro Ies
viandes, au oinl queIIes soienl en charie, haria lre en charie our avoir ele lro cuil
(se dil des viandes) |K II 14O9j ++ IS: Tna. harhar bI lre en fIammes |DRS 451j +++ Ig.
h3 |reg. < *hrj rslen (in den ez. fr rolsorlen) (NI, Wb II 475, 9) GIul, \q n h3 Rsl-
brol (GHWb 486) < AA *h-r lo cook (`) |GTj. Any conneclion lo IS: Tigre hvr rie
SCu. *loh- lo carry Ioad |GTj: WRifl *Ih- lo migrale, carry goods, *Ih-is lo carry,
move house |KM 195j > Irq. Ioh- lo move hose, Ioh-is- lo carry Ioad, AIg. Ioh-is- lo carry
Ioad + Qvd. Ioh-is- lo move house (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 2O6) +++ Ig. |vh |< *Ivhj beIaden
mil elvas (Weslcar, Wb I 56, 1719) +++ WCh.: Suroid *I Ioad |GTj: Sura I Iasl |}ng.
1963, 72j, Muun Iee Ioad |Fr|. 1991, 33j < AA *I-|vj-h lo carry Ioad |GTj.
SCu. *wah- lo drink |Ihrelj > WRifl *vah- lo drink |KM 313j + Qvd.-Asa va-l-
(conlinualive suffix -l-) lo drink |Ihrelj + Maa -vaha lo drink |Ihrelj (SCu.: Ihrel 198O,
313, -19) +++ IS *vh- > Geez vahoha devenir aqueux, Amh. vuha eau, vhayy devenir
aqueux (IS: DRS 5O7, 5O9). For lhe semanlic shifl cf. e.g. II *ak
- > Ialin aqua valer Tok-
haric A yok-lsi lo drink, Hillile ekuzi (s)he drinks (IIW 23).
Irregular WRift *h < AA *
WRift *dabh lo search, Iook for |KM 8Oj +++ Ig. db bedrfen, (er)billen (PT, Wb
V 43944O). This nev elymoIogy discards aII revious suggeslions for lhe affiIialion of our Ig.
WRift *haba lo sread, oen moulh |KM 129j +++ Ig. b |reg. < AA *b(j vom
ffnen des Mundes (CT, D, Wb III 67, 8) lo oen lhe moulh (CT, DCT 327) *ffnen
(Mund, um Nahrung aufzunehmen), aufserren (CT, AWb II 1651)
. Nole lhal Ig. d ff-
nen (nur vom Mund gebrauchl) (D, Wb III 72, 12) reresenls a secondary variely (varialion
of -b- --, shifl of - > -d
). Any conneclion lo Ar. abaa I 2. lirer a soi avec force Ia corde
de Iarc, el Ia Icher, en sorle queIIe roduise un son |K I 368j < common AA *-b-( lo
sread oul (`) |GTj`
PRift *hac- lo be fuII |GTj *ha(- |Ihrel 198O, 81, -2j > WRifl *hac lo be fuII |KM
134j + IRifl *ha- lo be fuII |GTj > Asa ha- lo be fuII |Ihrelj, Qvd. hacumo much
|Ihrelj: a doubIy irreg. cognale aears in Ar. aaa remIir, bourrer, farcir de qqch.,
aia lre remIi (de qqch.) |K I 435j. Nole lhal Rifl *h- Sem. *-, neilher Rifl *c corre-
sonds lo Sem. *.
WRift *ha lo slick, faslen, in > *ha-im lo sel a lra, *ha-ir- lra |KM 1334j:
ils comarison vilh ICu. *i- lo lie |Sasse 1979, 36, 59j (nol lo faslen, suggesled by KM)
is unconvincing. Inslead, one mighl be incIined lo comare il vilh ICu. *ha- lo hoId, kee
|Sasse 1979, 39, 62j, bul lhe reconslruclion of lhis Ialler form is nol veII-founded (lhe refIexes
Iisled by Sasse beIong in facl lo dislincl AA rools). Cf. erhas Ar. aa I 8. lraquer, cerner,
enlourer de lous cles el ne as Iaisser dissue (augibier, a Ia ble) |K I 43Oj`

Cf. (1) Rn. 1890, 21, n. 10; Mller 1907, 301, n. 1; Clc. 1936, #458; Vcl. 1958, 373; IS 1964, 6, #19; Hodge 1981,
406; SISAJa III, #59, Mlt.-Stl. 1990, 58: ~ Sem. *ba- to sacrifice [Frz.]; (2) Rsl. 1971, 290: ~ Akk. b
> a/eb
wnschen [AHW 1073]; (3) Dlg. 1966, 87, #8.16; 1973, 230; 1983, 131 (followed by Blz. 1989, 210): ~ ECu. *b-
(to be) thirst(y) [Sasse 1982, 62].
An alternative comparison with Sem. *hb > Ar. habaa frapper [BK II 1381; DRS 363] would be semanti-
cally much weaker.
For these changes cf. e.g. Ward 1975, 64f.; Peust 1999, 135, 3.12.4 and Vycichl 1990, 46.
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
SCu. *hap- lo ul u, ul above, ul on lo of |Ihr.j > Irq. hae roof + Maa -haari
lo cover + DhI. ha- lo susend (SCu.: Ihr. 198O, 3O4, -4) +++ Sem. * lo hide, sheIler
|Zbr.j: i.a. Hbr. qaI (vilh \aI) lo shieId |K 339j, MHbr. oIeI lo bend over, cover
|}aslrov 195O, 492j + Ar. affa 7. enveIoer de qqch., 9. couvrir de lous cles dun voiIe,
dun rideau elc. |K I 455j (Sem.: Zbr. 1971, -91) +++ Srb.: Ahaggar l-f-il |*la-yaf- < *la-Haf-j
IinceuI |Fcd. 19512, 299j.
SCu. *
SCu. WRift Qwadza Asa Maa Dahalo Sem. Eg. AA
* * , - /, - , , /, w-(?) * j, -3 *
WRift *a-as (caus.) lo hear |KM 64j: cognale lo PAgav *onq
- ear |AI. 1989 MS,
4j ++ IICu.: Saho okk- |Rn.j \ov- (sic, \-) |CRj okk- ear |ZhI.j okk-a |nd.j (Cu.:
CrI. 1938 II, 213, DIg. 1967, 5, 1973, 183, Zbr. 1989, 58O, -21) +++ Ig. \n|.v| (duaI, eenlhelic -n-
as in Agav`) |\n| < *|n| reg.j die zvei Ohren (MK, Wb I 2O45). For Cu.-Ig. cf. ZhI. 193233,
WRift *ako oId man: Irq. & Grv. aako oId man + Asa akuya grandarenl (in ad-
dress) (Ihrel 198O, 377) ++ ICu. *akk-/*kk- oId man, grandfalher |Sasse 1982, 21, 24j
(Cu.: FIm. 1969, 11, AI. 1994, 3) +++ Ig. |k aIl, be|ahrl (D, Wb I 34, 4).
NWRift *k- oId man |KM 51j PRifl *ak-o oId man |Ihrel 198O, 377j: reIaled lo
ICu. *akk-/*kk- oId man, grandfalher |Sasse 1982, 21, 24j (Cu.: FIm. 1969, 11, AI. 1994,
3) +++ Ig. |k aIl, be|ahrl (D, Wb I 34, 4). For AA *- Ig. |-, cf. IDI I 8183.
SCu. *al- girI |Ihr.j: Qvd. eIanko, Asa eIelo + Maa maIela (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 284)
+++ (`) Ig. |r.vl |reg. < *I-vlj (I.) ez. fr Frauen (PT, Wb I 114, 15).
SCu. *ani I |Ihrel 198O, 283j +++ ed. ane I |Rr.j ++ Agav: Avngi an I
|Helzronj ++ ICu. *ani/*anu I |Sasse 1982, 26j +++ SOm. *in-la I |FIm. 1976, 315j +++ Ig.
|nk I (OK, Wb I 1O1) +++ Sem. *an- I |GTj, elc. A veII knovn AA rool vilh abundanl Iil-
eralure (cf. IDI I 82).
SCu. *ar- oId (of lhings): Irq. ar-ad |Ihrel: *ar-ar-al- conlracledj + Maa -eraru +
DhI. r- |irreg. *y- < *-j lo grov oId (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 287) +++ Ig. |3v| |*rvyj lo be oId
(OK, Wb I 28, 13) +++ CCh.: MvuIyen iiri, achama iyrey oId (CCh.: OS) < AA *-r lo be
oId |GTj. For CCh.-Ig. see HSID -84.
WRift *aa fire |KM 61j +++ Sem. *i-(al)- feu |DRS 35j: irreguIar correson-
dence. NormaIIy, WRifl * Sem. *.
SCu. *ai |*-hI-j fal, oiI |GTj: Qvd. ai-lo + DhI. ai (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 285) +++ (`) Ig.
|s sorl of oiI (OK, Wb I 13O, 15, cf. GHWb 1O1). Ig. -s < AA *- in finaI osilion` Olhervise,
Ig. s SCu. *- are nol reguIar.
SCu. *ila eye |Ihrelj: Irq.-rg.-AIg. iIa + Qvd. iIi-lo, Asa iIa-l + Maa iiIa + DhI. iIa
(SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 291) ++ ICu. *iI- eye |Sasse 1979, 5, 22, 1982, 1O4j ++ Agav: Hamir oI,
Qemanl |yjoI, iIin \oI |irreg. \- < *-j eye + Avngi oII eye (Agav: AI. 1991, 2O) +++ Ig. |r.l
|< *I-l`j eye (OK, Wb I 1O67) +++ CCh. *iI- eye |GTj: Iamang (HilkaIa) iri & (Waga diaI.)
iIi |Meekj iIi |Iks.j, Vizik iIi, iri |WoIffj + AIalaghva iI-yia |WoIffj + uduma yI |Iks.j yeI

The Eg. root is to be read jk, BD -3 being purely orthographical (influenced by an association to Eg. j3w
old?), cf. the old man det. of MK jk quarryman and jk.w Steinbruch (Wb I 39).
Gbor Takcs
|Cyfferj, GuIfei eI |WoIffj, Iogone (I.) aI |ounyj aI (I.) |Ncl./Iks.j (CCh.: WoIff 1971, 65, }I
1994 II, 126127) < AA *iI eye |GTj.
PRift *k
ala- (sg. slem), *k
aal- (I. slem) vidov |GTj: WRifl *k
aaIa, I.
aIi 1. vidov, 2. oor or unmarried voman |KM 186j > Iraqv k
Io, I. k
Gorova k
aIo, I. k
aIi, AIagva k
Io, I. k
aIi k
aaI-iloo, urunge k
Io, I.
aIi k
aaI-iloo + Asa kaIa-ayi vidov (SCu.: WlI. 1958, 26, -116, Zbr. 1978, 375) +++
Ig. 3r.l |reg. < *|I-lj vidov (MK, Wb III 363, 4) < AA *q
--I vidov |GTj.
SCu. *ro- lo go avay |GTj: Maa -ro lo Ieave |Ihrelj + DhI. ro- lo go/ass by
|Ihrelj lo go |IIN 198O, 4Oj (SCu.: Ihrel 198O, 22O) ++ ICu.: Yaaku -r lo run avay
|Heine 1975, 132j re- lo run avay |Toscoj (Yaaku-DhI.: Iz.-Tosco 1994 MS, 3) +++ Ig. rv|
|-| reg. < *-j forlgehen, verIassen (OK, Wb II 4O67) lo go/ass avay, dearl, Ieave (FD
< AA *r-v- lo Ieave |GTj.
In lhe Iighl of lhe IexicaI araIIeIs examined above, ve can safeIy mainlain lhal Wesl Rifl (and,
henceforlh, Soulh Cushilic) *|, *, *\, *h, and * reresenl a very archaic segmenl of lhe ho-
neme invenlory, having relained resumabIy lhe same arlicuIalion lhey had in Afro-Asialic.
Abbrevi at i ons of l anguages
AA: Afro-Asiatic, Akk.: Akkadian, Alg.: Alagwa, Ar.: Arabic, Aram.: Aramaic, (B): Bohairic, BD: Book of the Dead,
Brb.: Berber, Brg.: Burunge, C: Central, Ch.: Chadic, Cpt.: Coptic, CT: Coffin Texts, Cu.: Cushitic, Dhl.: Dahalo, E:
East(ern), Eg.: Egyptian, ES: Ethio-Semitic, GR: Greek and Roman period, Grw.: Gorowa, Hbr.: Hebrew, Hrs.: Har-
susi, Irq.: Iraqw, Jbl.: Jibbali, Mag.: Magical Texts, Med.: Medical Texts, Mhr.: Mehri, MK: Middle Kingdom, MSA:
Modern South Arabian, N: North(ern), NE(g.): New Egyptian, NK: New Kingdom, OK: Old Kingdom, Om.:
Omotic, OSA: Old South Arabian, PT: Pyramid Texts, Qwd.: Qwadza, (S): Sahidic, S: South(ern), Sab.: Sabaean,
Sem.: Semitic, Sqt.: Soqotri, Ug.: Ugaritic, W: West(ern), XVIII.: 18
Abbrevi at i ons of aut hor names
Abr.: Abraham, Alb.: Albright, AMS: Amborn & Minker & Sasse, Apl.: Appleyard, BK: Biberstein Kazimirsky,
Blv.: Belova, Blz.: Blaek, Bnd.: Bender, Brt.: Barreteau, Clc.: Calice, CR: Conti Rossini, Crl.: Cerulli, Dkl.: Diyakal,
Dlg.: Dolgopolsky, Dlt.: Dallet, EEN: Ehret & Elderkin & Nurse, Ehr.: Ehret, Eld.: Elderkin, Flm.: Fleming, Frj.:
Frajzyngier, Frz.: Fronzaroli, Ftp.: Fitzpatrick, GT: Takcs, Hds.: Hudson, Hfm.: Hoffmann, IL: Institute of Lin-
guistics, IS: Illi-Svity, JI: Jungraithmayr & Ibriszimow, Jng.: Jungraithmayr, Jns.: Johnstone, JS: Jungraithmayr &
Shimizu, KB: Koehler & Baumgartner, KM: Kieling & Mous, Krf.: Kraft, Kwh.: Kleinewillinghfer, Lks.: Lukas,
Lmb.: Lamberti, Lsl.: Leslau, Mgw.: Maghway, Mkr.: Mukarovsky, Mlt.: Militarev, Mnh.: Meinhof, MQK: Mous &
Qorro & Kieling, Ntg.: Netting, Nwm.: Newman, OS: Orel & Stolbova, PAM: Prasse & Alojaly & Mohamed, PG:
Pillinger & Galboran, PH: Parker & Hayward, Prh.: Porhomovsky, Prs.: Prasse, RB: Rapp & Benzing, RK: Reutt &
Kogan, Rn.: Reinisch, Rns.: Renisio, Rpr.: Roper, Rsl.: Rssler, Skn.: Skinner, Srl.: Sirlinger, Ss.: Sasse, Stl.: Stolbova,
Stz.: Satzinger, Tf.: Tafi, Vcl.: Vycichl, Vrg.: Vergote, WP: Weibegue & Palayer, Wtl.: Whiteley, Zbr.: Zaborski,
Zhl.: Zyhlarz.

The literature on this widespread AA etymology has been most recently surveyed in EDE I 83.
The comparison of Eg. rwj with Brb. *r-w-l to flee (Mller 1921, 196; 1924, 42; Hintze 1951, 84, #429) is not
acceptable for semantical reasons. Besides, O. Rssler (1952, 131, #8) correctly identified Brb. *r-w-l with Ar. hrwl:
harwala schnell gehen.
The Afro-Asiatic background of West Rift *, *, *, *h, and *
Li t erat ure
ABRAHAM, R. C.: Dictionary of the Hausa Language.
London, 1962., University of London Press.
ABRAHAM, R. C.: Somali-English Dictionary.
London, 1964., University of London Press Ltd.
AG EDEL, E.: Altgyptische Grammatik. Roma, 1955., Pontificium Institutum Biblicum.
AECT FAULKNER, R. O.: The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts. Vol. IIII. Warminster, 19738., Aris & Phillips Ltd.
AEPT FAULKNER, R. O.: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. I. Oxford, 1969., Clarendon Press.
AHW SODEN, W. von: Akkadisches Handwrterbuch. IIII. Wiesbaden, 19651981., Otto Harrassowitz.
ALBRIGHT, W. F.: Notes on Egypto-Semitic Etymology. II // American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 34/4
(1918), 215255.
ALBRIGHT, W. F.: The Principles of Egyptian Phonological Development // Recueil de Travaux Relatifs la Philologie
et lArchologie gyptiennes et Assyriennes 40 (1923), 6470.
AL IIII MEEKS, D.: Anne lexicographique. gypte ancienne. Tome 13 (19771979). 2
dition. Paris, 1998., Cy-
ALC 1978 Angas Language Committee (in Cooperation with Nigeria Bible Translation Trust): Shk nkar k
shktok mwa nn Ngas. NgasHausaEnglish Dictionary with Appendix Showing Some Features of Ngas Grammar.
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