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Belt Conveyor

K. Pathak
The belt conveyor is an endless belt moving over two end pulleys at fixed positions
and used for transporting material horizontally or at an incline up or down. The main
components of a belt conveyor are:
1. The belt that forms the moving and supporting surface on which the
conveyed material rides. t is the tractive element. The belt should be
selected considering the material to be transported.
!. The idlers" which form the supports for the carrying and return stands of the
#. The pulleys that support and move the belt and controls its tension.
$. The drive that imparts power to one or more pulleys to move the belt and its
%. The structure that supports and maintains the alignments of the idlers and
pulleys and support the driving machinery.
&ther components include:
1. Loading chute or feeder chute that organises the flow of material and directs it on
the belt conveyor.
!. Take-up-device which is used to maintain the proper tension of the belt for
effective power transmission.
#. Belt cleaner that keeps the belt free from materials sticking to the belt.
$. Tramp removal device" which is optionally used in case the conveyed material
bears the chance of having tramp iron mixed with it and subse'uent handling of the
material" demands its removal.
%. Continuous weighing device for constantly measuring the load being carried by
the conveyor belt.
(. Discharge chutes to guide the discharged pro)ectile to subse'uent conveyor or
other receiving point.
*. Surge hopper and feeder" which is essential for supplying material to the conveyor
at uniform rate when the supply of material is intermittent.
+. Tripper arrangement to discharge material at different point or to other device.
,onveyor belts are widely used in mineral industry. -nderground mine transport"
opencast mine transport and processing plants deploy conveyor belts of different
kinds to adopt the specific )ob re'uirements. The main advantages of conveyor belt
system are:
1. . wider range of material can be handled which pause problems in other
transportation means. /elt conveyor can be used for abrasive" wet" dry" sticky or
dirty material. The lump size of the transported material is limited by the width of
the belt. /elts up to !%00 mm wide are used in mining industry.
!. 1igher capacity can be handled than any other form of conveyor at a considerably
lower cost per tonne kilometre. ,onveyor belts with capacity of 11000t2h and even
higher can be deployed to match with higher capacity mining machinery.
#. 3onger distances can be covered more economically than any other transportation
system. . single belt conveyor or a series of belt conveyors can do this. /elt
conveyors can be adopted for cross4country laying.
$. /y the use of many forms of ancillary e'uipment such as mobile trippers or
spreaders bulk material can be distributed and deposited whenever re'uired.
%. 5any other functions can be performed with the basic conveying like weighing"
sorting" picking" sampling" blending" spraying" cooling" drying etc.
(. 6tructurally it is one of the lightest forms of conveying machine. t is
comparatively cheaper and supporting structures can be used for many otherwise
impossible structures such as crossing rivers" streets and valleys.
*. The belt conveyor can be adopted for special purposes 7fire resistant" wear
resistant" corrosion resistant" high angle negotiation etc.8 and can be integrated
with other e'uipment.
+. t can be horizontal" incline or decline or combination of all.
9. 5inimum labour is re'uired for the operation and maintenance of belt conveyor
10. n underground mine transport" belt conveyor can be used in thin seams as it
eliminates the rock works that might otherwise be re'uired to gain haulage height.
5oreover" belt conveyor can provide continuous haulage service from pit bottom
to the surface.
The limitations of conveyor belt are:
1. The loading and transfer points need to be properly designed.
!. :umbers of protective devices have to be incorporated to save the belt from getting
damaged by operational problems.
#. The belt needs higher initial tension 7$04!00; of useful pull8.
$. The use of belt is restricted by the lump size. f the maximum diagonal of a
irregular lump is X then the belt width 7/8 is approximately given by:
!00 + Xa B
where" /: /elt width" mm
<: 3ongest diagonal of irregular lump" mm
a: =actor to account for grading. a is taken as !.% for graded
material and # for un4graded material. 1owever" for particular
material these values must be properly estimated.
%. ,onveying of sticky material is associated with problems of cleaning and discharge
causing poor productivity.
(. 1igher elongation of the belt 7$; elongation may take place at the working load8.
6ome of the applications of belt conveyors are shown in =igures below:
3evel or inclined ,onveyor receiving material at tail end and discharging at head end.
3evel ,onveyor receiving material at any point through travelling 1opper and
discharging at head end.
3evel and inclined ,onveyor receiving material at and near tail end" having vertical
curve to incline" and discharging at head end.
3evel and inclined ,onveyor with chute. 5aterial received from bins too close to
elevated head end to permit use of vertical curve.
nclined and level ,onveyor receiving material at tail end and discharging from level
section through a movable Tripper.
3evel ,onveyor on raised structure with double4wing Tripper forming storage piles
on both sides of ,onveyor.
nclined ,onveyor receiving material at tail end and discharging at several points
through a series of fixed Trippers.
3evel ,onveyor with 6tacker or /oom ,onveyor mounted on revolving turntable so
as to discharge to both sides of ,onveyor.
1. 3ength of conveyor from centre to centre of end pulleys.
!. nclination4level or inclined. >ither degree of inclination" or distance to be lifted or
#. .verage capacity per hour.
$. 5aximum capacity per hour.
%. 5aterial to be conveyed" and weight per cubic foot. (. .verage size of material.
*. 6ize of largest pieces and percentage in feed.
+. 7a) :ature of material 4dry or wet 7moisture content8.
7b8 .brasive or corrosive?
9. 1ow material is to be fed to the belt and particulars of feed point or points.
10. 1ow material is to be discharged from the belt i.e. overhead pulley or by trippers"
and particulars of discharge points.
11. @eneral indication of supporting structure.
1!. Power available for driving. f by ..,. electric motor" state voltage" phase and
fre'uency. f A.,. motor state voltage.
tems 1 and ! determine the suitability of belt conveyors" since inclination is a
limiting factor. tems 14* determine the speed and width of the conveyor belt" the
power needed for the drive" the type of drive" the number of belt plies" size of pulleys"
shafts and spacing of idlers. tems +410 determine the 'uality and thickness of the
rubber cover on the belt.
Suitability o a B!lt Con"!yo#
Table shows the maximum safe inclination for troughed belt conveyors handling
various bulk materials and for convenience" chart . shows the rise in feet
corresponding to the horizontal distances at various angles of inclination.
5aterial .ngle Bise in
m per
100 m
5aterial .ngle Bise in
m per
100 m
,ement43oose !!C $0.$ ,oal4/it 6lack !#C $!.$
,lay4=ine Ary !#C $!.$ ,oal4.nthracite 1(C !+.(
,lay4Det 1+C #!.% ,oke oven run 1+C #!.%
,oal45ine Bun 1(C !+.( ,oke46ized 1(C !+.(
,oal46ized 1(C !+.( ,oke4/reeze 1+C #!.%
,oncrete4Det 1%C !(.+ &re46ized 1+C #!.%
>arth43oose !0C #(.$ Packages4Paper
1(C !+.(
@lass4/atch !1C #+.$ Bock4=ine
!!C $0.$
@rain 1(C !+.( Bock45ixed 1+C #!.%
@ravel4/ank Bun 1+C #!.% Bock46ized 1+C #!.%
@ravel46creened 1%C !(.+ 6alt !0C #(.$
@ypsum4Powdered !#C $!.$ 6and4Ary 1%C !(.+
lime4Powdered. !#C $!.$ 6and4Aamp !0C #(.$
limestone 1+C #!.% 6and4Tempered
!$C $$.%
&re4=ine !0C #(.$ 6ulphur4
!#C $!.$
&re4,rushed 1+C #!.% Dood4,hips !r %0.94 @
6hould the horizontal distance be more than sufficient for the re'uired rise" it may be
more economical to run the first section of the conveyor horizontally" and incline it
upwards at the discharge end" rather than use a smaller angle of inclination for the
entire length.
n such a case" the transition from the horizontal to the inclined sections must be made
by a vertical curve" to ensure that the belt does not lift off the idlers.
B!lt Con"!yo# Typ!$
Permanent: This type of conveyors is installed for the life of
the mine. They are used in main line" slope" long overland
installation" preparation plants and stockpiles.
Portable: These are characterised by relative ease of assembling
and disassembling to facilitate advances and recovery in
development and retreat operations in underground mining. Portable
conveyors mounted on crawler or wheels are also used in
mechanised 'uarries and surface mines.
Shiftable: -sed in continuous surface mining this type of
conveyor is mounted on skid or supporting structures aligned
together and the whole can be shifted transversely to follow the
advancing working face.
High Angle Conveyor: These are special type of conveyor belt
arrangement used for negotiating steeper angle of inclination. 6uch
belts can work in slope up to *04+0
. 6andwich belt conveyor is a
type of such belt conveyor.
Cable Belt Conveyor: Dhere the belt is carried on moving wire
ropes and the tractive force is applied through the rope to the belt is
known as cable belt conveyor. :.3,& 7in collaboration with
=rance8 is using such system for long distance conveying of bauxite
in their mines in &rissa.
D!$c#iption o Co%pon!nt$
The belt consists of a carcass covered from all sides with a filler material like PE,
and neoprene as shown in =igure 1.
Top ,over
/ottom ,over
7,arrying 6ide8
7:on4,arrying 6ide8
>nd ,over
>nd ,over
=igure 1 ,onstruction of conveyor belt.
Essential Properties
The belt works as a tractive element as well as load4carrying element. t may be used
for different kind of material transportation at a higher speed 7 (4+ m2s8. =or this
purpose the belt need to have the following essential properties:
1. =lexibility
!. Transverse rigidity
#. 3ow mass per unit length
$. 1igh strength
%. 6implicity and inexpensive
(. 3onger life
*. 6hould not stretch under normal working stresses "i.e." low relative elongation.
+. Dear resistant
9. =ire resistant
Becommended maximum belt speeds are given as shown in Table 1
Didth 7mm8 Didth
,oal" damp clay" soft ore"
fine crushed stone" &ver
burden and earth
1eavy" hard" sharp edged
ore. ,oarse crushed stone
over 91$.$
over #(
The carcass can absorb the longitudinal tensile stresses and make the belt rigid
transversely. =iller protects carcass against moisture" mechanical damage" abrasion
and combine the carcass into an integral body forming top cover and bottom cover.
The filler can be synthetic rubber or polymer like PE, with ade'uate additives for
getting particular expected characteristics. The carcass can be a fabric type with plies
of fabric or steel chord type.
. fabric ply has a longitudinal thread called warp and a transverse thread called weft.
The fabric plies are made of capron" nylon or lavsan etc. The longitudinal member of
the carcass transfers the tension. /oth the warp and weft carry the load via the cover.
The cover while protecting the carcass from external damage bear the impact and
abrasion at the feeding points and wear at the cleaning points. =igure ! shows the
cross section of the types of conveyor belt.
Bubber nterply
Figure 2 ,ross section of a multi ply conveyor belt.
The belt ends are )oined together by mechanical means or by vulcanising. The belt
needs to be protected from damage of its sides that may occur due to sway of the belt.
n case of belt carrying wet sticky material fixtures for cleaning the belt should be
properly selected. 5aterials coming on to the return side of the belt needs to be
arrested from coming under the end pulley by ade'uate scrapers. .s shown in the
=igure $ belt cleaners are used to clean the return side of the conveyor belt. These
cleaning belt can be of E shape as well.

Figure 3 /elt scrapers
.s shown in the =igure #7a8" the pow bladeFs !0C leading edge GspiralsG debris off the
return4side belt surface. There are specially designed belt cleaners for the tail pulley"
they are engineered to clean the inside of the belt so rocks" lumps and other debris
never get the chance to damage the pulley" belt" splices or lagging. :ormally plows
are easy to install on virtually any conveyor structure" and come with universal
mounting brackets. Though there are suppliers of such scrapers" these can be
fabricated at the mineHs workshop.
The diagonal deflector plow 7=igure #a8 is installed on a $%C angle across the belt to
discharge debris to one side of the belt. n such cleaners the blade is installed in a
fixed position" eliminating bouncing problems associated with some floating style
Twin4bladed plow 7 =igure #b8 is designed to clean belt in both directions of travel.
This cleaner discharges material to either side of the belt. t is installed securely to
conveyor structure and can work on conveyors with severe belt vibration.
&ne of the important components that re'uire attention in maintaining services of belt
conveyor is the conveyor belt fasteners. 6election of fasteners should consider
re'uired performance" expected life and ease of installation and maintenance so that
higher availability of the belt conveyor is ensured.
There are different types of fasteners. 5echanical fasteners are commonly used in
underground coal mining. The re'uired rating of the mechanincal fasteners is
calculated based on the re'uired belt tension and it may be upto !(# k:2m of belt
&ne such fastener is =lexco
6BJ 6calloped >dgeJ B.B+ belt fastener" designed
for use on mainline and panel belts with mechanical fastener ratings up to 1"%00 PD
7!(#k:2m8. The +4rivet pattern" along with the scalloped edge design" ensures 'uality
performance in high4tension applications.
Figure $ 5echanical /elt )oint
=asteners are available with self4setting rivets which allow to install 'uickly from the
topside of the belt. 5ost important in belt fastening is to take care that the plates must
be accurately positioned to get perfect edges and stress distribution should be uniform
along the )oints.
>ffectiveness of maintenance will be enhanced by provision of ade'uate and
improved tools for carrying out the )ob. 5anagement should encourage innovation of
workers for making work tools or improvement of work environment and safety.
n a conveyor belt installation different types of idlers or roller supports are used. The
idlers are re'uired for proper support and protection of the belt and proper support of
the load being conveyed.dlers are designed with different diameters and are provided
with antifriction bearings and seals" and are mounted on shafts. =rictional resistance
of idlers influences the belt tension and conse'uently the power re'uirement.
dlers are mounted on a support frame" which can be shiftable or permanent. The
carrying side of the belt is supported on the carrier rollers sets. . set of three rollers
are arranged to form a trough for the troughed belt conveyor. The return side of the
belt is supported on straight return idlers. The spacing of the idlers is determined
based on the belt sag between the idlers. The sag depends on the belt tension" belt
width" belt properties and the pay4load per meter of the belt. The idlers are specified
by its length and diameter. These parameters are selected based on the re'uired belt
speed for the particular width of the belt.
Figure 5 Aifferent types of roller supports

Figure 6 6elf aligning idler
dlers are classified as shown in Table !
Table ! dler ,lassification.
,lassification Aiameter 7inches8 /elt Didth 7nch8 Aescription
1+ K $+
1+ K $+
3ight duty
3ight Auty
1+ K (0
1+ K (0
!$ K (0
5edium Auty
5edium Auty
5edium Auty
!$ K *!
!$ K *!
5edium Auty
5edium Auty
>( ( #( K 9( 1eavy Auty

>* * #( K 9( 1eavy Auty
,losely spaced impact idlers with rubber cushions are used the support the belt at the
loading point" below the skirt board. =igure *.
>:A P-33>L
>:A P-33>L
6:-/ P-33>L
/>:A P-33>L
B>T-B: A3>B6 ,.BBL:@ A3>B6
@B.ETL T.K>4-P
6KBT /&.BA
5P.,T A3>B6
A6,1.B@> 1&&A
/>3T ,3>.:>B
>:A P-33>L
>:A P-33>L
6:-/ P-33>L
/>:A P-33>L
B>T-B: A3>B6 ,.BBL:@ A3>B6
@B.ETL T.K>4-P
6KBT /&.BA
5P.,T A3>B6
A6,1.B@> 1&&A
/>3T ,3>.:>B
Figure 7 ,omponents of belt conveyor
6elf aligning idler set is used infront of the loading point. This set of idlers can rotate
on a horizontal plan depending on the belt sway and restores true running of the belt.
/elt training idlers should be spaced 100 to 1%0 feet apart and at least one such idlers
should be used on conveyors less th'an 100 feet long. 6uch idlers are not used in the
areas of belt transition.
=ixed guide rolls placed perpendicular to the edge of the conveyor belt are not
generally recommended as they cause edge wear and reduce belt life.
&ffcentre running of the belt occurs when the belt loading is not proper. @arland type
idlers assist true running of the belt under difficult loading conditions. n this type of
idlers the idlers are connected to form a string. The connections are through universal
type coupling that allows each idlers to rotate about its own axis independently.
@arland idlers are available as two roll" three roll or five roll units. :ormally two4roll
units are used as return idlers and three4rolls or five4rolls units are used in carrying
/elt weight" material weight" idler load rating" belt sag" idler life" belt rating" belt
tension and radius in vertical curves determine the spacing of idlers. 6ome suggested
normal spacing are shown in Table #.
Table 3 dler spacing
Troughed dler 6pacing
Deigh of 5aterial 1andled 7lbs2cu ft8
#0 %0 *% 100 1%0 !00
. conveyor belt system uses different types of pulleys like end pulley" snub pulley"
bend pulley etc. as shown in the =igure #. The end pulleys are used for driving and
sometimes for making tensioning arrangements. 6nub pulleys increase the angle of
wrap thereby increasing the effective tension in the belt. The pulley diameter depends
on the belt width and belt speed.
Pulleys are used for providing the drive to the belt as well as for maintaining the
proper tension to the belt.
5inimum transition distance as shown in Table $ should be followed while placing
idlers in front of pulleys.
Table Becommended minimum transition distance
Troughing angle ! "ate#
Fabri% Belt
&for half
Fabri% Belt
&for full
Cor# Belt
&for half
Cor# Belt
&for ful
(0 K 90
(0 K 90
N(0 1.0b 1.+b 1.+b #.(b
(0 K 90
6nub pulleys may be fitted in as shown in the following figures:

3oose 6nub Tight 6nub
Figure *
The angle of wrap is increased by using tandem drive as shown in =igure below:
Figure + Tandem drive
/elt drive is provided normally at the discharge ends" however" it may be provided
through the head end or through intermediate pulley by coupling the pulley shaft to
the reducing gearHs output shaft. The coupling is selected based on the load
characteristics and applications. =lexible coupling or fluid couplings are often used.
Earious drive arrangements are shown in the =igures below:
The purposes of take4up are:
1. To allow for stretch and shrinkage of the belt.
!. To ensure that the minimum tension in the belt is sufficient to prevent undue
sag between idlers.
#. To ensure that the tension in the belt in the rear of the drive pulley is sufficient
to permit such pulley to transmit the load.
There are different types of take4up systems as shown in the =igures below:
Figure ,- 6crew take4up
Figure ,, @ravity Take up
Conveyor Support
The support of conveyor is normally a structural frame. Aepending on the situation
the structure can be mounted on floor or on skid. The main )ob of the support is to let
the belt run without getting skewed. Aepending on situations the support can be made
moving type. n such cases idler a wheel mounted or crawler mounted platform keeps
the necessary provision to support the idlers on which the conveyor runs.
/elt conveyor system can serve economically provided it is maintained well.
5aintenance of this system involves number of routine works. nspection of the
various components and initiating timely repair or servicing of these components in
case any default is noticed is of premier importance. To maintain a belt conveyor
system following items must be carefully looked into:
Belt cleaners,
/elt cleaners are re'uired for both the carrying side and the non carrying side of the
belt. 5aterial falling on the non4carrying side of the belt needs to be arrested before it
get traped in the tail pulley to cause damage to the lagging and sway of the belt. The
carrying side needs cleaning when carried material is sticky in nature.
To deflect the material coming on the non4carrying side deflector belt plows are used.
6uch plows can be selected from number of available sources or can be locally made
considering that the rubber used in it should be softer than the surface of the belt
conveyor. t must be easy to install and maintain.
Belt trainers
/elt trainer is a device that helps true running of belt conveyor. t prevents off4center
loading and belt mistracking. The belt trainers are also called self aligning idlers
designed with a pivot and tilt action. They can immediately centre and control the
misalignment problems of a running belt.
Skirt clamps,
Skirt clamps are used for eliminatin loadin point spillae at t!e con"e#or loadin and
transfer points$ T!e skirt ru%%er used for t!is s!ould %e selected considerin its !ardness &it!
respect to t!e top co"er of t!e %elt$ As it &ill %e re'uirin ad(ustments after &ear so t!e fi)in
arranement s!ould %e simple* easil# accessi%le and less time consumin$
Pulley lagging
Pulle# lains are necessar# for %etter traction and to eliminate %elt slippae$
To sa"e time and mone#* and to simplif# routine %elt maintenance procedures* proper ser"ice
and maintenance tools s!ould %e procured$ Some e)amples are+
This tool is used for mechanical belt fastening. 7 =lexco produces 56BT .:A
56BT+ 8.This easy4to4use" portable tool makes multiple rivet driving simple and fast.
6ome tools have drive rods that can drive five rivets simultaneously.
/elt cutters are designed to enhance operator safety. 6ome belt cutters are chain4
driven" double4edged safety blade and are shielded from operator contact. 6uch blade
can be driven from either end of the cutter and cuts in both directions.
B!lt &#ot!ction Cont#ol$
There are number of devices provided for protecting conveyor belt system. These are:
1. /elt alignement control: /elt should be aligned with the drive pulleys and the
carrying and return idlers. /elt alignment sensors are typically positioned
along the edges of the conveyor fabric. They are usually at the discharge and
at the loading zones" however can be distributed over the length of the
conveyor. 6witches consists of "oller S.it%he$/ 0imit S.it%he$/ Pro1imity
S.it%he$/ Photoele%tri% S.it%he$/ et%) Dhen the edge of the belt trips the
alignement switch for a timed period" the conveyor is halted. n steel cord
belts edge tracking is done by using alignment sensors. This helps to get
signature of tension distribution within the carcass which in turn does the
condition monitoring.
!. /elt &verload: The electric drive motor has overload protection. The motor
overload can be a simple bi4metallic or melting eutectic alloy or a complex
computer based motor4thermal model. 6ometimes belt weigh scales are also
used for overload protection.
#. /elt 6lip: /elt slip is the loss in traction of the drive pulley7s8 to the belt cover.
/elt slip can destroy a belt or drive pulley. /elt slip protection provides a belt
drive speed sensor that compares the present belt speed with the belt intended
speed. =or constant speed belts belt slip monitoring is done by a slip switch
with a setpoint that trips the conveyor drive when the belt speed is below +0;
of full speed. The belt slip switch is bypassed during starting and stopping.
=or variable speed conveyor belt slip monitoring consists of a speed sensor
that measures the belt speed and compares with the speed reference sent to the
drive system. Dhen the belt speed is below +0; of the intended speed the
conveyor drive is tripped. . method to ad)ust and test belt slip is normally
provided in the belt control system.
$. Take4up &vertravel : &vertravel limit switches can be placed at the far
extremes of the counterweight or take up device travel. n a gravity
counterweight take4up" the top overtravel switch trip may suggest a )ammed
conveyor belt condition. . bottom overtravel switch may indicate belt stretch"
or a broken belt fabric flight. >xcessive take4up motion during starting and
stopping indicate that the type of drive control is either inade'uate or that is
not working properly.
%. Transfer ,hute Plug: f the conveyor transfers material through a transfer
chute" the transfer chute plug monitors blocked flow as blocked flow may
damage the conveyor belt. -nder blocked condition the transfer chute plug
switch trips the conveyor drive.
(. /in 3evel ,ontrol: f the conveyor belt is used to fill bins or stock piles over
dumping may damage the belt. /in level sensors protect the belt from
probable beltdamage. 6imple hanging tilt switch or analogue devices like
ultrasonic" radar or laser devices may be used.
*. Pull4chord 6top 6witches: These are emergency switches that can be actuated
by pulling a chord provided along the belt conveyor.
+. Bip Aetectors: Bip detectors provide belt protection in case of a rip or tear of
the belt. 6imple rip detector is spill switch located below the conveyor near the
loading point. There are complex rip switches available" which re'uire
periodic maintenance.
9. =ire Aetection: Thermal trip switches are provided with smoke sensors" ,&
sensors or fibre optic temperature sensors.
10. Aust 6prays: Dater or chemical based dust suppressing system can eliminate
or reduce dust problems in certain special conveyor belt installations
B!lt Cont#ol$
The belt control involves the following:
6top2start: .t single or multiple stations.
6tart warning: .udible or visual signal for pre4start warning
nterlock: The se'uence control between the master and slave conveyors.
Telemetry: Aistribution of belt control and information over significant distance.
3ockout: Physical lockout of the all motive power sources.
Regulatory Provisions
=or use of belt conveyors in special applications like under ground coal mining state
imposed regulations must be followed. A@56 circulars and ,5B should be
considered during installation" running and maintenance of belt conveyor in
underground coal mines.
B!lt Con"!yo# T#oubl! S'ootin(
7The number refers to the list below the table.8
Com'laint Cau$e
2n or#er of 'robable
Com'laint Cau$e
2n or#er of 'robable
/elt runs off at tail
* 1% 1$ 1* !1 >xcessive wear" including
rips" gouges" ruptures" and
1!" !%" 1*" !1" +" %
>ntire belt runs off at all
points of the line
!(" 1*" 1%" !1" $" 1( >xcessive bottom cover
!1" 1$" %" 19" !0" !!
&ne belt section runs off
at all points of the line
!" 11" 1 >xcessive edge wear"
broken edges
!(" $" 1*" +" 1" !1
/elt runs off at head
1%" !!" !1" 1( /elt hardens or crack +" !#" !!" 1+
/elt slip 19" *" !1" 1$" !! ,overs become checked or
+" 1+
/elt slip on starting 19" *" !!" 10 3ongitudinal grooving or
cracking of top cover
1$" !1" !!
>xcessive belt stretch 1#" 10" !1" (" 9 3ongitudinal grooving or
cracking of bottom cover
1$" !1" !!
/elt breaks at or behind
fastenersO fasteners tear
!" !#" 1#" !!" !0" 10 =abric decay" carcass
cracks" ruptures" soft spots
in belt7gouges8
1!" !0" %" 10" +" !$
Eulcanised splice
1#" !#" 10" !0" !" 9 Ply separation 1#" !#" 11" +" #
1. /elt bowed: .void telescoping belt rolls or storing them in damp locations.
!. /elt improperly spliced or wrong fasteners: -se correct fasteners. Betighten
after running for a short while. f temporarily spliced remove belt splice and
make new splice. 6et up regular inspetion schedule.
#. /elt speed too fast: Beduce belt speed
$. /elt strained on one side: .llow time for new belt to Pbreak inQ. f belt does
not break in properly or is not new" remove strained section and splice in a
new piece.
%. /reaker strip missing or inade'uate: Dhen service is lost" install proper
breaker strip 7 /reakers are woven fabric of nylon R2or polyster placed above
the carcass to dissipate impact energy and to prevent belt puncture8
(. ,ounterweight too heavy: Becalculate weight re'uired and ad)ust
counterweight accordingly. Beduce take4up tension to point of slip then
lighten slightly.
*. ,ounterweight too light: Becalculate and ad)ust or screw take4up accordingly.
+. Aamage by abrasive" acid" chemicals" heat etc: -se belt designed for specific
purpose. Bepair cuts. -se enclosure where needed.
9. Aifferential speed on dual pulleys: 5ake necessary ad)ustments
10. Arive underbelted: Becalculate maximum belt tensions and select correcxt
belt. Aetermine if extension is feasible or another belt to be installed. ,heck
the carcass is rigid enough for load" replace if service is lost.
11. >dge worn or broken: Bepair edge. f the edge is out of s'uare or badly
damage replace the worn portion of the belt.
1!. >xcessive impact of material on belt or fasteners: -se correctly designed
chutes and baffles. 5ake vulcanised splices. nstal impact idlers. Dhere
possible load fines first. Dhere material is trapped under skirts " ad)ust
skirtboards to minimum clearance or install cushioning idlers to hold belt
against skirts.
1#. >xcessive tension: Becalculate and ad)ust tension. -se vulcanised splice
within recommended limits.
1$. =rozen dlers: =ree idlers. 3ubricate. mprove maintenance. AonHt over
1%. dlers or pulleys out of s'uare with centre line of the conveyor: Bealign. nstall
limit switches for greater safety.
1(. dlers improperly placed: Belocate idlers or insert insert additional idlers
spaced to support belts.
1*. mproper loading" spillage: =eed should be in direction of belt travel and at
belt speed" centred on the belt. ,ontrol flow with feeders" chutes and
1+. mproper storage or handling: Befer to the manufacturerHs instructions for
storage and handling.
19. nsufficient traction between belt and pulley: ncrease wrap angle with snub
pulley. 3ag drive pulley. n wet condition use grooved lagging. nstall correct
cleaning devices for safety.
!0. 5aterial between belt and pulley: -se skirtboard properly. Bemove
accumulation. 5aintain properly.
!1. 5aterial build4up: Bemove accumulation. nstall cleaning devices" scrapers
and inverted E decking. mprove housekeeping.
!!. Pulley lagging worn: Beplace worn pulley lagging. -se grooved lagging for
wet conditions. Tighten loose and protruding bolts.
!#. Pulleys too small: -se large diameter pulleys.
!$. Badius of convex vertical curve too small: ncrease radius by vertical
realignment of idlers to reduce excessive edge tension.
!%. Belative loading velocity too high or too low: .d)ust chute or correct belt
velocities. -se impact idlers.
!(. 6ide loading: 3oad in the direction of belt run and at the centre of the belt.
!*. 6kirts improperly Placed: -se ad)ustable skirtboards and check that it does not
rub the belt.
A#%ou#!) Fac! Con"!y!#$ o# Un)!#(#oun) Coal T#an$po#tation
-nderground coal conveyers widely employed in collieries relate to the group of
conveyers with low flights" but differ substantially from the conveyers used in other
industries. They perform many various operations in collieries and accordingly have a
large number of design versions.
Figure ,2 .rmoured face conveyor
.n underground coal conveyer has one 7two or three8 hauling chain with low flights
attached to it. The chain along the bottom of an open trough draws the flights. The
chain bends around terminal 7drive and take4up8 sprockets at the ends of the conveyer
and is moved by a drive. The conveyer is mounted directly on the ground of a mine
drift. &ne of the principal re'uirements to underground coal conveyers is that their
height" and especially that of the carrying run" must be as low as possible in order to minimize
the loading height.
Aepending on the scheme of arrangement of the tractive element 7of the carrying and
return run8" it is distinguished between vertically closed conveyers 7 a to d in the
above figure8, horizontally closed 7e8, and those with a combined path. n the last
type" the terminal sprockets are arranged at an angle of $%
to the horizontal. The
flights are attached to the chain at an angle of $%
and are oriented in the horizontal
plane in the carrying run and in the vertical plane" in the return run.
Eertically closed conveyers are made 7with one" two or three parallel hauling chains
7a, b, and c respectively8. . three4chain conveyer may have a greater length and
higher reliability" since breakage of. a chain does not disturb the stability of flights
and the operating capability of the conveyer. Their application is however limited by
their higher cost and large mass. n single4chain conveyers" the flights may have
symmetrical 7the chain at the centre of flight8 or unsymmetrical and rigidly fixed or
hinged attachment to the hauling chain.
The path of a vertically closed conveyer for coal transportation in curved drifts may
be either straight 7horizontal" inclined or horizontal4inclined8 or bending in the
horizontal plane 7spatial8.
The tra%tive element is in the form of one" two or three detachable chains of elevated
strength with the pitch +0 mm or round4link chains with the chain pitch of %0 or ($ mm and
rod links. of a diametet of 1$ or 1+ mm. The chains are made of steel of specified grade and
The flight$ are made of steel and have a height roughly e'ual to the height of chain.
The pitch of flights is $+0"($0 or 10!$ mm" and the linear mass of a chain with flights
is 104 1+ kg2m on the average.
The trough is stamped from steel sheets 7steel grades #% or #0f8 in sections of a
length of !4!.% mO the working portion 7bottom8 is hardened.
The #rive is electrical" pneumatic or electro4hydraulic in an explosion4safe
embodiment. Arives with one or two motors at the front end and one motor at the rear
end of a conveyer have found wide application. The transmission mechanism is of the
reducer typeO the electric motor is connected with the reducer gear through a hydraulic
To'i%$ for #i$%u$$ion in the %la$$room
1. 6teep .ngle conveying and their applicability in underground use.
!. /elt tension and power calculation
#. ,onveyor accessories
$. Practical problems and innovative solutions
%. nformation 6ystem for /ulk 6olid 1andling
Con"!yo# Calculation
nitial Aata:
1. ,haracteristic of material like lumpiness" density" moistue content" angle of
repose" particle flowability" abrasiveness" particle strength" slumping 7losing of
mobility on long storage" e.g. lime" cement etc.8" stickyness etc.
!. The average and maximum load carrying capacity
#. Aiagram of the designed conveyor with its principal dimensions
$. Aata on the exceptional working conditions
%. .rrangements of the operation of the conveyors.
3etermining Belt 4i#th
The belt width depends on maximum rated capacity and lump size. The cross
sectional profile of the bulk material on the conveyor belt is determined by the profile
of the load carried on the belt. &n straight roller this area is :
bh A
tan b . h % 0 =
tan b . A
!% 0 =
where" b: width of the base of material on the belt
h:height of material on the belt
: .ngle of repose
.: area of cross section of the material
&n an inclined conveyor this area will be reduced depending on the angle of
inclination of the belt" mobility or particles and angle of repose.
=or a belt running over the troughed idler the cross sectional area of the material is the
sum of the trapezium and the circular sector as shown in =igure:
The area is given as:
sin m
l l
where" the symbols are as illustrated in the figure.
Total area is the sum of .
and .
,apacity of ,onveyor in te2hr
. v . A . Q #(00 =
f belt width is / and area of cross section of material is ." it is often taken that:
A = 7/8
Thus from e'uation 7.8 and 7/8 the belt width can be calculated.
To test the calculated belt width for suitability with lump size the following relation is
!00 + > Xa B
where <S coefficient of lump sizeS #.% for graded material
S!.% for ungraded material
aS maximum linear size of the represntative lump
/ is selected from the available width as: $00" %00"(%0" +00" 1000"1!%0" 1$00" 1(00"
!000" !%00" #000 mm.
dler 6pacing
The spacing of idlers depends on belt width and bulk density of material. This is
calculated from :

1: sag" in feet
6: 6pacing in feet
T: Tension in pound
D: Deight of the loaded belt in lb2ft.
dler spacing in the mid portion of the conveyor in meter for different material is
given in the following table.
/elt Didth
Aensity t2m
Aensity t2m
Aensity t2m
Aensity t2m
!.14 !.%
Aensity t2m
$00 1.% 1.$ 1.$ 1.# 1.!
%00 1.% 1.$ 1.$ 1.# 1.!
(%0 1.$ 1.# 1.# 1.! 1.!
+00 1.$ 1.# 1.# 1.! 1.1
1000 1.# 1.! 1.! 1.1 1.1
1!00 1.# 1.! 1.! 1.1 1.1
1$00 1.# 1.! 1.! 1.1 1.1
1(00 1.# 1.! 1.! 1.1 1.1
!000 1.# 1.! 1.1 1.1 1.0
The return idlers are spaced at ! to !.% times the spacing of carryng idler sub)ect to the
condition that it is not more than #.% m.