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Design a 200 Watt, 150 V

rms
PWM Bipolar Inverter
Hablillah bin Mohd Hazim
1
, Shafini bt Abdul Bar
2
, saipol
3
, Pidah
4

1
sub_zeerow@yahoo.com
2
shafida78@yahoo.com.my


Abstract-This paper is concentrate on design procedure which including design
requirement, calculation respect to design, circuit building and simulation result. The
simulation in this assiment by using MULTISIM software and it is base on components
that availale in market.


I. INTRODUCTION

Power inverters are circuits used to convert Direct Current (DC) to Alternating current (AC).
The input of the inverter may come from a DC source or from rectified AC input. There are
two main categories for switch mode voltage source inverters: square wave and pulse width
modulated (PWM). Square wave inverters are the simplest to implement. The simplicity of
the square wave inverter comes along with the disadvantage of harmonics close to the
fundamental frequency. PWM inverters function by comparing a sinusoidal control signal at
the desired output frequency with a triangular carrier signal at switching the frequency. The
harmonics of PWM inverters are located at multiples of the carrier signal frequency which is
typically in the kHz range. This simply means the output waveform of PWM appears more
sinusoidal than a square wave inverter. Also, higher frequency harmonics are easier to filter
than harmonics near the fundamental frequency.

The requirement of this asignment is to design full-bridge inverter that can produce an ac
output voltage of 150 V
rms
with frequency of 50 Hz. The output power is 200 Watt. The
modulation index (m
i
) is 1.0 and the frequency of the carrier is 5 kHz. The PWM modulation
type is the bipolar based PWM. This paper highlight:
The design of bipolar PWM
The THD voltage before filtering
The low-pass filter design
II. METHODOLOGY

To make the flow ease and simple, we discribe this design methodology by refering to the
block diagram in Figure 1

Figure 1: PWM inverter block diagram

Two main block in designing the PWM inverter are the PWM generator and the basic
topology of the square wave inverter. The main differ is the PWM inverter use PWM wave as
a switching signal instead of using square wave. The PWM generator is discribed in the dash
box in the Figure 1 above while the PE inverter use the same topology of square wave inverter
as Figure 2.


Figure 2: Inverter topology
Sine wave
generator
Triangle wave
generator
comparator amplifier
Inverter /
buffer
PE
Inverter
Sine wave and triangle wave is feed to comparator for comparison to produce PWM signal.
This signal then amplified by emplifier. Since the T1, T2 apply the same signal and T3, T4
switching signal inverse from T1, T1, thus the digital inverter/buffer is used to perform the
operation. This inverter/buffer output then feed to the T1, T2 and T3, T4 inverter.


III CALCULATION AND DESIGN

The requirement of this design as follow:
i) ac output voltage of 150 V
rms
with frequency of 50 Hz.
ii) output power is 200 Watt
iii) modulation index (m
i
) is 1.0
iv) frequency of the carrier, f
c
is 5 kHz.

i) output voltage, V
o
=150 V
rms

Vds drop is 30V due to characteristic of the mosfet (refer mosfet datasheet), thus
Vdc need to increased to suit the V
o
=150V
rms

150Irms =2
=212.12 I
dc


Therefore,
212.12+30 =242.12 I
dc


242.12 Vdc need to be feed to Vdd (see figure 14) and resulting the PWM inverter
output as Figure 13. The modulation frequency, f
m
is 50Hz applied.

ii) The output power, P
o
=200W
P
o
=
v
2





Since V
o
=212.12, thus
200 =
212.12
r
2

r =225 0

iii) modulation index (m
i
) is 1.0
V
modulation
, V
m
=10 V
pic
and
V
carrier
V
c
=10 V
pic

m
i
=
vm
vc

m
i
=1

All the calculated value then applied to the circuit below by using MultiSim software. The
mosfet type 2SK2978 was selected which has the characteristic as in mosfet datasheet. (see
mosfet datasheet on attachment)

Figure 14: PWM inverter (full circuit)




m
r
=P =
cuc]cqucnc,]c
moduIuton ]cqucnc,]m

=
5k
50
=100

When P>10, or so, the harmonics can be normalised as shown in the Figure below


Figure:
The third harmonic located at:
f = k m
r
f
m

=3 x 100 x 50 =15 kEz

V
1
=V
in
when m =1

Although the voltage THD improvement is not significant, but the current THD will improve
reatly because the load normally has some current filtering effect.









IV SIMULATION RESULT AND DISCUSSION


XFG1 A B T
G
XSC1
XFG2
A B T
G
XSC2
V1 12V
2
3
4
8
7
U2
LM311H 1
5 6
B A L
GND V S -
V S + B /S TB U3
741
3
2
4
7
6
5 1
B A L1B A L2
V S +
V S -
V2 20V
A B T
G
XSC3
2
1
3
U1A
4041BP
A B T
G
XSC4
A B T
G
XSC5

Figure 3: PWM generator

The PWM signal is produced by comparing sine wave and triangle wave (5 Hz and 5 kHz as
required in this design). This can be done by using LM311H comparator (refer Figure 4).


Figure 4: Comparator input (m=1, f
c
=5kHz, f
m
=50Hz)


Figure 5: Virtual Comparator output

Since the Comparator LM311H output change between 12V and 30V (refer Figure 6 and
LM311H datasheet), we need to change the V
min
from 12V to 0V, thus the higher value then
12V need as a comparison value.

Figure 6: Comparator LM311H output

20V has been selected for this design feed to the 741 op-amp VS+input (refer Figure 3) and
the ap-amp output generated as Figure 7 (also refer 741 op-amp datasheet).


Figure 7: 741 Op-amp output

Since the switching freq for Q1, Q3 is the same and Q2, Q4 is inverse from Q1, Q3, thus we
use the inverter/buffer ic 4041BP to perform and the resulting output (switching signal) as
Figure 8 and Figure 9.




Figure 8: Digital 4041BP inverter/buffer output switching signal Q1 and Q2


Figure 9: Digital 4041BP inverter/buffer output switching signal Q3 and Q4

This PWM signal then feed to the inverter at point IO1 and IO2 as Figure 10.

V3
242.12V
A B T
G
XSC6
A B T
G
XSC7
A B T
G
XSC8
2SK2978
Q1
2
4
1
3
2SK2978
Q2
2
4
1
3
2SK2978
Q4
2
4
1
3
2SK2978
Q3
2
4
1
3
R1
110ohm
IO1
IO2

Figure 10: PWM inverter

The PWM inverter output is produced as Figure 11, Figure 12 and Figure 13; each taken from
different point (XSC6, XSC 7 and XSC8).


Figure 11: output point XSC6

Figure 12: output point XSC7

Inverter output V
o
=V
ab

Vds drop is 30V due to characteristic of the mosfet (refer mosfet datasheet), thus Vdc need
to increased to suit the V
ab
=150V
rms


242.12 V
dc
need to be feed to V
dd
as calculated in DESIGN AND CALCULATION section
(see figure 14) and resulting the PWM inverter output as Figure 13


Figure 13: PWM inverter output point XSC8