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Título original: Image Compression using Wavelet and SPIHT
Encoding Scheme

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Image Compression using Wavelet and SPIHT

Encoding Scheme

Swetha Dodla

#1

, Y David Solmon Raju

*2

, K V Murali Mohan

#3

1

Swetha Dodla, Pursuing M.Tech (ECE) from Holy Mary Institute of Technology and science (HITS), Bogaram, Keesara,

Hyderabad. Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad, A.P, INDIA

2

Y David Solmon Raju is working as an Associate Professor(ECE) at Holy Mary Institute of Technology and science (HITS),

Bogaram, Keesara, Hyderabad. Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad, A.P, INDIA

3

K V Murali Mohan is working as a Professor and HOD(ECE) at Holy Mary Institute of Technology and science (HITS),

Bogaram, Keesara, Hyderabad. Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad, A.P, INDIA

Abstract The traditional image coding technology uses the

redundant data in an image to compress it. But these methods

have been replaced by digital wavelet transform based

compression method as these methods have high speed, low

memory requirements and complete reversibility. Now in this

work we are considering SPIHT as a placement for wavelet

compression methods. We are comparing it with wavelet

encoding scheme and comparing the final results in terms of bit

error rate, PSNR and MSE.

Keywords Wavelet, SPIHT, Encoding, Decoding. EZW.

I. INTRODUCTION

The discrete cosine transform [1] is a technique for

converting a signal into elementary frequency components. It

is used widely for image compression. Here we have

developed some MATLAB code to calculate DCT and

compress images through it.

In recent years, wavelet transform has become a much

applied and researched method among mathematicians [2],

[3]. A very important property of wavelet is its ability of

frequency and time localization. Localization is the process of

defining the range for total time, T, and frequency range

that will be used in image analysis. The main difference is that

wavelets are well localized in both time and frequency domain

whereas the standard Fourier transformis only localized in

frequency domain. The Short-time Fourier transform (STFT)

is also time and frequency localized but there are issues with

the frequency time resolution and wavelets often give a better

signal representation using Multiresolution analysis Walnut[4]

[5]. So wavelets transformare better than Fourier transformor

DCT. So it has been utilized a lot in image processing and

image compression. However, different wavelets have

different merits and demerits and thus their selection is also an

important criterion.

The distribution of values for the wavelet coefficients is

usually centred around zero, with very few large coefficients.

This implies that most of the image information is

concentrated in a small fraction of the coefficients and hence

they can be compresses efficiently and the computations

would also be fast and small. The compression is achieved by

simply quantizing the values based on the histogram and

encoding the results in an efficient way by using an encoding

procedure such as Huffmann coding.

In short we can summarize that the more similar the lower

value coefficients are to each other, the higher compression

ratio we will get. But at higher compression ratios, we will get

more error. These discrepancies of wavelet method were

rectified by introducing the SPIHT algorithm[6], [7]. This

algorithm codes the most important wavelet transform

coefficients first and transmits the bits so that a progressively

better reproduction can be obtained over the time.

II. SPIHT ALGORITHM

A. Description of the SPIHT Algorithm

The SPIHT algorithm is a more efficient implementation of

EZW (Embedded Zero Wavelet) [6] [8] algorithmwhich was

presented by Shapiro. After applying wavelet transformto an

image, the SPIHT algorithm partitions the decomposed

wavelet into significant and insignificant partitions based on

the following function:

S

n

(I) =_

1,mox

(,])c1

{|c

,]

|} 2

n

0,0tcrwisc

Here S

n

(T) is the significance of a set of coordinates T, and

c

i,j

is the coefficient value at coordinate (i, j). There are two

passes in the algorithm- the sorting pass and the refinement

pass. The SPIHT encoding process utilizes three lists

LIP (List of Insignificant Pixels) It contains individual

coefficients that have magnitudes smaller than the thresholds

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 4 Issue 9- Sep 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 3864

LIS (List of Insignificant Sets) It contains set of wavelet

coefficients that are defined by tree structures and are found to

have magnitudes smaller than the threshold.

LSP (List of Significant Pixels) It is a list of pixels found

to have magnitudes larger than the threshold (significant).

The sorting pass is performed on the above three lists. The

maximum number of bits required to represent the largest

coefficient in the spatial orientation tree is obtained and

represented by n

max

, which is

n

mux

=|log

2

(mox

,]

||c

,]

||)]

(2)

During the sorting pass, those coordinates of the pixels which

remain in the LIP are tested for significance by using equation

2. The result is sent to the output and out of it the significant

will be transferred to the LSP as well as having their sign bit

output. Sets in the LIS will get their significance tested too

and if found significant, will be removed and partitioned into

subsets. Subsets with only one coefficient and found to be

significant, will be eliminated and divided into subsets.

Subsets having only one coefficient and found to be

significant will be inserted to the LSP; otherwise they will be

inserted to the LIP. In the refinement pass, the nth MSB of the

coefficients in the LSP is the final output. The value of n is

decremented and the sorting and refinement passes are applied

again. These passes will keep on continuing until either the

desired rate is reached or n =0, and all nodes in the LSP have

all their bits output. The latter case will give an almost exact

reconstruction since all the coefficients have been processed

completely. The bit rate can be controlled exactly in the

SPIHT algorithmas the output produced is in single bits and

the algorithm can be finished at any time. The decoding

process follows the encoding exactly and is almost

symmetrical in terms of processing time.

B. Merits of SPIHT

SPIHT provides higher PSNR than EZW because of a special

symbol that indicates significance of child nodes of a

significant parent, and separation of child nodes fromsecond

generation descendants. The SPIHT algorithm depends on

Spatial Orientation Trees (SOT) dened on dyadic subband

structure, so some problems will arise because of its

adaptation to WP decomposition. One of themis the so-called

parental conict [9] that occurs when in the wavelet packet

tree one or more of the child nodes are at the lower resolution

than the parent node. It must be resolved in order that SOT

structure with well-dened parentchild relationships for

arbitrary wavelet decomposition can be created.

III. RESULTS

IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION IN DCT METHOD

IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION USING SPIHT

Original Reconstructed Image using DCT

Original Image Reconstructed Image through SPIHT

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 4 Issue 9- Sep 2013

ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 3865

DCT SPIHT

MSE 54.00 6.72

PSNR 30.81 39.85

So fromthe above table it is clear that SPIHT is a better

method as it demonstrates low error (lower value of MSE) and

higher fidelity (higher peak to signal ratio).

IV. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The heading of the Acknowledgment section and

the References section must not be numbered.

Causal Productions wishes to acknowledge

Michael Shell and other contributors for developing

and maintaining the IEEE LaTeX style files which

have been used in the preparation of this template.

To see the list of contributors, please refer to the top

of file IEEETran.cls in the IEEE LaTeX

distribution.

V. REFERENCES

[1] Ahmed,N.; Natarajan,T.; Rao,K.R. DiscreteCosine Transform, IEEE

Trans. On Computers, vol. C-32, pp. 90-93, J an. 1974.

[2] Antonini,M.; Barlaud,M.; Mathieu, P.; Daubechies,I. Image Coding

Using Wavelet Transform, IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 1,

No. 2, pp.205-220.1992

[3] Ronald A.DeVore; Bjorn J awerth; Bradley J. Lucier " Image

Compression Through Wavelet TransformCoding, " IEEE Trans. On

Information Theory, Vol.38.NO.2,pp.719-746, MARCH 1992.

[4] Walnut, D.F. An Introduction to Wavelet Analysis, Birkhauser

Boston, 2002.

[5] A. DeVore Ronald, Bjorn J awerth, J . Bradley Lucier, Image

Compression through Wavelet Transform Coding, IEEE Trans. On

Information Theory, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 719-746, March 1992.

[6] J .M. Shapiro, Embedded Image Coding using Zerotrees of Wavelet

Coefficients, IEEE Trans. On Signal Processing, pp. 3445- 3462,

1993.

[7] A. Said, W.A. Pearlman, A New Fast and Efficient Image Coded

Based on Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees, IEEE Trans. On

Circuits and Systems for Video Technologies, vol. 6, pp. 243 250,

1996.

[8] EZW present at website

http://pagespersoorangefr/polyvalens/Clemens/ezw/ ezw .html

[9] Rajpoot NM, Wilson RG, Meyer FG, Coifman RR. Adaptive wavelet

packet basis selection for zerotree image coding. IEEE Transactions

on Image Processing 2003;12:146072

[10] . PDCA12-70 datasheet, Opto Speed SA, Mezzovico, Switzerland.

[11] A. Karnik, Performance of TCP congestion control with ratefeedback:

TCP/ABR and rate adaptive TCP/IP, M. Eng. thesis, Indian Institute

of Science, Bangalore, India, J an. 1999.

[12] J . Padhye, V. Firoiu, and D. Towsley, A stochastic model of TCP

Reno congestion avoidance and control, Univ. of Massachusetts,

Amherst, MA, CMPSCI Tech. Rep. 99-02, 1999.

[13] Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer

(PHY) Specification, IEEE Std. 802.11, 1997.

VI. AUTHOR DETAILS

Dodla Swetha, Pursuing M.Tech

(ECE) fromHoly Mary Institute of

Technology and science (HITS),

Bogaram, Keesara, Hyderabad.

Affiliated to J NTUH, Hyderabad,

A.P, INDIA

Y David Solmon Raju, working as an Associate

Professor(ECE) at Holy Mary Institute of Technology and

science (HITS), Bogaram, Keesara, Hyderabad. Affiliated to

J NTUH, Hyderabad, A.P, INDIA

K Venkata Murali Mohan,

working as a Professor and

HOD(ECE) at Holy Mary

Institute of Technology and

science (HITS), Bogaram,

Keesara, Hyderabad. Affiliated to

J NTUH, Hyderabad, A.P, INDIA

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