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VIOLNCIA

NO NAMORO
Adolescncia
e Sociedade
Universidade
de Coimbra

Faculdade de
Psicologia e
Cincias da
Educao
Tipos de preveno;
Criar um programa de preveno
universal:
principais caractersticas
avaliao: porqu ?;
Programas de preveno:
O caso portugus
O caso da Romnia;
Histrias de abuso;
Sexting;
Bibilografia

VIOLNCIA NO
NAMORO
Tipos de preveno
Momento da evoluo
da condio

Primria: interveno anterior ao
problema/ doena, de forma a
evitar o aparecimento de novos
casos;
Secundria: intervenes
destinadas a, uma vez
identificado o problema/ doena,
o/a tratar o mais precocemente
possvel;
Terciria: evitar recadas,
prevenindo a frequncia e
severidade dos danos.





Caplan, 1964 cit. Kessler & Albee,
1975
Tipo de populao a que
se destina

Universal: se dirigida
populao em geral,
independentemente do nvel
de risco;
Seletiva: se dirigida a grupos
de indivduos em maior risco
do que a populao em geral;
Indicada: se destinada
interveno junto de grupos
de alto risco.






Gordon, 1983 cit. Doll et al.,
2007
Criar um programa: principais
caractersticas
Ateno
individualizada
Abordagem
compreensiva /
holstica
Interveno precoce e
desenvolvimentalmente
ajustada

Escolha adequada dos
alvos de mudana

Base terica
coerente

Abordagem integrada
dos fatores de risco e
dos fatores de
proteo


A escola como
contexto
de interveno


Envolvimento da famlia
e
da comunidade
(componentes mltiplos)
Envolvimento dos pares
(componentes mltiplos)
Criar um programa: principais
caractersticas
Utilizao de
mtodos
interativos de
transmisso de
informao
Aprendizagem e
treino
sistemtico de
competncias
Promoo da
autoconscincia

Promoo de
conscincia
social
Gesto das
emoes
Focalizao nos
relacionamentos
Tomada de deciso
responsvel
Formao, superviso e
trabalho multidisciplinar
Clarificao de valores
Criar um programa: principais
caractersticas
Neutralidade na
abordagem do
gnero
Focalizar nos nveis
normativos das
problemticas
Alternativas de
comportamento

Informao
Lidar com a presso
Suporte social
Clareza dos contedos
e
simplicidade dos
materiais
Implementao completa
dos contedos
Interveno intensiva e
longo prazo
Criar um programa: principais
caractersticas
Avaliao
Sustentabilidade
Outros requisitos para uma implementao de sucesso:
caractersticas da estrutura que implementar o
programa ( ex: histria, filosofia, objetivos,
estabilidade, capacidade financeira, qualidade dos
canais de comunicao intra-organizacionais, nveis de
comunicao com outras estruturas ou organizaes);
caractersticas dos tcnicos (ex: motivao e apoio,
competncias);
perfil de liderana da pessoa que coordena as
atividades e as apresenta aos profissionais;
a adequao do treino, formao e superviso dos
tcnicos, aliada competncia e experincia dos
formadores;
o apoio da comunidade e de outras estruturas.

Mihalic & Irwin, 2003

Saavedra, 2010
Avaliao: porqu ?

A avaliao dos programas de preveno deve procurar ir mais alm do que
a questo Ser que este programa resultou?, e tentar perceber que estratgias ou
combinao de estratgias resultaram melhor e de que forma as escolas (ou outros
contextos de interveno) podero planear estratgias mais eficazes.
(Weissberg & O'Brien, 2004
fundamental que os programas de preveno se baseiem
em estratgias que foram testadas e avaliadas como eficazes. Para
tal, impe-se um esforo acrescido na avaliao destes programas,
fornecendo um carcter cientfico e objetivo interveno

(Schewe & Bennett, 2002).
Programas de preveno

A School-Based Program to Prevent Adolescent Dating Violence

Study: To determine dating violence in schools and to integrate prevention
with lessons on sexual health, healthy relationships.
Participants: A total of 1722 students aged 14-15 from 20 public schools
(52.8% girls).

A School-Based Program to Prevent Adolescent Dating Violence


Strategies of intervention:


o Individual and school level components were designed to integrate strategies for showing to adolescent
dating violence and related risk behaviors, like delay, negotiation, and exercises to define and perform
responsibilities with healthy relationships.
o Individual and student-level intervention was a 21-lesson manual curriculum, that consist in 3 units-
(1)personal safety and injury prevention, (2) healthy growth and sexuality, and (3) substance use and
abuse.
o Was using 27exercises and activities for boys and girls to increase relevance and minify defensiveness
on the part of participants.
o School-level components included extra teacher training on dating violence and healthy relationships,
information for parents, and information about the ways of involving the students in school community
violence prevention activities.
Results
o From the 2243 potentially students in 20 participating schools, 1722 (76.8%) provided consent.
Intervention schools had higher consent rates.


O caso de Portugal


O 4d Preveno integrada
em contexto escolar um
programa curricular, de
preveno universal, dirigido
especificamente a alunos do 9
ano de escolaridade, que visa a
promoo de comportamentos
saudveis e a preveno de
comportamentos de risco, ao
nvel de quatro dimenses:

(1) relacionamentos de
namoro e entre pares;
(2) comportamentos sexuais
de risco;
(3) consumo e abuso de
substncias
(4) igualdade de gnero.

Saavedra, 2010

PROGRAMA 4D: PREVENO INTEGRADA EM CONTEXTO ESCOLAR PARA A PROMOO DE
RELACIONAMENTOS SAUDVEIS E PREVENO DE COMPORTAMENTOS DE RISCO
A verso adaptada do The Fourth, o Programa 4,
composta por 28 sesses, estruturadas nos seguintes
mdulos: (i) Relacionamentos saudveis, (ii) Crescimento e
sexualidade saudveis, (iii) Consumo e abuso de
substncias, e (iv) Igualdade de gnero.
Durante a implementao-piloto do programa, as atividades foram
desenvolvidas na disciplina rea de Projeto , uma aula semanal de 90
minutos, ao longo de todo o ano letivo. A verso portuguesa do
programa no diverge dos pressupostos do The Fourth R original. Os
objetivos gerais que suportam esta interveno esto focados, como
previamente definido pela equipa do The Fourth R, na informao,
atitudes, valores dos adolescentes e na aprendizagem e treino de
novas competncias (Wolfe et al., 2005).
Saavedra et, al., 2013
O caso de Portugal
PROGRAMA 4D: PREVENO INTEGRADA EM CONTEXTO ESCOLAR PARA A PROMOO DE
RELACIONAMENTOS SAUDVEIS E PREVENO DE COMPORTAMENTOS DE RISCO
No geral, os resultados deste estudo demonstram uma
alterao positiva nas atitudes dos sujeitos. Estes resultados
podero ter sido coadjuvados pelo facto de ao longo da
interveno terem sido abordados tpicos como por
exemplo as diferenas entre uma relao saudvel e no
saudvel, os direitos e as responsabilidades numa relao, a
identificao de comportamentos abusivos e a identificao
de fatores que conduzem a relacionamentos sexuais
saudveis.

Saavedra et, al., 2013

O caso da Romnia
In a study conducted in 2004 by the Institute of
Criminology on domestic violence from Romania, it is clear that
relations between young teenagers, verbal violence is
widespread everywhere and that it tends to be minimized in
severity and considered a banal fact of life, one of two girls are
physically abused by boys, three of the four girls had at least one
form of verbal abuse and 18% of girls are involved in intimate
personal relationships with partners who abuse them
emotionally.
O caso da Romnia
In schools or television from Romania it speaks very little
about the abuse in couple relationships that exist between
young people. Dating violence is almost taboo. Young people
receive very little information about what means abuse in a
relationship of love.
O caso da Romnia
Campaign ''Share it to stop it'' (C. Ilie. R. Feodor, L.
Doroftei, C. Stefanescu, R. Fodor) make part of Respect campaign
launched by AVON in 2008. The objective of this campaign is to
fight violence and to be near women and young girls by
supporting dedicated counseling center. Avon Launched in 2013,
a new campaign 1000 beds in order to increase the number of
places in shelters for the victims of domestic or dating violence
in Romania.

O caso da Romnia
'Respect love'' (A. Chirita) It's a project opened by the
teachers from a high school from Romania with the purpose to
acknowledge young teenagers about the forms of violence that
may exist in relationships of love between young people, to
prevent such situations and reduce abusive relations between
young people where its already there. 120 high school students
participate in counseling sessions regarding the abuse in
relationships of love, acquire information and skills, develop
actions and strategies to support colleagues and educate them.
O caso da Romnia
''Blue High schools. Youth without violence'' launched by
AVON, Sensiblue and C.Ilie, (2014) it is a high school educational
program on dating violence. In this project are involved over
1000 high school students from 10 cities in Romania, this
program wants to send a message to teenagers about the impact
that can have a long-term abusive relationship.
Stories of abusive
relationships

1. S. was just 14 years old when her boyfriend of 15 tried to control her life.

Things were fine to start with but then he became very possessive and wouldn't leave me alone. I
would get bombarded with phone calls texts from him demanding to know where I was, what I was
doing and who I was with. It just became too much. I couldn't get away from him. After five months
I ended the relationship and he just couldn't accept it. He started hanging around our house and
following me wherever I went. Then he got really nasty and began telling people we had sex, which
wasn't true. Finally there was a confrontation one day at school and he hit me in the face. It started
a big fight because some of my friends were with me but fortunately staff broke it up. Then I didn't
see him for a while and eventually things quieted down. Some of my friends have experienced the
same sort of thing but not boys are like that.''
Stories of abusive
relationships
2. D. was 17 years old when her boyfriend started to be violent and control her life.

'' I was 15 when I met my ex-boyfriend. At first he was charming but within two months I wasn't
allowed to see my friends without a time limit or him being there. After four months he made me
drop out of college and spend all day everyday with him in the pub. He then started to get violent
with me and made me feel like I deserved it. He was clever and never hit me in the face, only the
tummy or thighs. After I left him he'd get drunk and turn up outside my house but he soon got
bored. He'd always said I would never find somebody to love me but he was so wrong. I have been
in a relationship with my current partner for a year and a half now and I've never been happier.''
Sexting
Electronic mobile communication, such as instant
messaging and text messaging, has altered the social
environment of todays youth. A recent survey found that,
among 12- to 13-year-olds, 93% of youth had access to the
Internet, 71% had mobile access to the Internet (eg, cell phone),
and 68% owned a cell phone; 23% of those owned smart
phones.



(HOUCK et al)
Sexting
Potential Consequences
Pornography charges
Sexual risk
Suicide and depression
Bullying

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_oUxlL_5i7w


Bibliografia
AVON, Sensiblue and C.Ilie, Campaign Liceele albastre. Tinerete fara violenta, 2014
A. Chirita. Proiect: Respecta Iubirea, 2004;
C. D. Houck, D. Barker, C. Rizzo, E. Hancock, A. Norton & L. K. Brown. Sexting and Sexual
Behavior in At-Risk Adolescents, Pediatrics January 6, 2014; 10.1542/peds.2013-1157;
C. Ilie. R. Feodor, L. Doroftei, C. Stefanescu, R. Fodor, Campaign Share it to stop it, 2008;
D. A. Wolfe, PhD; C. Crooks, PhD; P. Jaffe, PhD; D. Chiodo, MA; R. Hughes, MEd; W. Ellis, PhD;
L. Stitt, MSc; A. Donner, PhD. A School-Based Program to Prevent Adolescent Dating Violence,
Arch Pediatrics Adolescence Med. 2009;163(8):692-699;
Jeff R. Temple, PhD. Adolescents & Sexting ,Galveston January 17, 2012;
Saavedra, R.; Martins, C.; Machado, C.. Relacionamentos ntimos juvenis: Programa para a
preveno da violncia. Psicologia, Lisboa, v. 27, n. 1, 2013

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