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# Section 1 a: States of matter

1.1 understand the arrangement, movement and energy of the particles in each of the three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas
1.2 understand how the interconversion of solids, liquids and gases are achieved and recall the names used for these interconversions
1.3 understand the changes in arrangement, movement and energy of particles during these interconversions
The kinetic particle theory:
all matter consists of tiny particles; these particles can be atoms,
molecules or ions;
all particles move and, therefore, have kinetic energy; they vibrate or
move position or both;
there are forces between the particles;
when matter is heated its particles gain more kinetic energy and
move faster or vibrate more;
when matter is heated it epands as its particles move further apart;
the temperature of a substance tells us the average amount of kinetic
energy of all its particles .
The three states of matter
!e can use the kinetic theory to describe the three states of matter.
State Forces of
attraction between
particles
Energy
of
particl
es
Arrangement of particles
Movement/motion of particles
Solid
"trong forces #ittle energy
\$articles are held in fied positions
making an ordered arrangement or
lattice
\$articles are close together
!hen heated they move slightly
further apart from each other
\$articles vibrate around a point
\$articles cannot move from their positions
!hen heated they vibrate more and move further
apart a little%&epand'
i!"id
(orces of attraction
have less effect so
that particles still
stick together
)oderate
energy
\$articles are in a random*irregular
arrangement
\$articles are still fairly close together
!hen heated they move slightly
further apart from each other
\$articles can move past one another and move
randomly
!hen heated they move faster and move further
apart a little %&epand'
#as
(orces of attraction
have no effect +
almost no forces
holding them
together
, lot of
energy
-andom arrangement
\$articles are very far apart*a lot of
space between them*large distance
between them
\$articles move randomly %& each particle in its own
direction' and very fast
\$articles move freely, constantly and in straight
lines
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!hen heated they move even further
apart
\$articles bounce off the walls of the containers
causing pressure
!hen heated the particles move faster and move
much further apart %&epand a lot'
#et.s now use these ideas to eplain the differences in physical properties between the three states of matter %&application of knowledge'. (or each of
the following properties or observation, identify from the table above the main reason why it has that property or shows that observation. !rite down
the reason in the column with the heading /eplanation0. 1se the sentences in the table above %you are applying your knowledge and understanding'
observations explanation
"olid
"olids have fied shape and volume %volume depends
on number of particles 2 space between them'
"olids cannot be compressed
"olids only epand a little when heated
#iquid
#iquids have a fied volume
#iquids do not have a fied shape %depends on the
position of the particles'
#iquids can flow
3as
3ases do not have a fied shape or volume
3ases can easily be compressed.
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3ases always fill up all available space.
\$hanges in state of matter
4he heating graph %energy is put in' below shows what happens to the state and temperature of a solid substance when it is heated.
F
% E

,
!hen a substance is heated its particles take in energy and use the energy to increase their movement and move further apart. \$,-456#7" 8-
)8#761#7" 98 :84 374 ;5337- %8- "),##7-<<' when they are heated %or cooled'.
9uring the two sections in the graph where the temperature stays the same, the substance is changing state. 4he temperature stays the same when a
substance changes state because the heat energy supplied is used to overcome the effect of the forces instead of raising the temperature.
(ill in the gaps to describe what happens to the particles when a substance changes state by melting and boiling.
liquid energy heated move positions vibrate boiling melting strong weak high bubbles low surface air
evaporation
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section state%s'
, = ;
; = 6
6 = 9
9 = 7
7 = (
time
temperature
Boiling point
gas
boiling
6omplete the table below
Melting point
solid
melting
liquid
& \$
)elting
!hen a solid is >>>>>>>>>> its particles gain >>>>>>>.. and >>>>>. faster. 7ventually they gain enough >>>>>.
to move away their >>>>>>>>>. and begin to >>>>>>>>.. around each other. 4he solid melts to form a >>>>>>. . 4he
temperature at which s solid melts is the >>>>>>>>. point. 4he temperature at which a solid melts tells us how strongly its particles are held
together. "ubstances with high melting points have >>>>. forces of attraction between their particles. "ubstances with >> melting points have
weak forces between their particles.
;oiling
!hen a liquid is heated the particles gain >>>>>>. and >>>>>.. around faster and faster. "ome particles near the >>>>>>>.. of
the liquid have enough >>>>>>>. to escape into the >>>.. and form vapour. 4his process is called >>>>>>>>>>>
7ventually a temperature is reached at which the particles are escaping from the liquid surface so rapidly that >>>>>>>>. of vapour %liquid
particles turned into gas particles' start to form inside the liquid. 4his process is called >>>>>>>>>>>
6ooling graphs %energy is given out'
4he cooling graph below shows what happens to the state and temperature of a gas when it is cooled.
temperature %in 6'
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boiling point
melting point freezing
liquid
gas
condensing
During the cooling the particles lose energ! come closer together and "hen the!
collide the! stic# together to form droplets forming a liquid
\$f cooled further in the liquid state the! e%entuall! mo%e so slo"l! that start %ibrating
around a point&
time
9uring condensing and free?ing the particles lose energy as they need less energy because they slow down and come closer together again.
4he forces between the particles have a much greater effect.
!hat are the changes of state called@
6omplete the key to the right by writing the correct process net to each number.
1 '
( )
*
+
,nswer the following questions.
Section 1 a States of matter
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solid
gas
solid
li!"id
1&
2&
3&
4&
'&
(&
!hy does a solid when it melts need energy %understanding'@
!hy do you shiver when you are wet standing net to the pool %application of knowledge'@
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