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Vibrations
of
Machine Foundations
Richard P. Ray, Ph.D., P.E.
Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of South Carolina
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ATST Telescope and FE Model
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Summary and Conclusions (Cho, 2005)
1.

High fidelity FE models were created
2.

Relative mirror motions from zenith to horizon pointing: about 400 m in
translation and 60 rad in rotation.
3.

Natural frequency changes by 2 Hz as height changes by 10m.
4.

Wind buffeting effects caused by dynamic portion (fluctuation) of wind
5.

Modal responses sensitive to stiffness of bearings and drive disks
6.

Soil characteristics were the dominant influences
in modal (dynamic) behavior of the telescopes.
7.

Fundamental Frequency (for a lowest soil stiffness):
OSS=20.5hz; OSS+base=9.9hz; SS+base+Coude+soil=6.3hz
8.

A seismic analysis was made with a sample PSD
9.

ATST structure assembly is adequately designed:
1.

Capable of supporting the OSS
2.

Dynamically stiff enough to hold the optics stable
3.

Not significantly vulnerable to wind loadings
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Topics for Today
Fundamentals
Modeling
Properties
Performance
Alapok
Modellezs
Tulajdonsgok
Gyakorlati
Alkalmazs
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Foundation Movement
Alapok Mozgslehetsgei
X
Z
Y

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Design Questions (1/4) Tervezs
How Does It Fail?
Static Settlement
Dynamic Motion Too
Large (0.02 mm)
Settlements Caused By
Dynamic Motion
Liquefaction
What Are Maximum
Values of Failure?
(Acceleration,
Velocity,
Displacement)
Hogy rongldik/megy
tnkre?
Statikus sllyeds
Dinamikus mozgs tl
nagy (0,02 mm)
Sllyeds dinamikus
mozgs kvetkeztben
Megfolysods
Ronglds maximlis
rtkei (gyorsuls,
sebessg, eltolds)
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Velocity Requirements

Sebessg Kvetelmnyek
Massarch

(2004) "Mitigation of Traffic-Induced Ground Vibrations"
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0,40
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300 800
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Design Questions

(2/4)

Tervezs
What Are Relations
Between Loads And
Failure Quantities?
Loads -Harmonic,
Periodic, Random
LoadStructure
Foundation Soil
Neighboring Structures
Model: Deterministic or
Probabilistic
Mi a kapcsolat terhelsi
s trsi mennyisgek
kztt?
Terhelsek- Harmnikus,
Peridikus, Vletlenszer
Terhels plet
Alapozs Talaj Kzeli
pletek
Model: Determinisztikus s
probabilisztikus
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Harmnikus
Peridikus
Vletlenszer
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Design Questions (3/4)

Tervezs
Hogy hatrozzuk meg a tervezshez szksges
paramtereket? (How do we measure what is
necessary?)
Teljes mretarny teszt (Full scale Test)
Prototpus teszt (Prototype Test)
Kis mret teszt (Small Scale Tests (Centrifuge))
Laboratriumi teszt (Laboratory Tests (Specific
Parameters))
Szmtgpes program (Computer Model)
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Design Questions (4/4)
Milyen biztonsgi tnyezt hasznljunk? (What
Factor of Safety Do We Use? )
Van a biztonsgi tnyeznek rtelme? (Does FOS Have
Meaning)
Mi trtnik trs utn (What Happens After There Is
Failure)
letveszts (Loss of Life)
Tulajdonvesztd (Loss of Property)
Gyrts kihagys (Loss of Production)
Mi a munka clja, tervezett lettartalma, rtke (Purpose of
Project, Design Life, Value)
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r
-2
r
-2
r
-0.5
r
-1
r
-1
r
Nyr
hullm
Vertical
component
Horizontal
component
Shear
window
Rayleigh wave
Relative
amplitude
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
Wave Type
Hullm tpus
sszes energia
szzalka
Rayleigh 67
Shear 26
Compression 7
Waves
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Compresszi

hullm
Nyr
ablak
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Alapok Modellezse

(Modeling Foundations)
Egyestett Tmb (m,c,k)Lumped Parameter (m,c,k) Block
System
Parameters Constant, Layers, Special
Ellenllsi Fggvnyek Impedance Functions
Function of Frequency (), Layers
Peremrtk Feladatok Boundary Elements (BEM)
Infinite Boundary, Interactions, Layers
Vges Elemes (Finite Element/Hybrid (FEM, FEM-BEM))
Complex Geometry, Non-linear Soil
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Lumped Parameter

(Egyestett tmb)
) sin( t P P
o
=
m
G
k
m
c


) sin(
0
t P kz z c z m = + + & & &
r
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Egy szabadsgfok (Single Degree of
Freedom)
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
0
2
N or m
m
N
Force Spring z k
N or
sec
m
m
sec N
Force Damping z c
N or
sec
m
kg Force Inertia z m
z k z c z m
z
z
z
z z z

=
= + +
&
& &
& & &
k
m
c
z
Tehetetlensgi er
Rug er
Csillapt Er
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Egy szabadsgfok
Single Degree of Freedom
c on depends s for solution
s
m
c
s then
m
k
set and e m by divide
e k cs ms where
constant e z form take will solution
z k z c z m
n
n
st
st
st
z z z
0
0 ) (
.......
0
2
2
2
2
= + +
=
= + +
= =
= + +


& & &
c=0Undamped
c=2mCritically
Damped
c<2mUnderdamped
oszts
megolds
lland
ahol
teht
s megoldsa c-tl fgg
Nem csillaptott
Alul csillaptott
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Single Degree of Freedom
) cos( ) 0 ( ) sin(
) 0 (
) (
) 0 ( ) 0 (
) ( , ) cos( ) sin( ) (
) sin( ) cos( '
.) . ( , ) (
... 0
2 1 2 1
2
2
t z t
z
t z
A z and B z
condition initial f B A t B t A t z
t i t e identity s Euler
cond init f where e e t z
i s s
m
c
s
n n
n
n
n
n n
t i
t i t i
n n
n
n n

=
= =
= + =
+ =
= + =
= = + +

&
&
undamped
) 0 ( z&
z(0)
t
Kiindul felttel
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[ ]
t
n
t
n n crit
n
n
n
n
e t z t z t z
cond init f where e t t z
m
c
s and m c c then if
m
c
m
c
s then
present damping if s
m
c
s

+ + =
= + =
= = = = =

=
= + +
) 0 ( ) 1 )( 0 ( ) (
.) . ( , ) ( ) (
2
2 0
2 2
0
2 1 2 1
2
2
2
2
&
critical
Single Degree of Freedom
z(0)
) 0 ( z&
t
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( )
( )

+
+
=
+ =
+ = + =
= =
= = =
< <

+
) cos( ) 0 ( ) sin(
) 0 ( ) 0 (
) (
) cos( ) sin( ( ) (
) (
1
0 2
2 1 2 1
2 2
2
t z t
D z z
e t z
t B t A e t z
e e e e e t z
i D D D s then
D and ratio damping
c
c
D suppose
then m c if
D D
D
n
t D
D D
t D
t i t i t D t i t D t i t D
D n n n n
n D
crit
n
n
n
D D n D n D n


&
d underdampe
Single Degree of Freedom
See Chart
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Single Degree of Freedom
) sin(
0
t P z k z c z m
P z z z
= + +
& & &
k
m
c
) sin( t P P
P o
=
( )
( ) { }
( )
( )
2 2
2
2
2
2
0
1
2
tan
sin
cos ) sin(

+
+
+ =

n
P
n
P
P
P
P
P P
D D
Dt
D
m k
c
t
c m k
P
t B t A e z
n

crit
c
c
D =
m
k
n
= 2
1 D
n D
=
km c
crit
2 =
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SDOF tmenti s llandTransient

and Steady-State
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( )
( )
2
2
2
0
max
2
2
2
2
0
2 1
1
sin ) (

+
=
n
P
n
P
P
P P
D
k
P
z
t
c m k
P
t z



2
2
2
2 1
1

=
n
P
n
P
static max
D
z z

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Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
Dynamic Magnification (Logarithmic)
0.1
1
10
100
0.1 1 10
Frequency Ratio (
P
/
n
)
M
a
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
D=0.02
D=0.05
D=0.10
D=0.20
D=0.50
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Lumped Parameter System
K
x
Z

K
z
C
z
C
x
K


/2 C


/2
X
) sin(
0
t P z k z c z m
P z z z
= + +
& & &
m
I

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Rendszer paramterek Lumped Parameter Values
Mode
Vertical
z
Horizontal
x
Rocking

Torsion

Stiffness
k
Mass Ratio
m
Damping
Ratio, D
1
4Gr
2
8Gr
) 1 ( 3
8
3

Gr
3
16
3
Gr
5
r
I

3
8
) 2 (
r
m


3
4
) 1 (
r
m


2 / 1

425 . 0
m
2 / 1

288 . 0
m
2 / 1

1 (
15 . 0
m m +
m

2 1
50 . 0
+
m

D=c/c
cr

G=Shear Modulus =Poisson's Ratio r=Radius
=Mass Density I


,I


=Mass Moment of Inertia
5
8
) 1 ( 3
r
I


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Design Example 1

(Plda)
VERTICAL COMPRESSOR
Unbalanced Forces

(kiegyenslyozatlan erk)
Vertical = 45 kN
Horizontal

Primary = 0,5 kN
Operating Speed

= 450 rpm
Wt Machine + Motor = 5 000 kg
Soil Properties
Shear Wave Velocity V
s

= 250 m/sec
Density,

= 1600 kg/m
3
Shear Modulus, G = 1,0e8 Pa
Poisson's Ratio,

= 0,33
DESIGN CRITERION:
Smooth Operation At Speed
Velocity <0,10 in/sec
Displacement < 0,002 in <0,05mm
Jump to Chart
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
fggleges
vzszintes
zemel seb.
Gp+motor slya
Talaj jellemzk
Tervezsi felttel
Nyr hullm
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r Gr
Q
mm
k
Q
Z
z
static

=

= = =
8
0 0
10 0 , 1 4
1000 ) 000 45 ( 667 , 0
4
) 1 (
05 , 0

m r 5 . 1
05 . 0
075 . 0
= =
( )
mm Z Z
D
M
m
D
m
r
m
static dynamic
z
05 , 0
2
1
0 , 1 53 , 0

425 , 0
65 , 0
55 , 1 1600 4
000 23 67 , 0
4
) 1 (

3 3
= =

= =
=

Try a 3 x 2,5 x 1 foundation block, r = 1,55 m


Mass = 18 000 kg Total Mass = 18 000 + 5 000 = 23 000 kg
Jump to Figure
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
667 , 0
10 0 , 1 4
) 1 (
4
8
r Gr
k

=

3
4
) 1 (

r
m
m


=
tmeg
tmbalaptest
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Design Example -

Table Top
5m
10m
5m
4m
Q
0

=1800 N

m=250 000 kg
I


=1,0 x 10
7

N-m-sec
2
Soil Properties
Shear Wave Velocity V
s

= 200 m/sec
Shear Modulus, G = 6,80x10
7

Pa
Density,

= 1700 kg/m
3
Poisson's Ratio,

= 0,33
DESIGN CRITERION
5.0 mm/sec Horizontal Motion at
Machine Centerline
X = 0,04 mm from combined
rocking and sliding
Speed = 320 rpm
Slower speeds, X can be larger
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
X
Emelt (asztal) alap
sebessg
Kisebb sebessgnl, x
megnhet
egyttes rocking, csszs
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Horizontal Translation Only
mm
k
Q
X Mag
m
D
r
m
m m
lw
r t Equivanlen
x
static x
3
7
0
2 / 1
3
10 3 , 1
99 , 3 10 8 , 6
33 , 0 2
8
1800
2 , 1 41 , 0

288 , 0
49 , 0
8
2
99 , 3
5 10

= = = =
=

= =

= =


Rocking About Point "O"
0 , 25 019 , 0
29 , 3 ) 29 , 3 1 (
15 , 0
) 1 (
15 , 0
29 , 3
) 39 , 3 ( 1700
10 0 , 1
8
) 67 , 0 ( 3
8
) 1 ( 3

/ 4 , 32
10 0 , 1
10 054 , 1
/ 10 054 , 1
) 33 , 0 1 ( 3
39 , 3 10 80 , 6 8
) 1 ( 3
8
/ 5 , 33 320 39 , 3
3
5 10
3
5
7
5
7
10
10
3 7 3
4
3
4
3
= =
+
=
+
=
=

=
=

= =
=

=
= = =

= =


Mag
m m
D
r
I
m
sec rad
I
k
rad N
Gr
k
sec rad rpm m
lw
r Equivalent
n
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
Ax = 40x10
-3

mm
csak vzszintes mozgs
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mm Resonance At
mm h X Motion Horizontal
rad
k
M
Deflection Angular Static
m N M Base About Moment Static
s
o
s
3 3
3 7
7
10
0
10 0 , 85 ) 10 4 , 3 ( 0 , 25
10 4 , 3 4 10 54 . 8
10 54 . 8
10 054 . 1
9000
9000 5 1800

= =
= = = =
=

= = =
= = =

Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance

X
X = 40x10
-3

mm
Dynamic Magnification (Linear)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0
Frequency Ratio (
P
/
n
)
M
a
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
0,02
0,05
0,1
0,2
0,5
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Impedance Methods
Based on Elasto-Dynamic Solutions
Compute Frequency-Dependent Impedance
Values (Complex-Valued)
Solved By Boundary Integral Methods
Require Uniform, Single Layer or Special Soil
Property Distribution
Solved For Many Foundation Types
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
Ellenllsi fggvnyek
Frekvencitl fgg
ellenllsi rtkek
Peremrtk integrl mdszer
Egyenletes, egy rteg, specilis
talajrtk eloszls szksges
Tbbfajta alap tpusra megoldott
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Impedance Functions
( ) ) sin( ) cos( t i t P e P P
o
t i
o

+ = =
( )

+ + = + = =
SOIL STATIC
z
z
z
D
K
C i k K C i K
A
R
S


2
) (
Radiation Damping
Soil Damping
Jump Wave
S
z
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
Energia csillapts
Talaj csillapts
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Impedance Functions
Luco

and Westmann

(1970)
s
V
r
G
r a

= =
0
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance

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Impedance Functions
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance

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Boundary Element
Stehmeyer

and Rizos, 2006
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
Peremrtk feladatok
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B-Spline

Impulse Response Approach
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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[ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }
t i
e

p u K u M = +
& &
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
{ } { }
[ ] [ ] { }{ } { } p U M K
U u
=
=
2

then e
t i
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Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
G
1

,
1

,
1
u
1
u
2
u
7
u
8
[ ] ) , , (
1 1 1 1
G fn K =

8
7
2
1
8 , 8 7 , 8 2 , 8 1 , 8
8 , 7 7 , 7 2 , 7 1 , 7
8 , 2 7 , 2 2 , 2 1 , 2
8 , 1 7 , 1 2 , 1 1 , 1
u
u
u
u
k k k k
k k k k
k k k k
k k k k
[ ] ) (
1 1
fn m =
linear
linear
d cxy y b x a u
i i i
=
=
+ + + =

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[ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }
t i
e

p u K u M = +
& &
t i
e
p
p
p
p
p
u
u
u
u
u
k k k
k k k k
k k k k k
k k k k
k k k
u
u
u
u
u
m
m
m
m
m

5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5 , 5 4 , 5 3 , 5
5 , 4 4 , 4 3 , 4 2 , 4
5 , 3 4 , 3 3 , 3 2 , 3 1 , 3
4 , 2 3 , 2 2 , 2 1 , 2
3 , 1 2 , 1 1 , 1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
& &
& &
& &
& &
& &
{ } { } { } { }
[ ] [ ] { }{ } { } { }
[ ] { } valued complex are
for solve given
and e then e z if
t i t i

=
= =
Z K
Z p Z M K
Z z Z
,
,
2
2



& &
( )
2 2
1 2 2 1 * D iD D G G + =
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Dynamic p-y

Curves
Tahghighi

and Tonagi

2007
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Soil Properties
Shear Modulus, G and Damping Ratio, D
Soil Type
Confining Stress
Void Ratio
Strain Level
Field: Cross-Hole, Down-Hole, Surface
Analysis of Seismic Waves SASW
Laboratory: Resonant Column, Torsional
Simple Shear, Bender Elements
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
Talaj jellemzk
Hzagtnyez
Talajtpus
Nyls szint
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Crosshole Testing
Oscilloscope
PVC-cased
Borehole
PVC-cased
Borehole
Downhole
Hammer
(Source)
Velocity
Transducer
(Geophone
Receiver)
t
x
Shear Wave Velocity:
V
s

= x/t
Test
Depth
ASTM D 4428
Pump
packer
Note: Verticality of casing
must be established by
slope inclinometers to correct
distances x with depth.
Slope
Inclinometer
Slope
Inclinometer
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Resonant Column Test
G, D for Different
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Torsional

Shear Test
Schematic
Stress-Strain
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Hollow Cylinder RC-TOSS
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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TOSS Test Results
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Steam Turbine-Generator

(Moreschi

and Farzam, 2003)
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Machine Foundation Design Criteria
Deflection criteria: maintain turbine-generator
alignment during machine operating conditions
Dynamic criteria: ensure that no resonance
condition is encountered during machine
operating conditions
Strength criteria: reinforced concrete design
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
Jump to Resonance
El/kihajlsi kritrium: a turbina-genertor szintben maradjon mkdse alatt
Dinamikus felttel: nincs rezonancia a gp mkdse alatt
Erssgi felttel: elfesztett beton tervezs
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STG Pedestal Structure
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Vibration Properties Evaluation
Identification of the foundation natural
frequencies for the dominant modes
Frequency exclusion zones for the natural
frequencies of the foundation system and
individual structural members (20%)
Eigenvalue analysis: natural frequencies,
mode shapes, and mass participation
factors
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
Az alap sajt frekvenciinak meghatrozsa a dominns lengsekre/mdokra
Kihagysi frekvencia znk a termszetes frekvencikra
Eigenrtk

elemzs:termszetes frekvencik,
lengsmdnl alakok, tmeg egyttdolgozsa
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X
Y
Z
X
Y
Z
Finite Element Model
Structure and Base
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Low Frequency Modes
1
st

mode
6.5 Hz
95 % m.p.f.
2
nd

mode
7.2 Hz
76 % m.p.f
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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High Frequency Modes
28
th

mode
46.3 Hz
0.3% m.p.f
42
nd

mode
64.6 Hz
0.03% m.p.f
Excitation frequency: 50-60 Hz
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Local Vibration Modes
Identification of natural
frequencies for individual
structural members
Quantification of changes
on vibration properties due
to foundation modifications
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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ATST Telescope and FE Model
Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Optics Lab mass/Instrument weight = 228 tons
Wind mean force = 75 N, RMS = 89 N
Ground base excitation PSD = 0.004 g
2
/hz
Concrete Pier
High Strength Concrete (E=3.110
10
N/m
2
,
=0.15)
Soil Stiffness, k
Four different values using Arya & ONeils
formula based on the site test data (Shear
modulus:30~75ksi, Poissons ratio:0.35~0.45)
Assumptions in FE analyses
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Soil property range: Shear modulus (30~75ksi), Poissons ratio (0.35~0.45)


Pier Footing: Diameter (23.3m)


min

for shear modulus of 30 ksi; max

for 75 ksi
Frequency vs

Soil Stiffness
Stiffness mi n
min+33.3% min+66.6%
max
Kx 1.19E+10 1.83E+10 2.48E+10 3.12E+10
Ky 1.19E+10 1.83E+10 2.48E+10 3.12E+10
Kz 1.48E+10 2.45E+10 3.41E+10 4.38E+10
Krx 1.34E+12 2.21E+12 3.09E+12 3.96E+12
Kry 1.34E+12 2.21E+12 3.09E+12 3.96E+12
Krz 1.74E+12 2.61E+12 3.49E+12 4.36E+12
6.3 7.0 7.4 7.5
6.4 7.1 7.5 7.7
9.4 9.7 9.9 10
9.4 10.3 11.1 11.8
10.4 11.9 12.6 13.3
11.2 13.0 13.6 13.7
4
5
6
MODE
1
2
3
Stiffness units = SI, frequency mode (hz)
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Summary and Conclusions (Cho, 2005)
1.

High fidelity FE models were created
2.

Relative mirror motions from zenith to horizon pointing: about 400 m in
translation and 60 rad in rotation.
3.

Natural frequency changes by 2 hz

as height changes by 10m.
4.

Wind buffeting effects caused by dynamic portion (fluctuation) of wind
5.

Modal responses sensitive to stiffness of bearings and drive disks
6. Soil characteristics were the dominant influences in modal
behavior of the telescopes.
7.

Fundamental Frequency (for a lowest soil stiffness):
OSS=20.5hz; OSS+base=9.9hz; SS+base+Coude+soil=6.3hz
8.

A seismic analysis was made with a sample PSD
9.

ATST structure assembly is adequately designed:
1.

Capable of supporting the OSS
2.

Dynamically stiff enough to hold the optics stable
3.

Not significantly vulnerable to wind loadings
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Free-Field Analytical Solutions

=
R
V z
C
r
H a R
V L
i r u

2
0 0
3
0
) (
2
) 0 , , (

=
R
V r
C
r
H a R
V M
i r u

2
1 0
3
0
) (
2
) 0 , , (
u
r
u
z
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Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Fundamentals-Modeling-Properties-Performance
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Karlstrom

and Bostrom

2007
Trench
Isolation
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Chehab

and Nagger 2003
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Celibi

et al (in press)
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Thank-you
Questions?
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r
-2
r
-2
r
-0.5
r
-1
r
-1
r
Shear
wave
Vertical
component
Horizontal
component
Shear
window
Rayleigh wave
Relative
amplitude
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
Wave Type Percentage of
Total Energy
Rayleigh 67
Shear 26
Compression 7
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Waves
Rayleigh, R
Surface
Shear,S

Secondary
Compression, P
Primary
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Machine Performance Chart
Performance Zones
A=No Faults, New
B=Minor Faults,
Good Condition
C = Faulty, Correct
In 10 Days To Save
$$
D = Failure Is Near,
Correct In 2 Days
E = Stop Now
0.002
450