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Anatomy & Physiology

OpenStax College
Rice University
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ISBN-10 1938168135

ISBN-13

978-1-938168-13-0

Revision

AP-1-001-DW




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1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
-45?8 B9 CBAG8AGF
)E89468 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
.A<G 1: %8I8?F B9 (E:4A<M4G<BA
C;4CG8E 1: AA "AGEB7H6G<BA GB G;8 !H@4A BB7L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.1 ,M<IM@<N F= AE8KFDP 8E; -?PJ@FCF>P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.2 0KIL:KLI8C ,I>8E@Q8K@FE F= K?< %LD8E BF;P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.3 #LE:K@FEJ F= %LD8E )@=< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.4 /<HL@I<D<EKJ =FI %LD8E )@=< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.5 %FD<FJK8J@J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.6 AE8KFD@:8C 1<ID@EFCF>P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.7 *<;@:8C &D8>@E> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
C;4CG8E 2: -;8 C;8@<64? %8I8? B9 (E:4A<M4G<BA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.1 "C<D<EKJ 8E; AKFDJ: 1?< BL@C;@E> BCF:BJ F= *8KK<I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.2 ?<D@:8C BFE;J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.3 ?<D@:8C /<8:K@FEJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.4 &EFI>8E@: FDGFLE;J "JJ<EK@8C KF %LD8E #LE:K@FE@E> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.5 ,I>8E@: FDGFLE;J "JJ<EK@8C KF %LD8E #LE:K@FE@E> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
C;4CG8E 3: -;8 C8??H?4E %8I8? B9 (E:4A<M4G<BA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.1 1?< <CC *<D9I8E< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.2 1?< PKFGC8JD 8E; <CCLC8I ,I>8E<CC<J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.3 1?< +L:C<LJ 8E; !+A /<GC@:8K@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.4 -IFK<@E 0PEK?<J@J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
3.5 <CC $IFNK? 8E; !@M@J@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3.6 <CCLC8I !@==<I<EK@8K@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
C;4CG8E 4: -;8 -<FFH8 %8I8? B9 (E:4A<M4G<BA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4.1 1PG<J F= 1@JJL<J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
4.2 "G@K?<C@8C 1@JJL< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4.3 FEE<:K@M< 1@JJL< 0LGGFIKJ 8E; -IFK<:KJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.4 *LJ:C< 1@JJL< 8E; *FK@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
4.5 +<IMFLJ 1@JJL< *<;@8K<J -<I:<GK@FE 8E; /<JGFEJ< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
4.6 1@JJL< &EALIP 8E; A>@E> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
.A<G 2: ,HCCBEG 4A7 &BI8@8AG
C;4CG8E 5: -;8 "AG8:H@8AG4EL ,LFG8@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
5.1 )8P<IJ F= K?< 0B@E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
5.2 A::<JJFIP 0KIL:KLI<J F= K?< 0B@E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
5.3 #LE:K@FEJ F= K?< &EK<>LD<EK8IP 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
5.4 !@J<8J<J, !@JFI;<IJ, 8E; &EALI@<J F= K?< &EK<>LD<EK8IP 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
C;4CG8E 6: BBA8 -<FFH8 4A7 G;8 ,>8?8G4? ,LFG8@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.1 1?< #LE:K@FEJ F= K?< 0B<C<K8C 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.2 BFE< C8JJ@=@:8K@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.3 BFE< 0KIL:KLI< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
6.4 BFE< #FID8K@FE 8E; !<M<CFGD<EK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
6.5 #I8:KLI<J: BFE< /<G8@I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
6.6 "O<I:@J<, +LKI@K@FE, %FIDFE<J, 8E; BFE< 1@JJL< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
6.7 8C:@LD %FD<FJK8J@J: &EK<I8:K@FEJ F= K?< 0B<C<K8C 0PJK<D 8E; ,K?<I ,I>8E 0PJK<DJ . 231
C;4CG8E 7: AK<4? ,>8?8GBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
7.1 !@M@J@FEJ F= K?< 0B<C<K8C 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
7.2 1?< 0BLCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
7.3 1?< 3<IK<9I8C FCLDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
7.4 1?< 1?FI8:@: 8>< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
7.5 "D9IPFE@: !<M<CFGD<EK F= K?< AO@8C 0B<C<KFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
C;4CG8E 8: -;8 ACC8A7<6H?4E ,>8?8GBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
8.1 1?< -<:KFI8C $@I;C< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
8.2 BFE<J F= K?< 2GG<I )@D9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
8.3 1?< -<CM@: $@I;C< 8E; -<CM@J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
8.4 BFE<J F= K?< )FN<I )@D9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
8.5 !<M<CFGD<EK F= K?< AGG<E;@:LC8I 0B<C<KFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
C;4CG8E 9: #B<AGF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
9.1 C8JJ@=@:8K@FE F= 'F@EKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
9.2 #@9IFLJ 'F@EKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
9.3 8IK@C8>@EFLJ 'F@EKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
9.4 0PEFM@8C 'F@EKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
3
9.5 1PG<J F= BF;P *FM<D<EKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
9.6 AE8KFDP F= 0<C<:K<; 0PEFM@8C 'F@EKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
9.7 !<M<CFGD<EK F= 'F@EKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
C;4CG8E 10: &HF6?8 -<FFH8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
10.1 ,M<IM@<N F= *LJ:C< 1@JJL<J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
10.2 0B<C<K8C *LJ:C< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
10.3 *LJ:C< #@9<I FEKI8:K@FE 8E; /<C8O8K@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
10.4 +<IMFLJ 0PJK<D FEKIFC F= *LJ:C< 1<EJ@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
10.5 1PG<J F= *LJ:C< #@9<IJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
10.6 "O<I:@J< 8E; *LJ:C< -<I=FID8E:< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
10.7 8I;@8: *LJ:C< 1@JJL< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
10.8 0DFFK? *LJ:C< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
10.9 !<M<CFGD<EK 8E; /<><E<I8K@FE F= *LJ:C< 1@JJL< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
C;4CG8E 11: -;8 &HF6H?4E ,LFG8@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
11.1 &EK<I8:K@FEJ F= 0B<C<K8C *LJ:C<J, 1?<@I #8J:@:C< AII8E><D<EK, 8E; 1?<@I )<M<I 0PJK<DJ 416
11.2 +8D@E> 0B<C<K8C *LJ:C<J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
11.3 AO@8C *LJ:C<J F= K?< %<8;, +<:B, 8E; B8:B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
11.4 AO@8C *LJ:C<J F= K?< A9;FD@E8C 48CC 8E; 1?FI8O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
11.5 *LJ:C<J F= K?< -<:KFI8C $@I;C< 8E; 2GG<I )@D9J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
11.6 AGG<E;@:LC8I *LJ:C<J F= K?< -<CM@: $@I;C< 8E; )FN<I )@D9J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
.A<G 3: +8:H?4G<BA, "AG8:E4G<BA, 4A7 CBAGEB?
C;4CG8E 12: -;8 '8EIBHF ,LFG8@ 4A7 '8EIBHF -<FFH8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
12.1 B8J@: 0KIL:KLI< 8E; #LE:K@FE F= K?< +<IMFLJ 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
12.2 +<IMFLJ 1@JJL< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
12.3 1?< #LE:K@FE F= +<IMFLJ 1@JJL< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
12.4 1?< A:K@FE -FK<EK@8C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
12.5 FDDLE@:8K@FE B<KN<<E +<LIFEJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
C;4CG8E 13: AA4GB@L B9 G;8 '8EIBHF ,LFG8@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
13.1 1?< "D9IPFCF>@: -<IJG<:K@M< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
13.2 1?< <EKI8C +<IMFLJ 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
13.3 @I:LC8K@FE 8E; K?< <EKI8C +<IMFLJ 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
13.4 1?< -<I@G?<I8C +<IMFLJ 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
C;4CG8E 14: -;8 BE4<A 4A7 CE4A<4? '8EI8F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
14.1 0<EJFIP -<I:<GK@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562
14.2 <EKI8C -IF:<JJ@E> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
14.3 *FKFI /<JGFEJ<J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
C;4CG8E 15: -;8 AHGBAB@<6 '8EIBHF ,LFG8@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
15.1 !@M@J@FEJ F= K?< ALKFEFD@: +<IMFLJ 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612
15.2 ALKFEFD@: /<=C<O<J 8E; %FD<FJK8J@J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621
15.3 <EKI8C FEKIFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
15.4 !IL>J K?8K A==<:K K?< ALKFEFD@: 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
C;4CG8E 16: -;8 '8HEB?B:<64? EK4@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647
16.1 ,M<IM@<N F= K?< +<LIFCF>@:8C "O8D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648
16.2 1?< *<EK8C 0K8KLJ "O8D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652
16.3 1?< I8E@8C +<IM< "O8D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658
16.4 1?< 0<EJFIP 8E; *FKFI "O8DJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667
16.5 1?< FFI;@E8K@FE 8E; $8@K "O8DJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672
C;4CG8E 17: -;8 EA7B6E<A8 ,LFG8@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685
17.1 AE ,M<IM@<N F= K?< "E;F:I@E< 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686
17.2 %FIDFE<J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689
17.3 1?< -@KL@K8IP $C8E; 8E; %PGFK?8C8DLJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697
17.4 1?< 1?PIF@; $C8E; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705
17.5 1?< -8I8K?PIF@; $C8E;J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710
17.6 1?< A;I<E8C $C8E;J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713
17.7 1?< -@E<8C $C8E; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716
17.8 $FE8;8C 8E; -C8:<EK8C %FIDFE<J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716
17.9 1?< "E;F:I@E< -8E:I<8J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718
17.10 ,I>8EJ N@K? 0<:FE;8IP "E;F:I@E< #LE:K@FEJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723
17.11 !<M<CFGD<EK 8E; A>@E> F= K?< "E;F:I@E< 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725
.A<G 4: F?H<7F 4A7 -E4AFCBEG
C;4CG8E 18: -;8 C4E7<BI4F6H?4E ,LFG8@: B?BB7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737
18.1 AE ,M<IM@<N F= BCFF; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738
18.2 -IF;L:K@FE F= K?< #FID<; "C<D<EKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 742
4
1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
18.3 "IPK?IF:PK<J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745
18.4 )<LBF:PK<J 8E; -C8K<C<KJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752
18.5 %<DFJK8J@J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757
18.6 BCFF; 1PG@E> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762
C;4CG8E 19: -;8 C4E7<BI4F6H?4E ,LFG8@: -;8 !84EG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777
19.1 %<8IK AE8KFDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778
19.2 8I;@8: *LJ:C< 8E; "C<:KI@:8C A:K@M@KP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799
19.3 8I;@8: P:C< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812
19.4 8I;@8: -?PJ@FCF>P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816
19.5 !<M<CFGD<EK F= K?< %<8IK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 826
C;4CG8E 20: -;8 C4E7<BI4F6H?4E ,LFG8@: B?BB7 /8FF8?F 4A7 C<E6H?4G<BA . . . . . . . . . . . 837
20.1 0KIL:KLI< 8E; #LE:K@FE F= BCFF; 3<JJ<CJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 838
20.2 BCFF; #CFN, BCFF; -I<JJLI<, 8E; /<J@JK8E:< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849
20.3 8G@CC8IP "O:?8E>< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859
20.4 %FD<FJK8K@: /<>LC8K@FE F= K?< 38J:LC8I 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861
20.5 @I:LC8KFIP -8K?N8PJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871
20.6 !<M<CFGD<EK F= BCFF; 3<JJ<CJ 8E; #<K8C @I:LC8K@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903
C;4CG8E 21: -;8 %L@C;4G<6 4A7 "@@HA8 ,LFG8@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919
21.1 AE8KFDP F= K?< )PDG?8K@: 8E; &DDLE< 0PJK<DJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 920
21.2 B8II@<I !<=<EJ<J 8E; K?< &EE8K< &DDLE< /<JGFEJ< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 932
21.3 1?< A;8GK@M< &DDLE< /<JGFEJ<: 1 CPDG?F:PK<J 8E; 1?<@I #LE:K@FE8C 1PG<J . . . . . 938
21.4 1?< A;8GK@M< &DDLE< /<JGFEJ<: B-CPDG?F:PK<J 8E; AEK@9F;@<J . . . . . . . . . . . 946
21.5 1?< &DDLE< /<JGFEJ< 8>8@EJK -8K?F><EJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 951
21.6 !@J<8J<J AJJF:@8K<; N@K? !<GI<JJ<; FI ,M<I8:K@M< &DDLE< /<JGFEJ<J . . . . . . . . 954
21.7 1I8EJGC8EK8K@FE 8E; 8E:<I &DDLEFCF>P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958
.A<G 5: EA8E:L, &4<AG8A4A68, 4A7 EAI<EBA@8AG4? EK6;4A:8
C;4CG8E 22: -;8 +8FC<E4GBEL ,LFG8@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 973
22.1 ,I>8EJ 8E; 0KIL:KLI<J F= K?< /<JG@I8KFIP 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 974
22.2 1?< )LE>J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 985
22.3 1?< -IF:<JJ F= BI<8K?@E> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 988
22.4 $8J "O:?8E>< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996
22.5 1I8EJGFIK F= $8J<J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000
22.6 *F;@=@:8K@FEJ @E /<JG@I8KFIP #LE:K@FEJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007
22.7 "D9IPFE@: !<M<CFGD<EK F= K?< /<JG@I8KFIP 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008
C;4CG8E 23: -;8 D<:8FG<I8 ,LFG8@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021
23.1 ,M<IM@<N F= K?< !@><JK@M< 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1022
23.2 !@><JK@M< 0PJK<D -IF:<JJ<J 8E; /<>LC8K@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027
23.3 1?< *FLK?, -?8IPEO, 8E; "JFG?8>LJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1031
23.4 1?< 0KFD8:? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1040
23.5 1?< 0D8CC 8E; )8I>< &EK<JK@E<J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1046
23.6 A::<JJFIP ,I>8EJ @E !@><JK@FE: 1?< )@M<I, -8E:I<8J, 8E; $8CC9C8;;<I . . . . . . . . 1056
23.7 ?<D@:8C !@><JK@FE 8E; A9JFIGK@FE: A CFJ<I )FFB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1060
C;4CG8E 24: &8G45B?<F@ 4A7 'HGE<G<BA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1079
24.1 ,M<IM@<N F= *<K89FC@: /<8:K@FEJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1080
24.2 8I9F?P;I8K< *<K89FC@JD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1084
24.3 )@G@; *<K89FC@JD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097
24.4 -IFK<@E *<K89FC@JD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103
24.5 *<K89FC@: 0K8K<J F= K?< BF;P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108
24.6 "E<I>P 8E; %<8K B8C8E:< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111
24.7 +LKI@K@FE 8E; !@<K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1113
C;4CG8E 25: -;8 .E<A4EL ,LFG8@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1127
25.1 -?PJ@:8C ?8I8:K<I@JK@:J F= 2I@E< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128
25.2 $IFJJ AE8KFDP F= 2I@E< 1I8EJGFIK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131
25.3 $IFJJ AE8KFDP F= K?< (@;E<P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1135
25.4 *@:IFJ:FG@: AE8KFDP F= K?< (@;E<P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1140
25.5 -?PJ@FCF>P F= 2I@E< #FID8K@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144
25.6 1L9LC8I /<89JFIGK@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1147
25.7 /<>LC8K@FE F= /<E8C BCFF; #CFN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1156
25.8 "E;F:I@E< /<>LC8K@FE F= (@;E<P #LE:K@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1157
25.9 /<>LC8K@FE F= #CL@; 3FCLD< 8E; FDGFJ@K@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1159
25.10 1?< 2I@E8IP 0PJK<D 8E; %FD<FJK8J@J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1161
C;4CG8E 26: F?H<7, E?86GEB?LG8, 4A7 A6<7-B4F8 B4?4A68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1173
26.1 BF;P #CL@;J 8E; #CL@; FDG8IKD<EKJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174
5
26.2 48K<I B8C8E:< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
26.3 "C<:KIFCPK< B8C8E:< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1185
26.4 A:@;-B8J< B8C8E:< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1189
26.5 !@JFI;<IJ F= A:@;-B8J< B8C8E:< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
.A<G 6: !H@4A D8I8?BC@8AG 4A7 G;8 CBAG<AH<GL B9 %<98
C;4CG8E 27: -;8 +8CEB7H6G<I8 ,LFG8@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1203
27.1 AE8KFDP 8E; -?PJ@FCF>P F= K?< *8C< /<GIF;L:K@M< 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1204
27.2 AE8KFDP 8E; -?PJ@FCF>P F= K?< #<D8C< /<GIF;L:K@M< 0PJK<D . . . . . . . . . . . . 1214
27.3 !<M<CFGD<EK F= K?< *8C< 8E; #<D8C< /<GIF;L:K@M< 0PJK<DJ . . . . . . . . . . . . 1229
C;4CG8E 28: D8I8?BC@8AG 4A7 "A;8E<G4A68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1239
28.1 #<IK@C@Q8K@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1240
28.2 "D9IPFE@: !<M<CFGD<EK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1244
28.3 #<K8C !<M<CFGD<EK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1255
28.4 *8K<IE8C ?8E><J !LI@E> -I<>E8E:P, )89FI, 8E; B@IK? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1260
28.5 A;ALJKD<EKJ F= K?< &E=8EK 8K B@IK? 8E; -FJKE8K8C 0K8><J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1266
28.6 )8:K8K@FE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1268
28.7 -8KK<IEJ F= &E?<I@K8E:< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1271
"A78K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1312
6
1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
-/"#A"
7BI@LJB QL H-&a' A'a,(&1 a'd P!1+"(%(1, >K /MBK3Q>U #LIIBDB OBPLRO@B. 7B @OB>QBA QEFP QBUQ?LLH TFQE PBSBO>I DL>IP
FK JFKA: >@@BPPF?FIFQV, @RPQLJFW>QFLK, >KA PQRABKQ BKD>DBJBKQjEBIMFKD PQRABKQP OB>@E EFDE IBSBIP LC >@>ABJF@ P@ELI>OPEFM.
)KPQOR@QLOP >KA PQRABKQP >IFHB TFII CFKA QE>Q QEFP QBUQ?LLH LCCBOP > QELOLRDE FKQOLAR@QFLK QL QEB @LKQBKQ FK >K >@@BPPF?IB
CLOJ>Q.
A5BHG (C8A,G4K CB??8:8
/MBK3Q>U #LIIBDB FP > KLKMOLCFQ LOD>KFW>QFLK @LJJFQQBA QL FJMOLSFKD PQRABKQ >@@BPP QL NR>IFQV IB>OKFKD J>QBOF>IP. /RO
COBB QBUQ?LLHP >OB ABSBILMBA >KA MBBO-OBSFBTBA ?V BAR@>QLOP QL BKPROB QE>Q QEBV >OB OB>A>?IB, >@@RO>QB, >KA LOD>KFWBA FK
>@@LOA>K@B TFQE QEB P@LMB >KA PBNRBK@B OBNRFOBJBKQP LC QLA>VlP @LIIBDB @LROPBP. 5KIFHB QO>AFQFLK>I QBUQ?LLHP, /MBK3Q>U
#LIIBDB OBPLRO@BP IFSB LKIFKB >KA >OB LTKBA ?V QEB @LJJRKFQV LC BAR@>QLOP RPFKD QEBJ. 4EOLRDE M>OQKBOPEFMP TFQE
@LJM>KFBP >KA CLRKA>QFLKP @LJJFQQBA QL OBAR@FKD @LPQP CLO PQRABKQP, TB >OB TLOHFKD QL FJMOLSB >@@BPP QL EFDEBO BAR@>QFLK
CLO >II. /MBK3Q>U #LIIBDB FP >K FKFQF>QFSB LC 2F@B 5KFSBOPFQV >KA FP J>AB MLPPF?IB QEOLRDE QEB DBKBOLRP PRMMLOQ LC PBSBO>I
MEFI>KQEOLMF@ CLRKA>QFLKP.
A5BHG (C8A,G4K CB??8:8UF +8FBHE68F
/MBK3Q>U #LIIBDB OBPLRO@BP MOLSFAB NR>IFQV >@>ABJF@ FKPQOR@QFLK. 4EOBB HBV CB>QROBP PBQ LRO J>QBOF>IP >M>OQ COLJ LQEBOP:
1) 4EBV @>K ?B B>PFIV @RPQLJFWBA ?V FKPQOR@QLOP CLO B>@E @I>PP, 2) QEBV >OB mIFSFKDn OBPLRO@BP QE>Q DOLT LKIFKB QEOLRDE
@LKQOF?RQFLKP COLJ P@FBK@B BAR@>QLOP, >KA 3) QEBV >OB >S>FI>?IB CLO COBB LO CLO > JFKFJ>I @LPQ.
CHFGB@<M4G<BA
/MBK3Q>U #LIIBDB IB>OKFKD OBPLRO@BP >OB @LK@BFSBA >KA TOFQQBK TFQE CIBUF?FIFQV FK JFKA PL QE>Q QEBV @>K ?B @RPQLJFWBA CLO
B>@E @LROPB. /RO QBUQ?LLHP MOLSFAB > PLIFA CLRKA>QFLK LK TEF@E FKPQOR@QLOP @>K ?RFIA QEBFO LTK QBUQP. )KPQOR@QLOP @>K PBIB@Q
QEB PB@QFLKP QE>Q >OB JLPQ OBIBS>KQ QL QEBFO @ROOF@RI> >KA @OB>QB > QBUQ?LLH QE>Q PMB>HP AFOB@QIV QL QEB KBBAP LC QEBFO PQRABKQP.
)KPQOR@QLOP >OB BK@LRO>DBA QL BUM>KA LK BUFPQFKD BU>JMIBP FK QEB QBUQ ?V >AAFKD RKFNRB @LKQBUQ SF> DBLDO>MEF@>IIV IL@>IFWBA
>MMIF@>QFLKP >KA QLMF@>I @LKKB@QFLKP.
H-&a' A'a,(&1 a'd P!1+"(%(1 @>K ?B B>PFIV @RPQLJFWBA RPFKD LRO LKIFKB MI>QCLOJ (EQQMP://LMBKPQ>U@LIIBDB.LOD/
QBUQ?LLHP/>K>QLJV->KA-MEVPFLILDV/>A>MQ). 4EB QBUQ FP >OO>KDBA FK > JLARI>O @E>MQBO CLOJ>Q. 3FJMIV PBIB@Q QEB @LKQBKQ JLPQ
OBIBS>KQ QL VLRO PVII>?RP >KA @OB>QB > QBUQ?LLH QE>Q >AAOBPPBP QEB KBBAP LC VLRO @I>PP. 4EFP @RPQLJFW>QFLK CB>QROB TFII BKPROB
QE>Q VLRO QBUQ?LLH OBCIB@QP QEB DL>IP LC VLRO @LROPB.
CHE4G<BA
4L ?OL>ABK >@@BPP >KA BK@LRO>DB @LJJRKFQV @RO>QFLK, H-&a' A'a,(&1 a'd P!1+"(%(1 FP mLMBK PLRO@Bn RKABO > #OB>QFSB
#LJJLKP !QQOF?RQFLK (## "9) IF@BKPB. -BJ?BOP LC QEB P@FBKQFCF@ @LJJRKFQV >OB FKSFQBA QL PR?JFQ BU>JMIBP, BJBODFKD
OBPB>O@E, >KA LQEBO CBBA?>@H QL BKE>K@B >KA PQOBKDQEBK QEB J>QBOF>I, HBBMFKD FQ @ROOBKQ >KA OBIBS>KQ CLO QLA>VlP PQRABKQP.
3R?JFQ VLRO PRDDBPQFLKP QL FKCLLMBKPQ>U@LIIBDB.LOD, >KA @EB@H FK LK BAFQFLK PQ>QRP, >IQBOK>QB SBOPFLKP, BOO>Q>, >KA KBTP
LK QEB 3Q>U$>PE >Q EQQM://LMBKPQ>U@LIIBDB.LOD.
CBFG
/RO QBUQ?LLHP >OB >S>FI>?IB CLO COBB LKIFKB, >KA FK ILT-@LPQ MOFKQ >KA Q>?IBQ BAFQFLKP.
A5BHG Human Anatomy and Physiology
H-&a' A'a,(&1 a'd P!1+"(%(1 FP ABPFDKBA CLO QEB QTL-PBJBPQBO >K>QLJV >KA MEVPFLILDV @LROPB Q>HBK ?V IFCB P@FBK@B
>KA >IIFBA EB>IQE PQRABKQP. )Q PRMMLOQP BCCB@QFSB QB>@EFKD >KA IB>OKFKD, >KA MOBM>OBP PQRABKQP CLO CROQEBO IB>OKFKD >KA CRQROB
@>OBBOP. 4EB QBUQ CL@RPBP LK QEB JLPQ FJMLOQ>KQ @LK@BMQP >KA >FJP QL JFKFJFWB AFPQO>@QFKD PQRABKQP TFQE JLOB JFKLO ABQ>FIP.
4EB ABSBILMJBKQ @ELF@BP CLO QEFP QBUQ?LLH TBOB J>AB TFQE QEB DRFA>K@B LC ERKAOBAP LC C>@RIQV TEL >OB ABBMIV
FKSLISBA FK QB>@EFKD QEFP @LROPB. 4EBPB @ELF@BP IBA QL FKKLS>QFLKP FK >OQ, QBOJFKLILDV, @>OBBO LOFBKQ>QFLK, MO>@QF@>I
>MMIF@>QFLKP, >KA JRIQFJBAF>-?>PBA IB>OKFKD, >II TFQE > DL>I LC FK@OB>PFKD OBIBS>K@B QL PQRABKQP. 7B PQOLSB QL J>HB QEB
AFP@FMIFKB JB>KFKDCRI >KA JBJLO>?IB QL PQRABKQP, PL QE>Q QEBV @>K AO>T COLJ FQ > TLOHFKD HKLTIBADB QE>Q TFII BKOF@E QEBFO
CRQROB PQRAFBP.
CBI8E4:8 4A7 ,6BC8
4EB RKFQP LC LRO H-&a' A'a,(&1 a'd P!1+"(%(1 QBUQ?LLH >AEBOB QL QEB P@LMB >KA PBNRBK@B CLIILTBA ?V JLPQ QTL-PBJBPQBO
@LROPBP K>QFLKTFAB.
.A<G 1: %8I8?F B9 (E:4A<M4G<BA
#E>MQBOP 1i4 MOLSFAB PQRABKQP TFQE > ?>PF@ RKABOPQ>KAFKD LC ERJ>K >K>QLJV >KA MEVPFLILDV, FK@IRAFKD FQP I>KDR>DB, QEB
IBSBIP LC LOD>KFW>QFLK, >KA QEB ?>PF@P LC @EBJFPQOV >KA @BII ?FLILDV. 4EBPB @E>MQBOP MOLSFAB > CLRKA>QFLK CLO QEB CROQEBO PQRAV
-/"#A" 7
LC QEB ?LAV. 4EBV >IPL CL@RP M>OQF@RI>OIV LK ELT QEB ?LAVlP OBDFLKP, FJMLOQ>KQ @EBJF@>IP, >KA @BIIP J>FKQ>FK ELJBLPQ>PFP.
#E>MQBO 1 !K )KQOLAR@QFLK QL QEB (RJ>K "LAV
#E>MQBO 2 4EB #EBJF@>I ,BSBI LC /OD>KFW>QFLK
#E>MQBO 3 4EB #BIIRI>O ,BSBI LC /OD>KFW>QFLK
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GRPQ LKB LO QTL BIB@QOLK M>FOP, QELRDE I>ODBO PE>OFKDP >OB MLPPF?IB. 4EB FJMLOQ>KQ @LK@BMQ QL Q>HB COLJ QEFP FP QE>Q FK @LS>IBKQ
?LKAP, BIB@QOLKP FK QEB LRQBOJLPQ S>IBK@B PEBII >OB PE>OBA QL CFII QEB S>IBK@B PEBIIP LC ?LQE >QLJP, RIQFJ>QBIV PQ>?FIFWFKD ?LQE
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4EB JLPQ C>JFIF>O BU>JMIB LC > MLI>O JLIB@RIB FP T>QBO (F97EB5 2.10). 4EB JLIB@RIB E>P QEOBB M>OQP: LKB >QLJ LC
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ERJ>KP. 4EBPB >OB PR@OLPB, @LJJLKIV OBCBOOBA QL >P Q>?IB PRD>O; I>@QLPB, LO JFIH PRD>O; >KA J>IQLPB, LO J>IQ PRD>O. !P VLR
@>K QBII COLJ QEBFO @LJJLK K>JBP, VLR @LKPRJB QEBPB FK VLRO AFBQ; ELTBSBO, VLRO ?LAV @>KKLQ RPB QEBJ AFOB@QIV. )KPQB>A,
FK QEB AFDBPQFSB QO>@Q, QEBV >OB PMIFQ FKQL QEBFO @LJMLKBKQ JLKLP>@@E>OFABP SF> EVAOLIVPFP.
68 %A-1"/ 2 R 1%" %"*&A) )"3") ,# ,/$A+&7A1&,+
1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
F<:HE8 2.19 -;E88 "@CBEG4AG D<F466;4E<78F ACC K?I<< @DGFIK8EK ;@J8::?8I@;<J =FID 9P ;<?P;I8K@FE JPEK?<J@J.
%A-1"/ 2 R 1%" %"*&A) )"3") ,# ,/$A+&7A1&,+ 69
7>Q@E QEFP F945? (8DD@://?@5>CD1H3?<<575.?B7/</49C13381B945) QL L?PBOSB QEB CLOJ>QFLK LC > AFP>@@E>OFAB. 7E>Q
E>MMBKP TEBK T>QBO BK@LRKQBOP > DIV@LPFAF@ ?LKA?
)B?LF466;4E<78F
0LIVP>@@E>OFABP @>K @LKQ>FK > CBT QL > QELRP>KA LO JLOB JLKLP>@@E>OFABP. 4EOBB >OB FJMLOQ>KQ QL QEB ?LAV (F97EB5 2.20):
c 3Q>O@EBP >OB MLIVJBOP LC DIR@LPB. 4EBV L@@RO FK ILKD @E>FKP @>IIBA >JVILPB LO ?O>K@EBA @E>FKP @>IIBA >JVILMB@QFK,
?LQE LC TEF@E >OB PQLOBA FK MI>KQ-?>PBA CLLAP >KA >OB OBI>QFSBIV B>PV QL AFDBPQ.
c 'IV@LDBK FP >IPL > MLIVJBO LC DIR@LPB, ?RQ FQ FP PQLOBA FK QEB QFPPRBP LC >KFJ>IP, BPMB@F>IIV FK QEB JRP@IBP >KA IFSBO. )Q FP
KLQ @LKPFABOBA > AFBQ>OV @>O?LEVAO>QB ?B@>RPB SBOV IFQQIB DIV@LDBK OBJ>FKP FK >KFJ>I QFPPRBP >CQBO PI>RDEQBO; ELTBSBO,
QEB ERJ>K ?LAV PQLOBP BU@BPP DIR@LPB >P DIV@LDBK, >D>FK, FK QEB JRP@IBP >KA IFSBO.
c #BIIRILPB, > MLIVP>@@E>OFAB QE>Q FP QEB MOFJ>OV @LJMLKBKQ LC QEB @BII T>II LC DOBBK MI>KQP, FP QEB @LJMLKBKQ LC MI>KQ
CLLA OBCBOOBA QL >P mCF?BOn. )K ERJ>KP, @BIIRILPB/CF?BO FP KLQ AFDBPQF?IB; ELTBSBO, AFBQ>OV CF?BO E>P J>KV EB>IQE ?BKBCFQP.
)Q EBIMP VLR CBBI CRII PL VLR B>Q IBPP, FQ MOLJLQBP > EB>IQEV AFDBPQFSB QO>@Q, >KA > AFBQ EFDE FK CF?BO FP QELRDEQ QL OBAR@B
QEB OFPH LC EB>OQ AFPB>PB >KA MLPPF?IV PLJB CLOJP LC @>K@BO.
F<:HE8 2.20 -;E88 "@CBEG4AG )B?LF466;4E<78F 1?I<< @DGFIK8EK GFCPJ8::?8I@;<J 8I< JK8I:?<J, >CP:F><E, 8E; =@9<I.
FHA6G<BAF B9 C4E5B;L7E4G8F
4EB ?LAV L?Q>FKP @>O?LEVAO>QBP COLJ MI>KQ-?>PBA CLLAP. 'O>FKP, CORFQP, >KA IBDRJBP >KA LQEBO SBDBQ>?IBP MOLSFAB JLPQ LC
QEB @>O?LEVAO>QB FK QEB ERJ>K AFBQ, >IQELRDE I>@QLPB FP CLRKA FK A>FOV MOLAR@QP.
!IQELRDE JLPQ ?LAV @BIIP @>K ?OB>H ALTK LQEBO LOD>KF@ @LJMLRKAP CLO CRBI, >II ?LAV @BIIP @>K RPB DIR@LPB. -LOBLSBO,
KBOSB @BIIP (KBROLKP) FK QEB ?O>FK, PMFK>I @LOA, >KA QEOLRDE QEB MBOFMEBO>I KBOSLRP PVPQBJ, >P TBII >P OBA ?ILLA @BIIP, @>K RPB
LKIV DIR@LPB CLO CRBI. )K QEB ?OB>HALTK LC DIR@LPB CLO BKBODV, JLIB@RIBP LC >ABKLPFKB QOFMELPME>QB, ?BQQBO HKLTK >P !40,
>OB MOLAR@BA. A45>?C9>5 DB9@8?C@81D5 (A*&) FP @LJMLPBA LC > OF?LPB PRD>O, >K >ABKFKB ?>PB, >KA QEOBB MELPME>QB DOLRMP.
!40 OBIB>PBP COBB BKBODV TEBK FQP MELPME>QB ?LKAP >OB ?OLHBK, >KA QERP PRMMIFBP OB>AV BKBODV QL QEB @BII. -LOB !40 FP
MOLAR@BA FK QEB MOBPBK@B LC LUVDBK (/
2
) QE>K FK M>QET>VP QE>Q AL KLQ RPB LUVDBK. 4EB LSBO>II OB>@QFLK CLO QEB @LKSBOPFLK
LC QEB BKBODV FK DIR@LPB QL BKBODV PQLOBA FK !40 @>K ?B TOFQQBK:
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6 O
2
6 CO
2
+ 6 H
2
O + ATP
)K >AAFQFLK QL ?BFKD > @OFQF@>I CRBI PLRO@B, @>O?LEVAO>QBP >OB MOBPBKQ FK SBOV PJ>II >JLRKQP FK @BIIPl PQOR@QROB. &LO
FKPQ>K@B, PLJB @>O?LEVAO>QB JLIB@RIBP ?FKA TFQE MOLQBFKP QL MOLAR@B DIV@LMOLQBFKP, >KA LQEBOP @LJ?FKB TFQE IFMFAP QL
MOLAR@B DIV@LIFMFAP, ?LQE LC TEF@E >OB CLRKA FK QEB JBJ?O>KB QE>Q BK@ILPBP QEB @LKQBKQP LC ?LAV @BIIP.
%<C<7F
! <9@94 FP LKB LC > EFDEIV AFSBOPB DOLRM LC @LJMLRKAP J>AB RM JLPQIV LC EVAOL@>O?LKP. 4EB CBT LUVDBK >QLJP QEBV @LKQ>FK
>OB LCQBK >Q QEB MBOFMEBOV LC QEB JLIB@RIB. 4EBFO KLKMLI>O EVAOL@>O?LKP J>HB >II IFMFAP EVAOLMEL?F@. )K T>QBO, IFMFAP AL KLQ
CLOJ > QORB PLIRQFLK, ?RQ QEBV J>V CLOJ >K BJRIPFLK, TEF@E FP QEB QBOJ CLO > JFUQROB LC PLIRQFLKP QE>Q AL KLQ JFU TBII.
70 %A-1"/ 2 R 1%" %"*&A) )"3") ,# ,/$A+&7A1&,+
1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
-E<:?L68E<78F
! DB97<I35B945 FP LKB LC QEB JLPQ @LJJLK AFBQ>OV IFMFA DOLRMP, >KA QEB QVMB CLRKA JLPQ >?RKA>KQIV FK ?LAV QFPPRBP. 4EFP
@LJMLRKA, TEF@E FP @LJJLKIV OBCBOOBA QL >P > C>Q, FP CLOJBA COLJ QEB PVKQEBPFP LC QTL QVMBP LC JLIB@RIBP (F97EB5 2.21):
c ! DIV@BOLI ?>@H?LKB >Q QEB @LOB LC QOFDIV@BOFABP, @LKPFPQP LC QEOBB @>O?LK >QLJP.
c 4EOBB C>QQV >@FAP, ILKD @E>FKP LC EVAOL@>O?LKP TFQE > @>O?LUVI DOLRM >KA > JBQEVI DOLRM >Q LMMLPFQB BKAP, BUQBKA COLJ
B>@E LC QEB @>O?LKP LC QEB DIV@BOLI.
F<:HE8 2.21 -E<:?L68E<78F 1I@>CP:<I@;<J 8I< :FDGFJ<; F= >CP:<IFC 8KK8:?<; KF K?I<< =8KKP 8:@;J M@8 ;<?P;I8K@FE
JPEK?<J@J. +FK@:< K?8K >CP:<IFC >@M<J LG 8 ?P;IF><E 8KFD, 8E; K?< :8I9FOPC >IFLGJ FE K?< =8KKP 8:@;J <8:? >@M< LG 8
?P;IFOPC >IFLG.
4OFDIV@BOFABP CLOJ SF> ABEVAO>QFLK PVKQEBPFP. 'IV@BOLI DFSBP RM EVAOLDBK >QLJP COLJ FQP EVAOLUVI DOLRMP >Q B>@E
?LKA, >KA QEB @>O?LUVI DOLRM LK B>@E C>QQV >@FA @E>FK DFSBP RM > EVAOLUVI DOLRM. ! QLQ>I LC QEOBB T>QBO JLIB@RIBP >OB
QEBOB?V OBIB>PBA.
&>QQV >@FA @E>FKP QE>Q E>SB KL ALR?IB @>O?LK ?LKAP >KVTEBOB >ILKD QEBFO IBKDQE >KA QEBOBCLOB @LKQ>FK QEB J>UFJRJ
KRJ?BO LC EVAOLDBK >QLJP >OB @>IIBA P>QRO>QBA C>QQV >@FAP. 4EBPB PQO>FDEQ, OFDFA @E>FKP M>@H QFDEQIV QLDBQEBO >KA >OB PLIFA LO
PBJF-PLIFA >Q OLLJ QBJMBO>QROB (F97EB5 2.221). "RQQBO >KA I>OA >OB BU>JMIBP, >P FP QEB C>Q CLRKA LK > PQB>H LO FK VLRO LTK
?LAV. )K @LKQO>PQ, C>QQV >@FAP TFQE LKB ALR?IB @>O?LK ?LKA >OB HFKHBA >Q QE>Q ?LKA (F97EB5 2.222). 4EBPB JLKLRKP>QRO>QBA
C>QQV >@FAP >OB QEBOBCLOB RK>?IB QL M>@H QLDBQEBO QFDEQIV, >KA >OB IFNRFA >Q OLLJ QBJMBO>QROB. 0LIVRKP>QRO>QBA C>QQV >@FAP
@LKQ>FK QTL LO JLOB ALR?IB @>O?LK ?LKAP, >KA >OB >IPL IFNRFA >Q OLLJ QBJMBO>QROB. 0I>KQ LFIP PR@E >P LIFSB LFI QVMF@>IIV
@LKQ>FK ?LQE JLKL- >KA MLIVRKP>QRO>QBA C>QQV >@FAP.
F<:HE8 2.22 F4GGL A6<7 ,;4C8F 1?< C<M<C F= J8KLI8K@FE F= 8 =8KKP 8:@; 8==<:KJ @KJ J?8G<. (8) 08KLI8K<; =8KKP 8:@; :?8@EJ
8I< JKI8@>?K. (9) 2EJ8KLI8K<; =8KKP 8:@; :?8@EJ 8I< B@EB<;.
7EBOB>P > AFBQ EFDE FK P>QRO>QBA C>QQV >@FAP FK@OB>PBP QEB OFPH LC EB>OQ AFPB>PB, > AFBQ EFDE FK RKP>QRO>QBA C>QQV >@FAP FP
QELRDEQ QL OBAR@B QEB OFPH. 4EFP FP BPMB@F>IIV QORB CLO QEB LJBD>-3 RKP>QRO>QBA C>QQV >@FAP CLRKA FK @LIA-T>QBO CFPE PR@E >P
P>IJLK. 4EBPB C>QQV >@FAP E>SB QEBFO CFOPQ ALR?IB @>O?LK ?LKA >Q QEB QEFOA EVAOL@>O?LK COLJ QEB JBQEVI DOLRM (OBCBOOBA QL >P
QEB LJBD> BKA LC QEB JLIB@RIB).
&FK>IIV, ,*a'+ C>QQV >@FAP CLRKA FK PLJB MOL@BPPBA CLLAP, FK@IRAFKD PLJB PQF@H >KA QR? J>OD>OFKBP, >OB QELRDEQ QL ?B
BSBK JLOB E>OJCRI QL QEB EB>OQ >KA ?ILLA SBPPBIP QE>K P>QRO>QBA C>QQV >@FAP. T*a'+ C>QP >OB @OB>QBA COLJ RKP>QRO>QBA C>QQV
>@FAP (PR@E >P @LOK LFI) TEBK @EBJF@>IIV QOB>QBA QL MOLAR@B M>OQF>IIV EVAOLDBK>QBA C>QP.
!P > DOLRM, QOFDIV@BOFABP >OB > J>GLO CRBI PLRO@B CLO QEB ?LAV. 7EBK VLR >OB OBPQFKD LO >PIBBM, > J>GLOFQV LC QEB BKBODV
RPBA QL HBBM VLR >IFSB FP ABOFSBA COLJ QOFDIV@BOFABP PQLOBA FK VLRO C>Q (>AFMLPB) QFPPRBP. 4OFDIV@BOFABP >IPL CRBI ILKD, PILT
MEVPF@>I >@QFSFQV PR@E >P D>OABKFKD LO EFHFKD, >KA @LKQOF?RQB > JLABPQ MBO@BKQ>DB LC BKBODV CLO SFDLOLRP MEVPF@>I >@QFSFQV.
$FBQ>OV C>Q >IPL >PPFPQP QEB >?PLOMQFLK >KA QO>KPMLOQ LC QEB KLKMLI>O C>Q-PLIR?IB SFQ>JFKP !, $, %, >KA +. !AAFQFLK>IIV, PQLOBA
?LAV C>Q MOLQB@QP >KA @RPEFLKP QEB ?LAVlP ?LKBP >KA FKQBOK>I LOD>KP, >KA >@QP >P FKPRI>QFLK QL OBQ>FK ?LAV EB>Q.
%A-1"/ 2 R 1%" %"*&A) )"3") ,# ,/$A+&7A1&,+ 71
&>QQV >@FAP >OB >IPL @LJMLKBKQP LC DIV@LIFMFAP, TEF@E >OB PRD>O-C>Q @LJMLRKAP CLRKA FK QEB @BII JBJ?O>KB.
,FMLMOLQBFKP >OB @LJMLRKAP FK TEF@E QEB EVAOLMEL?F@ QOFDIV@BOFABP >OB M>@H>DBA FK MOLQBFK BKSBILMBP CLO QO>KPMLOQ FK ?LAV
CIRFAP.
);BFC;B?<C<7F
!P FQP K>JB PRDDBPQP, > @8?C@8?<9@94 FP > ?LKA ?BQTBBK QEB DIV@BOLI @LJMLKBKQ LC > IFMFA >KA > MELPMELOLRP JLIB@RIB.
)K C>@Q, MELPMELIFMFAP >OB PFJFI>O FK PQOR@QROB QL QOFDIV@BOFABP. (LTBSBO, FKPQB>A LC E>SFKD QEOBB C>QQV >@FAP, > MELPMELIFMFA
FP DBKBO>QBA COLJ > AFDIV@BOFAB, > DIV@BOLI TFQE GRPQ QTL C>QQV >@FA @E>FKP (F97EB5 2.23). 4EB QEFOA ?FKAFKD PFQB LK QEB
DIV@BOLI FP Q>HBK RM ?V QEB MELPME>QB DOLRM, TEF@E FK QROK FP >QQ>@EBA QL > MLI>O mEB>An OBDFLK LC QEB JLIB@RIB. 2B@>II QE>Q
QOFDIV@BOFABP >OB KLKMLI>O >KA EVAOLMEL?F@. 4EFP PQFII ELIAP CLO QEB C>QQV >@FA MLOQFLK LC > MELPMELIFMFA @LJMLRKA. (LTBSBO,
QEB MELPME>QB-@LKQ>FKFKD DOLRM >Q QEB EB>A LC QEB @LJMLRKA FP MLI>O >KA QEBOB?V EVAOLMEFIF@. )K LQEBO TLOAP, LKB BKA LC
QEB JLIB@RIB @>K FKQBO>@Q TFQE LFI, >KA QEB LQEBO BKA TFQE T>QBO. 4EFP J>HBP MELPMELIFMFAP FAB>I BJRIPFCFBOP, @LJMLRKAP
QE>Q EBIM AFPMBOPB C>QP FK >NRBLRP IFNRFAP, >KA BK>?IBP QEBJ QL FKQBO>@Q TFQE ?LQE QEB T>QBOV FKQBOFLO LC @BIIP >KA QEB T>QBOV
PLIRQFLK LRQPFAB LC @BIIP >P @LJMLKBKQP LC QEB @BII JBJ?O>KB.
F<:HE8 2.23 (G;8E "@CBEG4AG %<C<7F (8) -?FJG?FC@G@;J 8I< :FDGFJ<; F= KNF =8KKP 8:@;J, >CP:<IFC, 8E; 8 G?FJG?8K<
>IFLG. (9) 0K<IFCJ 8I< I@E>-J?8G<; C@G@;J. 0?FNE ?<I< @J :?FC<JK<IFC. (:) -IFJK8>C8E;@EJ 8I< ;<I@M<; =IFD LEJ8KLI8K<;
=8KKP 8:@;J. -IFJK8>C8E;@E "2 (-$"2) @E:CL;<J ?P;IFOPC 8E; :8I9FOPC >IFLGJ.
,G8EB<7F
! CD5B?94 @LJMLRKA (OBCBOOBA QL >P > PQBOLI) E>P >P FQP CLRKA>QFLK > PBQ LC CLRO EVAOL@>O?LK OFKDP ?LKABA QL > S>OFBQV LC
LQEBO >QLJP >KA JLIB@RIBP (PBB F97EB5 2.232). !IQELRDE ?LQE MI>KQP >KA >KFJ>IP PVKQEBPFWB PQBOLIP, QEB QVMB QE>Q J>HBP QEB
JLPQ FJMLOQ>KQ @LKQOF?RQFLK QL ERJ>K PQOR@QROB >KA CRK@QFLK FP @ELIBPQBOLI, TEF@E FP PVKQEBPFWBA ?V QEB IFSBO FK ERJ>KP >KA
>KFJ>IP >KA FP >IPL MOBPBKQ FK JLPQ >KFJ>I-?>PBA CLLAP. ,FHB LQEBO IFMFAP, @ELIBPQBOLIlP EVAOL@>O?LKP J>HB FQ EVAOLMEL?F@;
72 %A-1"/ 2 R 1%" %"*&A) )"3") ,# ,/$A+&7A1&,+
1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
ELTBSBO, FQ E>P > MLI>O EVAOLUVI EB>A QE>Q FP EVAOLMEFIF@. #ELIBPQBOLI FP >K FJMLOQ>KQ @LJMLKBKQ LC ?FIB >@FAP, @LJMLRKAP
QE>Q EBIM BJRIPFCV AFBQ>OV C>QP. )K C>@Q, QEB TLOA OLLQ @ELIB- OBCBOP QL ?FIB. #ELIBPQBOLI FP >IPL > ?RFIAFKD ?IL@H LC J>KV
ELOJLKBP, PFDK>IFKD JLIB@RIBP QE>Q QEB ?LAV OBIB>PBP QL OBDRI>QB MOL@BPPBP >Q AFPQ>KQ PFQBP. &FK>IIV, IFHB MELPMELIFMFAP,
@ELIBPQBOLI JLIB@RIBP >OB CLRKA FK QEB @BII JBJ?O>KB, TEBOB QEBFO EVAOLMEL?F@ >KA EVAOLMEFIF@ OBDFLKP EBIM OBDRI>QB QEB
CILT LC PR?PQ>K@BP FKQL >KA LRQ LC QEB @BII.
)EBFG4:?4A7<AF
,FHB > ELOJLKB, > @B?CD17<1>49> FP LKB LC > DOLRM LC PFDK>IFKD JLIB@RIBP, ?RQ MOLPQ>DI>KAFKP >OB ABOFSBA COLJ RKP>QRO>QBA
C>QQV >@FAP (PBB F97EB5 2.233). /KB OB>PLK QE>Q QEB LJBD>-3 C>QQV >@FAP CLRKA FK CFPE >OB ?BKBCF@F>I FP QE>Q QEBV PQFJRI>QB
QEB MOLAR@QFLK LC @BOQ>FK MOLPQ>DI>KAFKP QE>Q EBIM OBDRI>QB >PMB@QP LC ?ILLA MOBPPROB >KA FKCI>JJ>QFLK, >KA QEBOB?V OBAR@B
QEB OFPH CLO EB>OQ AFPB>PB. 0OLPQ>DI>KAFKP >IPL PBKPFQFWB KBOSBP QL M>FK. /KB @I>PP LC M>FK-OBIFBSFKD JBAF@>QFLKP @>IIBA
KLKPQBOLFA>I >KQF-FKCI>JJ>QLOV AORDP (.3!)$P) TLOHP ?V OBAR@FKD QEB BCCB@QP LC MOLPQ>DI>KAFKP.
)EBG8<AF
9LR JFDEQ >PPL@F>QB MOLQBFKP TFQE JRP@IB QFPPRB, ?RQ FK C>@Q, MOLQBFKP >OB @OFQF@>I @LJMLKBKQP LC >II QFPPRBP >KA LOD>KP.
! @B?D59> FP >K LOD>KF@ JLIB@RIB @LJMLPBA LC >JFKL >@FAP IFKHBA ?V MBMQFAB ?LKAP. 0OLQBFKP FK@IRAB QEB HBO>QFK FK QEB
BMFABOJFP LC PHFK QE>Q MOLQB@QP RKABOIVFKD QFPPRBP, QEB @LII>DBK CLRKA FK QEB ABOJFP LC PHFK, FK ?LKBP, >KA FK QEB JBKFKDBP
QE>Q @LSBO QEB ?O>FK >KA PMFK>I @LOA. 0OLQBFKP >OB >IPL @LJMLKBKQP LC J>KV LC QEB ?LAVlP CRK@QFLK>I @EBJF@>IP, FK@IRAFKD
AFDBPQFSB BKWVJBP FK QEB AFDBPQFSB QO>@Q, >KQF?LAFBP, QEB KBROLQO>KPJFQQBOP QE>Q KBROLKP RPB QL @LJJRKF@>QB TFQE LQEBO @BIIP,
>KA QEB MBMQFAB-?>PBA ELOJLKBP QE>Q OBDRI>QB @BOQ>FK ?LAV CRK@QFLKP (CLO FKPQ>K@B, DOLTQE ELOJLKB). 7EFIB @>O?LEVAO>QBP
>KA IFMFAP >OB @LJMLPBA LC EVAOL@>O?LKP >KA LUVDBK, >II MOLQBFKP >IPL @LKQ>FK KFQOLDBK (.), >KA J>KV @LKQ>FK PRICRO (3),
FK >AAFQFLK QL @>O?LK, EVAOLDBK, >KA LUVDBK.
&<6EBFGEH6GHE8 B9 )EBG8<AF
0OLQBFKP >OB MLIVJBOP J>AB RM LC KFQOLDBK-@LKQ>FKFKD JLKLJBOP @>IIBA >JFKL >@FAP. !K 1=9>? 1394 FP > JLIB@RIB
@LJMLPBA LC >K >JFKL DOLRM >KA > @>O?LUVI DOLRM, QLDBQEBO TFQE > S>OF>?IB PFAB @E>FK. *RPQ 20 AFCCBOBKQ >JFKL >@FAP
@LKQOF?RQB QL KB>OIV >II LC QEB QELRP>KAP LC AFCCBOBKQ MOLQBFKP FJMLOQ>KQ FK ERJ>K PQOR@QROB >KA CRK@QFLK. "LAV MOLQBFKP
@LKQ>FK > RKFNRB @LJ?FK>QFLK LC > CBT ALWBK QL > CBT ERKAOBA LC QEBPB 20 >JFKL >@FA JLKLJBOP. !II 20 LC QEBPB >JFKL
>@FAP PE>OB > PFJFI>O PQOR@QROB (F97EB5 2.24). !II @LKPFPQ LC > @BKQO>I @>O?LK >QLJ QL TEF@E QEB CLIILTFKD >OB ?LKABA:
c > EVAOLDBK >QLJ
c >K >IH>IFKB (?>PF@) >JFKL DOLRM .(
2
(PBB *12<5 2.1)
c >K >@FAF@ @>O?LUVI DOLRM #//( (PBB *12<5 2.1)
c > S>OF>?IB DOLRM
F<:HE8 2.24 ,GEH6GHE8 B9 4A A@<AB A6<7
.LQF@B QE>Q >II >JFKL >@FAP @LKQ>FK ?LQE >K >@FA (QEB @>O?LUVI DOLRM) >KA > ?>PB (QEB >JFKL DOLRM) (>JFKB = mKFQOLDBK-
@LKQ>FKFKDn). &LO QEFP OB>PLK, QEBV J>HB BU@BIIBKQ ?RCCBOP, EBIMFKD QEB ?LAV OBDRI>QB >@FAi?>PB ?>I>K@B. 7E>Q AFPQFKDRFPEBP
QEB 20 >JFKL >@FAP COLJ LKB >KLQEBO FP QEBFO S>OF>?IB DOLRM, TEF@E FP OBCBOOBA QL >P > PFAB @E>FK LO >K 2-DOLRM. 4EFP DOLRM
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). 4EFP EVAOLIVPFP OB>@QFLK @>K ?B TOFQQBK:
ATP + H
2
O ADP + P
i
+ energy
2BJLS>I LC > PB@LKA MELPME>QB IB>SBP >ABKLPFKB JLKLMELPME>QB (!-0) >KA QTL MELPME>QB DOLRMP. !D>FK, QEBPB
OB>@QFLKP >IPL IF?BO>QB QEB BKBODV QE>Q E>A ?BBK PQLOBA FK QEB MELPME>QB-MELPME>QB ?LKAP. 4EBV >OB OBSBOPF?IB, QLL, >P TEBK
!$0 RKABODLBP MELPMELOVI>QFLK. &8?C@8?BI<1D9?> FP QEB >AAFQFLK LC > MELPME>QB DOLRM QL >K LOD>KF@ @LJMLRKA, FK QEFP
@>PB, OBPRIQFKD FK !40. )K PR@E @>PBP, QEB P>JB IBSBI LC BKBODV QE>Q E>A ?BBK OBIB>PBA AROFKD EVAOLIVPFP JRPQ ?B OBFKSBPQBA
QL MLTBO ABEVAO>QFLK PVKQEBPFP.
#BIIP @>K >IPL QO>KPCBO > MELPME>QB DOLRM COLJ !40 QL >KLQEBO LOD>KF@ @LJMLRKA. &LO BU>JMIB, TEBK DIR@LPB CFOPQ
BKQBOP > @BII, > MELPME>QB DOLRM FP QO>KPCBOOBA COLJ !40, CLOJFKD DIR@LPB MELPME>QB (#
6
(
12
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FP MELPMELOVI>QBA FK QEFP T>V, FQ @>K ?B PQLOBA >P DIV@LDBK LO JBQ>?LIFWBA CLO FJJBAF>QB BKBODV.
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6;8@<64? 8A8E:L
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6BI4?8AG 5BA7
786B@CBF<G<BA E846G<BA
78A4GHE4G<BA
78BKLE<5BAH6?8<6 46<7 (D'A)
7<F466;4E<78
7<FH?9<78 5BA7
8?86GEBA F;8??
8?86GEBA
8?8@8AG
8AML@8
8K6;4A:8 E846G<BA
$E2 -E+&,
@LJMLRKA QE>Q OBIB>PBP EVAOLDBK FLKP ((
+
) FK PLIRQFLK
>JLRKQ LC BKBODV DOB>QBO QE>K QEB BKBODV @LKQ>FKBA FK QEB OB>@Q>KQP, TEF@E JRPQ ?B LSBO@LJB CLO >
OB>@QFLK QL MOL@BBA
KR@IBLQFAB @LKQ>FKFKD OF?LPB >KA >K >ABKFKB ?>PB QE>Q FP BPPBKQF>I FK BKBODV QO>KPCBO
?RFIAFKD ?IL@H LC MOLQBFKP; @E>O>@QBOFWBA ?V >K >JFKL >KA @>O?LUVI CRK@QFLK>I DOLRMP >KA > S>OF>?IB PFAB-
@E>FK
>QLJ TFQE > KBD>QFSB @E>ODB
PJ>IIBPQ RKFQ LC >K BIBJBKQ QE>Q OBQ>FKP QEB RKFNRB MOLMBOQFBP LC QE>Q BIBJBKQ
KRJ?BO LC MOLQLKP FK QEB KR@IBRP LC >K >QLJ
@LJMLRKA QE>Q >@@BMQP EVAOLDBK FLKP ((
+
) FK PLIRQFLK
BIB@QOF@>I CLO@B IFKHFKD >QLJP
PLIRQFLK @LKQ>FKFKD > TB>H >@FA LO > TB>H ?>PB QE>Q LMMLPBP TFAB CIR@QR>QFLKP FK QEB M( LC ?LAV CIRFAP
@I>PP LC LOD>KF@ @LJMLRKAP ?RFIQ COLJ PRD>OP, JLIB@RIBP @LKQ>FKFKD @>O?LK, EVAOLDBK, >KA LUVDBK FK >
1-2-1 O>QFL
PR?PQ>K@B QE>Q FK@OB>PBP QEB O>QB LC > @EBJF@>I OB>@QFLK TFQELRQ FQPBIC ?BFKD @E>KDBA FK QEB MOL@BPP
>QLJ TFQE > MLPFQFSB @E>ODB
CLOJ LC BKBODV QE>Q FP >?PLO?BA >P @EBJF@>I ?LKAP CLOJ, PQLOBA >P QEBV >OB J>FKQ>FKBA, >KA OBIB>PBA
>P QEBV >OB ?OLHBK
IFNRFA JFUQROB FK TEF@E QEB PLIRQB M>OQF@IBP @LKPFPQ LC @IRJMP LC JLIB@RIBP I>ODB BKLRDE QL P@>QQBO IFDEQ
PR?PQ>K@B @LJMLPBA LC QTL LO JLOB AFCCBOBKQ BIBJBKQP GLFKBA ?V @EBJF@>I ?LKAP
KRJ?BO LC M>OQF@IBP TFQEFK > DFSBK PM>@B
@EBJF@>I ?LKA FK TEF@E QTL >QLJP PE>OB BIB@QOLKP, QEBOB?V @LJMIBQFKD QEBFO S>IBK@B PEBIIP
QVMB LC @>Q>?LIF@ OB>@QFLK FK TEF@E LKB LO JLOB ?LKAP TFQEFK > I>ODBO JLIB@RIB >OB ?OLHBK,
OBPRIQFKD FK QEB OBIB>PB LC PJ>IIBO JLIB@RIBP LO >QLJP
@E>KDB FK QEB PQOR@QROB LC > JLIB@RIB QEOLRDE MEVPF@>I LO @EBJF@>I JB>KP
ABLUVOF?LPB-@LKQ>FKFKD KR@IBLQFAB QE>Q PQLOBP DBKBQF@ FKCLOJ>QFLK
M>FO LC @>O?LEVAO>QB JLKLJBOP ?LKABA ?V ABEVAO>QFLK PVKQEBPFP SF> > DIV@LPFAF@ ?LKA
@LS>IBKQ ?LKA CLOJBA TFQEFK > MLIVMBMQFAB ?BQTBBK PRICFAB DOLRMP LC PRICRO-@LKQ>FKFKD >JFKL >@FAP,
CLO BU>JMIB, @VPQBFKB
>OB> LC PM>@B > DFSBK AFPQ>K@B COLJ >K >QLJlP KR@IBRP FK TEF@E BIB@QOLKP >OB DOLRMBA
PR?>QLJF@ M>OQF@IB E>SFKD > KBD>QFSB @E>ODB >KA KB>OIV KL J>PP; CLRKA LO?FQFKD QEB >QLJlP KR@IBRP
PR?PQ>K@B QE>Q @>KKLQ ?B @OB>QBA LO ?OLHBK ALTK ?V LOAFK>OV @EBJF@>I JB>KP
MOLQBFK LO 2.! QE>Q @>Q>IVWBP @EBJF@>I OB>@QFLKP
QVMB LC @EBJF@>I OB>@QFLK FK TEF@E ?LKAP >OB ?LQE CLOJBA >KA ?OLHBK, OBPRIQFKD FK QEB QO>KPCBO LC
@LJMLKBKQP
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;L7EB:8A 5BA7
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DOLRM LC >QLJP IFKHBA ?V PQOLKD @LS>IBKQ ?LKAP QE>Q QBKAP QL ?BE>SB >P > AFPQFK@Q RKFQ FK @EBJF@>I
OB>@QFLKP TFQE LQEBO >QLJP
AFMLIB-AFMLIB ?LKA FK TEF@E > EVAOLDBK >QLJ @LS>IBKQIV ?LKABA QL >K BIB@QOLKBD>QFSB >QLJ FP TB>HIV
>QQO>@QBA QL > PB@LKA BIB@QOLKBD>QFSB >QLJ
PR?PQ>K@B QE>Q ALBP KLQ @LKQ>FK ?LQE @>O?LK >KA EVAOLDBK
>QQO>@QFLK ?BQTBBK >K >KFLK >KA > @>QFLK
>QLJ TFQE >K LSBO>II MLPFQFSB LO KBD>QFSB @E>ODB
LKB LC QEB S>OF>QFLKP LC >K BIBJBKQ FK TEF@E QEB KRJ?BO LC KBRQOLKP AFCCBO COLJ B>@E LQEBO
BKBODV QE>Q J>QQBO MLPPBPPBP ?B@>RPB LC FQP JLQFLK
@I>PP LC KLKMLI>O LOD>KF@ @LJMLRKAP ?RFIQ COLJ EVAOL@>O?LKP >KA AFPQFKDRFPEBA ?V QEB C>@Q QE>Q QEBV >OB KLQ
PLIR?IB FK T>QBO
I>ODB JLIB@RIB CLOJBA ?V @LS>IBKQ ?LKAFKD
PRJ LC QEB KRJ?BO LC MOLQLKP >KA KBRQOLKP FK QEB KR@IBRP LC >K >QLJ
MEVPF@>I PR?PQ>K@B; QE>Q TEF@E L@@RMFBP PM>@B >KA E>P J>PP
QTL LO JLOB >QLJP @LS>IBKQIV ?LKABA QLDBQEBO
JLKLJBO LC @>O?LEVAO>QB; >IPL HKLTK >P > PFJMIB PRD>O
EB>SV PR?>QLJF@ M>OQF@IB E>SFKD KL BIB@QOF@>I @E>ODB >KA CLRKA FK QEB >QLJlP KR@IBRP
@I>PP LC LOD>KF@ @LJMLRKAP @LJMLPBA LC LKB LO JLOB MELPME>QB DOLRMP, > MBKQLPB PRD>O, >KA > ?>PB
PR?PQ>K@B QE>Q @LKQ>FKP ?LQE @>O?LK >KA EVAOLDBK
KBD>QFSB ILD>OFQEJ LC QEB EVAOLDBK FLK ((
+
) @LK@BKQO>QFLK LC > PLIRQFLK
@LS>IBKQ ?LKA CLOJBA ?V ABEVAO>QFLK PVKQEBPFP ?BQTBBK QTL >JFKL >@FAP
>OO>KDBJBKQ LC QEB BIBJBKQP FK > Q>?IB >@@LOAFKD QL QEBFO >QLJF@ KRJ?BO; BIBJBKQP
E>SFKD PFJFI>O MOLMBOQFBP ?B@>RPB LC QEBFO BIB@QOLK >OO>KDBJBKQP @LJMLPB @LIRJKP FK QEB Q>?IB, TEFIB BIBJBKQP
E>SFKD QEB P>JB KRJ?BO LC S>IBK@B PEBIIP @LJMLPB OLTP FK QEB Q>?IB
> IFMFA @LJMLRKA FK TEF@E > MELPME>QB DOLRM FP @LJ?FKBA TFQE > AFDIV@BOFAB
>AAFQFLK LC LKB LO JLOB MELPME>QB DOLRMP QL >K LOD>KF@ @LJMLRKA
JLIB@RIB TFQE OBDFLKP QE>Q E>SB LMMLPFQB @E>ODBP OBPRIQFKD COLJ RKBSBK KRJ?BOP LC BIB@QOLKP FK QEB
KR@IBF LC QEB >QLJP M>OQF@FM>QFKD FK QEB @LS>IBKQ ?LKA
@LJMLRKA @LKPFPQFKD LC JLOB QE>K QTL @>O?LEVAO>QB JLKLJBOP ?LKABA ?V ABEVAO>QFLK PVKQEBPFP SF>
DIV@LPFAF@ ?LKAP
PQLOBA BKBODV J>QQBO MLPPBPPBP ?B@>RPB LC QEB MLPFQFLKFKD LO PQOR@QROB LC FQP @LJMLKBKQP
LKB LO JLOB PR?PQ>K@BP MOLAR@BA ?V > @EBJF@>I OB>@QFLK
IFMFA @LJMLRKA ABOFSBA COLJ C>QQV >@FA @E>FKP >KA FJMLOQ>KQ FK OBDRI>QFKD PBSBO>I ?LAV MOL@BPPBP
@I>PP LC LOD>KF@ @LJMLRKAP QE>Q >OB @LJMLPBA LC J>KV >JFKL >@FAP IFKHBA QLDBQEBO ?V MBMQFAB ?LKAP
EB>SV PR?>QLJF@ M>OQF@IB E>SFKD > MLPFQFSB @E>ODB >KA CLRKA FK QEB >QLJlP KR@IBRP
KFQOLDBK-@LKQ>FKFKD ?>PB TFQE > ALR?IB OFKD PQOR@QROB; >ABKFKB >KA DR>KFKB
KFQOLDBK-@LKQ>FKFKD ?>PB TFQE > PFKDIB OFKD PQOR@QROB; @VQLPFKB, QEF>JFKB, >KA RO>@FI
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I4?8A68 F;8??
RKPQ>?IB, EB>SV FPLQLMB QE>Q DFSBP LCC PR?>QLJF@ M>OQF@IBP, LO BIB@QOLJ>DKBQF@ BKBODV, >P FQ AB@>VP;
>IPL @>IIBA O>AFLFPLQLMBP
LKB LO JLOB PR?PQ>K@BP QE>Q BKQBO FKQL QEB OB>@QFLK
OF?LPB-@LKQ>FKFKD KR@IBLQFAB QE>Q EBIMP J>KFCBPQ QEB DBKBQF@ @LAB >P MOLQBFK
ELJLDBKBLRP IFNRFA JFUQROB FK TEF@E > PLIRQB FP AFPPLISBA FKQL JLIB@RIBP TFQEFK > PLISBKQ
(>IPL, PQBOLI) IFMFA @LJMLRKA @LJMLPBA LC CLRO EVAOL@>O?LK OFKDP ?LKABA QL > S>OFBQV LC LQEBO >QLJP >KA
JLIB@RIBP
OB>@Q>KQ FK >K BKWVJ>QF@ OB>@QFLK
IFNRFA JFUQROB FK TEF@E M>OQF@IBP AFPQOF?RQBA FK QEB IFNRFA PBQQIB LRQ LSBO QFJB
QVMB LC >K>?LIF@ OB>@QFLK FK TEF@E QTL LO JLOB >QLJP LO JLIB@RIBP ?LKA, OBPRIQFKD FK QEB
CLOJ>QFLK LC > I>ODBO JLIB@RIB
IFMFA @LJMLRKA @LJMLPBA LC > DIV@BOLI JLIB@RIB ?LKABA TFQE QEOBB C>QQV >@FA @E>FKP
LRQBOJLPQ BIB@QOLK PEBII LC >K >QLJ
C!A)-E+ +E/"E0
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4EB ERJ>K ?LAV FP @LJMLPBA LC BIBJBKQP, QEB JLPQ >?RKA>KQ LC TEF@E >OB LUVDBK (/), @>O?LK (#), EVAOLDBK (() >KA
KFQOLDBK (.). 9LR L?Q>FK QEBPB BIBJBKQP COLJ QEB CLLAP VLR B>Q >KA QEB >FO VLR ?OB>QEB. 4EB PJ>IIBPQ RKFQ LC >K BIBJBKQ QE>Q
OBQ>FKP >II LC QEB MOLMBOQFBP LC QE>Q BIBJBKQ FP >K >QLJ. "RQ, >QLJP QEBJPBISBP @LKQ>FK J>KV PR?>QLJF@ M>OQF@IBP, QEB QEOBB
JLPQ FJMLOQ>KQ LC TEF@E >OB MOLQLKP, KBRQOLKP, >KA BIB@QOLKP. 4EBPB M>OQF@IBP AL KLQ S>OV FK NR>IFQV COLJ LKB BIBJBKQ QL
>KLQEBO; O>QEBO, TE>Q DFSBP >K BIBJBKQ FQP AFPQFK@QFSB FABKQFCF@>QFLK FP QEB NR>KQFQV LC FQP MOLQLKP, @>IIBA FQP >QLJF@ KRJ?BO.
0OLQLKP >KA KBRQOLKP @LKQOF?RQB KB>OIV >II LC >K >QLJlP J>PP; QEB KRJ?BO LC MOLQLKP >KA KBRQOLKP FP >K BIBJBKQlP J>PP
KRJ?BO. (B>SFBO >KA IFDEQBO SBOPFLKP LC QEB P>JB BIBJBKQ @>K L@@RO FK K>QROB ?B@>RPB QEBPB SBOPFLKP E>SB AFCCBOBKQ KRJ?BOP
LC KBRQOLKP. $FCCBOBKQ SBOPFLKP LC >K BIBJBKQ >OB @>IIBA FPLQLMBP.
4EB QBKABK@V LC >K >QLJ QL ?B PQ>?IB LO QL OB>@Q OB>AFIV TFQE LQEBO >QLJP FP I>ODBIV ARB QL QEB ?BE>SFLO LC QEB BIB@QOLKP
TFQEFK QEB >QLJlP LRQBOJLPQ BIB@QOLK PEBII, @>IIBA FQP S>IBK@B PEBII. (BIFRJ, >P TBII >P I>ODBO >QLJP TFQE BFDEQ BIB@QOLKP FK
QEBFO S>IBK@B PEBII, FP RKIFHBIV QL M>OQF@FM>QB FK @EBJF@>I OB>@QFLKP ?B@>RPB QEBV >OB PQ>?IB. !II LQEBO >QLJP QBKA QL >@@BMQ,
ALK>QB, LO PE>OB BIB@QOLKP FK > MOL@BPP QE>Q ?OFKDP QEB BIB@QOLKP FK QEBFO S>IBK@B PEBII QL BFDEQ (LO FK QEB @>PB LC EVAOLDBK, QL
QTL).
2.2 C;8@<64? BBA7F
%>@E JLJBKQ LC IFCB, >QLJP LC LUVDBK, @>O?LK, EVAOLDBK, >KA QEB LQEBO BIBJBKQP LC QEB ERJ>K ?LAV >OB J>HFKD >KA
?OB>HFKD @EBJF@>I ?LKAP. )LKP >OB @E>ODBA >QLJP QE>Q CLOJ TEBK >K >QLJ ALK>QBP LO >@@BMQP LKB LO JLOB KBD>QFSBIV @E>ODBA
BIB@QOLKP. #>QFLKP (FLKP TFQE > MLPFQFSB @E>ODB) >OB >QQO>@QBA QL >KFLKP (FLKP TFQE > KBD>QFSB @E>ODB). 4EFP >QQO>@QFLK FP @>IIBA
>K FLKF@ ?LKA. )K @LS>IBKQ ?LKAP, QEB M>OQF@FM>QFKD >QLJP AL KLQ ILPB LO D>FK BIB@QOLKP, ?RQ O>QEBO PE>OB QEBJ. -LIB@RIBP
TFQE KLKMLI>O @LS>IBKQ ?LKAP >OB BIB@QOF@>IIV ?>I>K@BA, >KA E>SB > IFKB>O QEOBB-AFJBKPFLK>I PE>MB. -LIB@RIBP TFQE MLI>O
@LS>IBKQ ?LKAP E>SB mMLIBPnjOBDFLKP LC TB>HIV MLPFQFSB >KA KBD>QFSB @E>ODBj>KA E>SB > QOF>KDRI>O QEOBB-AFJBKPFLK>I
PE>MB. !K >QLJ LC LUVDBK >KA QTL >QLJP LC EVAOLDBK CLOJ T>QBO JLIB@RIBP ?V JB>KP LC MLI>O @LS>IBKQ ?LKAP. (VAOLDBK
?LKAP IFKH EVAOLDBK >QLJP >IOB>AV M>OQF@FM>QFKD FK MLI>O @LS>IBKQ ?LKAP QL >KFLKP LO BIB@QOLKBD>QFSB OBDFLKP LC LQEBO MLI>O
JLIB@RIBP. (VAOLDBK ?LKAP IFKH T>QBO JLIB@RIBP, OBPRIQFKD FK QEB MOLMBOQFBP LC T>QBO QE>Q >OB FJMLOQ>KQ QL IFSFKD QEFKDP.
2.3 C;8@<64? +846G<BAF
#EBJF@>I OB>@QFLKP, FK TEF@E @EBJF@>I ?LKAP >OB ?OLHBK >KA CLOJBA, OBNRFOB >K FKFQF>I FKSBPQJBKQ LC BKBODV. +FKBQF@ BKBODV,
QEB BKBODV LC J>QQBO FK JLQFLK, CRBIP QEB @LIIFPFLKP LC >QLJP, FLKP, >KA JLIB@RIBP QE>Q >OB KB@BPP>OV FC QEBFO LIA ?LKAP >OB QL
?OB>H >KA KBT LKBP QL CLOJ. !II JLIB@RIBP PQLOB MLQBKQF>I BKBODV, TEF@E FP OBIB>PBA TEBK QEBFO ?LKAP >OB ?OLHBK.
&LRO CLOJP LC BKBODV BPPBKQF>I QL ERJ>K CRK@QFLKFKD >OB: @EBJF@>I BKBODV, TEF@E FP PQLOBA >KA OBIB>PBA >P @EBJF@>I
?LKAP >OB CLOJBA >KA ?OLHBK; JB@E>KF@>I BKBODV, TEF@E AFOB@QIV MLTBOP MEVPF@>I >@QFSFQV; O>AF>KQ BKBODV, BJFQQBA >P T>SBP
PR@E >P FK PRKIFDEQ; >KA BIB@QOF@>I BKBODV, QEB MLTBO LC JLSFKD BIB@QOLKP.
#EBJF@>I OB>@QFLKP ?BDFK TFQE OB>@Q>KQP >KA BKA TFQE MOLAR@QP. 3VKQEBPFP OB>@QFLKP ?LKA OB>@Q>KQP QLDBQEBO, > MOL@BPP
QE>Q OBNRFOBP BKBODV, TEBOB>P AB@LJMLPFQFLK OB>@QFLKP ?OB>H QEB ?LKAP TFQEFK > OB>@Q>KQ >KA QEBOB?V OBIB>PB BKBODV. )K
BU@E>KDB OB>@QFLKP, ?LKAP >OB ?LQE ?OLHBK >KA CLOJBA, >KA BKBODV FP BU@E>KDBA.
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1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
4EB O>QB >Q TEF@E @EBJF@>I OB>@QFLKP L@@RO FP FKCIRBK@BA ?V PBSBO>I MOLMBOQFBP LC QEB OB>@Q>KQP: QBJMBO>QROB,
@LK@BKQO>QFLK >KA MOBPPROB, >KA QEB MOBPBK@B LO >?PBK@B LC > @>Q>IVPQ. !K BKWVJB FP > @>Q>IVQF@ MOLQBFK QE>Q PMBBAP RM
@EBJF@>I OB>@QFLKP FK QEB ERJ>K ?LAV.
2.4 "ABE:4A<6 CB@CBHA7F EFF8AG<4? GB !H@4A FHA6G<BA<A:
)KLOD>KF@ @LJMLRKAP BPPBKQF>I QL ERJ>K CRK@QFLKFKD FK@IRAB T>QBO, P>IQP, >@FAP, >KA ?>PBP. 4EBPB @LJMLRKAP >OB FKLOD>KF@;
QE>Q FP, QEBV AL KLQ @LKQ>FK ?LQE EVAOLDBK >KA @>O?LK. 7>QBO FP > IR?OF@>KQ >KA @RPEFLK, > EB>Q PFKH, > @LJMLKBKQ LC IFNRFA
JFUQROBP, > ?VMOLAR@Q LC ABEVAO>QFLK PVKQEBPFP OB>@QFLKP, >KA > OB>@Q>KQ FK EVAOLIVPFP OB>@QFLKP. 3>IQP >OB @LJMLRKAP QE>Q,
TEBK AFPPLISBA FK T>QBO, AFPPL@F>QB FKQL FLKP LQEBO QE>K (
+
LO /(
i
. )K @LKQO>PQ, >@FAP OBIB>PB (
+
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>@FAF@. ">PBP >@@BMQ (
+
, QEBOB?V J>HFKD QEB PLIRQFLK JLOB >IH>IFKB (@>RPQF@).
4EB M( LC >KV PLIRQFLK FP FQP OBI>QFSB @LK@BKQO>QFLK LC (
+
. ! PLIRQFLK TFQE M( 7 FP KBRQO>I. 3LIRQFLKP TFQE M( ?BILT 7
>OB >@FAP, >KA PLIRQFLKP TFQE M( >?LSB 7 >OB ?>PBP. ! @E>KDB FK > PFKDIB AFDFQ LK QEB M( P@>IB (B.D., COLJ 7 QL 8) OBMOBPBKQP
> QBK-CLIA FK@OB>PB LO AB@OB>PB FK QEB @LK@BKQO>QFLK LC (
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MBOCRJB TBOB PMO>VBA, QEB P@BKQ JLIB@RIBP TLRIA K>QRO>IIV AFCCRPB COLJ QEB PMLQ TEBOB QEBV IBCQ QEB ?LQQIB QL >II @LOKBOP LC
QEB ?>QEOLLJ, >KA QEFP AFCCRPFLK TLRIA DL LK RKQFI KL JLOB @LK@BKQO>QFLK DO>AFBKQ OBJ>FKP. !KLQEBO BU>JMIB FP > PMLLKCRI
LC PRD>O MI>@BA FK > @RM LC QB>. %SBKQR>IIV QEB PRD>O TFII AFCCRPB QEOLRDELRQ QEB QB> RKQFI KL @LK@BKQO>QFLK DO>AFBKQ OBJ>FKP.
)K ?LQE @>PBP, FC QEB OLLJ FP T>OJBO LO QEB QB> ELQQBO, AFCCRPFLK L@@ROP BSBK C>PQBO >P QEB JLIB@RIBP >OB ?RJMFKD FKQL B>@E
LQEBO >KA PMOB>AFKD LRQ C>PQBO QE>K >Q @LLIBO QBJMBO>QROBP. (>SFKD >K FKQBOK>I ?LAV QBJMBO>QROB >OLRKA 98.6
Z
& QERP >IPL
>FAP FK AFCCRPFLK LC M>OQF@IBP TFQEFK QEB ?LAV.
6FPFQ QEFP <9>; (8DD@://?@5>CD1H3?<<575.?B7/</4966EC9?>) QL PBB AFCCRPFLK >KA ELT FQ FP MOLMBIIBA ?V QEB HFKBQF@ BKBODV
LC JLIB@RIBP FK PLIRQFLK. (LT ALBP QBJMBO>QROB >CCB@Q AFCCRPFLK O>QB, >KA TEV?
7EBKBSBO > PR?PQ>K@B BUFPQP FK DOB>QBO @LK@BKQO>QFLK LK LKB PFAB LC > PBJFMBOJB>?IB JBJ?O>KB, PR@E >P QEB @BII
JBJ?O>KBP, >KV PR?PQ>K@B QE>Q @>K JLSB ALTK FQP @LK@BKQO>QFLK DO>AFBKQ >@OLPP QEB JBJ?O>KB TFII AL PL. #LKPFABO
PR?PQ>K@BP QE>Q @>K B>PFIV AFCCRPB QEOLRDE QEB IFMFA ?FI>VBO LC QEB @BII JBJ?O>KB, PR@E >P QEB D>PBP LUVDBK (/
2
) >KA #/
2
. /
2
DBKBO>IIV AFCCRPBP FKQL @BIIP ?B@>RPB FQ FP JLOB @LK@BKQO>QBA LRQPFAB LC QEBJ, >KA #/
2
QVMF@>IIV AFCCRPBP LRQ LC @BIIP ?B@>RPB
FQ FP JLOB @LK@BKQO>QBA FKPFAB LC QEBJ. .BFQEBO LC QEBPB BU>JMIBP OBNRFOBP >KV BKBODV LK QEB M>OQ LC QEB @BII, >KA QEBOBCLOB
QEBV RPB M>PPFSB QO>KPMLOQ QL JLSB >@OLPP QEB JBJ?O>KB.
"BCLOB JLSFKD LK, VLR KBBA QL OBSFBT QEB D>PBP QE>Q @>K AFCCRPB >@OLPP > @BII JBJ?O>KB. "B@>RPB @BIIP O>MFAIV RPB RM
LUVDBK AROFKD JBQ>?LIFPJ, QEBOB FP QVMF@>IIV > ILTBO @LK@BKQO>QFLK LC /
2
FKPFAB QEB @BII QE>K LRQPFAB. !P > OBPRIQ, LUVDBK
TFII AFCCRPB COLJ QEB FKQBOPQFQF>I CIRFA AFOB@QIV QEOLRDE QEB IFMFA ?FI>VBO LC QEB JBJ?O>KB >KA FKQL QEB @VQLMI>PJ TFQEFK
QEB @BII. /K QEB LQEBO E>KA, ?B@>RPB @BIIP MOLAR@B #/
2
>P > ?VMOLAR@Q LC JBQ>?LIFPJ, #/
2
@LK@BKQO>QFLKP OFPB TFQEFK
QEB @VQLMI>PJ; QEBOBCLOB, #/
2
TFII JLSB COLJ QEB @BII QEOLRDE QEB IFMFA ?FI>VBO >KA FKQL QEB FKQBOPQFQF>I CIRFA, TEBOB FQP
@LK@BKQO>QFLK FP ILTBO. 4EFP JB@E>KFPJ LC JLIB@RIBP PMOB>AFKD COLJ TEBOB QEBV >OB JLOB @LK@BKQO>QBA QL TEBOB QEBV >OB
IBPP @LK@BKQO>QFLK FP > CLOJ LC M>PPFSB QO>KPMLOQ @>IIBA PFJMIB AFCCRPFLK (F97EB5 3.5).
F<:HE8 3.5 ,<@C?8 D<99HF<BA 46EBFF G;8 C8?? ()?4F@4) &8@5E4A8 1?< JKIL:KLI< F= K?< C@G@; 9@C8P<I 8CCFNJ FECP
JD8CC, EFE-GFC8I JL9JK8E:<J JL:? 8J FOP><E 8E; :8I9FE ;@FO@;< KF G8JJ K?IFL>? K?< :<CC D<D9I8E<, ;FNE K?<@I
:FE:<EKI8K@FE >I8;@<EK, 9P J@DGC< ;@==LJ@FE.
3LIRQBP AFPPLISBA FK T>QBO LK BFQEBO PFAB LC QEB @BII JBJ?O>KB TFII QBKA QL AFCCRPB ALTK QEBFO @LK@BKQO>QFLK DO>AFBKQP,
?RQ ?B@>RPB JLPQ PR?PQ>K@BP @>KKLQ M>PP COBBIV QEOLRDE QEB IFMFA ?FI>VBO LC QEB @BII JBJ?O>KB, QEBFO JLSBJBKQ FP OBPQOF@QBA
QL MOLQBFK @E>KKBIP >KA PMB@F>IFWBA QO>KPMLOQ JB@E>KFPJP FK QEB JBJ?O>KB. F139<9D1D54 4966EC9?> FP QEB AFCCRPFLK MOL@BPP
RPBA CLO QELPB PR?PQ>K@BP QE>Q @>KKLQ @OLPP QEB IFMFA ?FI>VBO ARB QL QEBFO PFWB >KA/LO MLI>OFQV (F97EB5 3.6). ! @LJJLK
BU>JMIB LC C>@FIFQ>QBA AFCCRPFLK FP QEB JLSBJBKQ LC DIR@LPB FKQL QEB @BII, TEBOB FQ FP RPBA QL J>HB !40. !IQELRDE DIR@LPB
@>K ?B JLOB @LK@BKQO>QBA LRQPFAB LC > @BII, FQ @>KKLQ @OLPP QEB IFMFA ?FI>VBO SF> PFJMIB AFCCRPFLK ?B@>RPB FQ FP ?LQE I>ODB >KA
MLI>O. 4L OBPLISB QEFP, > PMB@F>IFWBA @>OOFBO MOLQBFK @>IIBA QEB DIR@LPB QO>KPMLOQBO TFII QO>KPCBO DIR@LPB JLIB@RIBP FKQL QEB @BII
QL C>@FIFQ>QB FQP FKT>OA AFCCRPFLK.
%A-1"/ 3 R 1%" "))2)A/ )"3") ,# ,/$A+&7A1&,+ 91
F<:HE8 3.6 F46<?<G4G87 D<99HF<BA (8) #8:@C@K8K<; ;@==LJ@FE F= JL9JK8E:<J :IFJJ@E> K?< :<CC (GC8JD8) D<D9I8E< K8B<J
GC8:< N@K? K?< ?<CG F= GIFK<@EJ JL:? 8J :?8EE<C GIFK<@EJ 8E; :8II@<I GIFK<@EJ. ?8EE<C GIFK<@EJ 8I< C<JJ J<C<:K@M< K?8E
:8II@<I GIFK<@EJ, 8E; LJL8CCP D@C;CP ;@J:I@D@E8K< 9<KN<<E K?<@I :8I>F 98J<; FE J@Q< 8E; :?8I><. (9) 8II@<I GIFK<@EJ 8I<
DFI< J<C<:K@M<, F=K<E FECP 8CCFN@E> FE< G8IK@:LC8I KPG< F= DFC<:LC< KF :IFJJ.
)K PLJB @>PBP, C>@FIFQ>QBA AFCCRPFLK JFDEQ JLSB QTL PR?PQ>K@BP FK QEB P>JB AFOB@QFLK >@OLPP QEB JBJ?O>KB, @>IIBA >
mPVJMLOQ.n &LO BU>JMIB, FK FKQBPQFK>I @BIIP, PLAFRJ FLKP >KA DIR@LPB JLIB@RIBP >OB @L-QO>KPMLOQBA FKQL QEB @BIIP. )K LQEBO
@>PBP, QEB C>@FIFQ>QBA AFCCRPFLK JFDEQ LKIV OBNRFOB > QRKKBI-IFHB @E>KKBI CLO M>OQF@RI>O PLIRQBP, PR@E >P BIB@QOLIVQBP (PJ>II
@E>ODBA FLKP), QL M>PP QEOLRDE QEB JBJ?O>KB (QEFP FP @>IIBA > mRKFMLOQn). !P >K BU>JMIB, BSBK QELRDE PLAFRJ FLKP (.>
+
)
>OB EFDEIV @LK@BKQO>QBA LRQPFAB LC @BIIP, QEBPB BIB@QOLIVQBP >OB MLI>OFWBA >KA @>KKLQ M>PP QEOLRDE QEB KLKMLI>O IFMFA ?FI>VBO
LC QEB JBJ?O>KB. 4EBFO AFCCRPFLK FP C>@FIFQ>QBA ?V JBJ?O>KB MOLQBFKP QE>Q CLOJ PLAFRJ @E>KKBIP (LO mMLOBPn), PL QE>Q .>
+
FLKP @>K JLSB ALTK QEBFO @LK@BKQO>QFLK DO>AFBKQ COLJ LRQPFAB QEB @BIIP QL FKPFAB QEB @BIIP. 4EBOB >OB J>KV LQEBO PLIRQBP QE>Q
JRPQ RKABODL C>@FIFQ>QBA AFCCRPFLK QL JLSB FKQL > @BII, PR@E >P >JFKL >@FAP, LO QL JLSB LRQ LC > @BII, PR@E >P T>PQBP. "B@>RPB
C>@FIFQ>QBA AFCCRPFLK FP > M>PPFSB MOL@BPP, FQ ALBP KLQ OBNRFOB BKBODV BUMBKAFQROB ?V QEB @BII.
7>QBO >IPL @>K JLSB COBBIV >@OLPP QEB @BII JBJ?O>KB LC >II @BIIP, BFQEBO QEOLRDE MOLQBFK @E>KKBIP LO ?V PIFMMFKD
?BQTBBK QEB IFMFA Q>FIP LC QEB JBJ?O>KB FQPBIC. %C=?C9C FP QEB AFCCRPFLK LC T>QBO QEOLRDE > PBJFMBOJB>?IB JBJ?O>KB
(F97EB5 3.7).
F<:HE8 3.7 (F@BF<F ,JDFJ@J @J K?< ;@==LJ@FE F= N8K<I K?IFL>? 8 J<D@G<ID<89C< D<D9I8E< ;FNE @KJ :FE:<EKI8K@FE
>I8;@<EK. &= 8 D<D9I8E< @J G<ID<89C< KF N8K<I, K?FL>? EFK KF 8 JFCLK<, N8K<I N@CC <HL8C@Q< @KJ FNE :FE:<EKI8K@FE 9P
;@==LJ@E> KF K?< J@;< F= CFN<I N8K<I :FE:<EKI8K@FE (8E; K?LJ K?< J@;< F= ?@>?<I JFCLK< :FE:<EKI8K@FE). &E K?< 9<8B<I FE
K?< C<=K, K?< JFCLK@FE FE K?< I@>?K J@;< F= K?< D<D9I8E< @J ?PG<IKFE@:.
4EB JLSBJBKQ LC T>QBO JLIB@RIBP FP KLQ FQPBIC OBDRI>QBA ?V @BIIP, PL FQ FP FJMLOQ>KQ QE>Q @BIIP >OB BUMLPBA QL >K
BKSFOLKJBKQ FK TEF@E QEB @LK@BKQO>QFLK LC PLIRQBP LRQPFAB LC QEB @BIIP (FK QEB BUQO>@BIIRI>O CIRFA) FP BNR>I QL QEB @LK@BKQO>QFLK
92 %A-1"/ 3 R 1%" "))2)A/ )"3") ,# ,/$A+&7A1&,+
1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
LC PLIRQBP FKPFAB QEB @BIIP (FK QEB @VQLMI>PJ). 4TL PLIRQFLKP QE>Q E>SB QEB P>JB @LK@BKQO>QFLK LC PLIRQBP >OB P>FA QL ?B
9C?D?>93 (BNR>I QBKPFLK). 7EBK @BIIP >KA QEBFO BUQO>@BIIRI>O BKSFOLKJBKQP >OB FPLQLKF@, QEB @LK@BKQO>QFLK LC T>QBO JLIB@RIBP
FP QEB P>JB LRQPFAB >KA FKPFAB QEB @BIIP, >KA QEB @BIIP J>FKQ>FK QEBFO KLOJ>I PE>MB (>KA CRK@QFLK).
/PJLPFP L@@ROP TEBK QEBOB FP >K FJ?>I>K@B LC PLIRQBP LRQPFAB LC > @BII SBOPRP FKPFAB QEB @BII. ! PLIRQFLK QE>Q E>P >
EFDEBO @LK@BKQO>QFLK LC PLIRQBP QE>K >KLQEBO PLIRQFLK FP P>FA QL ?B 8I@5BD?>93, >KA T>QBO JLIB@RIBP QBKA QL AFCCRPB FKQL >
EVMBOQLKF@ PLIRQFLK (F97EB5 3.8). #BIIP FK > EVMBOQLKF@ PLIRQFLK TFII PEOFSBI >P T>QBO IB>SBP QEB @BII SF> LPJLPFP. )K @LKQO>PQ,
> PLIRQFLK QE>Q E>P > ILTBO @LK@BKQO>QFLK LC PLIRQBP QE>K >KLQEBO PLIRQFLK FP P>FA QL ?B 8I@?D?>93, >KA T>QBO JLIB@RIBP QBKA
QL AFCCRPB LRQ LC > EVMLQLKF@ PLIRQFLK. #BIIP FK > EVMLQLKF@ PLIRQFLK TFII Q>HB LK QLL JR@E T>QBO >KA PTBII, TFQE QEB OFPH LC
BSBKQR>IIV ?ROPQFKD. ! @OFQF@>I >PMB@Q LC ELJBLPQ>PFP FK IFSFKD QEFKDP FP QL @OB>QB >K FKQBOK>I BKSFOLKJBKQ FK TEF@E >II LC QEB
?LAVlP @BIIP >OB FK >K FPLQLKF@ PLIRQFLK. 6>OFLRP LOD>K PVPQBJP, M>OQF@RI>OIV QEB HFAKBVP, TLOH QL J>FKQ>FK QEFP ELJBLPQ>PFP.
F<:HE8 3.8 CBA68AGE4G<BA B9 ,B?HG<BAF A ?PG<IKFE@: JFCLK@FE ?8J 8 JFCLK< :FE:<EKI8K@FE ?@>?<I K?8E 8EFK?<I
JFCLK@FE. AE @JFKFE@: JFCLK@FE ?8J 8 JFCLK< :FE:<EKI8K@FE <HL8C KF 8EFK?<I JFCLK@FE. A ?PGFKFE@: JFCLK@FE ?8J 8 JFCLK<
:FE:<EKI8K@FE CFN<I K?8E 8EFK?<I JFCLK@FE.
!KLQEBO JB@E>KFPJ ?BPFABP AFCCRPFLK QL M>PPFSBIV QO>KPMLOQ J>QBOF>IP ?BQTBBK @LJM>OQJBKQP FP CFIQO>QFLK. 5KIFHB
AFCCRPFLK LC > PR?PQ>K@B COLJ TEBOB FQ FP JLOB @LK@BKQO>QBA QL IBPP @LK@BKQO>QBA, CFIQO>QFLK RPBP > EVAOLPQ>QF@ MOBPPROB
DO>AFBKQ QE>Q MRPEBP QEB CIRFAj>KA QEB PLIRQBP TFQEFK FQjCOLJ > EFDEBO MOBPPROB >OB> QL > ILTBO MOBPPROB >OB>. &FIQO>QFLK
FP >K BUQOBJBIV FJMLOQ>KQ MOL@BPP FK QEB ?LAV. &LO BU>JMIB, QEB @FO@RI>QLOV PVPQBJ RPBP CFIQO>QFLK QL JLSB MI>PJ> >KA
PR?PQ>K@BP >@OLPP QEB BKALQEBIF>I IFKFKD LC @>MFII>OFBP >KA FKQL PROOLRKAFKD QFPPRBP, PRMMIVFKD @BIIP TFQE QEB KRQOFBKQP.
&FIQO>QFLK MOBPPROB FK QEB HFAKBVP MOLSFABP QEB JB@E>KFPJ QL OBJLSB T>PQBP COLJ QEB ?ILLAPQOB>J.
A6G<I8 -E4AFCBEG
&LO >II LC QEB QO>KPMLOQ JBQELAP ABP@OF?BA >?LSB, QEB @BII BUMBKAP KL BKBODV. -BJ?O>KB MOLQBFKP QE>Q >FA FK QEB M>PPFSB
QO>KPMLOQ LC PR?PQ>K@BP AL PL TFQELRQ QEB RPB LC !40. $ROFKD >@QFSB QO>KPMLOQ, !40 FP OBNRFOBA QL JLSB > PR?PQ>K@B >@OLPP >
JBJ?O>KB, LCQBK TFQE QEB EBIM LC MOLQBFK @>OOFBOP, >KA RPR>IIV aa"'+, FQP @LK@BKQO>QFLK DO>AFBKQ.
/KB LC QEB JLPQ @LJJLK QVMBP LC >@QFSB QO>KPMLOQ FKSLISBP MOLQBFKP QE>Q PBOSB >P MRJMP. 4EB TLOA mMRJMn MOL?>?IV
@LKGROBP RM QELRDEQP LC RPFKD BKBODV QL MRJM RM QEB QFOB LC > ?F@V@IB LO > ?>PHBQ?>II. 3FJFI>OIV, BKBODV COLJ !40 FP
OBNRFOBA CLO QEBPB JBJ?O>KB MOLQBFKP QL QO>KPMLOQ PR?PQ>K@BPjJLIB@RIBP LO FLKPj>@OLPP QEB JBJ?O>KB, RPR>IIV >D>FKPQ
QEBFO @LK@BKQO>QFLK DO>AFBKQP (COLJ >K >OB> LC ILT @LK@BKQO>QFLK QL >K >OB> LC EFDE @LK@BKQO>QFLK).
4EB C?49E=-@?D1CC9E= @E=@, TEF@E FP >IPL @>IIBA .
+
/+
+
!40>PB, QO>KPMLOQP PLAFRJ LRQ LC > @BII TEFIB JLSFKD
MLQ>PPFRJ FKQL QEB @BII. 4EB .>
+
/+
+
MRJM FP >K FJMLOQ>KQ FLK MRJM CLRKA FK QEB JBJ?O>KBP LC J>KV QVMBP LC @BIIP. 4EBPB
MRJMP >OB M>OQF@RI>OIV >?RKA>KQ FK KBOSB @BIIP, TEF@E >OB @LKPQ>KQIV MRJMFKD LRQ PLAFRJ FLKP >KA MRIIFKD FK MLQ>PPFRJ FLKP
QL J>FKQ>FK >K BIB@QOF@>I DO>AFBKQ >@OLPP QEBFO @BII JBJ?O>KBP. !K 5<53DB931< 7B1495>D FP > AFCCBOBK@B FK BIB@QOF@>I @E>ODB
>@OLPP > PM>@B. )K QEB @>PB LC KBOSB @BIIP, CLO BU>JMIB, QEB BIB@QOF@>I DO>AFBKQ BUFPQP ?BQTBBK QEB FKPFAB >KA LRQPFAB LC QEB
@BII, TFQE QEB FKPFAB ?BFKD KBD>QFSBIV-@E>ODBA (>Q >OLRKA -70 J6) OBI>QFSB QL QEB LRQPFAB. 4EB KBD>QFSB BIB@QOF@>I DO>AFBKQ
FP J>FKQ>FKBA ?B@>RPB B>@E .>
+
/+
+
MRJM JLSBP QEOBB .>
+
FLKP LRQ LC QEB @BII >KA QTL +
+
FLKP FKQL QEB @BII CLO B>@E !40
JLIB@RIB QE>Q FP RPBA (F97EB5 3.9). 4EFP MOL@BPP FP PL FJMLOQ>KQ CLO KBOSB @BIIP QE>Q FQ >@@LRKQP CLO QEB J>GLOFQV LC QEBFO !40
RP>DB.
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F<:HE8 3.9 ,B7<H@-)BG4FF<H@ )H@C 1?< JF;@LD-GFK8JJ@LD GLDG @J =FLE; @E D8EP :<CC (GC8JD8) D<D9I8E<J.
-FN<I<; 9P A1-, K?< GLDG DFM<J JF;@LD 8E; GFK8JJ@LD @FEJ @E FGGFJ@K< ;@I<:K@FEJ, <8:? 8>8@EJK @KJ :FE:<EKI8K@FE
>I8;@<EK. &E 8 J@E>C< :P:C< F= K?< GLDG, K?I<< JF;@LD @FEJ 8I< <OKIL;<; =IFD 8E; KNF GFK8JJ@LD @FEJ 8I< @DGFIK<; @EKF
K?< :<CC.
/QEBO CLOJP LC >@QFSB QO>KPMLOQ AL KLQ FKSLISB JBJ?O>KB @>OOFBOP. E>4?3ID?C9C (?OFKDFKD mFKQL QEB @BIIn) FP QEB
MOL@BPP LC > @BII FKDBPQFKD J>QBOF>I ?V BKSBILMFKD FQ FK > MLOQFLK LC FQP @BII JBJ?O>KB, >KA QEBK MFK@EFKD LCC QE>Q
MLOQFLK LC JBJ?O>KB (F97EB5 3.10). /K@B MFK@EBA LCC, QEB MLOQFLK LC JBJ?O>KB >KA FQP @LKQBKQP ?B@LJBP >K FKABMBKABKQ,
FKQO>@BIIRI>O SBPF@IB. ! F5C93<5 FP > JBJ?O>KLRP P>@j> PMEBOF@>I >KA ELIILT LOD>KBIIB ?LRKABA ?V > IFMFA ?FI>VBO
JBJ?O>KB. %KAL@VQLPFP LCQBK ?OFKDP J>QBOF>IP FKQL QEB @BII QE>Q JRPQ QL ?B ?OLHBK ALTK LO AFDBPQBA. &817?3ID?C9C (m@BII
B>QFKDn) FP QEB BKAL@VQLPFP LC I>ODB M>OQF@IBP. ->KV FJJRKB @BIIP BKD>DB FK ME>DL@VQLPFP LC FKS>AFKD M>QELDBKP. ,FHB IFQQIB
0>@-JBK, QEBFO GL? FP QL M>QOLI ?LAV QFPPRBP CLO RKT>KQBA J>QQBO, PR@E >P FKS>AFKD ?>@QBOF>I @BIIP, ME>DL@VQFWB QEBJ, >KA
AFDBPQ QEBJ. )K @LKQO>PQ QL ME>DL@VQLPFP, @9>?3ID?C9C (m@BII AOFKHFKDn) ?OFKDP CIRFA @LKQ>FKFKD AFPPLISBA PR?PQ>K@BP FKQL >
@BII QEOLRDE JBJ?O>KB SBPF@IBP.
F<:HE8 3.10 -;E88 FBE@F B9 EA7B6LGBF<F "E;F:PKFJ@J @J 8 =FID F= 8:K@M< KI8EJGFIK @E N?@:? 8 :<CC <EM<CFG<J
<OKI8:<CCLC8I D8K<I@8CJ LJ@E> @KJ :<CC D<D9I8E<. (8) &E G?8>F:PKFJ@J, N?@:? @J I<C8K@M<CP EFEJ<C<:K@M<, K?< :<CC K8B<J @E 8
C8I>< G8IK@:C<. (9) &E G@EF:PKFJ@J, K?< :<CC K8B<J @E JD8CC G8IK@:C<J @E =CL@;. (:) &E :FEKI8JK, I<:<GKFI-D<;@8K<; <E;F:PKFJ@J
@J HL@K< J<C<:K@M<. 4?<E <OK<IE8C I<:<GKFIJ 9@E; 8 JG<:@=@: C@>8E;, K?< :<CC I<JGFE;J 9P <E;F:PKFJ@E> K?< C@>8E;.
0E>DL@VQLPFP >KA MFKL@VQLPFP Q>HB FK I>ODB MLOQFLKP LC BUQO>@BIIRI>O J>QBOF>I, >KA QEBV >OB QVMF@>IIV KLQ EFDEIV PBIB@QFSB
FK QEB PR?PQ>K@BP QEBV ?OFKD FK. #BIIP OBDRI>QB QEB BKAL@VQLPFP LC PMB@FCF@ PR?PQ>K@BP SF> OB@BMQLO-JBAF>QBA BKAL@VQLPFP.
(535@D?B-=5491D54 5>4?3ID?C9C FP BKAL@VQLPFP ?V > MLOQFLK LC QEB @BII JBJ?O>KB QE>Q @LKQ>FKP J>KV OB@BMQLOP QE>Q >OB
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MOLAR@Q FP > QTL-PQBM MOL@BPP, TFQE >K 2.! JLIB@RIB >P QEB FKQBOJBAF>QB.
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QEFP PB@QFLK LC QEB $.! JLIB@RIB >OB RPBA >P QEB QBJMI>QB QL QO>KP@OF?B QEB @LJMIBJBKQ>OV PQO>KA LC 2.! (F97EB5 3.26). !
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@LAFKD OBDFLKP. 4EB OBJLSBA PBDJBKQ LC QEB QO>KP@OFMQ FP @>IIBA >K 9>DB?>. 4EB OBJ>FKFKD BULKP >OB M>PQBA QLDBQEBO.
!K 5H?> FP > PBDJBKQ LC 2.! QE>Q OBJ>FKP >CQBO PMIF@FKD. )KQBOBPQFKDIV, PLJB FKQOLKP QE>Q >OB OBJLSBA COLJ J2.! >OB
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7EBK >K J2.! JLIB@RIB FP OB>AV QL ?B QO>KPI>QBA, QEB QTL PR?RKFQP @LJB QLDBQEBO >KA >QQ>@E QL QEB J2.!. 4EB OF?LPLJB
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#C8K 1?@E 8E; :LIM<;
-F@EKJ F= 8KK8:?D<EK =FI
DLJ:C<J; GIFK<:KFIJ F=
@EK<IE8C FI>8EJ
0K<IELD, I@9J, J:8GLC8<, :I8E@8C
9FE<J
&II<>LC8I FDGC<O J?8G< -IFK<:K @EK<IE8C FI>8EJ 3<IK<9I8<, =8:@8C 9FE<J
0<J8DF@;
0D8CC 8E; IFLE;; <D9<;;<;
@E K<E;FEJ
-IFK<:K K<E;FEJ =IFD
:FDGI<JJ@M< =FI:<J
-8K<CC8<
-45?8 6.1
6.3 N BBA8 ,GEH6GHE8
"V QEB BKA LC QEFP PB@QFLK, VLR TFII ?B >?IB QL:
c )ABKQFCV QEB >K>QLJF@>I CB>QROBP LC > ?LKB
c $BCFKB >KA IFPQ BU>JMIBP LC ?LKB J>OHFKDP
c $BP@OF?B QEB EFPQLILDV LC ?LKB QFPPRB
c #LJM>OB >KA @LKQO>PQ @LJM>@Q >KA PMLKDV ?LKB
c )ABKQFCV QEB PQOR@QROBP QE>Q @LJMLPB @LJM>@Q >KA PMLKDV ?LKB
c $BP@OF?B ELT ?LKBP >OB KLROFPEBA >KA FKKBOS>QBA
"LKB QFPPRB (LPPBLRP QFPPRB) AFCCBOP DOB>QIV COLJ LQEBO QFPPRBP FK QEB ?LAV. "LKB FP E>OA >KA J>KV LC FQP CRK@QFLKP ABMBKA LK
QE>Q @E>O>@QBOFPQF@ E>OAKBPP. ,>QBO AFP@RPPFLKP FK QEFP @E>MQBO TFII PELT QE>Q ?LKB FP >IPL AVK>JF@ FK QE>Q FQP PE>MB >AGRPQP QL
>@@LJJLA>QB PQOBPPBP. 4EFP PB@QFLK TFII BU>JFKB QEB DOLPP >K>QLJV LC ?LKB CFOPQ >KA QEBK JLSB LK QL FQP EFPQLILDV.
%A-1"/ 6 R B,+" 1&002" A+! 1%" 0(")"1A) 0601"* 209
EBFF AA4GB@L B9 BBA8
4EB PQOR@QROB LC > ILKD ?LKB >IILTP CLO QEB ?BPQ SFPR>IFW>QFLK LC >II LC QEB M>OQP LC > ?LKB (F97EB5 6.7). ! ILKD ?LKB E>P QTL
M>OQP: QEB 491@8IC9C >KA QEB 5@9@8IC9C. 4EB AF>MEVPFP FP QEB QR?RI>O PE>CQ QE>Q ORKP ?BQTBBK QEB MOLUFJ>I >KA AFPQ>I BKAP LC
QEB ?LKB. 4EB ELIILT OBDFLK FK QEB AF>MEVPFP FP @>IIBA QEB =54E<<1BI 31F9DI, TEF@E FP CFIIBA TFQE VBIILT J>OOLT. 4EB T>IIP
LC QEB AF>MEVPFP >OB @LJMLPBA LC ABKPB >KA E>OA 3?=@13D 2?>5.
F<:HE8 6.7 AA4GB@L B9 4 %BA: BBA8 A KPG@:8C CFE> 9FE< J?FNJ K?< >IFJJ 8E8KFD@:8C :?8I8:K<I@JK@:J F= 9FE<.
4EB TFABO PB@QFLK >Q B>@E BKA LC QEB ?LKB FP @>IIBA QEB BMFMEVPFP (MIRO>I = BMFMEVPBP), TEF@E FP CFIIBA TFQE PMLKDV ?LKB.
2BA J>OOLT CFIIP QEB PM>@BP FK QEB PMLKDV ?LKB. %>@E BMFMEVPFP JBBQP QEB AF>MEVPFP >Q QEB JBQ>MEVPFP, QEB K>OOLT >OB> QE>Q
@LKQ>FKP QEB 5@9@8IC51< @<1D5 (DOLTQE MI>QB), > I>VBO LC EV>IFKB (QO>KPM>OBKQ) @>OQFI>DB FK > DOLTFKD ?LKB. 7EBK QEB ?LKB
PQLMP DOLTFKD FK B>OIV >ARIQELLA (>MMOLUFJ>QBIV 18i21 VB>OP), QEB @>OQFI>DB FP OBMI>@BA ?V LPPBLRP QFPPRB >KA QEB BMFMEVPB>I
MI>QB ?B@LJBP >K BMFMEVPB>I IFKB.
4EB JBARII>OV @>SFQV E>P > ABIF@>QB JBJ?O>KLRP IFKFKD @>IIBA QEB 5>4?CD5E= (BKA- = mFKPFABn; LPQB- = m?LKBn), TEBOB
?LKB DOLTQE, OBM>FO, >KA OBJLABIFKD L@@RO. 4EB LRQBO PROC>@B LC QEB ?LKB FP @LSBOBA TFQE > CF?OLRP JBJ?O>KB @>IIBA QEB
@5B9?CD5E= (MBOF- = m>OLRKAn LO mPROOLRKAFKDn). 4EB MBOFLPQBRJ @LKQ>FKP ?ILLA SBPPBIP, KBOSBP, >KA IVJME>QF@ SBPPBIP QE>Q
KLROFPE @LJM>@Q ?LKB. 4BKALKP >KA IFD>JBKQP >IPL >QQ>@E QL ?LKBP >Q QEB MBOFLPQBRJ. 4EB MBOFLPQBRJ @LSBOP QEB BKQFOB LRQBO
PROC>@B BU@BMQ TEBOB QEB BMFMEVPBP JBBQ LQEBO ?LKBP QL CLOJ GLFKQP (F97EB5 6.8). )K QEFP OBDFLK, QEB BMFMEVPBP >OB @LSBOBA
TFQE 1BD93E<1B 31BD9<175, > QEFK I>VBO LC @>OQFI>DB QE>Q OBAR@BP COF@QFLK >KA >@QP >P > PEL@H >?PLO?BO.
210 %A-1"/ 6 R B,+" 1&002" A+! 1%" 0(")"1A) 0601"*
1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
F<:HE8 6.8 )8E<BFG8H@ 4A7 EA7BFG8H@ 1?< G<I@FJK<LD =FIDJ K?< FLK<I JLI=8:< F= 9FE<, 8E; K?< <E;FJK<LD C@E<J
K?< D<;LCC8IP :8M@KP.
&I>Q ?LKBP, IFHB QELPB LC QEB @O>KFRJ, @LKPFPQ LC > I>VBO LC 49@<?K (PMLKDV ?LKB), IFKBA LK BFQEBO PFAB ?V > I>VBO LC
@LJM>@Q ?LKB (F97EB5 6.9). 4EB QTL I>VBOP LC @LJM>@Q ?LKB >KA QEB FKQBOFLO PMLKDV ?LKB TLOH QLDBQEBO QL MOLQB@Q QEB
FKQBOK>I LOD>KP. )C QEB LRQBO I>VBO LC > @O>KF>I ?LKB CO>@QROBP, QEB ?O>FK FP PQFII MOLQB@QBA ?V QEB FKQ>@Q FKKBO I>VBO.
F<:HE8 6.9 AA4GB@L B9 4 F?4G BBA8 1?@J :IFJJ-J<:K@FE F= 8 =C8K 9FE< J?FNJ K?< JGFE>P 9FE< (;@GCFW) C@E<; FE <@K?<I
J@;< 9P 8 C8P<I F= :FDG8:K 9FE<.
BBA8 &4E><A:F
4EB PROC>@B CB>QROBP LC ?LKBP S>OV @LKPFABO>?IV, ABMBKAFKD LK QEB CRK@QFLK >KA IL@>QFLK FK QEB ?LAV. *12<5 6.2 ABP@OF?BP QEB
?LKB J>OHFKDP, TEF@E >OB FIIRPQO>QBA FK (F97EB5 6.10). 4EBOB >OB QEOBB DBKBO>I @I>PPBP LC ?LKB J>OHFKDP: (1) >OQF@RI>QFLKP,
(2) MOLGB@QFLKP, >KA (3) ELIBP. !P QEB K>JB FJMIFBP, >K 1BD93E<1D9?> FP TEBOB QTL ?LKB PROC>@BP @LJB QLDBQEBO (>OQF@RIRP =
mGLFKQn). 4EBPB PROC>@BP QBKA QL @LKCLOJ QL LKB >KLQEBO, PR@E >P LKB ?BFKD OLRKABA >KA QEB LQEBO @RMMBA, QL C>@FIFQ>QB QEB
CRK@QFLK LC QEB >OQF@RI>QFLK. ! @B?:53D9?> FP >K >OB> LC > ?LKB QE>Q MOLGB@QP >?LSB QEB PROC>@B LC QEB ?LKB. 4EBPB >OB QEB
>QQ>@EJBKQ MLFKQP CLO QBKALKP >KA IFD>JBKQP. )K DBKBO>I, QEBFO PFWB >KA PE>MB FP >K FKAF@>QFLK LC QEB CLO@BP BUBOQBA QEOLRDE
QEB >QQ>@EJBKQ QL QEB ?LKB. ! 8?<5 FP >K LMBKFKD LO DOLLSB FK QEB ?LKB QE>Q >IILTP ?ILLA SBPPBIP >KA KBOSBP QL BKQBO QEB
?LKB. !P TFQE QEB LQEBO J>OHFKDP, QEBFO PFWB >KA PE>MB OBCIB@Q QEB PFWB LC QEB SBPPBIP >KA KBOSBP QE>Q MBKBQO>QB QEB ?LKB >Q
QEBPB MLFKQP.
BBA8 &4E><A:F
&4E><A: D8F6E<CG<BA EK4@C?8
AIK@:LC8K@FEJ 4?<I< KNF 9FE<J D<<K (E<< AF@EK
-45?8 6.2
%A-1"/ 6 R B,+" 1&002" A+! 1%" 0(")"1A) 0601"* 211
BBA8 &4E><A:F
&4E><A: D8F6E<CG<BA EK4@C?8
%<8; -IFD@E<EK IFLE;<; JLI=8:< %<8; F= =<DLI
#8:<K #C8K JLI=8:< 3<IK<9I8<
FE;PC< /FLE;<; JLI=8:< ,::@G@K8C :FE;PC<J
-IFA<:K@FEJ /8@J<; D8IB@E>J 0G@EFLJ GIF:<JJ F= K?< M<IK<9I8<
-IFKL9<I8E:< -IFKIL;@E> ?@E
-IF:<JJ -IFD@E<E:< =<8KLI< 1I8EJM<IJ< GIF:<JJ F= M<IK<9I8
0G@E< 0?8IG GIF:<JJ &J:?@8C JG@E<
1L9<I:C< 0D8CC, IFLE;<; GIF:<JJ 1L9<I:C< F= ?LD<ILJ
1L9<IFJ@KP /FL>? JLI=8:< !<CKF@; KL9<IFJ@KP
)@E< 0C@>?K, <CFE>8K<; I@;>< 1<DGFI8C C@E<J F= K?< G8I@<K8C 9FE<J
I<JK /@;>< &C@8: :I<JK
%FC<J %FC<J 8E; ;<GI<JJ@FEJ #FI8D<E (?FC<J K?IFL>? N?@:? 9CFF; M<JJ<CJ :8E G8JJ K?IFL>?)
#FJJ8 "CFE>8K<; 98J@E *8E;@9LC8I =FJJ8
#FM<8 0D8CC G@K #FM<8 :8G@K@J FE K?< ?<8; F= K?< =<DLI
0LC:LJ $IFFM< 0@>DF@; JLC:LJ F= K?< K<DGFI8C 9FE<J
8E8C -8JJ8>< @E 9FE< AL;@KFIP :8E8C
#@JJLI< 0C@K K?IFL>? 9FE< ALI@:LC8I =@JJLI<
#FI8D<E %FC< K?IFL>? 9FE< #FI8D<E D8>ELD @E K?< F::@G@K8C 9FE<
*<8KLJ ,G<E@E> @EKF :8E8C "OK<IE8C 8L;@KFIP D<8KLJ
0@ELJ A@I-=@CC<; JG8:< @E 9FE< +8J8C J@ELJ
-45?8 6.2
212 %A-1"/ 6 R B,+" 1&002" A+! 1%" 0(")"1A) 0601"*
1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
F<:HE8 6.10 BBA8 F84GHE8F 1?< JLI=8:< =<8KLI<J F= 9FE<J ;<G<E; FE K?<@I =LE:K@FE, CF:8K@FE, 8KK8:?D<EK F=
C@>8D<EKJ 8E; K<E;FEJ, FI K?< G<E<KI8K@FE F= 9CFF; M<JJ<CJ 8E; E<IM<J.
BBA8 C8??F 4A7 -<FFH8
"LKB @LKQ>FKP > OBI>QFSBIV PJ>II KRJ?BO LC @BIIP BKQOBK@EBA FK > J>QOFU LC @LII>DBK CF?BOP QE>Q MOLSFAB > PROC>@B CLO
FKLOD>KF@ P>IQ @OVPQ>IP QL >AEBOB. 4EBPB P>IQ @OVPQ>IP CLOJ TEBK @>I@FRJ MELPME>QB >KA @>I@FRJ @>O?LK>QB @LJ?FKB QL @OB>QB
EVAOLUV>M>QFQB, TEF@E FK@LOMLO>QBP LQEBO FKLOD>KF@ P>IQP IFHB J>DKBPFRJ EVAOLUFAB, CIRLOFAB, >KA PRIC>QB >P FQ @OVPQ>IIFWBP,
LO @>I@FCFBP, LK QEB @LII>DBK CF?BOP. 4EB EVAOLUV>M>QFQB @OVPQ>IP DFSB ?LKBP QEBFO E>OAKBPP >KA PQOBKDQE, TEFIB QEB @LII>DBK
CF?BOP DFSB QEBJ CIBUF?FIFQV PL QE>Q QEBV >OB KLQ ?OFQQIB.
!IQELRDE ?LKB @BIIP @LJMLPB > PJ>II >JLRKQ LC QEB ?LKB SLIRJB, QEBV >OB @OR@F>I QL QEB CRK@QFLK LC ?LKBP. &LRO QVMBP
LC @BIIP >OB CLRKA TFQEFK ?LKB QFPPRB: LPQBL?I>PQP, LPQBL@VQBP, LPQBLDBKF@ @BIIP, >KA LPQBL@I>PQP (F97EB5 6.11).
%A-1"/ 6 R B,+" 1&002" A+! 1%" 0(")"1A) 0601"* 213
F<:HE8 6.11 BBA8 C8??F #FLI KPG<J F= :<CCJ 8I< =FLE; N@K?@E 9FE< K@JJL<. ,JK<F><E@: :<CCJ 8I< LE;@==<I<EK@8K<;
8E; ;<M<CFG @EKF FJK<F9C8JKJ. 4?<E FJK<F9C8JKJ ><K KI8GG<; N@K?@E K?< :8C:@=@<; D8KI@O, K?<@I JKIL:KLI< 8E; =LE:K@FE
:?8E><J, 8E; K?<P 9<:FD< FJK<F:PK<J. ,JK<F:C8JKJ ;<M<CFG =IFD DFEF:PK<J 8E; D8:IFG?8><J 8E; ;@==<I @E
8GG<8I8E:< =IFD FK?<I 9FE< :<CCJ.
4EB ?CD5?2<1CD FP QEB ?LKB @BII OBPMLKPF?IB CLO CLOJFKD KBT ?LKB >KA FP CLRKA FK QEB DOLTFKD MLOQFLKP LC ?LKB,
FK@IRAFKD QEB MBOFLPQBRJ >KA BKALPQBRJ. /PQBL?I>PQP, TEF@E AL KLQ AFSFAB, PVKQEBPFWB >KA PB@OBQB QEB @LII>DBK J>QOFU >KA
@>I@FRJ P>IQP. !P QEB PB@OBQBA J>QOFU PROOLRKAFKD QEB LPQBL?I>PQ @>I@FCFBP, QEB LPQBL?I>PQ ?B@LJB QO>MMBA TFQEFK FQ; >P >
OBPRIQ, FQ @E>KDBP FK PQOR@QROB >KA ?B@LJBP >K ?CD5?3ID5, QEB MOFJ>OV @BII LC J>QROB ?LKB >KA QEB JLPQ @LJJLK QVMB LC
?LKB @BII. %>@E LPQBL@VQB FP IL@>QBA FK > PM>@B @>IIBA > <13E>1 >KA FP PROOLRKABA ?V ?LKB QFPPRB. /PQBL@VQBP J>FKQ>FK QEB
JFKBO>I @LK@BKQO>QFLK LC QEB J>QOFU SF> QEB PB@OBQFLK LC BKWVJBP. ,FHB LPQBL?I>PQP, LPQBL@VQBP I>@H JFQLQF@ >@QFSFQV. 4EBV @>K
@LJJRKF@>QB TFQE B>@E LQEBO >KA OB@BFSB KRQOFBKQP SF> ILKD @VQLMI>PJF@ MOL@BPPBP QE>Q BUQBKA QEOLRDE 31>1<93E<9 (PFKDRI>O
= @>K>IF@RIRP), @E>KKBIP TFQEFK QEB ?LKB J>QOFU.
)C LPQBL?I>PQP >KA LPQBL@VQBP >OB FK@>M>?IB LC JFQLPFP, QEBK ELT >OB QEBV OBMIBKFPEBA TEBK LIA LKBP AFB? 4EB >KPTBO
IFBP FK QEB MOLMBOQFBP LC > QEFOA @>QBDLOV LC ?LKB @BIIPjQEB ?CD5?75>93 35<<. 4EBPB LPQBLDBKF@ @BIIP >OB RKAFCCBOBKQF>QBA TFQE
EFDE JFQLQF@ >@QFSFQV >KA QEBV >OB QEB LKIV ?LKB @BIIP QE>Q AFSFAB. )JJ>QROB LPQBLDBKF@ @BIIP >OB CLRKA FK QEB ABBM I>VBOP LC
QEB MBOFLPQBRJ >KA QEB J>OOLT. 4EBV AFCCBOBKQF>QB >KA ABSBILM FKQL LPQBL?I>PQP.
4EB AVK>JF@ K>QROB LC ?LKB JB>KP QE>Q KBT QFPPRB FP @LKPQ>KQIV CLOJBA, >KA LIA, FKGROBA, LO RKKB@BPP>OV ?LKB FP
AFPPLISBA CLO OBM>FO LO CLO @>I@FRJ OBIB>PB. 4EB @BII OBPMLKPF?IB CLO ?LKB OBPLOMQFLK, LO ?OB>HALTK, FP QEB ?CD5?3<1CD. 4EBV
>OB CLRKA LK ?LKB PROC>@BP, >OB JRIQFKR@IB>QBA, >KA LOFDFK>QB COLJ JLKL@VQBP >KA J>@OLME>DBP, QTL QVMBP LC TEFQB ?ILLA
@BIIP, KLQ COLJ LPQBLDBKF@ @BIIP. /PQBL@I>PQP >OB @LKQFKR>IIV ?OB>HFKD ALTK LIA ?LKB TEFIB LPQBL?I>PQP >OB @LKQFKR>IIV
CLOJFKD KBT ?LKB. 4EB LKDLFKD ?>I>K@B ?BQTBBK LPQBL?I>PQP >KA LPQBL@I>PQP FP OBPMLKPF?IB CLO QEB @LKPQ>KQ ?RQ PR?QIB
OBPE>MFKD LC ?LKB. *12<5 6.3 OBSFBTP QEB ?LKB @BIIP, QEBFO CRK@QFLKP, >KA IL@>QFLKP.
BBA8 C8??F
C8?? GLC8 FHA6G<BA %B64G<BA
,JK<F><E@:
:<CCJ
!<M<CFG @EKF FJK<F9C8JKJ !<<G C8P<IJ F= K?< G<I@FJK<LD 8E; K?< D8IIFN
,JK<F9C8JKJ BFE< =FID8K@FE
$IFN@E> GFIK@FEJ F= 9FE<, @E:CL;@E> G<I@FJK<LD 8E;
<E;FJK<LD
,JK<F:PK<J
*8@EK8@E D@E<I8C :FE:<EKI8K@FE F=
D8KI@O
"EKI8GG<; @E D8KI@O
,JK<F:C8JKJ BFE< I<JFIGK@FE
BFE< JLI=8:<J 8E; 8K J@K<J F= FC;, @EALI<;, FI LEE<<;<;
9FE<
-45?8 6.3
214 %A-1"/ 6 R B,+" 1&002" A+! 1%" 0(")"1A) 0601"*
1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
CB@C46G 4A7 ,CBA:L BBA8
4EB AFCCBOBK@BP ?BQTBBK @LJM>@Q >KA PMLKDV ?LKB >OB ?BPQ BUMILOBA SF> QEBFO EFPQLILDV. -LPQ ?LKBP @LKQ>FK @LJM>@Q >KA
PMLKDV LPPBLRP QFPPRB, ?RQ QEBFO AFPQOF?RQFLK >KA @LK@BKQO>QFLK S>OV ?>PBA LK QEB ?LKBlP LSBO>II CRK@QFLK. #LJM>@Q ?LKB FP
ABKPB PL QE>Q FQ @>K TFQEPQ>KA @LJMOBPPFSB CLO@BP, TEFIB PMLKDV (@>K@BIILRP) ?LKB E>P LMBK PM>@BP >KA PRMMLOQP PEFCQP FK
TBFDEQ AFPQOF?RQFLK.
CB@C46G BBA8
#LJM>@Q ?LKB FP QEB ABKPBO, PQOLKDBO LC QEB QTL QVMBP LC ?LKB QFPPRB (F97EB5 6.12). )Q @>K ?B CLRKA RKABO QEB MBOFLPQBRJ
>KA FK QEB AF>MEVPBP LC ILKD ?LKBP, TEBOB FQ MOLSFABP PRMMLOQ >KA MOLQB@QFLK.
F<:HE8 6.12 D<4:E4@ B9 CB@C46G BBA8 (8) 1?@J :IFJJ-J<:K@FE8C M@<N F= :FDG8:K 9FE< J?FNJ K?< 98J@: JKIL:KLI8C
LE@K, K?< FJK<FE. (9) &E K?@J D@:IF>I8G? F= K?< FJK<FE, PFL :8E :C<8ICP J<< K?< :FE:<EKI@: C8D<CC8< 8E; :<EKI8C :8E8CJ.
)* T 40. (*@:IF>I8G? GIFM@;<; 9P K?< /<><EKJ F= 2E@M<IJ@KP F= *@:?@>8E *<;@:8C 0:?FFC S 2012)
4EB JF@OLP@LMF@ PQOR@QRO>I RKFQ LC @LJM>@Q ?LKB FP @>IIBA >K ?CD5?>, LO (>SBOPF>K PVPQBJ. %>@E LPQBLK FP @LJMLPBA
LC @LK@BKQOF@ OFKDP LC @>I@FCFBA J>QOFU @>IIBA I>JBII>B (PFKDRI>O = I>JBII>). 2RKKFKD ALTK QEB @BKQBO LC B>@E LPQBLK FP QEB
35>DB1< 31>1<, LO (>SBOPF>K @>K>I, TEF@E @LKQ>FKP ?ILLA SBPPBIP, KBOSBP, >KA IVJME>QF@ SBPPBIP. 4EBPB SBPPBIP >KA KBOSBP
?O>K@E LCC >Q OFDEQ >KDIBP QEOLRDE > @5B6?B1D9>7 31>1<, >IPL HKLTK >P 6LIHJ>KKlP @>K>IP, QL BUQBKA QL QEB MBOFLPQBRJ >KA
BKALPQBRJ.
4EB LPQBL@VQBP >OB IL@>QBA FKPFAB PM>@BP @>IIBA I>@RK>B (PFKDRI>O = I>@RK>), CLRKA >Q QEB ?LOABOP LC >AG>@BKQ I>JBII>B.
!P ABP@OF?BA B>OIFBO, @>K>IF@RIF @LKKB@Q TFQE QEB @>K>IF@RIF LC LQEBO I>@RK>B >KA BSBKQR>IIV TFQE QEB @BKQO>I @>K>I. 4EFP
PVPQBJ >IILTP KRQOFBKQP QL ?B QO>KPMLOQBA QL QEB LPQBL@VQBP >KA T>PQBP QL ?B OBJLSBA COLJ QEBJ.
%A-1"/ 6 R B,+" 1&002" A+! 1%" 0(")"1A) 0601"* 215
,CBA:L (C4A68??BHF) BBA8
,FHB @LJM>@Q ?LKB, C@?>7I 2?>5, >IPL HKLTK >P @>K@BIILRP ?LKB, @LKQ>FKP LPQBL@VQBP ELRPBA FK I>@RK>B, ?RQ QEBV >OB KLQ
>OO>KDBA FK @LK@BKQOF@ @FO@IBP. )KPQB>A, QEB I>@RK>B >KA LPQBL@VQBP >OB CLRKA FK > I>QQF@B-IFHB KBQTLOH LC J>QOFU PMFHBP @>IIBA
DB1253E<15 (PFKDRI>O = QO>?B@RI>) (F97EB5 6.13). 4EB QO>?B@RI>B J>V >MMB>O QL ?B > O>KALJ KBQTLOH, ?RQ B>@E QO>?B@RI>
CLOJP >ILKD IFKBP LC PQOBPP QL MOLSFAB PQOBKDQE QL QEB ?LKB. 4EB PM>@BP LC QEB QO>?B@RI>QBA KBQTLOH MOLSFAB ?>I>K@B QL QEB
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TEBOB QTL ?LKB PROC>@BP JBBQ
E>OA, ABKPB @LKKB@QFSB QFPPRB QE>Q CLOJP QEB PQOR@QRO>I BIBJBKQP LC QEB PHBIBQLK
(PFKDRI>O = @>K>IF@RIRP) @E>KKBIP TFQEFK QEB ?LKB J>QOFU QE>Q ELRPB LKB LC >K LPQBL@VQBlP J>KV @VQLMI>PJF@
BUQBKPFLKP QE>Q FQ RPBP QL @LJJRKF@>QB >KA OB@BFSB KRQOFBKQP
PBJF-OFDFA @LKKB@QFSB QFPPRB CLRKA LK QEB PHBIBQLK FK >OB>P TEBOB CIBUF?FIFQV >KA PJLLQE PROC>@BP PRMMLOQ
JLSBJBKQ
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>IPL HKLTK >P QEB (>SBOPF>K @>K>I
J>KR>I J>KFMRI>QFLK LC > ?OLHBK ?LKB QL PBQ FQ FKQL FQP K>QRO>I MLPFQFLK TFQELRQ PRODBOV
ABKPB LPPBLRP QFPPRB QE>Q @>K TFQEPQ>KA @LJMOBPPFSB CLO@BP
QR?RI>O PE>CQ QE>Q ORKP ?BQTBBK QEB MOLUFJ>I >KA AFPQ>I BKAP LC > ILKD ?LKB
I>VBO LC PMLKDV ?LKB, QE>Q FP P>KATF@EBA ?BQTBBK QTL QEB I>VBOP LC @LJM>@Q ?LKB CLRKA FK CI>Q ?LKBP
MOL@BPP FK TEF@E ?LKB CLOJP ?V OBMI>@FKD EV>IFKB @>OQFI>DB
ABIF@>QB JBJ?O>KLRP IFKFKD LC > ?LKBlP JBARII>OV @>SFQV
@LJMIBQBIV LPPFCFBA OBJK>KQ LC QEB BMFMEVPB>I MI>QB
(>IPL, DOLTQE MI>QB) PEBBQ LC EV>IFKB @>OQFI>DB FK QEB JBQ>MEVPFP LC >K FJJ>QROB ?LKB; OBMI>@BA ?V
?LKB QFPPRB >P QEB LOD>K DOLTP FK IBKDQE
TFAB PB@QFLK >Q B>@E BKA LC > ILKD ?LKB; CFIIBA TFQE PMLKDV ?LKB >KA OBA J>OOLT
@LII>O LC EV>IFKB @>OQFI>DB >KA ?LKB QE>Q CLOJP >OLRKA QEB LRQPFAB LC > CO>@QROB
QEFK >KA @ROSBA ?LKB; PBOSBP >P > MLFKQ LC >QQ>@EJBKQ CLO JRP@IBP >KA MOLQB@QP FKQBOK>I LOD>KP
?ILLA @ILQ QE>Q CLOJP >Q QEB PFQB LC > ?OLHBK ?LKB
?OLHBK ?LKB
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LMBKFKD LO ABMOBPPFLK FK > ?LKB
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@LKAFQFLK @E>O>@QBOFWBA ?V >?KLOJ>IIV ILT IBSBIP LC @>I@FRJ
CF?OL@>OQFI>DFKLRP J>QOFU, FK QEB BKALPQB>I OBDFLK, ?BQTBBK QEB QTL BKAP LC > ?OLHBK ?LKB
MOL@BPP ?V TEF@E ?LKB CLOJP AFOB@QIV COLJ JBPBK@EVJ>I QFPPRB
?LKB LC @LJMIBU PE>MB; MOLQB@QP FKQBOK>I LOD>KP COLJ @LJMOBPPFSB CLO@BP
(PFKDRI>O = I>@RK>) PM>@BP FK > ?LKB QE>Q ELRPB >K LPQBL@VQB
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ELIILT OBDFLK LC QEB AF>MEVPFP; CFIIBA TFQE VBIILT J>OOLT
MOL@BPP, AROFKD ?LKB DOLTQE, ?V TEF@E ?LKB FP OBPLO?BA LK LKB PROC>@B LC > ?LKB >KA ABMLPFQBA LK >KLQEBO
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?LKB QFPPRB; > E>OA, ABKPB @LKKB@QFSB QFPPRB QE>Q CLOJP QEB PQOR@QRO>I BIBJBKQP LC QEB PHBIBQLK
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MOFJ>OV @BII FK J>QROB ?LKB; OBPMLKPF?IB CLO J>FKQ>FKFKD QEB J>QOFU
RKAFCCBOBKQF>QBA @BII TFQE EFDE JFQLQF@ >@QFSFQV; QEB LKIV ?LKB @BIIP QE>Q AFSFAB; QEBV AFCCBOBKQF>QB >KA
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O>QB LC ?LKB CLOJ>QFLK, > @LJJLK L@@ROOBK@B >P QEB ?LAV >DBP
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OBDFLK, ABBM FK QEB MBOFLPQB>I @LII>O, TEBOB ?LKB ABSBILMJBKQ PQ>OQP AROFKD
BKAL@ELKAO>I LPPFCF@>QFLK
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IFD>JBKQP >QQ>@E
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AF>MEVPB>I BKA LC QEB MI>QB >KA @LKQOF?RQBP QL ILKDFQRAFK>I DOLTQE LC QEB BMFMEVPB>I MI>QB
@LKKB@QFSB QFPPRB FK QEB FKQBOFLO @>SFQV LC > ?LKB TEBOB EBJ>QLMLFBPFP Q>HBP MI>@B
MOL@BPP ?V TEF@E LPQBL@I>PQP OBPLO? LIA LO A>J>DBA ?LKB >Q QEB P>JB QFJB >P >KA LK QEB P>JB PROC>@B
TEBOB LPQBL?I>PQP CLOJ KBT ?LKB QL OBMI>@B QE>Q TEF@E FP OBPLO?BA
OBDFLK LC QEB BMFMEVPB>I MI>QB QE>Q >K@ELOP QEB MI>QB QL QEB LPPBLRP QFPPRB LC QEB BMFMEVPFP
OBDFLK LC ?LKB ABSBILMJBKQ FK QEB BMFMEVPBP
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LOD>K PVPQBJ @LJMLPBA LC ?LKBP >KA @>OQFI>DB QE>Q MOLSFABP CLO JLSBJBKQ, PRMMLOQ, >KA MOLQB@QFLK
(>IPL, @>K@BIILRP ?LKB) QO>?B@RI>QBA LPPBLRP QFPPRB QE>Q PRMMLOQP PEFCQP FK TBFDEQ AFPQOF?RQFLK
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BMFMEVPB>I MI>QB QL QEB AF>MEVPFP
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PR@E >P QEB @>OM>IP, >OB >MMOLUFJ>QBIV BNR>I FK IBKDQE, TFAQE, >KA QEF@HKBPP. &I>Q ?LKBP >OB QEFK, ?RQ >OB LCQBK @ROSBA, PR@E
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AF>MEVPFP >OB @LJM>@Q ?LKB. 4EB BMFMEVPBP, TEF@E >OB TFABO PB@QFLKP >Q B>@E BKA LC > ILKD ?LKB, >OB CFIIBA TFQE PMLKDV
?LKB >KA OBA J>OOLT. 4EB BMFMEVPB>I MI>QB, > I>VBO LC EV>IFKB @>OQFI>DB, FP OBMI>@BA ?V LPPBLRP QFPPRB >P QEB LOD>K DOLTP FK
IBKDQE. 4EB JBARII>OV @>SFQV E>P > ABIF@>QB JBJ?O>KLRP IFKFKD @>IIBA QEB BKALPQBRJ. 4EB LRQBO PROC>@B LC ?LKB, BU@BMQ FK
OBDFLKP @LSBOBA TFQE >OQF@RI>O @>OQFI>DB, FP @LSBOBA TFQE > CF?OLRP JBJ?O>KB @>IIBA QEB MBOFLPQBRJ. &I>Q ?LKBP @LKPFPQ LC QTL
I>VBOP LC @LJM>@Q ?LKB PROOLRKAFKD > I>VBO LC PMLKDV ?LKB. "LKB J>OHFKDP ABMBKA LK QEB CRK@QFLK >KA IL@>QFLK LC ?LKBP.
!OQF@RI>QFLKP >OB MI>@BP TEBOB QTL ?LKBP JBBQ. 0OLGB@QFLKP PQF@H LRQ COLJ QEB PROC>@B LC QEB ?LKB >KA MOLSFAB >QQ>@EJBKQ
MLFKQP CLO QBKALKP >KA IFD>JBKQP. (LIBP >OB LMBKFKDP LO ABMOBPPFLKP FK QEB ?LKBP.
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P>IQP. /PQBLDBKF@ @BIIP ABSBILM FKQL LPQBL?I>PQP. /PQBL?I>PQP >OB @BIIP QE>Q J>HB KBT ?LKB. 4EBV ?B@LJB LPQBL@VQBP, QEB @BIIP
LC J>QROB ?LKB, TEBK QEBV DBQ QO>MMBA FK QEB J>QOFU. /PQBL@I>PQP BKD>DB FK ?LKB OBPLOMQFLK. #LJM>@Q ?LKB FP ABKPB >KA
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2BJLABIFKD L@@ROP >P ?LKB FP OBPLO?BA >KA OBMI>@BA ?V KBT ?LKB. /PQBLDBKBPFP FJMBOCB@Q> FP > DBKBQF@ AFPB>PB FK TEF@E
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4EB PHBIBQLK FP PR?AFSFABA FKQL QTL J>GLO AFSFPFLKPjQEB >UF>I >KA >MMBKAF@RI>O.
-;8 AK<4? ,>8?8GBA
4EB PHBIBQLK FP PR?AFSFABA FKQL QTL J>GLO AFSFPFLKPjQEB >UF>I >KA >MMBKAF@RI>O. 4EB 1H91< C;5<5D?> CLOJP QEB SBOQF@>I,
@BKQO>I >UFP LC QEB ?LAV >KA FK@IRABP >II ?LKBP LC QEB EB>A, KB@H, @EBPQ, >KA ?>@H (F97EB5 7.2). )Q PBOSBP QL MOLQB@Q QEB ?O>FK,
PMFK>I @LOA, EB>OQ, >KA IRKDP. )Q >IPL PBOSBP >P QEB >QQ>@EJBKQ PFQB CLO JRP@IBP QE>Q JLSB QEB EB>A, KB@H, >KA ?>@H, >KA CLO
JRP@IBP QE>Q >@Q >@OLPP QEB PELRIABO >KA EFM GLFKQP QL JLSB QEBFO @LOOBPMLKAFKD IFJ?P.
4EB >UF>I PHBIBQLK LC QEB >ARIQ @LKPFPQP LC 80 ?LKBP, FK@IRAFKD QEB C;E<<, QEB F5BD52B1< 3?<E=>, >KA QEB D8?B1393 3175.
4EB PHRII FP CLOJBA ?V 22 ?LKBP. !IPL >PPL@F>QBA TFQE QEB EB>A >OB >K >AAFQFLK>I PBSBK ?LKBP, FK@IRAFKD QEB 8I?94 2?>5
>KA QEB 51B ?CC93<5C (QEOBB PJ>II ?LKBP CLRKA FK B>@E JFAAIB B>O). 4EB SBOQB?O>I @LIRJK @LKPFPQP LC 24 ?LKBP, B>@E @>IIBA >
F5BD52B1, MIRP QEB C13BE= >KA 3?33IH. 4EB QELO>@F@ @>DB FK@IRABP QEB 12 M>FOP LC B92C, >KA QEB CD5B>E=, QEB CI>QQBKBA ?LKB
LC QEB >KQBOFLO @EBPQ.
240 %A-1"/ 7 R A5&A) 0(")"1,+
1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
F<:HE8 7.2 AK<4? 4A7 ACC8A7<6H?4E ,>8?8GBA 1?< 8O@8C JB<C<KFE JLGGFIKJ K?< ?<8;, E<:B, 98:B, 8E; :?<JK 8E; K?LJ
=FIDJ K?< M<IK@:8C 8O@J F= K?< 9F;P. &K :FEJ@JKJ F= K?< JBLCC, M<IK<9I8C :FCLDE (@E:CL;@E> K?< J8:ILD 8E; :F::PO), 8E; K?<
K?FI8:@: :8><, =FID<; 9P K?< I@9J 8E; JK<IELD. 1?< 8GG<E;@:LC8I JB<C<KFE @J D8;< LG F= 8CC 9FE<J F= K?< LGG<I 8E;
CFN<I C@D9J.
-;8 ACC8A7<6H?4E ,>8?8GBA
4EB 1@@5>493E<1B C;5<5D?> FK@IRABP >II ?LKBP LC QEB RMMBO >KA ILTBO IFJ?P, MIRP QEB ?LKBP QE>Q >QQ>@E B>@E IFJ? QL QEB >UF>I
PHBIBQLK. 4EBOB >OB 126 ?LKBP FK QEB >MMBKAF@RI>O PHBIBQLK LC >K >ARIQ. 4EB ?LKBP LC QEB >MMBKAF@RI>O PHBIBQLK >OB @LSBOBA
FK > PBM>O>QB @E>MQBO.
7.2 N -;8 ,>H??
"V QEB BKA LC QEFP PB@QFLK, VLR TFII ?B >?IB QL:
c ,FPQ >KA FABKQFCV QEB ?LKBP LC QEB ?O>FK @>PB >KA C>@B
c ,L@>QB QEB J>GLO PRQROB IFKBP LC QEB PHRII >KA K>JB QEB ?LKBP >PPL@F>QBA TFQE B>@E
c ,L@>QB >KA ABCFKB QEB ?LRKA>OFBP LC QEB >KQBOFLO, JFAAIB, >KA MLPQBOFLO @O>KF>I CLPP>B, QEB QBJMLO>I CLPP>, >KA
FKCO>QBJMLO>I CLPP>
c $BCFKB QEB M>O>K>P>I PFKRPBP >KA FABKQFCV QEB IL@>QFLK LC B>@E
c .>JB QEB ?LKBP QE>Q J>HB RM QEB T>IIP LC QEB LO?FQ >KA FABKQFCV QEB LMBKFKDP >PPL@F>QBA TFQE QEB LO?FQ
c )ABKQFCV QEB ?LKBP >KA PQOR@QROBP QE>Q CLOJ QEB K>P>I PBMQRJ >KA K>P>I @LK@E>B, >KA IL@>QB QEB EVLFA ?LKB
c )ABKQFCV QEB ?LKV LMBKFKDP LC QEB PHRII
%A-1"/ 7 R A5&A) 0(")"1,+ 241
4EB 3B1>9E= (PHRII) FP QEB PHBIBQ>I PQOR@QROB LC QEB EB>A QE>Q PRMMLOQP QEB C>@B >KA MOLQB@QP QEB ?O>FK. )Q FP PR?AFSFABA FKQL
QEB 61391< 2?>5C >KA QEB 2B19> 31C5, LO @O>KF>I S>RIQ (F97EB5 7.3). 4EB C>@F>I ?LKBP RKABOIFB QEB C>@F>I PQOR@QROBP, CLOJ QEB
K>P>I @>SFQV, BK@ILPB QEB BVB?>IIP, >KA PRMMLOQ QEB QBBQE LC QEB RMMBO >KA ILTBO G>TP. 4EB OLRKABA ?O>FK @>PB PROOLRKAP >KA
MOLQB@QP QEB ?O>FK >KA ELRPBP QEB JFAAIB >KA FKKBO B>O PQOR@QROBP.
)K QEB >ARIQ, QEB PHRII @LKPFPQP LC 22 FKAFSFAR>I ?LKBP, 21 LC TEF@E >OB FJJL?FIB >KA RKFQBA FKQL > PFKDIB RKFQ. 4EB 22KA
?LKB FP QEB =1>492<5 (ILTBO G>T), TEF@E FP QEB LKIV JLSB>?IB ?LKB LC QEB PHRII.
F<:HE8 7.3 )4EGF B9 G;8 ,>H?? 1?< JBLCC :FEJ@JKJ F= K?< IFLE;<; 9I8@E :8J< K?8K ?FLJ<J K?< 9I8@E 8E; K?< =8:@8C 9FE<J
K?8K =FID K?< LGG<I 8E; CFN<I A8NJ, EFJ<, FI9@KJ, 8E; FK?<I =8:@8C JKIL:KLI<J.
7>Q@E QEFP F945? (8DD@://?@5>CD1H3?<<575.?B7/</C;E<<1) QL SFBT > OLQ>QFKD >KA BUMILABA PHRII, TFQE @LILO-@LABA ?LKBP.
7EF@E ?LKB (VBIILT) FP @BKQO>IIV IL@>QBA >KA GLFKP TFQE JLPQ LC QEB LQEBO ?LKBP LC QEB PHRII?
AAG8E<BE /<8J B9 ,>H??
4EB >KQBOFLO PHRII @LKPFPQP LC QEB C>@F>I ?LKBP >KA MOLSFABP QEB ?LKV PRMMLOQ CLO QEB BVBP >KA PQOR@QROBP LC QEB C>@B. 4EFP
SFBT LC QEB PHRII FP ALJFK>QBA ?V QEB LMBKFKDP LC QEB LO?FQP >KA QEB K>P>I @>SFQV. !IPL PBBK >OB QEB RMMBO >KA ILTBO G>TP,
TFQE QEBFO OBPMB@QFSB QBBQE (F97EB5 7.4).
4EB ?B29D FP QEB ?LKV PL@HBQ QE>Q ELRPBP QEB BVB?>II >KA JRP@IBP QE>Q JLSB QEB BVB?>II LO LMBK QEB RMMBO BVBIFA. 4EB
RMMBO J>ODFK LC QEB >KQBOFLO LO?FQ FP QEB CE@B1?B29D1< =1B79>. ,L@>QBA KB>O QEB JFAMLFKQ LC QEB PRMO>LO?FQ>I J>ODFK FP >
PJ>II LMBKFKD @>IIBA QEB CE@B1?B29D1< 6?B1=5>. 4EFP MOLSFABP CLO M>PP>DB LC > PBKPLOV KBOSB QL QEB PHFK LC QEB CLOBEB>A.
"BILT QEB LO?FQ FP QEB 9>6B1?B29D1< 6?B1=5>, TEF@E FP QEB MLFKQ LC BJBODBK@B CLO > PBKPLOV KBOSB QE>Q PRMMIFBP QEB >KQBOFLO
C>@B ?BILT QEB LO?FQ.
242 %A-1"/ 7 R A5&A) 0(")"1,+
1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
F<:HE8 7.4 AAG8E<BE /<8J B9 ,>H?? AE 8EK<I@FI M@<N F= K?< JBLCC J?FNJ K?< 9FE<J K?8K =FID K?< =FI<?<8;, FI9@KJ (<P<
JF:B<KJ), E8J8C :8M@KP, E8J8C J<GKLD, 8E; LGG<I 8E; CFN<I A8NJ.
)KPFAB QEB K>P>I >OB> LC QEB PHRII, QEB >1C1< 31F9DI FP AFSFABA FKQL E>ISBP ?V QEB >1C1< C5@DE=. 4EB RMMBO MLOQFLK LC QEB
K>P>I PBMQRJ FP CLOJBA ?V QEB @5B@5>493E<1B @<1D5 ?6 D85 5D8=?94 2?>5 >KA QEB ILTBO MLOQFLK FP QEB F?=5B 2?>5. %>@E
PFAB LC QEB K>P>I @>SFQV FP QOF>KDRI>O FK PE>MB, TFQE > ?OL>A FKCBOFLO PM>@B QE>Q K>OOLTP PRMBOFLOIV. 7EBK ILLHFKD FKQL QEB
K>P>I @>SFQV COLJ QEB COLKQ LC QEB PHRII, QTL ?LKV MI>QBP >OB PBBK MOLGB@QFKD COLJ B>@E I>QBO>I T>II. 4EB I>ODBO LC QEBPB FP QEB
9>65B9?B >1C1< 3?>381, >K FKABMBKABKQ ?LKB LC QEB PHRII. ,L@>QBA GRPQ >?LSB QEB FKCBOFLO @LK@E> FP QEB =944<5 >1C1< 3?>381,
TEF@E FP M>OQ LC QEB BQEJLFA ?LKB. ! QEFOA ?LKV MI>QB, >IPL M>OQ LC QEB BQEJLFA ?LKB, FP QEB CE@5B9?B >1C1< 3?>381. )Q FP JR@E
PJ>IIBO >KA LRQ LC PFDEQ, >?LSB QEB JFAAIB @LK@E>. 4EB PRMBOFLO K>P>I @LK@E> FP IL@>QBA GRPQ I>QBO>I QL QEB MBOMBKAF@RI>O
MI>QB, FK QEB RMMBO K>P>I @>SFQV.
%4G8E4? /<8J B9 ,>H??
! SFBT LC QEB I>QBO>I PHRII FP ALJFK>QBA ?V QEB I>ODB, OLRKABA ?O>FK @>PB >?LSB >KA QEB RMMBO >KA ILTBO G>TP TFQE QEBFO
QBBQE ?BILT (F97EB5 7.5). 3BM>O>QFKD QEBPB >OB>P FP QEB ?OFADB LC ?LKB @>IIBA QEB WVDLJ>QF@ >O@E. 4EB JI7?=1D93 1B38 FP QEB
?LKV >O@E LK QEB PFAB LC PHRII QE>Q PM>KP COLJ QEB >OB> LC QEB @EBBH QL GRPQ >?LSB QEB B>O @>K>I. )Q FP CLOJBA ?V QEB GRK@QFLK
LC QTL ?LKV MOL@BPPBP: > PELOQ >KQBOFLO @LJMLKBKQ, QEB D5=@?B1< @B?35CC ?6 D85 JI7?=1D93 2?>5 (QEB @EBBH?LKB) >KA >
ILKDBO MLPQBOFLO MLOQFLK, QEB JI7?=1D93 @B?35CC ?6 D85 D5=@?B1< 2?>5, BUQBKAFKD CLOT>OA COLJ QEB QBJMLO>I ?LKB. 4ERP
QEB QBJMLO>I MOL@BPP (>KQBOFLOIV) >KA QEB WVDLJ>QF@ MOL@BPP (MLPQBOFLOIV) GLFK QLDBQEBO, IFHB QEB QTL BKAP LC > AO>T?OFADB, QL
CLOJ QEB WVDLJ>QF@ >O@E. /KB LC QEB J>GLO JRP@IBP QE>Q MRIIP QEB J>KAF?IB RMT>OA AROFKD ?FQFKD >KA @EBTFKD >OFPBP COLJ
QEB WVDLJ>QF@ >O@E.
/K QEB I>QBO>I PFAB LC QEB ?O>FK @>PB, >?LSB QEB IBSBI LC QEB WVDLJ>QF@ >O@E, FP > PE>IILT PM>@B @>IIBA QEB D5=@?B1<
6?CC1. "BILT QEB IBSBI LC QEB WVDLJ>QF@ >O@E >KA ABBM QL QEB SBOQF@>I MLOQFLK LC QEB J>KAF?IB FP >KLQEBO PM>@B @>IIBA QEB
9>6B1D5=@?B1< 6?CC1. "LQE QEB QBJMLO>I CLPP> >KA FKCO>QBJMLO>I CLPP> @LKQ>FK JRP@IBP QE>Q >@Q LK QEB J>KAF?IB AROFKD
@EBTFKD.
%A-1"/ 7 R A5&A) 0(")"1,+ 243
F<:HE8 7.5 %4G8E4? /<8J B9 ,>H?? 1?< C8K<I8C JBLCC J?FNJ K?< C8I>< IFLE;<; 9I8@E :8J<, QP>FD8K@: 8I:?, 8E; K?< LGG<I
8E; CFN<I A8NJ. 1?< QP>FD8K@: 8I:? @J =FID<; AF@EKCP 9P K?< QP>FD8K@: GIF:<JJ F= K?< K<DGFI8C 9FE< 8E; K?< K<DGFI8C
GIF:<JJ F= K?< QP>FD8K@: 9FE<. 1?< J?8CCFN JG8:< 89FM< K?< QP>FD8K@: 8I:? @J K?< K<DGFI8C =FJJ8. 1?< JG8:< @E=<I@FI
KF K?< QP>FD8K@: 8I:? 8E; ;<<G KF K?< GFJK<I@FI D8E;@9C< @J K?< @E=I8K<DGFI8C =FJJ8.
BBA8F B9 G;8 BE4<A C4F8
4EB ?O>FK @>PB @LKQ>FKP >KA MOLQB@QP QEB ?O>FK. 4EB FKQBOFLO PM>@B QE>Q FP >IJLPQ @LJMIBQBIV L@@RMFBA ?V QEB ?O>FK FP @>IIBA
QEB 3B1>91< 31F9DI. 4EFP @>SFQV FP ?LRKABA PRMBOFLOIV ?V QEB OLRKABA QLM LC QEB PHRII, TEF@E FP @>IIBA QEB 31<F1B91 (PHRII@>M),
>KA QEB I>QBO>I >KA MLPQBOFLO PFABP LC QEB PHRII. 4EB ?LKBP QE>Q CLOJ QEB QLM >KA PFABP LC QEB ?O>FK @>PB >OB RPR>IIV OBCBOOBA
QL >P QEB mCI>Qn ?LKBP LC QEB PHRII.
4EB CILLO LC QEB ?O>FK @>PB FP OBCBOOBA QL >P QEB ?>PB LC QEB PHRII. 4EFP FP > @LJMIBU >OB> QE>Q S>OFBP FK ABMQE >KA
E>P KRJBOLRP LMBKFKDP CLO QEB M>PP>DB LC @O>KF>I KBOSBP, ?ILLA SBPPBIP, >KA QEB PMFK>I @LOA. )KPFAB QEB PHRII, QEB ?>PB FP
PR?AFSFABA FKQL QEOBB I>ODB PM>@BP, @>IIBA QEB 1>D5B9?B 3B1>91< 6?CC1, =944<5 3B1>91< 6?CC1, >KA @?CD5B9?B 3B1>91< 6?CC1
(CLPP> = mQOBK@E LO AFQ@En) (F97EB5 7.6). &OLJ >KQBOFLO QL MLPQBOFLO, QEB CLPP>B FK@OB>PB FK ABMQE. 4EB PE>MB >KA ABMQE LC B>@E
CLPP> @LOOBPMLKAP QL QEB PE>MB >KA PFWB LC QEB ?O>FK OBDFLK QE>Q B>@E ELRPBP. 4EB ?LRKA>OFBP >KA LMBKFKDP LC QEB @O>KF>I
CLPP>B (PFKDRI>O = CLPP>) TFII ?B ABP@OF?BA FK > I>QBO PB@QFLK.
244 %A-1"/ 7 R A5&A) 0(")"1,+
1?@J :FEK<EK @J 8M8@C89C< =FI =I<< 8K ?KKG://:EO.FI>/:FEK<EK/:FC11496/1.6
F<:HE8 7.6 CE4A<4? FBFF48 1?< 9FE<J F= K?< 9I8@E :8J< JLIIFLE; 8E; GIFK<:K K?< 9I8@E, N?@:? F::LG@<J K?< :I8E@8C
:8M@KP. 1?< 98J< F= K?< 9I8@E :8J<, N?@:? =FIDJ K?< =CFFI F= :I8E@8C :8M@KP, @J JL9;@M@;<; @EKF K?< J?8CCFN 8EK<I@FI :I8E@8C
=FJJ8, K?< D@;;C< :I8E@8C =FJJ8, 8E; K?< ;<<G GFJK<I@FI :I8E@8C =FJJ8.
4EB ?O>FK @>PB @LKPFPQP LC BFDEQ ?LKBP. 4EBPB FK@IRAB QEB M>FOBA M>OFBQ>I >KA QBJMLO>I ?LKBP, MIRP QEB RKM>FOBA COLKQ>I,
L@@FMFQ>I, PMEBKLFA, >KA BQEJLFA ?LKBP.
)4E<8G4? BBA8
4EB @1B95D1< 2?>5 CLOJP JLPQ LC QEB RMMBO I>QBO>I PFAB LC QEB PHRII (PBB F97EB5 7.5). 4EBPB >OB M>FOBA ?LKBP, TFQE QEB OFDEQ
>KA IBCQ M>OFBQ>I ?LKBP GLFKFKD QLDBQEBO >Q QEB QLM LC QEB PHRII. %>@E M>OFBQ>I ?LKB FP >IPL ?LRKABA >KQBOFLOIV ?V QEB COLKQ>I
?LKB, FKCBOFLOIV ?V QEB QBJMLO>I ?LKB, >KA MLPQBOFLOIV ?V QEB L@@FMFQ>I ?LKB.
-8@CBE4? BBA8
4EB D5=@?B1< 2?>5 CLOJP QEB ILTBO I>QBO>I PFAB LC QEB PHRII (PBB F97EB5 7.5). #LJJLK TFPALJ E>P FQ QE>Q QEB QBJMLO>I
?LKB (QBJMLO>I = mQFJBn) FP PL K>JBA ?B@>RPB QEFP >OB> LC QEB EB>A (QEB QBJMIB) FP TEBOB E>FO QVMF@>IIV CFOPQ QROKP DO>V,
FKAF@>QFKD QEB M>PP>DB LC QFJB.
4EB QBJMLO>I ?LKB FP PR?AFSFABA FKQL PBSBO>I OBDFLKP (F97EB5 7.7). 4EB CI>QQBKBA, RMMBO MLOQFLK FP QEB PNR>JLRP MLOQFLK
LC QEB QBJMLO>I ?LKB. "BILT QEFP >OB> >KA MOLGB@QFKD >KQBOFLOIV FP QEB WVDLJ>QF@ MOL@BPP LC QEB QBJMLO>I ?LKB, TEF@E CLOJP
QEB MLPQBOFLO MLOQFLK LC QEB WVDLJ>QF@ >O@E. 0LPQBOFLOIV FP QEB J>PQLFA MLOQFLK LC QEB QBJMLO>I ?LKB. 0OLGB@QFKD FKCBOFLOIV
COLJ QEFP OBDFLK FP > I>ODB MOLJFKBK@B, QEB =1CD?94 @B?35CC, TEF@E PBOSBP >P > JRP@IB >QQ>@EJBKQ PFQB. 4EB J>PQLFA MOL@BPP
@>K B>PFIV ?B CBIQ LK QEB PFAB LC QEB EB>A GRPQ ?BEFKA VLRO B>OIL?B. /K QEB FKQBOFLO LC QEB PHRII, QEB MBQOLRP MLOQFLK LC B>@E
QBJMLO>I ?LKB CLOJP QEB MOLJFKBKQ, AF>DLK>IIV LOFBKQBA @5DB?EC B9475 FK QEB CILLO LC QEB @O>KF>I @>SFQV. ,L@>QBA FKPFAB B>@E
MBQOLRP OFADB >OB PJ>II @>SFQFBP QE>Q ELRPB QEB PQOR@QROBP LC QEB JFAAIB >KA FKKBO B>OP.
%A-1"/ 7 R A5&A) 0(")"1,+ 245
F<:HE8 7.7 -8@CBE4? BBA8 A C8K<I8C M@<N F= K?< @JFC8K<; K<DGFI8C 9FE< J?FNJ K?< JHL8DFLJ, D8JKF@;, 8E;
QP>FD8K@: GFIK@FEJ F= K?< K<DGFI8C 9FE<.
)JMLOQ>KQ I>KAJ>OHP LC QEB QBJMLO>I ?LKB, >P PELTK FK F97EB5 7.8, FK@IRAB QEB CLIILTFKD:
c EHD5B>1< 13?ECD93 =51DEC (B>O @>K>I)j4EFP FP QEB I>ODB LMBKFKD LK QEB I>QBO>I PFAB LC QEB PHRII QE>Q FP >PPL@F>QBA TFQE
QEB B>O.
c I>D5B>1< 13?ECD93 =51DECj4EFP LMBKFKD FP IL@>QBA FKPFAB QEB @O>KF>I @>SFQV, LK QEB JBAF>I PFAB LC QEB MBQOLRP OFADB.
)Q @LKKB@QP QL QEB JFAAIB >KA FKKBO B>O @>SFQFBP LC QEB QBJMLO>I ?LKB.
c #1>492E<1B 6?CC1j4EFP FP QEB ABBM, LS>I-PE>MBA ABMOBPPFLK IL@>QBA LK QEB BUQBOK>I ?>PB LC QEB PHRII, GRPQ FK
COLKQ LC QEB BUQBOK>I >@LRPQF@ JB>QRP. 4EB J>KAF?IB (ILTBO G>T) GLFKP TFQE QEB PHRII >Q QEFP PFQB >P M>OQ LC QEB
QBJMLOLJ>KAF?RI>O GLFKQ, TEF@E >IILTP CLO JLSBJBKQP LC QEB J>KAF?IB AROFKD LMBKFKD >KA @ILPFKD LC QEB JLRQE.
c ABD93E<1B DE25B3<5j4EB PJLLQE OFADB IL@>QBA FJJBAF>QBIV >KQBOFLO QL QEB J>KAF?RI>O CLPP>. "LQE QEB >OQF@RI>O
QR?BO@IB >KA J>KAF?RI>O CLPP> @LKQOF?RQB QL QEB QBJMLOLJ>KAF?RI>O GLFKQ, QEB GLFKQ QE>Q MOLSFABP CLO JLSBJBKQP
?BQTBBK QEB QBJMLO>I ?LKB LC QEB PHRII >KA QEB J>KAF?IB.
c )DI<?94 @B?35CCj0LPQBOFLO QL QEB J>KAF?RI>O CLPP> LK QEB BUQBOK>I ?>PB LC QEB PHRII FP >K BILKD>QBA, ALTKT>OA ?LKV
MOLGB@QFLK @>IIBA QEB PQVILFA MOL@BPP, PL K>JBA ?B@>RPB LC FQP OBPBJ?I>K@B QL > PQVIRP (> MBK LO TOFQFKD QLLI). 4EFP
PQOR@QROB PBOSBP >P >K >QQ>@EJBKQ PFQB CLO PBSBO>I PJ>II JRP@IBP >KA CLO > IFD>JBKQ QE>Q PRMMLOQP QEB EVLFA ?LKB LC QEB
KB@H. (3BB >IPL F97EB5 7.7.)
c )DI<?=1CD?94 6?B1=5>j4EFP PJ>II LMBKFKD FP IL@>QBA ?BQTBBK QEB PQVILFA MOL@BPP >KA J>PQLFA MOL@BPP. 4EFP FP QEB
MLFKQ LC BUFQ CLO QEB @O>KF>I KBOSB QE>Q PRMMIFBP QEB C>@F>I JRP@IBP.
c C1B?D94 31>1<j4EB @>OLQFA @>K>I FP > WFD-W>D PE>MBA QRKKBI QE>Q MOLSFABP M>PP>DB QEOLRDE QEB ?>PB LC QEB PHRII CLO
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