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Power Flow Analysis

[Document subtitle]
Rango [Date] [Course title]




Name: Power Flow Analysis Roll No.
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Abstract
In this experiment, a power flow analysis of a power grid system has been studied
and simulated using Matlab. After that the reactive power compensation is
performed using STATCOM device. The system behavior under higher load
condition is investigated. Higher load at any buses also increases the transmission
losses. Therefore, the transmission line should be capable of handling maximum
load that can be introduced anytime and a specific time of duration.
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Table of Contents
Abstract .................................................................................................................. 1
List of Figures ......................................................................................................... 4
List of tables ........................................................................................................... 4
1.0 Introduction .................................................................................................. 5
1.1 Aims and objectives.................................................................................... 5
2.0 System configuration..................................................................................... 6
3.0 Newton-Raphson Method .............................................................................. 7
3.1 Generator Reactive Limits .......................................................................... 7
3.2 Terminology ............................................................................................... 8
3.3 The Admittance Matrix ............................................................................. 10
3.4 The power flow equations ......................................................................... 13
3.5 Analytic statement of the power flow problem .......................................... 14
3.6 The Newton-Raphson Solution Procedure................................................. 16
3.6.1 Newton Raphson for the Scalar Case: ................................................ 16
3.6.2 A solution x
(0)
is guessed to the problem f(x)=0 (f(x
(0)
)=0). F(x) can be
expanded in a Taylor series, it becomes: ......................................................... 16
3.6.3 Newton-Raphson for the Multidimensional Case: ............................... 17
4.0 System simulation ....................................................................................... 20
4.1 5 buses and 7 transmission lines power grid system ................................ 20
4.1.1 One line diagram code ....................................................................... 20
4.1.2 System admittance calculation .......................................................... 21
4.1.3 Power flowing in and out of each transmission line ............................ 25
4.1.4 Amount of power drawn from the generator ....................................... 25
4.1.5 Power losses in each transmission line .............................................. 26
4.2 5 buses and 7 transmission lines power grid system where Main bus is
consuming 50% more active power .................................................................... 26
4.2.1 Power flowing in and out of each transmission line ............................ 28
4.2.2 Amount of power drawn from the generator ....................................... 28
4.2.3 Power losses in each transmission line .............................................. 28
4.3 5 buses and 7 transmission lines power grid system where Elm bus is
consuming 50% more active power .................................................................... 29
4.3.1 Power flowing in and out of each transmission line ............................ 30
4.3.2 Amount of power drawn from the generator ....................................... 31
4.3.3 Power losses in each transmission line .............................................. 31
5.0 Reactive Power compensation using STATCOM ........................................... 31
5.1 Compensation Techniques ....................................................................... 33
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5.2 Shunt compensation ................................................................................ 33
5.3 Lake bus connected to the STATCOM and Reactive Compensation........... 34
5.3.1 Power flowing in and out of each transmission line ............................ 38
5.3.2 Amount of power drawn from the generator ....................................... 39
5.3.3 Power losses in each transmission line .............................................. 39
6.0 Conclusion .................................................................................................. 40
7.0 Reference .................................................................................................... 41
8.0 Appendix ..................................................................................................... 42
8.1 Matlab code ............................................................................................. 42



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List of Figures
Figure 1: Complete power grid system for simulation .............................................. 7
Figure 2: Generator Capability Curve and Approximate Reactive Limits
(Approximate Q-limits of each generator using dotted box) ..................................... 8
Figure 3: Single Line Diagram for Simple Power System.......................................... 9
Figure 4: Illustration of (a) positive injection, (b) negative injection, and (c) net
injection .................................................................................................................. 9
Figure 5: Network for Motivating Admittance Matrix ............................................. 11
Figure 6: Bus p Connected to Only Bus q ............................................................. 14
Figure 7: Flow Chart of the NR method ................................................................. 19
Figure 8: Two buses and one transmission line diagram model............................. 20
Figure 9: Matlab code for defining buses ............................................................... 20
Figure 10: Impedance of the one line system ........................................................ 21
Figure 11: System admittance matrix calculation ................................................. 22
Figure 12: Shunt Compensation ........................................................................... 33
Figure 13: Lake bus connected to the STATCOM and Reactive Compensation ...... 34
Figure 14: Modified Jacobian Matirx. .................................................................... 35

List of tables
Table 1: Network connectivity and transmission line parameters ............................ 6
Table 2: Specified generation of active power .......................................................... 6
Table 3: Load Power ................................................................................................ 6
Table 4: Types of buses and base powers ................................................................ 6
Table 5: Power generation and consumption comparison for given system ............ 24
Table 6: Power flowing in and out of each transmission line ................................. 25
Table 7: power drawn from the generator .............................................................. 25
Table 8: Transmission line losses .......................................................................... 26
Table 9: Power generation and consumption comparison for given system with 50%
increase in Main bus ............................................................................................ 27
Table 10: Power flowing in and out of each transmission line ............................... 28
Table 11: power drawn from the generator ............................................................ 28
Table 12: Transmission line losses ........................................................................ 28
Table 13: Power generation and consumption comparison for given system with 50%
increase in Elm bus .............................................................................................. 30
Table 14: Power flowing in and out of each transmission line ............................... 30
Table 15: power drawn from the generator ............................................................ 31
Table 16: Transmission line losses ........................................................................ 31
Table 17: Power generation and consumption comparison for power grid system
with STATCOM device at Lake bus ........................................................................ 38
Table 18: Power flowing in and out of each transmission line ............................... 38
Table 19: power drawn from the generator ............................................................ 39
Table 20: Transmission line losses ........................................................................ 39


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1.0 Introduction
Power flow analysis is known as one of the prime factors of power system analysis
and design. It is always required for planning, process, economic scheduling and
exchange of power between utilities. The principal topic of power flow analysis is to
find the magnitude and phase angle of voltage at each bus and the real and
reactive power flowing in each transmission lines. Connecting numerical analysis
applied to a power system is also significant tool. Iterative methods such as
Newton-Raphson, Gauss Seidel Newton-Raphson method are used in this study
due to there are no known analytical methods to solve the problem. For comprise
amply with step depend on the size of system to finish this analysis There are
methods of mathematical calculations. This procedure is demanding to perform
manually takes a lot of times. The purpose of this experiment, Newton-Rap son
method is analyzed and then steady state system has been solved for 5 buses
system where 2 generators and 4 loads are interconnected through 7 transmission
lines.
Power flow problem [1]-[2] is a very renowned problem where voltage magnitudes
and angles for one set of buses are desired In the field of power systems
engineering,, given that voltage magnitudes and power levels for another set of
buses are acknowledged and that a model of the network configuration (unit
commitment and circuit topology) is useful. To solve the power flow problem a
power flow solution procedure is a numerical method that is employed. For solving
the load flow problem unsurprising techniques are iterative, using the Newton-
Raphson or the Gauss-Seidel methods [3]-[4]. A power flow program is a computer
code that apparatus a power flow solution method. The voltages and angles at all
buses is contained by the power flow solution, and from this information, it may
compute the real and reactive generation and load levels at all buses and the real
and reactive flows across all circuits. The word load substituted for power, is
often used with the above terminology i.e., load flow problem, load flow solution
procedure, load flow program, and load flow solution. However, the former
expressions are favored as one normally does not think of load as something that
flows.
1.1 Aims and objectives
Aims and objectives of this experiment are as follows:
a. Understanding the power system structure and power flow analysis
technique.
b. Understanding the iterative technique to solve the power flow analysis of a
power grid system. Such system contains generators, loads, buses, and
transmission lines.
c. Understanding Newton-Raphson method to solve the power flow in a given
power grid system that comprises 2 generators, 4 local loads, 5 buses, and 7
transmission lines.
d. Understanding the development of power grid system solution technique
such as Newton-Raphson technique.
e. Write Matlab code to solve the power flow for the given system
f. Simulate the Matlab code and analyze the results.
g. Modify the Matlab code to analyze the ractive power compensation technique
or the evaluation of STATCOM.
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h. Understand the assumption made during power flow analysis.
2.0 System configuration
For the power grid system diagram given bus system are as follows:
Table 1: Network connectivity and transmission line parameters

Table 2: Specified generation of active power


Table 3: Load Power


Table 4: Types of buses and base powers


Complete system is drawn according to the information given as follows:
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Figure 1: Complete power grid system for simulation


3.0 Newton-Raphson Method
3.1 Generator Reactive Limits
The maximum reactive power the maximum reactive power capability resembles to
that the generator may produce when operating with a lagging power factor. The
maximum reactive power the generator may absorb corresponds to the minimum
reactive power capability to when operating with a leading power aspect. A
function of the real power output of the generator is these limitations that is, the
reactive power limitations move closer to zero as the real power increases.
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P
max
Q
max

Q
min

P
Q
leading
operation
lagging
operation

Figure 2: Generator Capability Curve and Approximate Reactive Limits (Approximate
Q-limits of each generator using dotted box)

3.2 Terminology
It is suitable to typify power system networks using the pretended one-line diagram,
which can be considered of as the circuit diagram of the per-phase equivalent, but
without the neutral conductor. The one-line diagram of a small transmission
system is illustrated in figure 3.
An injection is the power, that is being injected into or withdrawn from a bus by an
element having its other terminal (in the per-phase equivalent circuit) connected to
ground is either real or reactive. It would be either a generator or a load. It can be
thought as a positive injection as one where power is flowing from the element into
the bus (i.e., into the network); when power is flowing from the bus (i.e., from the
network) into the element is regarded as a negative injection. Figure 4 (a), (b), and
(c) demonstrates positive power injection, negative power injection, and net power
(sum of all injections).


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Figure 3: Single Line Diagram for Simple Power System

P
k
=100
Q
k
=30
(a)
P
k
= - 40
Q
k
= -20
(b)
P
k
=100+(-40)=60
Q
k
=30+(-20)=10
(c)

Figure 4: Illustration of (a) positive injection, (b) negative injection, and (c) net injection
An arbitrary bus numbered k is considered. The four variables are real and
reactive power injection, Pk and Qk, , and voltage magnitude and angle, |Vk | and
uk, are the four variable which are real and reactive.
- PV Buses: it is acknowledged as Pk and |Vk | but not Qk or uk SD For type
PV buses. Because of the capability to state (and therefore to know) the
voltage magnitude of this bus these buses fall under the category of voltage
controlled buses. Most generator buses fall into this group, enlightened of
whether it also has load; exceptions are buses that have reactive power
inoculation at either the generators upper limit (Qmax) or its lower limit
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(Qmin), and (2) the system swing bus (it has been described the swing bus
below).
- PQ Buses: It is known that Pk and Qk but not |Vk | or uk for type PQ buses.
All load buses fall into this class, as well as buses that have not either load
or generation.
The swing bus is referred as the third type of bus. There are two other communal
terms for this bus are slack bus and reference bus. There is only one swing bus,
and it can be labelled by the engineer to be any generator bus in the system. For
the swing bus, it is known as |V| andu. The voltage angle may be designated to be
any angle, but normally it is designated as 0
o
.
3.3 The Admittance Matrix
A network characterized in a hybrid fashion using one-line diagram illustration for
the nodes (buses 1-5) and circuit demonstration for the branches connecting the
nodes and the branches to ground Is shown in figure 5. The nodes denote lines are
associated by the branches. The branches to ground signify any shunt elements at
the buses, including the charging capacitance at either end of the line. All branches
are denoted with their admittance values Yij for a branch connecting bus i to bus j
and Yi for a shunt element at bus i. Ii indicates the current injections at each bus i.
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North (1)
South (2)
L
a
k
e

(
5
)
Main (4)
Elm (3)
4
0
M
W
2
0
M
W
1
0
M
V
a
r
6
0
M
W
1
0
M
V
a
r
40MW
5MVar
45MW
15MVar
1
0
0
M
W
Y1
Y
1
2
Y2
Y15
Y24
Y
4
5
Y
3
4
Y23
Y5
Y4
Y
3

Figure 5: Network for Motivating Admittance Matrix

The current injected into bus 1 may be written as (Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL)):

I1=(V1-V2)Y12 + (V1-V5)Y15 + V1Y1 (1)

Bus 1 is connected to bus 3, and 4 through an infinite impedances considered to
be completed, which implies that the resultant admittance Y13, and Y14 is zero.
Then, it has:

I1=(V1-V2)Y12 + (V1-V3)Y13 + (V1-V4)Y14+ (V1-V5)Y15+ V1Y1 (2)

Rearranging eq. 2, it has:

I1= V1(Y1 + Y12 + Y13 + Y14+ Y15) + V2(-Y12)+ V3(-Y13) + V4(-Y14) + V5(-Y15)(3)

likewise, it may be developed the current injections at buses 2, 3, 4 and 5 as:

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I2= V1(-Y21) + V2(Y2 + Y21 + Y23 + Y24+ Y25) + V3(-Y23) + V4(-Y24)+ V5(-Y25)
(4)
I3= V1(-Y31)+ V2(-Y32) + V3(Y3 + Y31 + Y32 + Y34+ Y35) + V4(-Y34)+ V5(-Y35)

I4= V1(-Y41)+ V2(-Y42) + V3(-Y43)+ V4(Y4 + Y41 + Y42 + Y43+ Y45)+ V5(-Y45)
I5= V1(-Y51)+ V2(-Y52) + V3(-Y53)+V4(-Y54)+V5(Y5 + Y51 + Y52 + Y53+ Y54)
That the admittance of the circuit from bus k to bus i is the same as the
admittance from bus i to bus k can be distinguished, i.e., Yki=Yik From eqs. (3) and
(4),
1 1 12 13 14 15 12 13 14 15
2 21 2 21 23 24 25 23 24 25
3 31 32 3 31 32 34 35 34 35
4 41 42 43 4 41 42 43 45 45
5 51 52 53 54 5 51 52 53 54
I Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
I Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
I Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
I Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
I Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
+ + + + (
(
+ + + +
(
( = + + + +
(
+ + + +
(
(
+ + + +

1
2
3
4
5
V
V
V
V
V
( (
( (
( (
( (
( (
( (
( (

(5)

The matrix containing the network admittances in eq. (5) is the admittance matrix,
also recognized as the Y-bus, and denoted as:

1 12 13 14 15 12 13 14 15
21 2 21 23 24 25 23 24 25
31 32 3 31 32 34 35 34 35
41 42 43 4 41 42 43 45 45
51 52 53 54 5 51 52 53 54
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
+ + + + (
(
+ + + +
(
( = + + + +
(
+ + + +
(
(
+ + + +

(6)

Eq.(6) can be rewritten by Denoting the element in row i, column j, as Yij, as:

11 12 13 14 15
21 22 23 24 25
31 32 33 34 35
41 42 43 44 45
51 52 53 54 55
Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y
(
(
(
( =
(
(
(

(7)

Where the terms
ij
Y are not admittances but rather elements of the admittance
matrix. Therefore, eq. (6) becomes:
1 11 12 13 14 15 1
2 21 22 23 24 25 2
3 31 32 33 34 35 3
4 41 42 43 44 45 4
5 51 52 53 54 55 5
I Y Y Y Y Y V
I Y Y Y Y Y V
I Y Y Y Y Y V
I Y Y Y Y Y V
I Y Y Y Y Y V
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
( ( ( =
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (

(8)

By using eq. (7) and (8), and eq (8) can be rewritten by defining the vectors V and I,
in compact form according to:
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1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
,
V I
V I
V V I I
V I
V I
( (
( (
( (
( ( = =
( (
( (
( (


V Y I =
(9)

3.4 The power flow equations
Sk might expressed by Drawing on the acquainted relation for complex power, :

Sk=VkIk
*
(10)

From eq. (8),
j
N
j
kj k
V Y I

=
=
1
(11)

Substitution of eq. (11) into eq. (10) yields:
*
1
*
*
1
j
N
j
kj k j
N
j
kj k k
V Y V V Y V S

= =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= (12)

Since Vk=|Vk|Zuk and Ykj=Gkj+jBkj , eqn (12) can be written as ;

( ) ( )
( ) ( )


= =
= = =
Z = Z Z =
Z Z = Z + Z = =
N
j
kj kj j k j k
N
j
kj kj j j k k
j j
N
j
kj kj k k j j
N
j
kj kj k k j
N
j
kj k k
jB G V V jB G V V
V jB G V V jB G V V Y V S
1 1
1
*
1
* *
1
*
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
u u u u
u u u u
(13)

Since V=|V|Zu=|V|{cosu+jsinu}, eq. (13) can be rewritten according to Euler
relation

( )
( )

=
=
+ =
Z =
N
j
kj kj j k j k j k
N
j
kj kj j k j k k
jB G j V V
jB G V V S
1
1
) ( ) sin( ) cos(
) ( ) (
u u u u
u u
(14)
Equating real and imaginary part:

( )
( )

=
=
=
+ =
N
j
j k kj j k kj j k k
N
j
j k kj j k kj j k k
B G V V Q
B G V V P
1
1
) cos( ) sin(
) sin( ) cos(
u u u u
u u u u
(15)

These two equations of (15) are recognized as the power flow equations.

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It seems amazing to consider the case of eq. (15) if bus k, relabeled as bus p, is
only joined to one other bus, named bus q. Then the bus p injection is the same as
the flow into the lineup. The situation is illustrated in figure 6.

Bus q Bus p
Series
admittance
G-jB
Bus
injection
P
p
and Q
p

Line flow
P
pq
and Q
pq


Figure 6: Bus p Connected to Only Bus q

Fig. 6, eqn. (15) Become:

) cos( ) sin(
) sin( ) cos(
2
2
q p pq q p q p pq q p pp p p
q p pq q p q p pq q p pp p p
B V V G V V B V Q
B V V G V V G V P
u u u u
u u u u
+ =
+ + =
(16)
3.5 Analytic statement of the power flow problem
A power system network is regarded as having N buses, NG of which is voltage-
regulating generators. The swing bus must be one of these. Thus there are NG-1
type PV buses, and N-NG type PQ buses. It is unspecified that the swing bus is
numbered bus 1, the type PV buses are numbered 2,, NG, and the type PQ buses
are numbered NG+1,,N. The assumptions are following:
1. The admittances of all series and shunt elements
2. The voltage magnitudes Vk, k=1,,NG, at all NG generator buses,
3. The real power injection of all buses except the swing bus, Pk, k=2,,N
4. The reactive power injection of all type PQ buses, Qk, k=NG+1, , N
5. The relationship holds (N-1) + (N-NG) =2N-NG-1
The power flow equations are:
( )
( ) N N k B G V V Q
N k B G V V P
G
N
j
j k kj j k kj j k k
N
j
j k kj j k kj j k k
,..., 1 , ) cos( ) sin(
,..., 2 , ) sin( ) cos(
1
1
+ = =
= + =

=
=
u u u u
u u u u
(17)
It is the following information about the network which is needed to be found:
a. The angles for the voltage phasors at all buses except the swing bus (it is 0
at the swing bus), i.e., uk, k=2,,N
b. The magnitudes for the voltage phasors at all type PQ buses, i.e., |Vk|,
k=NG+1, , N
u Is the angle of unknown vector (an underline beneath the variable means it is a
vector or a matrix) and the vector of unknown voltage magnitudes is |V|.
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(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

=
+
+
| |V
| |V
| |V
| V |
N
N
N
N
G
G

2
1
3
2
,
u
u
u
u (18)
Vector x is defined as the composite vector of unknown angles and voltage
magnitudes.

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(

=

+

+
+
1 2
1
1
2
1
2
1
3
2
x
G
G
G
N N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
x
x
x
x
x
x
| |V
| |V
| |V

| V |

(19)

Similarly eqn. (17) can be rewritten as
,...,N N k x Q Q
,...,N k x P P
G k k
k k
1 , ) (
2 , ) (
+ = =
= =
(20)

In eqn. (20), the specified injections are Pk and Qk (known constants) while the
right-hand sides are functions of the elements in the unknown vector x. Bringing
the left-hand side over to the right-hand side, it can be written that
,...,N N k Q x Q
,...,N k P x P
G k k
k k
1 , 0 ) (
2 , 0 ) (
+ = =
= =
(21)

Now a vector-valued function f(x) can be defined as:

0
0
0
0
0
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
1
2
1 1
2 2
1 2
1
1
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(


=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

A
A

A
A
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(


=
+ + +

N
N
N
N N
N N
N N
N N
N
N
Q
Q
P
P
Q x Q
Q x Q
P x P
P x P
x f
x f
x f
x f
x f
G G G
G
(22)

Equation (22) executes in the form of f(x) =0, where f(x) is a vector-valued function
and 0 is a vector of zeros.
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3.6 The Newton-Raphson Solution Procedure
Two basic methods can be used to solve the power flow problem: Gauss-Siedel (GS)
and Newton-Raphson (NR) [3]. These methods are both iterative root finding
schemes.
The GS and NR methods are often classified as root finding schemes because they
are geared towards solving equations like f(x) =0 (or f(x)=0). The solution to such an
equation, call it x* (or x*), is clearly a root of the function f(x) (or f(x)).

3.6.1 Newton Raphson for the Scalar Case:
3.6.2 A solution x
(0)
is guessed to the problem f(x)=0 (f(x
(0)
)=0). F(x) can be expanded in a
Taylor series, it becomes:

0 ... ) )( ( ' '
2
1
) ( ' ) ( ) (
2 ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
= + A + A + = A + x x f x x f x f x x f (23)

It is reasonable to approximate eq. (23) as

0 ) ( ' ) ( ) (
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
= A + ~ A + x x f x f x x f (24)

,
, it can be written Taking f(x
(0)
) to the right hand side,

) ( ) ( '
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
x f x x f = A (25)
eq. (25) might be easily solved for Ax
(0)
according to:

{ } ) ( ) ( '
) 0 (
1
) 0 ( ) 0 (
x f x f x

= A (26)

Because f (x
(0)
) in eq. (26) is scalar, using simple division its inverse is very easily
evaluated so that:

) ( '
) (
) 0 (
) 0 (
) 0 (
x f
x f
x

= A (27)


The basis for the update formula to be used in the first iteration of the scalar NR
method is provided in equation (26). This update formula is:

) ( '
) (
) 0 (
) 0 (
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 1 (
x f
x f
x x x x

+ = A + = (28)

And from eq. (26), the update formula might be interfered for any particular
iteration as:

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) ( '
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 (
j
j
j j j j
x f
x f
x x x x

+ = A + =
+
(29)

3.6.3 Newton-Raphson for the Multidimensional Case:
It is assumed that there are n nonlinear algebraic equations and n unknowns
characterized by f(x) =0, and that a solution x
(0)
is guessd. Then f(x
(0)
)=0 because x
(0)

is just a supposition. But there must be some Ax
(0)
which will make f(x
(0)
+ Ax
(0)
)=0.
Again, the function f(x) is expanded in a Taylor series, as follows:

0 ... ) )( ( ' '
2
1
) ( ' ) ( ) (
2 ) 0 ( ) 0 (
1
) 0 ( ) 0 (
1
) 0 (
1
) 0 ( ) 0 (
1
= + A + A + = A + x x f x x f x f x x f
0 ... ) )( ( ' '
2
1
) ( ' ) ( ) (
2 ) 0 ( ) 0 (
2
) 0 ( ) 0 (
2
) 0 (
2
) 0 ( ) 0 (
2
= + A + A + = A + x x f x x f x f x x f (32)

0 ... ) )( ( ' '
2
1
) ( ' ) ( ) (
2 ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
= + A + A + = A + x x f x x f x f x x f
n n n n


Equations (30) may be written more neatly as

0 ... ) )( ( ' '
2
1
) ( ' ) ( ) (
2 ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
= + A + A + = A + x x f x x f x f x x f (31)

Assuming the guess is a good one such that Ax
(0)
is small, then the higher order
terms are also small and it can be printed

0 ) ( ' ) ( ) (
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
= A + = A + x x f x f x x f (32)
A derivative can be computed for each individual function with respect to each
individual unknown as there are n functions and n variables, like cfk(x)/cxj, which
give the derivative of the k
th
function with respect to the j
th
unknown. Thus, it is
suitable to store all of these derivatives in a matrix. This matrix has become quite
renowned as the Jacobian matrix, and it is often denoted using the letter J.
The Jacobian matrix can be written as:

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
n
n n n
n
n
x
x f
x
x f
x
x f
x
x f
x
x f
x
x f
x
x f
x
x f
x
x f
J
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) 0 (
2
) 0 (
1
) 0 (
) 0 (
2
2
) 0 (
2
1
) 0 (
2
) 0 (
1
2
) 0 (
1
1
) 0 (
1

(33)

it is found by taking f(x
(0)
) to the right hand side In eq. (32),

) ( ) ( '
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
x f x x f = A (34)
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or,it can be written in terms of the Jacobian matrix J,

) (
) 0 ( ) 0 (
x f x J = A (35)

Solving eq. (35) it is found for Ax
(0)
,

{ } ) ( ) ( ) ( '
) 0 ( 1 ) 0 (
1
) 0 ( ) 0 (
x f J x f x f x

= = A (36)

Equation (36) gives the basis for the update formula to be used in the first iteration
of the multi-dimensional case. This update formula is:

) (
) 0 ( 1 ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) 1 (
x f J x x x x

= A + = (37)

And from eq. (37), the inform formula might be interfered for any exacting iteration
as:

) (
) ( 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( i i i i i
x f J x x x x
+
= A + = (38)

To see how to avoid matrix inversion the update formula can be stated differently.
To do this, it become eq. (38) as

) ( ) ( ) 1 ( i i i
x x x A + =
+
(39)

Where Ax
(i)
is found from

) (
) ( ) ( i i
x f x J = A (40a)

Equation (40a) is a very simple relation. Observing that J is just a constant nn
matrix, Ax
(i)
is an n1 vector of unknowns, and f(x
(i)
) is an n1 vector of knowns, it
is seen that eq. (40a) is just the linear matrix equation
Az=b (40b)

(40b) can be solved in various ways c. These notes will later cover this topic. First,
however, for a multi-dimensional case Newton-Raphson procedure must be
illustrated. As much as simple multi-dimensional case must be applied, a two-
variable problem.

The stopping criteria
- Type 1 stopping criterion: the maximum change must be experienced in the
solution elements from one iteration to the next, and if this maximum change is
smaller than a certain predefined tolerance, then stop. This means to compare
the maximum complete value of elements in Ax against a small number, call it
c1.
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- Type 2 stopping criterion: The maximum value must be tested in the function
elements of the most current iteration f(x), and it is stopped if this maximum
value of elements in f(x) is smaller than a certain predefined tolerance. This
means to compare the maximum absolute value of elements in f(x) against a
small number, call it c1. For power flow solutions this is the most common
stopping criterion, and the value of each element in the function is referred to
as the power mismatch for the bus corresponding to the function. It is tested
for both real and reactive power mismatches for type PQ. Real power
mismatches is only tested for type PV buses,.


Figure 7: Flow Chart of the NR method
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4.0 System simulation
4.1 5 buses and 7 transmission lines power grid system

4.1.1 One line diagram code
R
i
B
/
2
j
B
/
2
jX
S
e
n
d
i
n
g

B
u
s
R
e
c
e
i
v
i
n
g

B
u
s

Figure 8: Two buses and one transmission line diagram model
Figure 7 shows the system where two buses and one transmission line are
considered. Consider the sending bus is 1 and the receiving bus is 2. For
configuring the buses, the bus 1 is considered as the PV bus and the bus 2 is
considered as the PQ buses.

Figure 9: Matlab code for defining buses
Since there is no generator and load in the system, the active power and reactive
power is zero for the buses.
For impedance the transmission line is modeled as -model. Therefore, the total
susceptance is divided by two and assigned to each end. The admittance matrix for
the system is following:
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Figure 10: Impedance of the one line system
4.1.2 System admittance calculation
According to the eqn. 6 the system admittance matrix is following (details analysis
is performed in section 3.3):
1 12 13 14 15 12 13 14 15
21 2 21 23 24 25 23 24 25
31 32 3 31 32 34 35 34 35
41 42 43 4 41 42 43 45 45
51 52 53 54 5 51 52 53 54
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
+ + + + (
(
+ + + +
(
( = + + + +
(
+ + + +
(
(
+ + + +


If there is no direct transmission line between two buses the admittance between
these buses is zero. The admittance that exists between the bus and the ground is
the sum of the half of the admittance of all transmission line connected to that bus
(-model). Since the impedance of each transmission line is given, the inverse of
impedance will be the admittance between these two lines. According to the above
information Matlab code is written to find the system admittance matrix.
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Figure 11: System admittance matrix calculation
At first each admittance is defined and then finally using eqn.6 the system
admittance is calculated.

For the power flow analysis the Matlab code is written according to the lab
instruction [6]. The complete code is attached in appendix.
Each bus Voltages and angles are as follows:

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Algotithm is converged after 10 iterations. The Slack bus (North bus) voltage is 1.06
p.u and angle is zero as specified. It will be unchanged. The PV bus (South) bus
voltage is 1 p.u as specified at first and it will be unchanged. The angle is -2.06123
p.u. The voltage of the other buses is lower than one as these buses are consuming
the power. Due to the losses through the transmission line(s), other buses voltage
is lower than one.

For transmission losses calculation, Matlab code is written. The Transmission
losses summary is as follows:

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0
.
0
2
0
.
0
6
j
0.06/2j
0.06/2j
North (1)
South(2)
0.08
0.24j
Lake (5)
0
.
0
5
/
2
j
0
.
0
5
/
2
j
0
.
0
6
0
.
1
8
j
0.04/2j
0.04/2j
0.06
0.18j
0
.
0
4
/
2
j
0
.
0
4
/
2
j
Main (4)
0
.
0
1
0 . 0 2 / 2 j
0 . 0 2 / 2 j
0
.
0
3
j
Elm (3)
0
.
0
8
0.05/2j
0.05/2j
0
.
2
4
j
0.04
0
.
0
3
/
2
j
0
.
0
3
/
2
j
0.12j
4
0
M
W
2
0
M
W
1
0
M
V
a
r
6
0
M
W
1
0
M
V
a
r
40MW
5MVar
45MW
15MVar
1
3
1
M
W
2
.
4
9
M
W
+
1
.
0
9
M
v
a
r
1.52MW-0.69Mvar
0
.
3
6
M
W
-
2
.
8
7
M
v
a
r
0.46MW-2.55Mvar
1.22MW+0.73Mvar
0
.
0
4
M
W
-
1
.
8
2
M
v
a
r
0
.
0
4
M
W
-
4
.
6
5
M
v
a
r

To verify the equalization of the total active power generation and consumption, the
power generated by Slack bus and PV bus are added, similarly, power consumption
and transmission losses are summed up. If these two sum is equal the equalization
is hold.
Table 5: Power generation and consumption comparison for given system
Power Generation
Value
(MW) Power Consumtion
Value
(MW)
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Slack bus to South (1->2) 89.33138 South bus load 20
Slack bus to Lake (1->5) 41.79085 Lake bus load 45
PV bus (South bus) generator 40 Main bus load 40
Elm bus load 60
Transmission loss (1->2) 2.48587
Transmission loss (1->5) 1.51783
Transmission loss (2->5) 0.35951
Transmission loss (2->4) 0.46085
Transmission loss (2->3) 1.21501
Transmission loss (4->5) 0.04007
Transmission loss (3->4) 0.0431

Total Generation 171.12223 Total Consumption 171.12224
Since total generation and total consumption of active power is similar, the Matlab
Coding is competent.
4.1.3 Power flowing in and out of each transmission line
For calculating the power flowing in and out of each transmission line, the power
flow output is considered. For example, 1-> 2 is the power in to the transmission
line between and opposite sign of 2->1 is the power out of that transmission line.
Table 6: Power flowing in and out of each transmission line
Bus
no
Transmission
line
Power in Power Out
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
1 1 -> 2 89.33138 73.99518 86.84551 72.60839
2 1 -> 5 41.79085 16.82034 40.27302 17.5125
3 2 -> 5 24.47266 -2.51849 24.11315 0.3523
4 2 -> 4 27.713 -1.72391 27.25215 0.83056
5 2 -> 3 54.65985 5.55794 53.44485 4.82921
6 5 -> 4 19.38618 2.8648 19.34611 4.68775
7 4 -> 3 6.59825 0.51832 6.55515 5.17079

4.1.4 Amount of power drawn from the generator
For calculating the amount of power drawn from the generator is calculating by
summing the total active power from the bus it is attached. A generator is attached
at Slack bus and its active power is varied. A constant 40 MW generator is attached
at PV bus.
Table 7: power drawn from the generator
Power Generation
Value
(MW) Total (MW)
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Slack bus to South (1->2) 89.33138
131.12223
Slack bus to Lake (1->5) 41.79085
PV bus (South bus)
generator 40 40
Total Generation 171.12223


4.1.5 Power losses in each transmission line
The difference between power in and out of a transmission line is the power losses
in each transmission line.
Table 8: Transmission line losses
Bus
no
Transmission
line
Power in Power Out Transmission Loss
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
1 1 -> 2 89.33138 73.99518 86.84551 72.60839 2.48587 1.38679
2 1 -> 5 41.79085 16.82034 40.27302 17.5125 1.51783 -0.69216
3 2 -> 5 24.47266 -2.51849 24.11315 0.3523 0.35951 -2.87079
4 2 -> 4 27.713 -1.72391 27.25215 0.83056 0.46085 -2.55447
5 2 -> 3 54.65985 5.55794 53.44485 4.82921 1.215 0.72873
6 5 -> 4 19.38618 2.8648 19.34611 4.68775 0.04007 -1.82295
7 4 -> 3 6.59825 0.51832 6.55515 5.17079 0.0431 -4.65247


4.2 5 buses and 7 transmission lines power grid system where Main bus is
consuming 50% more active power
Each bus Voltages and angles are as follows:

Algotithm is converged after 10 iterations. The Slack bus (North bus) voltage is 1.06
p.u and angle is zero as specified. It will be unchanged. The PV bus (South) bus
voltage is 1 p.u as specified at first and it will be unchanged. The angle is -2.57114
p.u. The voltage of the other buses is lower than one as these buses are consuming
the power. Due to the losses through the transmission line(s), other buses voltage
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is lower than one. The load at Main bus is increased. To support this extra load,
the current flow through the transmission line that feeds the Main bus increases.
As a result the voltage at the Main bus is lower than previous case.

For transmission losses calculation, Matlab code is written. The Transmission
losses summary is as follows:

To support this extra load, the current flow through the transmission line that
feeds the Main bus increases. As a result the transmission line loss for the line that
deliver power to the Main bus in increased.
Table 9: Power generation and consumption comparison for given system with 50% increase in Main bus
Power Generation
Value
(MW) Power Consumtion
Value
(MW)
Slack bus to South (1->2) 103.66076 South bus load 20
Slack bus to Lake (1->5) 48.85806 Lake bus load 45
PV bus (South bus) generator 40 Main bus load 60
Elm bus load 60
Transmission loss (1->2) 2.86711
Transmission loss (1->5) 1.97888
Transmission loss (2->5) 0.50183
Transmission loss (2->4) 0.69538
Transmission loss (2->3) 1.3637
Transmission loss (4->5) 0.09607
Transmission loss (3->4) 0.01584

Total Generation 192.51882 Total Consumption 192.51881

Since total generation and total consumption of active power is similar, the Matlab
Coding is competent.
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4.2.1 Power flowing in and out of each transmission line
For calculating the power flowing in and out of each transmission line, the power
flow output is considered. For example, 1-> 2 is the power in to the transmission
line between and opposite sign of 2->1 is the power out of that transmission line.
Table 10: Power flowing in and out of each transmission line
Bus no Transmission line
Power in Power Out
Active Power Reactive power Active Power Reactive power
1 1 -> 2 103.66076 69.85414 100.79364 67.6236
2 1 -> 5 48.85806 16.99562 46.87918 16.28348
3 2 -> 5 28.91445 -1.41174 28.41262 1.01514
4 2 -> 4 34.01442 -0.58883 33.31904 1.24157
5 2 -> 3 57.86477 6.30474 56.50107 5.1243
6 5 -> 4 30.2918 2.29862 30.19572 3.93487
7 4 -> 3 3.51476 0.17645 3.49893 4.8757

4.2.2 Amount of power drawn from the generator
For calculating the amount of power drawn from the generator is calculating by
summing the total active power from the bus it is attached. A generator is attached
at Slack bus and its active power is varied. A constant 40 MW generator is attached
at PV bus.
Table 11: power drawn from the generator
Power Generation
Value
(MW) Total (MW)
Slack bus to South (1->2) 103.66076
152.51882
Slack bus to Lake (1->5) 48.85806
PV bus (South bus) generator 40 40
Total Generation 192.51882


4.2.3 Power losses in each transmission line
The difference between power in and out of a transmission line is the power losses
in each transmission line.
Table 12: Transmission line losses
Bus
no
Transmission
line
Power in Power Out Transmission Loss
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
1 1 -> 2 103.66076 69.85414 100.79364 67.6236 2.86712 2.23054
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2 1 -> 5 48.85806 16.99562 46.87918 16.28348 1.97888 0.71214
3 2 -> 5 28.91445 -1.41174 28.41262 1.01514 0.50183 -2.42688
4 2 -> 4 34.01442 -0.58883 33.31904 1.24157 0.69538 -1.8304
5 2 -> 3 57.86477 6.30474 56.50107 5.1243 1.3637 1.18044
6 5 -> 4 30.2918 2.29862 30.19572 3.93487 0.09608 -1.63625
7 4 -> 3 3.51476 0.17645 3.49893 4.8757 0.01583 -4.69925


4.3 5 buses and 7 transmission lines power grid system where Elm bus is consuming
50% more active power
Each bus Voltages and angles are as follows:

Algotithm is converged after 10 iterations. The Slack bus (North bus) voltage is 1.06
p.u and angle is zero as specified. It will be unchanged. The PV bus (South) bus
voltage is 1 p.u as specified at first and it will be unchanged. The angle is -2.57114
p.u. The voltage of the other buses is lower than one as these buses are consuming
the power. Due to the losses through the transmission line(s), other buses voltage
is lower than one. The load at Main bus is increased. To support this extra load,
the current flow through the transmission line that feeds the Elm bus increases. As
a result the voltage at the Elm bus is lower than previous case.

For transmission losses calculation, Matlab code is written. The Transmission
losses summary is as follows:

Name: Power Flow Analysis Roll No.
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To support this extra load, the current flow through the transmission line that
feeds the Elm bus increases. As a result the transmission line loss for the line that
deliver power to the Elm bus in increased.


Table 13: Power generation and consumption comparison for given system with 50% increase in Elm bus
Power Generation
Value
(MW) Power Consumtion
Value
(MW)
Slack bus to South (1->2) 115.00476 South bus load 20
Slack bus to Lake (1->5) 48.79316 Lake bus load 45
PV bus (South bus) generator 40 Main bus load 40
Elm bus load 90
Transmission loss (1->2) 3.22754
Transmission loss (1->5) 1.95726
Transmission loss (2->5) 0.384
Transmission loss (2->4) 0.53365
Transmission loss (2->3) 2.40085
Transmission loss (4->5) 0.07489
Transmission loss (3->4) 0.21974

Total Generation 203.79792 Total Consumption 203.79793

Since total generation and total consumption of active power is similar, the Matlab
Coding is competent.

4.3.1 Power flowing in and out of each transmission line
For calculating the power flowing in and out of each transmission line, the power
flow output is considered. For example, 1-> 2 is the power in to the transmission
line between and opposite sign of 2->1 is the power out of that transmission line.
Table 14: Power flowing in and out of each transmission line
Bus no Transmission line
Power in Power Out
Active Power
Reactive
power Active Power
Reactive
power
1 1 -> 2 115.00476 66.67351 111.77722 63.3617
2 1 -> 5 48.79316 16.37946 46.8359 15.73939
3 2 -> 5 25.28554 -1.20085 24.90155 1.58532
4 2 -> 4 29.78206 -0.4367 29.24841 1.88603
5 2 -> 3 76.70962 9.35141 74.30877 5.03216
6 5 -> 4 26.73745 2.32471 26.66256 4.03096
7 4 -> 3 15.91097 0.91699 15.69123 4.96784
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4.3.2 Amount of power drawn from the generator
For calculating the amount of power drawn from the generator is calculating by
summing the total active power from the bus it is attached. A generator is attached
at Slack bus and its active power is varied. A constant 40 MW generator is attached
at PV bus.
Table 15: power drawn from the generator
Power Generation
Value
(MW) Total (MW)
Slack bus to South (1->2) 89.33138
131.12223
Slack bus to Lake (1->5) 41.79085
PV bus (South bus)
generator 40 40
Total Generation 171.12223


4.3.3 Power losses in each transmission line
The difference between power in and out of a transmission line is the power losses
in each transmission line.
Table 16: Transmission line losses
Bus
no
Transmission
line
Power in Power Out Transmission Loss
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
1 1 -> 2 115.00476 66.67351 111.77722 63.3617 3.22754 3.31181
2 1 -> 5 48.79316 16.37946 46.8359 15.73939 1.95726 0.64007
3 2 -> 5 25.28554 -1.20085 24.90155 1.58532 0.38399 -2.78617
4 2 -> 4 29.78206 -0.4367 29.24841 1.88603 0.53365 -2.32273
5 2 -> 3 76.70962 9.35141 74.30877 5.03216 2.40085 4.31925
6 5 -> 4 26.73745 2.32471 26.66256 4.03096 0.07489 -1.70625
7 4 -> 3 15.91097 0.91699 15.69123 4.96784 0.21974 -4.05085

5.0 Reactive Power compensation using STATCOM
In AC circuits energy is stored temporarily in inductive and capacitive elements,
which results in the periodic turnaround of the direction of flow of energy between
the source and the load. The real power is the average power after the completion of
one whole cycle of the AC waveform, and this is the usable energy of the system
and is used to do work, whereas the portion of power flow which is temporarily
Name: Power Flow Analysis Roll No.
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stored in the form of magnetic or electric fields and flows back and forth in the
transmission line due to inductive and capacitive network elements is known as
reactive power. In order to transmit power. This is the unused power which the
system has to incur.
In an inductive circuit, we know the instantaneous power to be:

( )
( ) ( )
max m
max m max m
I cos cos
I I
cos 1 cos 2 sin sin 2
2 2 2 2
ax
ax ax
p V t t
V V
p t t
e e u
u e u e
=
= + +
(41)
The instantaneous reactive power is given by:
( )
max m
I
sin sin 2
2 2
ax
V
t u e (42)
max
max
:
p = instantaneous power
V = Peak value of the voltage waveform
I = Peak value of the current waveform
= Angular frequency
= 2 f where f is the frequency of the waveform.
t = Time period
Where
e
t
= Angle by which the current lags the voltage in phase u

From here, it can be terminated that the instantaneous reactive power pulsates at
twice the system occurrence and its average value is zero and it gives the maximum
instantaneous reactive power:
Q = |V| |I| sin (43)
It does not necessarily mean that no energy is flowing by the zero average, but the
actual amount that is flowing for half a cycle in one direction, is coming back in the
next half cycle.


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5.1 Compensation Techniques
5.2 Shunt compensation

Figure 12: Shunt Compensation
A source V1, a power line and an inductive load without any type of compensation
comprises the figure 12. The above part shows the phasor diagram. The active
current Ip is in phase with the load voltage V2. Here, the load is inductive and
hence it requires reactive power for its appropriate operation and this has to be
supplied by the source, thus increasing the current from the generator and through
the power lines. Instead of the lines carrying this, the line current can be
minimized if the reactive power can be supplied near the load, reducing the power
losses and improving the voltage regulation at the load terminals. This can be
completed in three ways: 1) A voltage source. 2) A current source. 3) A capacitor.
In this case, to compensate Iq a current source device is used, which is the reactive
component of the load current. Similarly, the voltage regulation of the system is
improved and the reactive current constituent from the source is concentrated or
almost eliminated. This is in case of lagging compensation. , we need an inductor
For leading compensation.

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5.3 Lake bus connected to the STATCOM and Reactive Compensation
0
.
0
2
0
.
0
6
j
0.06/2j
0.06/2j
North (1)
South(2)
0.08
0.24j
Lake (5)
0
.
0
5
/
2
j
0
.
0
5
/
2
j
0
.
0
6
0
.
1
8
j
0.04/2j
0.04/2j
0.06
0.18j
0
.
0
4
/
2
j
0
.
0
4
/
2
j
Main (4)
0
.
0
1
0 . 0 2 / 2 j
0 . 0 2 / 2 j
0
.
0
3
j
Elm (3)
0
.
0
8
0.05/2j
0.05/2j
0
.
2
4
j
0.04
0
.
0
3
/
2
j
0
.
0
3
/
2
j
0.12j
4
0
M
W
2
0
M
W
1
0
M
V
a
r
6
0
M
W
1
0
M
V
a
r
40MW
5MVar
45MW
15MVar
1
3
1
M
W
2
.
4
9
M
W
+
1
.
0
9
M
v
a
r
1.52MW-0.69Mvar
0
.
3
6
M
W
-
2
.
8
7
M
v
a
r
0.46MW-2.55Mvar
1.22MW+0.73Mvar
0
.
0
4
M
W
-
1
.
8
2
M
v
a
r
0
.
0
4
M
W
-
4
.
6
5
M
v
a
r
STATCOM Device

Figure 13: Lake bus connected to the STATCOM and Reactive Compensation
STATCOM device is attached to Lake bus to achieve the bus voltage 1 p.u. using
available technique. For this purpose the Jacobian matrix and the updated bus
voltage should be changed.
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Each time Jacobian matrix is evaluated using the Slack bus voltage 1.06 p.u. and
PV bus voltage 1.00 p.u. Now another bus is maintaining 1 p.u. voltage. Therefore,
during Jacobian matrix calculation this situation is considered.


Figure 14: Modified Jacobian Matirx.
The Lake bus number is 5. When these bus appears the Jacobian matrix
calculation replace the voltage with 1.0 p.u.

When only the Lake bus is appeared,

Similarly for other Jacobian calculation, the code is modified.
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Each bus Voltages and angles are as follows:

Algotithm is converged after 10 iterations. The Slack bus (North bus) voltage is 1.06
p.u and angle is zero as specified. It will be unchanged. The PV bus (South) bus
voltage is 1 p.u as specified at first and it will be unchanged. The angle is -2.06111
p.u. The voltage of the other buses except the Lake bus (bus no. 5) is lower than
one. In this result, the bus voltage is lower than one, the STATCOM device will
provide additional reactive power to make the bus voltage 1 p.u.

For transmission losses calculation, Matlab code is written. The Transmission
losses summary is as follows:
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Since the Lake bus voltage is 1.0 p.u. the transmission loss is different than that of
the previous configuration.
Table 17: Power generation and consumption comparison for power grid system with STATCOM device
at Lake bus
Power Generation
Value
(MW) Total (MW) Power Consumtion
Value
(MW)
Slack bus to South (1->2) 89.33138
131.12223
South bus load 20
Slack bus to Lake (1->5) 41.79085 Lake bus load 45
PV bus (South bus) generator 40 40 Main bus load 40
Elm bus load 60
Transmission loss (1->2) 2.48587
Transmission loss (1->5) 1.51783
Transmission loss (2->5) 0.35951
Transmission loss (2->4) 0.46085
Transmission loss (2->3) 1.21501
Transmission loss (4->5) 0.04007
Transmission loss (3->4) 0.0431

Total Generation 171.12223 Total Consumption 171.12224

Since total generation and total consumption of active power is similar, the Matlab
Coding is competent.

5.3.1 Power flowing in and out of each transmission line
For calculating the power flowing in and out of each transmission line, the power
flow output is considered. For example, 1-> 2 is the power in to the transmission
line between and opposite sign of 2->1 is the power out of that transmission line.
Table 18: Power flowing in and out of each transmission line
Bus Transmission
Power in Power Out
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no line
Active Power Reactive power Active Power Reactive power
1 1 -> 2 89.33138 73.99518 86.84551 72.90839
2 1 -> 5 41.79085 16.82034 40.27302 17.5125
3 2 -> 5 24.47266 -2.51849 24.11315 0.3523
4 2 -> 4 27.713 -1.72391 27.25215 0.83056
5 2 -> 3 54.65985 5.55794 53.44485 4.82921
6 5 -> 4 19.38618 2.8648 19.34611 4.68775
7 4 -> 3 6.59825 0.51832 6.55515 5.17079

5.3.2 Amount of power drawn from the generator
For calculating the amount of power drawn from the generator is calculating by
summing the total active power from the bus it is attached. A generator is attached
at Slack bus and its active power is varied. A constant 40 MW generator is attached
at PV bus.
Table 19: power drawn from the generator
Power Generation
Value
(MW) Total (MW)
Slack bus to South (1->2) 89.33138
131.12223
Slack bus to Lake (1->5) 41.79085
PV bus (South bus)
generator 40 40
Total Generation 171.12223


5.3.3 Power losses in each transmission line
The difference between power in and out of a transmission line is the power losses
in each transmission line.
Table 20: Transmission line losses
Bus
no
Transmission
line
Power in Power Out Transmission Loss
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
Active
Power
(MW)
Reactive
power
(MVAR)
1 1 -> 2 89.33138 73.99518 86.84551 72.90839 2.48587 1.08679
2 1 -> 5 41.79085 16.82034 40.27302 17.5125 1.51783 -0.69216
3 2 -> 5 24.47266 -2.51849 24.11315 0.3523 0.35951 -2.87079
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4 2 -> 4 27.713 -1.72391 27.25215 0.83056 0.46085 -2.55447
5 2 -> 3 54.65985 5.55794 53.44485 4.82921 1.215 0.72873
6 5 -> 4 19.38618 2.8648 19.34611 4.68775 0.04007 -1.82295
7 4 -> 3 6.59825 0.51832 6.55515 5.17079 0.0431 -4.65247


6.0 Conclusion
To ensure best operation of a current power grid system as well as to expand the
system, power flow analysis is very important. The power flow analysis summarizes
the whole power grid system by providing voltage and angle of each bust associated
with power flow through each line. In this experiment, power flow analysis is
performed for a power grid system of 5 buses and 7 transmission lines. Prior to this,
popular power flow technique known as Newton-Raphson method is studied well.
The steady state voltage and angle of each bus and power flow of each line is found
by writing a matlab program. The voltage and angle of each bus is measured by
varying active loading of different buses and compared with that of previous
scenarios. From the findings, it is accomplished that raising the active loading
resulted in an increased Transmission losses. The calculations are complex In
Newton-Rahpson method, but the number of iterations is low even when the
number of buses is high. For any power grid system where any bus is drawing
more power than the specified limit can be identified easily using load flow analysis.
Therefore, load flow analysis is also useful for fault analysis in the system.
STATCOM device is assumed to be attached with a bus so that the voltage of that
bus is maintained 1.0 p.u. following reactive compensation. To achieve this,
Jacobian matrix is modified and the result is analyzed.










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7.0 Reference
[1] A.E. Guile and W.D. Paterson, Electrical power systems, Vol. 2, (Pergamon
Press, 2nd edition, 1977).
[2] W.D. Stevenson Jr., Elements of power system analysis, (McGraw-Hill,4
th

edition, 1982).
[3] W. F. Tinney, C. E. Hart, "Power Flow Solution by Newton's Method," IEEE
Transactions on Power Apparatus and systems, Vol. PAS-86, pp. 1449-1460,
November 1967.
[4] W. F. Tinney, C. E. Hart, "Power Flow Solution by Newton's Method, "IEEE
TRANS. POWER APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS, Vol. PAS-86, pp. 1449-1460,
November 1967.
[5] O. Elgerd, Electric Energy Systems Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982.
[6] Lab Manual, ELEC5525-Power Flow Analysis
















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8.0 Appendix
8.1 Matlab code

This is the type of buses that existis in a power grid systems.

No. of iteration and stopping criteria is set here. If the stooping criteria is smaller
enough it is good for accuracty but it will take time to converge.

Buses are defined with initial values.

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Transmission lines are described.

Calculating the total buses and no. of lines.

Power system admittance matrix is prepared here.
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Variable initialization for output and intermediate temp variable.

Initialization of powers and number to the buses.
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Sizing Jacobian Matrix and initialization.
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Main body of the iteration.
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Updating Jacobian sub-Matrix.

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Updating Jacobian Matix and other variable with convergence checking

Printing output.

Output formatting.
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