Você está na página 1de 85


Student should be able to :Draw and identify structure and

functions of the heart.
Explain heart beat mechanism.
Explain the role of xilem and
floem in plant.





Cardiac Cycle (heartbeat):

The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occur
when the heart beats. There are two phases of this

During the diastole phase

the atria and ventricles are
relaxed and the
atrioventricular valves are
De-oxygenated blood
from the superior and
inferior vena cava flows
into the right atrium.
The open atrioventricular
valves allow blood to pass
through to the ventricles.

The SA node triggering the

atria to contract.
The right atrium empties its
contents into the right
The tricuspid valves prevents
the blood from flowing back
into the right atrium.

During the systole phase

the right ventricle receives
impulses from the Purkinje
fibers and contracts.
The atrioventricular valves
close and the semilunar
valves open.
The de-oxygenated blood is
pumped into the pulmonary

The pulmonary artery carries

the blood to the lungs
There the blood picks up
oxygen and is returned to the
left atrium of the heart by the
pulmonary veins.


In the next diastole period,

the semilunar valves close
and the atrioventricular
valves open.
Blood from the pulmonary
veins fills the left atrium.

The SA node contracts again

triggering the atria to
contract. The left atrium
empties its contents into the
left ventricle.

The mitral valve prevents

the oxygenated blood
from flowing back into the
left atrium.
During the systole phase
the atrioventricular valves
close and the semilunar
valves open.
The left ventricle receives
impulses from the Purkinje
fibers and contracts.

Oxygenated blood is pumped into the aorta. The

aortic valve prevents the oxygenated blood from
flowing back into the left ventricle.
The aorta branches out to provide oxygenated
blood to all parts of the body.
The oxygen depleted blood is returned to the
heart via the vena cava.


Vena cava
Carry deoxygenated blood from
the body to the right atrium

Carry oxygenated blood from the
heart to other parts of the body

Pulmonary arteries
Carry deoxygenated blood from
the heart to the lungs

Pulmonary veins
Carry oxygenated blood from the
lungs to the left atrium

Coronary arteries
Carry oxygenated blood to the
heart muscle

Right ventricle
Pump deoxygenated blood to the

Left ventricle
Pump oxygenated blood around
the body

Tricuspid and bicuspid valves

Prevents backflow of blood into

Semi-lunar valves
Prevent the backflow of blood
into the heart, keeping the blood
flowing in one direction.

The left ventricle is thicker and

more muscular than the right

Sino atrial and artial ventricular mode

Control of heart rate

Control of heart rate

Individual cardiac muscle will contract and

relax in their own inherent rhythm.

Is coordinated by electrical stimulation from

the brain.

Heart control centre in the medulla


The symphatetic nerve stimulates an

increase in heart rate.

The vagus nerve stimulates a decrease in

heart rate.

The nerves ------ SA node (right artrium).

The pacemaker (SAN)

triggers the heartbeat BUT
the rate and strength of its
beating can be modified by 2
external control centre located
in medulla oblongata.
Cardiac centre connected to
heart bye autonomic nerves

Heart activity and relation to nervous

and the endocrine system


Accelerates the activity of
the heart (Heart beat more
Release noradrenaline
They increase the rate and
strength of the heart beat and
increase the blood flow.
Their activation is usually
due to some stress
180 beat\min, 25-30L\min

Their activity slow down the heart beat (go to normal)
Release asetilkolin.

2 factors influence the heart rate


Cardiac Output (CO)

Cardiac output- is the total volume of blood pumped by
the ventricle per minute.
- heart rate (HR)
This volume depends on two factors :
- stroke volume (SV).
The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle each
time it contracts.

The amount of blood ejected by ventricle during

each contraction is called the stroke volume (SV).
In a resting adult, SV averages 70 ML and HR is
about 75 beats per minute.
Thus the average CO in a resting adult is
CO = stroke volume X beats per min
= 70ML X 75/min
= 5250 ML/min or 5.25 L/min

A person with this stroke volume & resting pulse

of 70 beats/min has a cardiac output of 5.25 L/min.

CO can increase about fivefold during

heavy exercise.
Determined by :
1. The amount of blood pumped by
the left (or right) ventricle during each beat.
2. The number of heart beats per minute.




Changes in ECG, contractions, volumes and pressure

in one cardiac cycle

Atrial depolarisation and the spread of impulse throughout the atria

Ventricular depolarisation

Ventricular depolarisation


Goes up and down in three wave

First wave
Left atrium contract pressure increases
volume decreases
Blood is forced to the ventricles
Second wave
Bicuspid valve shutting and its upward
bulge (outward curve) increases its pressure
and decreases its volume
Left atrium is relaxing
Third wave
Filling blood from pulmonary vein
Pressure drops due to the opening of
bicuspid valve when the pressure of the left
ventricle falls below the pressure
Pressure increases slowly as its volume also
increases because of the continual filling of
blood before the cycle repeat.

Atrial systole

Changes in the pressure and volume of the left atrium

Ventricular systole

First wave
There is a slight increase in
pressure and volume due to
systole of atria
Volume is filled to maximum
Second wave
Pressure increases to maximum,
volume squeezed to zero
During diastole, muscle relaxes
pressure drops to zero volume
start to increase due to filling of
blood from the atrium.
Third wave
Pressure hardly increases
volume gradually filled
Cycle repeats

Atrial systole

Changes in the pressure and volume of the left ventricle

Ventricular systole

During atrial systole

Pressure of aorta decreases after the recoil
of blood towards the heart and volume
decreases slightly
During ventricular systole
Blood is forced into it increases its
pressure and volume to their maximum
During ventricular diastole
Its blood pressure decreases there is
notch (called nacrotic notch) due to the
shutting of its semilunar valve at its base
Its pressure then continual to fall but
would not fall to zero because it will not
dilates too much and there is always blood
in it before the next wave comes. The
pulsating changes in the aorta continue in
the arteries as pulses

Atrial systole

Changes in the pressure and volume of aorta



Lymphatic System
The lymphatic system is an
accessory of the circulatory
system that is connected with
blood circulation.
Its three principal functions
to collect and return interstitial fluid,
including plasma protein to the blood,
and thus help maintain fluid balance,
to defend the body against disease by
producing lymphocytes,
to absorb lipids from the intestine and
transport them to the blood

It consists of lymphatic
vessels and lymph tissue.
It has tiny dead-end
capillaries that extend into
almost all tissues.
Tissues fluid enters the
lymph capillaries
Lymph capillaries conduct
the lymph to larger vessels
called Lymph veins.

Lymph veins enter lymph nodes (small

organized masses of lymph tissues).
Lymph nodes are located along the
lymphatic vessels, usually in group, some
superficial (easily located during infection)
and some deep.
the most numerous in the neck region,
armpits, groin region and in the chest
and abdomen.
In an infected area, lymph nodes enlarge
conspicuously and may be felt as hard
little knots below the skin.

Two main functions :

To filter foreign substances in lymph
To produces -lymphocytes (white blood cell)

Lymph veins that leave the lymph nodes

conduct lymph toward the shoulder region.
Lymph veins empty their contents into the
subclavian veins by way of the thoracic and
right lymphatic ducts.

Tonsils are masses of

lymph tissue under the
oral cavity and throat.
Tonsils help protect
the respiratory system
from infection.

Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular Diseases
Myocardial infarction
Angina pectoris

Myocardial infarction (MI)

Myocardial infarction
death of some of the muscle
cells of the heart as a result
of a lack supply of oxygen
and other nutrients.

It caused by closure of the

artery that supplies a
particular part of the heart
muscle with blood.
This occurs 98% of the
time from the process of
arteriosclerosis ("hardening
of the arteries") in coronary

Although it once was felt that most heart

attacks were caused from the slow
closure of an artery, say from 90 or 95%
to 100%, it is now clear that this process
can occur in even minor blockages where
there is rupture of the cholesterol plaque.
This in turn causes blood clotting within
the artery, blocking the flow of blood.

The heart muscle which is injured in this way

can cause irregular rhythms which can be
fatal, even when there is enough muscle left
to pump plenty of blood.
When the injured area heals, it will leave a
While the heart won't be able to pump quite
as much as before, there is often plenty of
good muscle left to take care of the job, and
recovery can be quite complete.

High blood pressure is considered the most important
public health problem in many developed countries.
typically has no symptoms, it is readily detectable and it is
The common cause of death from untreated high blood
pressure is heart disease.
may also cause stroke, kidney failure, and blindness by
producing hemorrhages (bleeding) in the retina of the eye

What Constitutes High Blood Pressure?

According to the American Heart Association Guidelines,
high blood pressure in an adult is defined as a systolic
pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and/or a diastolic pressure
of 90 mm Hg or higher.


Systolic Less than




130-139 140 or higher

Diastolic Less than 80 85-89

90 or higher

Arteriosclerosis is often referred to as "hardening of the
It occurs over a period of many years during which the
arteries of the cardiovascular system develop areas which
become hard and brittle. Vessels become thickened. There
is a loss of elasticity.
It can involve the arteries of the cardiovascular system, the
brain, kidneys, upper and lower extremities. This occurs
because of the deposition of calcium in their walls.
Differs from atherosclerosis, which involves the build up
of fatty deposits in the innermost lining of large and
medium-sized arteries

What Are the Causative Factors?

There are a number of factors which are causative these
-Diabetes mellitus

Angina Pectoris
Angina pectoris is the medical term for chest pain or
discomfort due to coronary heart disease.
It is a symptom of a condition called myocardial
Occurs when the heart muscle (myocardium) doesn't
get as much blood (hence as much oxygen) as it needs

When does angina pectoris occur?

Angina often occurs when the heart needs
more blood.
For example.
running to catch a bus could trigger an
attack of angina while walking might not.
Angina may happen during exercise, strong
emotions or extreme temperatures. Some
people, such as those with a coronary
artery spasm, may have angina when
they're resting.


Translocates mainly
water, mineral salts,
some organic nutrien
from roots to the
aerial parts of the

Translocates a variety
of organic and
inorganic solutes,
mainly from the
expended leaves to
the other parts of the

The movement of the water into and across the root

Water enter the plants through the
following transport pathway




In the absorbing region of the root,

most plants have root hairs. They
increase the surface area of the root
Water enters the roots by osmosis,
moving down a water potential gradient
from the soil into the root hairs.


Water and mineral salts from soil

enter the plant through the epidermis
of roots, cross the root cortex, pass
into the stele, and then flow up xylem
vessels to the shoot system.

Three pathways to water to move

from one cell to the other in the plant;
Apoplast pathway
Symplast pathway
Vacuolar pathway

Apoplast pathway
Water and mineral ions do not enter

cells in the root but just move along the

porous cellulose wall
Symplast pathway
Water and ions enter the protoplast

without going through the vacuole

Move through plasmodesmata within

Vacuolar pathway
Water and mineral ions move into sap

vacuole from one cell to another

through plasma membrane involving the

the inner boundary of the cortex, the

endodermis, is impermeable to water
because of a band of suberized matrix
called the *casparian strip.
*Casparian strip

impermeable to water, water cannot

diffuse into endodermal cells through
the radial and horizontal walls, so it
has to cross over actively from
parenchyma cells to xylem vessels
through the cytoplasm of the
endodermal cells.

Therefore, to enter the stele, apoplastic

water must enter the symplasm of the
endodermal cells.

From here it can pass by plasmodesmata

into the cells of the stele.

Once inside the stele,

water is again free to
move between cells as
well as through them.
In young roots, water
enters directly into the
xylem vessels and or
These are nonliving
conduits (large pipe
through which liquids
flow) so are part of the

Water movement via xylem by:1. Transpiration pull

2. Cohesion & adhesion
3. Tension
4. Root pressure

we have seen, water is continually
being lost from leaves by
transpiration that created osmotic
pressure .
Dixon and Joly believed that the loss
of water in the leaves exerts a pull
power (transpiration) on the water in
the xylem vessels and draws more
water into the leaf.
Cohesive forces among water
molecules and transpiration pull
from the leaves maintains a
continuous flow of water up the

Cohesion and Tension

There is a high force among water
molecules because of hydrogen
bonds and is responsible for its
surface tension.
Together with adhesive force, water
creates a transpiration pull in xylem
vessels when evaporation occurs in
the leaves. This helps transport
water and mineral ions up to the
Negative pressure occurs in xylem
vessels and developed water tension.
Such a powerful water tension is
enough to overcome the frictional
force and gravitational force.

Root pressure
All intake of water by rooted plants is
done through the root system.
Transpiration puts the xylem under
tension all the way down to the root
tips, lowering the water potential in the
root xylem and pulling water from the
For the most part, xylem sap is not
pushed from below by root pressure but
pulled upward by the leaves
At most, root pressure can force water
upward only a few meters, and many
plants generate no root pressure at all.

Transpiration Pull
Evaporation from leaves
creates a negative pressure

Water column is held together
by cohesion.

Adhesion to cell walls keeps
water column in place

Root pressure
Negative pressure potential is
transferred to root cells and
water enters roots

The uptake of mineral ions into the roots.

Plants also require mineral
Macronutrient-N, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe
Micronutrient-Zn, Cu, Cl, Mangan,

Dissolved mineral ions from the

soil water move into
Epidermis of roots
by active transport, using
respiration energy

Cross the root cortex

apoplast and simplast pathway.

The uptake of mineral ions into the roots.

Roots are highly selective
about which ions they take up
in any quantity from the soil.
Most ions enter roots hair cells
through transporter protein in
the cell surface membrane
They may move into the root
down their concentration
gradient, by facilitated
diffusion or by active transport.

Transport of mineral through the root

is usually by combination of apoplast
and symplast pathway.
Casparian strips ensure that all
substances entering the stele pass
through at least one membrane,
allowing only selected ions to pass
into the stele.
It also prevent stele contents from
leaking back into the apoplast and out
into the soil.
Endodermic and parenchyma cells
selectively discharge minerals into
the apoplast so they may enter the
xilem. This action probably involves
diffusion and active transport.

Once in the xylem, water with

the minerals that have been
deposited in it move up in the
vessels and tracheids.
At any level, the water can leave
the xylem and pass laterally to
supply the needs of other tissues.
At the leaves, the xylem passes
into the petiole and then into the
veins of the leaf.
Water leaves the finest veins and
enters the cells of the spongy and
palisade layers.



the movement of sucrose and other organic materials from
one place to another within the plant body, primarily through
the phloem.
Concentration (pressure) gradients drive this process.
Phloem transport solutes from a source (supply) to a sink
(metabolism or storage), including a storage organ to an actively
growing organ.
Translocation of solutes is in both directions, though usually is
from leaves to root.


located outside of the xylem
in both primary and
secondary vascular systems.

The mechanism of Translocation in phloem

Munchs mass flow hypothesis / Pressureflow hypothesis.

The mechanism of Translocation in phloem

The mechanism of phloem translocation was a subject of research from the 1930s to
the mid-1970s.
Today is the pressure-flow hypothesis first proposed by ERNST MNCH
(Forstbotanisches Institut, Universitt Mnchen) in 1926 widely accepted as the
most probable mechanism.

It states that the flow of solution in the sieve elements is

driven by an osmotically generated pressure gradient
between source and sink tissue.

1. In the leaves, sugar is

actively loaded into sieve
tubes by indirect proton
2. During the loading
process, it creates water
potential in the sieve
tubes of the leaves and
water goes in through
osmosis via semipermeable membrane.

Sugar forces out the

leaves into stem (B).

At C, sugar is unloaded because of passive transport and used in respiration.
At the same time, water moves out to xylem (D) because the water potential in
sieve tubes of the root increases.

The points against this hypothesis

It cannot explain the fast reverse in flow from the root to the leaves.

Pressure flow hypothesis



The best-supported theory to explain the

movement of food through the phloem is
called the pressure-flow hypothesis.
It proposes that water containing food
molecules flows under pressure through
the phloem.


The pressure is created by the difference

in water concentration of the solution in
the phloem and the relatively pure water
in the nearby xylem ducts.


At their "source" - the leaves - sugars are

pumped by active transport into the
companion cells and sieve elements of
the phloem.


As sugars (and other products of

photosynthesis) accumulate in
the phloem, water enters by


In the figure, sugar molecules

are represented in black, water
molecules in red.
Turgor pressure builds up in the
sieve tubes (similar to the
creation of root pressure).


As the fluid is pushed down

(and up) the phloem, sugars are
removed by the cortex cells of
both stem and root (the "sinks")
and consumed or converted into



Starch is insoluble and exerts no

osmotic effect.

Therefore, the osmotic pressure of the

contents of the phloem decreases.

10. Finally, relatively pure water is left in

the phloem, and this leaves by
osmosis and/or is drawn back into
nearby xylem vessels by the suction
of transpiration-pull.
11. Thus it is the pressure gradient
between "source" (leaves) and "sink"
(shoot and roots) that drives the
contents of the phloem up and down
through the sieve tubes.

The pressure flow model

explains why phloem sap
always flows from sugar source
to sugar sink, regardless of their
locations in the plant.

The end