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COMPUTER AIDED ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR OF VARYING SLOPED

OPEN LATTICE TOWERS (STATIC LINEAR ANALYSIS)



A thesis presented to the department of civil and environmental engineering, university of lagos, Ako-
ka.


In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science
By
Oladunni, Afolabi Olugbenga
099042001

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Masters of Science by research
in civil engineering (structural engineering)

July, 2011

Certification
I hereby certify that this m.sc thesis presented by Oladunni, Afolabi Olugbenga was supervised by the
undersigned and have been accepted in partial fulfillment of the award of Master of Science degree
(structural option) in the department of civil and environment engineering, university of lagos, akoka,
Nigeria.




Professor O.M. Sadiq
Project Supervisor





Professor Falade
Head of department


July, 2011

Dedication
This work is dedicated to the Elohim God, the sovereign, eternal and Immortal, the giver of all true
wisdom, discretion, knowledge and understading for His unquantifiable, immeasurable and unending
mercies, favour and grace before, during and after the completion of this project work.


Oladunni Afolabi O.

Acknowledgement
I would like to thank my supervisor, teacher and father for his guidance and support during my studies
and project work in unilag. Working with such respected and inspirational individual has been a privi-
lege and has confirmed my interest in advanced structural analysis and design.

Thanks to my enviable colleagues who provided the basic mast configuration and data used for this
research..kenya. Engr Idris

Thanks to Dr. P.O. Agunbiade, Managing Director of Advanced Engineering Consultants, who provid-
ed the timely resource amidst stringent project delivery periods that has helped me make my studies
at UNILAG/

Thanks to the M.Sc class of 2010 for their unparalled and brotherly support during the period of
course work and compilation of this thesis.

Thanks to staff of advanced Engineering Consultants for the brotherly support and prayers that has
brought me this far.

Finally, to my parents, sibling direct and indirect and friends for your love and support throughtout
my academic and life experience hitherto.


Oladunni Afolabi Olugbenga.
July, 2011

Abstract

List of figures

List of tables

List of symbols and Notation


Table of Content
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
List of figures
List of tables
List of notation and symbols

Introduction
Preamble
Definition: Tower and Mast
Types of tower and mast
Factors affecting choice of tower type
Aim and objective of this research
Scope of research

Literature review
Analysis of tower and mast
Structural response of mast and tower
Failure of mast and towers

Review of Applicable theory, design codes and Computer modeling & analysis tools
structural analysis of towers
structural elements
types of structural elements
Finite element Method: stiffness Matrix
Codal Provisions for the analysis of lattice mast and towers
Computer Modelling and analysis tools:

Mast geometry and loading analysis to BS 8100: 1 & 2
Mast Geometry
Loading analysis to bs 8100:1 & 2

Site and environmental data
Computational analysis for determination of effect of wind loadings
Summary of loadings

Computer Modeling and Analysis with SAP 200 v 14
Result and discussion

Conclusion and recommendation
Conclusion
Recommendation(s)

Appendices
Appendix ---
Appendix ---

References


Introduction
Preamble
In the contemporary era, the communication industry has a unique situation in the history of human
life. In the current century, this field has become significantly important and has been named commu-
nication era. Telecommunication masts and towers have essential role in this industry. They support
radio, television and telephone antennas to transmit telecommunication signals over long distances.
The overall layout of telecommunication masts and towers is governed by the requirements to the
transmission and receiving conditions. Added hereto the access and working conditions for installa-
tion and service are important issues for the design. The first requirement often leads to relatively tall
structures or in mountainous areas smaller structure on the top of hills or mountains. Both solutions
lead to various problems with regard to analysis and construction
1
.

There are many challenges for the engineers associated with this tall and slender structures many
more especially in trying to balance between safety, economics and aesthetics. The structural sys-
tems of towers and masts are complex and require due diligence in studying the structural behavior
and character under its predominant load, wind load.

Lattice steel towers have been used for many large utilities such as offshore structures, transferring
the radio and television broadcasting, watching safety, fire, lightening and energy transmission lines.
Frame members of these structures do not need to be very big. Thus, lattice towers are produced
lighter than other types of towers. Furthermore, span length of these structures get bigger values from
top to bottom. Loads spread bigger lands in lattoice towers and because of this reason, less sub
structure is needed for thes structures.
Definition: Towers and Masts
2

In engineering terms, a tower is a self supporting structure while a mast is supported by stays or guys.
The term tower and mast are often used for the same type of structure, which of course can cause
confusion. Tower and mast have different definitions in American and british English. In American
English, both types of structures are often called towers, while in british English, people always use
mast instead.
To avoid confusion, in this write up, engineering terms are adopted as follows:
Tower self supporting
Mast supported by stays or guys.

Types of Tower and Mast
3


1
Tha analysis of masts and towers, Morgens G. Nielsen: Chief consultants, secretary of IASS Working group no
4 Mast and towers, Rambell Denmark, Bredevej 2, DK 2830 Virum, Denmark
2
Alberto Escudero Pascual, IT +46. ITRAINONLINE communication tower hand-
book.http://www.itrainonline.org/trainoline/mmtk
3
Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Design of Steel Structures, Indian Institute of Technology
The different types of communication towers are based upon their structural action, their cross-
section, the type of sections used and on the placement of tower. A brief description is as given be-
low:

Based on structural action.
Towers are classified into three major groups based on the structural action. They are:
Self supporting towers
Guyed towers
Monopole.

Self supporting towers.
The towers that are supported on ground or on buildings are called as self-supporting towers. Though
the weight of these towers is more they require less base area and are suitable in many situations.
Most of the TV, MW, Power transmission, and flood light towers are self-supporting towers.

Guyed towers.
Guyed towers provide height at a much lower material cost than self supporting towers due to the effi-
cient use of high-strength steel in the guys. Guyed towers are normally guyed in three directions over
an anchor radius of typically 2/3 of the tower height and have a triangular lattice section for the central
mast. Tubular masts are also used, especially where icing is very heavy and lattice sections would ice
up fully. These towers are much lighter than self supporting type but require a large free space to an-
chor guy wires. Whenever large open space is available, guyed towers can be provided. There are
other restrictions to mount dish antennae on these towers and require large anchor blocks to hold the
ropes.

Monopole.
It is single self-supporting pole, and is generally placed over roofs of high raised buildings, when
number of antennae required is less or height of tower required is less than 9m.

Figure 1: Types of towers based on structural action
Monopole
Guyed Self-supporting


Based on cross section of tower.
Towers can be classified, based on their cross section, into square, rectangular, triangular, delta,
hexagonal and polygonal towers. Open steel lattice towers make the most efficient use of material
and enables the construction of extremely light-weight and stiff structures by offering less exposed
area to wind loads. Most of the power transmission, telecommunication and broadcasting towers are
lattice towers. Triangular Lattice Towers have less weight but offer less stiffness in torsion. With the
increase in number of faces, it is observed that weight of tower increases. The increase is 10% and
20% for square and hexagonal cross sections respectively. If the supporting action of adjacent beams
is considered, the expenditure incurred for hexagonal towers is somewhat less.

Based on the type of material sections.
Based on the sections used for fabrication, towers are classified into angular and hybrid towers (with
tubular and angle bracings). Lattice towers are usually made of bolted angles. Tubular legs and brac-
ings can be economic, especially when the stresses are low enough to allow relatively simple connec-
tions. Towers with tubular members may be less than half the weight of angle towers because of the
reduced wind load on circular sections. However the extra cost of the tube and the more complicated
connection details can exceed the saving of steel weight and foundations.

Based on the placement of tower.
Based on this placement, Communication towers are classified as follows:


Green Field Tower Roof Top Tower
Erection
Erected on natural ground with suitable
foundation.
Erected on existing building with
raised columns and tie beams.
Height 30 200 m 9 30 m
Usual Location Rural Areas Urban Areas
Economy Less More

Based on the number of segments.
The towers are classified based on the number of segments as Three slope tower; Two slope tower;
Single slope tower; Straight tower.

Factors Affecting choice of tower type
The major factors affecting choice of tower type for deployment are:
i. Antenna load
ii. Tower foot print
iii. Height of tower
iv. Budget

Aim and Objectives of the study
Aim
The aim of the research work is to determine the effect of varying slope configuration on the stability
of self supporting towers.

Objectives of the research
The specific objectives of the research are as follows:
i. Model one , two and three sloped self supporting tower of constant height and base using
SAP software.
ii. Determine magnitude and distribution of forces and moments generated in the towers as a
result of slope variations.
iii. Evaluate and compare analyses result along the length of the towers
iv. Evaluate the effect and significance of slope changes on tower stability
v. Determine the most economic model that can withstand the applied forces.

Scope of Research
This research work will be within the spectra of the following:
i. Model will be
ii. Only one single structure and model of constant height , wind speed and bracing arrangement
will be adopted.
iii. Analyses will only consider wind load as the environmental load and antenna load as the oth-
er load.
iv. Loading computations is based on BS 8100: Part 1 and 2.
v. Static linear analyses will only be considered.


Literature Review
More than a few studies have been conducted over the years into the static and dynamic performance
of mast and towers. In the twentieth century however most of them relate to analysis determining the
fundamental natural frequencies of the mast for application to all dynamic loadings, many are more
applicable to dynamic wind loading including seismic effects on their structural stability. However, the
author has not been able to find a similar study that modeled the effect of varying tower slope on the
structural stability of self supporting towers.

Analysis of towers and Mast
According to Ulrik Stttrup-Andersen
4
, the analysis of mast and towers requires special knowledge
and experience especially when it concerns guyed masts. The special problems related to these
structures are underlined by the very many collapses during the years. The basis of design for such
antenna supporting structures are sometimes many and often mutual contradictory, and the overall
structural layout may have a dynamic nature of the wind has to be taken into account as masts and
towers are more or less sensitive to dynamic loads. This paper give a brief introduction to the prob-
lems related to the analysis and design, as well as the some practical examples are mentioned. The
aesthetic elements are becoming more and more important for antenna supporting structures and is
also mentioned.
Also, in a related research by Eric James Sullin at the Missouri Department of Transportation radio
communication tower network to develop a systematic evaluation and assessment method that could
provide the necessary information for the repair and maintenance of the tower network. Two towers
were selected for this project to act as model towers. One tower is guyed, the Taum Sauk tower, and
the other is freestanding, Kansas City tower. Both towers are analyzed using the TIA-222-F for wind
and ice loadings. The Taum Sauk tower is then analyzed for seismic loading. Also a parametric study
to determine the effects of deterioration of tower components on the tower as a whole is completed on
the Taum Sauk tower. The controlling components of the Kansas city tower were found to be the di-
agonal bracings. The critical bracings were found to be at 88.9% of their maximum capacity. The max-
imum capacities of the other components of the tower were found not to exceed 51.1% capacity.
Therefore, the tower passes for the current code.
The parametric study was conducted on the Taum Sauk tower under wind, ice and seismic loadings.
For the wind and ice analysis it was determined that the bracing on the tower controls the structural
integrity of the tower. If the braces are damaged by as little as 10%, the capacity exceeds 100% and
the tower fails. When damage is introduced to the guys and the legs, the tower fails at 25% and 42%
damage, respectively.
The parametric study completed using seismic loading did not provide information about failure. The
results of the parametric study showed the increase or decrease in axial force of the components due

4
MASTS AND TOWERS Ulrik Stttrup-Andersen Market Director, Head of Department, RAMBLL Bredevej 2, DK-2830
Virum, Denmark, usa@ramboll.dk. Chairman of IASS Working Group #4Masts and Towers. Lightweight structures in civil
engineering, Proceedings of the international symposium, Warsaw, Poland, 24-28 June, 2002. General lectures

to deterioration in one or all of the tower components. It is seen that there is a 0.5 kip increase in axial
force in the legs when the guy cables are damaged, and a 0.25 kip increase in the legs when the
whole tower is damaged to 50% original cross sections. A 0.15 kip increase in axial force in the guys
is seen when the legs are damaged to 50% their original cross sections. Damage to either the tower
legs or the guys can cause significant increases in axial forces when subjected to seismic loadings. In
this project the towers were analyzed under wind, ice, and seismic loading and the results indicate
that some components of the towers are critical and could control the failure. It is recommended that
detailed inspection of the towers' critical components be performed to perform a detailed risk assess-
ment
5
.

Mogens G. Nielsen, in his paper at the IASS conference stated that for many years both guyed
masts and self-supporting towers have been used for supporting antennas for mobile and other com-
munications. The choice between masts and towers has often been determined by the tradition. How-
ever masts have its clear advantages in the open country, whereas the towers are more likely to be
chosen in the urban areas. Masts and towers are often used for broadcasting of radio and television
or antennas for cellular phones. The masts and towers consequently are situated on the top of hills
and mountains, where the climate often is extreme with respect to wind load and in some cases due
to atmospheric icing. Since the wind is turbulent and the masts and towers are flexible and sensitive
to dynamic load, the dynamic response becomes important in the analysis of towers and guyed
masts. However there are some differences in the analysis of masts and towers. The wind resistance
for lattice sections is dependent on the type of members, the solidity of the sections and for tubular
members also dependant on the Reynolds number. Furthermore, latest research within the IASS
Working Group for Masts and Towers has shown that the wind resistance of tubular sections is de-
pendent on the turbulence of the wind. The masts act strongly in non-linear fashion since the guy
ropes are varying from slackened to a taut string. Over the years different methods have been used
for analyzing guyed masts making the methods more and more realistic: starting by a gust factor
method, over the IASS patch wind method to the Eurocode patch wind method, which gives results
close to the results from a stochastic analysis and the time domain analysis. The towers do not act as
non-linear as the masts. However, the towers are also sensitive to the dynamics of the wind and a
dynamic factor should be applied depending on the turbulence of the wind, the height of the structure
etc
6
.



5
Analysis Of Radio Communication Towers Subjected To Wind, Ice And Seismic Loadings
A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Missouri Columbia In Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree Master of Science By ERIC JAMES SULLINS Dr. Hani Salim, Thesis Supervisor. May 2006

6
The Analysis of Masts and Towers. Mogens G. Nielsen, MSc CEng, Chief Consultant, Secretary of IASS Working Group
no. 4 Masts and Towers, Rambll Denmark, Bredevej 2, DK-2830 Virum, Denmark Received February, 7, 2008; Revised ver-
sion February, 6, 2009; Acceptation March, 25, 2009

Structural response of mast and towers
4e Confrence spcialise en gnie des structures
de la Socit canadienne de gnie civil
4th Structural Specialty Conference
of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering
Montral, Qubec, Canada
5-8 juin 2002 / June 5-8, 2002
DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ANTENNA-SUPPORTING STRUCTURES
G. Ghodrati AmiriA , A. BoostanB
A Department of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Iran
B Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Iran
ABSTRACT: The subject of this paper is the investigation of the dynamic behavior of self- supporting
towers with four legs. In this regard, 10 existing self-supporting telecommunication towers with heights
varying from 18 to 67 m have been studied under Tabas, Naghan and Manjil earthquake spectra,
which are among the important and major earthquakes in Iran. These spectra were scaled to the base
acceleration of 0.35g in order to be compared with the design spectrum of the Iranian 2800 seismic
code of practice. The seismicity level of Iran is one of the high seismicity levels in the world. The re-
sults are studied in parallel to the concepts of the seismic national code for buildings. Also, since in
most cases, the wind force is taken as the controlling force for designing these structures, a compari-
son is made between the results of wind and earthquake loading. These comparisons result the ne-
cessity of considering earthquake loads in tower analysis and design. Their dynamic analyses are
performed by SAP2000 program.

SEISMIC RESPONSE OF 4-LEGGED SELF-SUPPORTING TELECOMMUNICATION TOWERS
G. Ghodrati Amiri* and S. R. Massah
Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology
P.O. Box 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran 16846, Iran
ghodrati@iust.ac.ir - massah@iust.ac.ir
A. Boostan
Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Author
(Received: October 12, 2006 Accepted in Revised Form: May 31, 2007)
Abstract Telecommunication tower is an important component of the basic infrastructure of commu-
nication systems and thus preserving them in events of natural disasters - such as a severe earth-
quake - is of high priority. In past studies, researchers have mostly considered the effects of wind and
earthquake-induced loads on 3-legged (triangular cross-section) self-supporting steel telecommunica-
tion towers. In this study, the seismic sensitivity of 4-legged telecommunication towers is investigated
based on modal superposition analysis. For this purpose, ten of the existing 4-legged self-supporting
telecommunication towers in Iran are studied under the effects of wind and earthquake loadings. To
consider the wind effects on the prototypes, the provisions of the TIA/EIA code are employed and the
wind is treated as a static load throughout the analysis. In addition, to consider the earthquake effects
on the models, the standard design spectrum based on the Iranian seismic code of practice and the
normalized spectra of Manjil, Tabas and Naghan earthquakes have been applied. Since Iran is con-
sidered to be located in a high seismic risk region, a base design acceleration of A = 0.35 g is used
for normalization of the spectra. It was observed that in the case of towers with rectangular cross sec-
tion, the effect of simultaneous earthquake loading in two orthogonal directions is important. At the
end, a number of empirical relations are presented that can help designers to approximate the dy-
namic response of towers under seismic loadings.
Keywords Seismic Response, Earthquake and Wind Loadings, Self-Supporting 4-Legged


Failure of Mast and towers

Finite Element Seismic Analysis of Guyed Masts
A thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Science by Research
Matthew Grey
St Cross College
Hilary Term 2006
Guyed masts are a specialized type of structure commonly used in the broadcasting industry to sup-
port equipment at substantial heights. The dynamic analysis of these structures under seismic loading
is a much understudied field that requires investigation. The complex nature of their analysis arises
as well as P-
mast. These lead to the structure exhibiting significant nonlinear characteristics even under working
load conditions. Full nonlinear analysis of guyed masts is rarely performed as it is complex and time
consuming. Masts are usually designed by equivalent static methods for wind and ice loading only,
with the seismic load case often assumed to be less onerous. The validity of this assumption is inves-
tigated as part of this research.
In this project four existing guyed masts in the UK with heights ranging from 99m to 312m are accu-
rately analysed under various seismic loading conditions using SAP2000 structural analysis software.
The research aims to gain an understanding into the distribution and magnitudes of forces developed
during typical seismic and design wind events, establish indicators and trends that may aid in guyed
mast design, and identify the circumstances in which seismic loading may be the governing load case.
Investigations into the travelling wave effect, the significance of vertical motion, and the suitability of
a response spectrum analysis are also undertaken. Applicable sections of Eurocode 8 are followed
wherever possible. It is shown that when subjected to substantial seismic events with peak ground
accelerations in the region of 4m/s2, significant forces can develop in masts that are comparable to
those produced during a wind assessment using the Patch Load method. The distribution of forces
can be appreciably different from a wind loading analysis and any regions with irregular or incon-
sistent distribution of wind response forces can be vulnerable to seismic loading, particularly when
mean hourly design wind speeds are less than 22m/s. It is also shown that enough common or pre-
dictable seismic behaviour exists between masts to suggest that the development of a simplified
seismic analysis method for guyed masts is feasible.
Finite Element Seismic Analysis of Guyed Masts
by
Matthew Grey
A thesis submitted for the degree of
Master of Science by Research
at the University of Oxford
St Cross College
Hilary Term 2006


Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 23 (1986) 487--499 487
Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam -- Printed in The Netherlands
A SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A GUYED MAST
PETER GERSTOFT*
Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, L yngby (Denmark)
A.G. DAVENPORT
Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)
Summary
The dynamic response of a guyed mast is relatively larger than for other structures. Thus a proper
evaluation of the dynamic response is of major importance. The proposed simplified method sepa-
rates the dynamic response into a low-frequency, background region and a high-frequency, resonant
region. The background response has been estimated using patch loading. The resonant responses
can be taken into account by multiplying the background response by a dynamic magnification factor.
This factor depends, in a systematic way, on the average structural properties of the mast. The ap-
proach is illustrated by examples, and compared to a statistical method.








ISSN 13923730 print / ISSN 18223605 online
JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT
http:/www.jcem.vgtu.lt
2007, Vol XIII, No 3, 177182
STATIC BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS OF MASTS WITH COMBINED GUYS
Donatas Jatulis1, Zenonas Kamaitis2, Algirdas Juozapaitis3
Dept of Bridges and Special Structures, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University,
Saultekio al. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania
E-mail:1jatulis@hotmail.com; 2zenonas.kamaitis@ts.vtu.lt, 3alg@st.vtu.lt
Received 26 Jan 2007; accepted 30 March 2007
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to develop a new type of guyed mast that incorporates a
complex guy cable system with a particular focus on the effect of static loading on the response mast
behaviour. The intension of such solution is to increase a number of elastic supports for the mast
shaft that will impact on its stability under loading. The static analysis of a one-level guyed mast has
been undertaken. The effects of geometrical and physical design parameters on the displacements of
the mast were determined. The analysis is illustrated with two-guyed masts: the bending moments
and lateral displacements were determined for a typical guyed mast and guyed mast with combined
guys.
Keywords: guyed mast, combined guys, static loading, geometrical and physical parameters, behav-
iour modelling.



In the present paper the response of steel telecommunication masts under the influence of environ-
mental actions and seismic loading is investigated. As flexible structures, they are highly sensitive to
the effect of wind and ice, while earthquakes can be impor-tant as well, according to the modern
codes for earthquake resistance structures. In the framework of a recent research activity, a large
number of lattice steel masts on the ground of four different typologies were studied taking into ac-
count both the impact of the environmental effects, i.e. wind and ice loading, and seismic actions on
their struc-tural behaviour and all their special geometrical structural features. Emphasis was given to
the evaluation of the wind loading on the steel masts, since the accurate com-putation of the wind
loading is very important due to the fact that wind appears in most cases to be the most critical load-
ing. The analysis has been carried out according to the contemporary relevant codes by means of
innovative software, whereas all parameters of the study are presented and thoroughly described. In
the last part of the paper, use-ful conclusions are presented regarding the performance of the struc-
tural members for each one of the four types of the steel masts under investigation.

On the response of steel lattice telecommunication masts under environmental actions and seismic
loading
E. Efthymiou1, D. N. Kaziolas2 & C.C. Baniotopoulos1
1Institute of Metal Structures, Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,
Thessaloniki, Greece
2Technological Educational Institute of Kavala, Drama, Greece

EACWE 5
Florence, Italy
19th 23rd July 2009
Flying Sphere image Museo Ideale L. Da Vinci
Keywords: Steel lattice masts, wind loadings, structural codes, combined effects
ABSTRACT
In the last years, a lot of new issues have been arisen regarding the structural behaviour of steel lat-
tice masts which are used either for telecommunication needs or as systems to transfer energy. As
environmental effects are becoming more severe and the earthquake phenomenon is taken into ac-
count in a more detailed way according to the modern codes for earthquake resistance structures, the
thorough investigation of the performance of these structures becomes imperative. In addition, since
these two industries become strategic and growing in todays economy, their structural safety and
stability is considered vital. In some cases the financial and social consequences caused by a possi-
ble collapse of this kind of structures are considered as damaging as those caused by the collapse of
traditionally significant infrastructure, such as bridges. The present paper aims at investigating the
structural response of these special structures subjected to the influence of wind loading, as well as
the combination of wind loading and ice. For the purpose of the herein presented research activity, 6
types of steel masts have been analyzed, namely 4 masts located on the ground and 2 masts located
on buildings. The study was carried out by means of innovative software in order to introduce the wind
actions as thoroughly as possible and simulation models have been configured for the masts under
investigation incorporating all special geographical.
Contact person: Evangelos Efthymiou, Dr. Civil Engineer, Institute of Metal Structures, Department of
Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, GR-54124, Thessaloniki,
Greece.
Tel: +302310994223, Fax: +302310995642. E-mail vefth@civil.auth.gr


On the structural response of steel telecommunication lattice masts
for wind loading and combined effects
Efthymiou E., Gerasimidis S. & Baniotopoulos C.C.
Institute of Metal Structures, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki GR- 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece
vefth@civil.auth.gr, sgerasim@civil.auth.gr, ccb@civil.auth.gr
EACWE 5
Florence, Italy
19th 23rd July 2009
Flying Sphere image Museo Ideale L. Da Vinci
Keywords: Steel lattice masts, wind loadings, structural codes, combined effects
ABSTRACT
In the last years, a lot of new issues have been arisen regarding the structural behaviour of steel lat-
tice masts which are used either for telecommunication needs or as systems to transfer energy. As
environmental effects are becoming more severe and the earthquake phenomenon is taken into ac-
count in a more detailed way according to the modern codes for earthquake resistance structures, the
thorough investigation of the performance of these structures becomes imperative. In addition, since
these two industries become strategic and growing in todays economy, their structural safety and
stability is considered vital. In some cases the financial and social consequences caused by a possi-
ble collapse of this kind of structures are considered as damaging as those caused by the collapse of
traditionally significant infrastructure, such as bridges.
The present paper aims at investigating the structural response of these special structures subjected
to the influence of wind loading, as well as the combination of wind loading and ice. For the purpose
of the herein presented research activity, 6 types of steel masts have been analysed, namely 4 masts
located on the ground and 2 masts located on buildings. The study was carried out by means of inno-
vative software in order to introduce the wind actions as thoroughly as possible and simulation models
have been configured for the masts under investigation incorporating all special geographical.

Contact person: Evangelos Efthymiou, Dr. Civil Engineer, Institute of Metal Structures, Department of
Civil
Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, GR-54124, Thessaloniki,
Greece.
Tel: +302310994223, Fax: +302310995642. E-mail vefth@civil.auth.gr
On the structural response of steel telecommunication lattice masts
for wind loading and combined effects
Efthymiou E., Gerasimidis S. & Baniotopoulos C.C.
Institute of Metal Structures, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki GR- 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece
vefth@civil.auth.gr, sgerasim@civil.auth.gr, ccb@civil.auth.gr

Effect of changes on joint connections of steel lattice towers due to environmental loads
engine Gucuyen, R. Turgrul Erdem, Umit Gokkus
faculty of Engineering (Civil), Celar Bayar Uniiversity, 45140, Manisa, Turkey
International Journal of Engineering and Industries, volume 2, number 1, March, 2011
Construction of latticed steel towers is growing rapidly through diversification to meet the increasing
demand for communication and energy. In this study, structural behavior of 75 meters offshore lat-
ticed tower, tubular sectioned frame members, under wave and wind loads are investigated. The
structure is handled in two modelsas space truss com[posed of pin jointeted (model A) and rigid
main legs surround space truss composed of pin jointed (Model B) in this way two different structures
are utilized. Waave forced are obtained from Morrison Equation. Wind force is based on gust factor
and calculated according to EIA-TIA 222-F (structural standard s Abstract for steel antenna towers
and antenna supporting structures) code. The aim of this study is to obtain the effective periods,
masss sources, interstory drift ratios, maximum displacmenet s of peak points and maximum frame
forces of two structyures which have different joint connections to determine the safety of them.


Optimal design of lattice towers made up of solid round steel bars
Donatas Jatulus, Algirdas Juozapatitis, Povillas Vainiunas
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio ave, 11, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania
May 19 21, 2010, Vilnius, Lithuania. The 10th International Conference. Modern Building Materials,
structures and Techniques. http://www.vgtu.lt/en/editions/proceedings.

The article discusses rational design, considering the mass criterion of a lattice steel tower made up
of solid round steel bars affected by the static load. The spacing between the tower truss chords and
the inclination of the bracing members are set as the main variables. A mathematical model of tower
structure was prepared using MATHCAD 14.0 software. The conditions of the marginal safety state of
the towers member were assessed. The numerical experiment was used as a basis to present the
dependence of the tower optimum width and the optima inclination of its struts on the tower height,
wind load intensity and steel strength. Recommendations were provided as well.
Conclusions: the presented mathematical model for rational design of a tower from round solid steel
bars facilitates calculation of optimal values of the tower width and the inclination of its bracing mem-
bers considering the tower height, the steel grade and wind load intensity.
The numerical analysis of the rational design parameters of a steel tower revealed that the tower op-
timal width varies between 1/17 H and 1/55H. an increase of the tower height also causes an increase
of the values of the tower optimal width. Higher wind load intensity demands for increased spacing
between the chords. If the steel strength increases, the tower optimal width decreases.
It has been determined that the optimal inclination of bracing members in a tower of round solid bars
is virtually independent of the tower height and the wind load intensity, its average value is 35
o
. the
inclination of the struts in designs of such towers should not exceed 39
o
.






Linear Static Analysis
Most structural analysis problems can be treated as linear
static problems, based on the following assumptions
1. Small deformations (loading pattern is not changed due
to the deformed shape)
2. Elastic materials (no plasticity or failures)
3. Static loads (the load is applied to the structure in a slow
or steady fashion)
Linear analysis can provide most of the information about
the behavior of a structure, and can be a good approximation for
many analyses. It is also the bases of nonlinear analysis in most
of the cases.


MODELLING OF TOWERS
SAP2000 software is used for analyzing the structures. The display environment of SAP2000 is an
appropriate environment for modeling structures like towers that have several members with different
specifications. With regard to the existing connections between members based on the position and
number of used bolts, these connections are classified into 2 types of fixed and joint connections and
accordingly, the members are classified into beam and truss. After determination of the coordinates of
nodes of the towers and their members, the geometric properties of tower sections are given to the
software. The 3D distributed mass of the tower is automatically considered along the members by
specifying the density of the used materials and geometric properties of the sections. In order to con-
sider
the mass of nuts and bolts, ladder and other installed equipment on the tower, since their weights are
known, by modifying the density, this mass is distributed along the height of the structure. Its im-
portant to
note that this weight is very considerable and ignoring it, has a very substantial effect in the results.
Structure damping is modeled with a value of 2% of critical viscous damping.