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Digital Re-print - July | August 2009

Feature: Mycotoxins
Feature title: Growing concerns over mycotoxins

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Mycotoxins Feature Feature Mycotoxins

Growing concerns over


mycotoxins by Lucy de la Pasture, Pinstone Communications Ltd

N
“Mycotoxins are produced by several
Wheat growers use a risk assessment “Crop debris is an important source of reduce the risk of FHB occurring is to apply
o one involved in the something that can’t be predicted and most
tool, developed by the Home-Grown inoculum and burying this by ploughing will a fungicide programme using products with
grain chain wants to see often causes problems with lodging, giving rise species of Fusarium fungi,” explains Dr
Cereals Authority (HGCA), which enables reduce risk,” explains Dr Edwards. some fusarium activity and culminating in a
another season like 2008, to low specific weights and poor Hagbergs. Simon Edwards, fusarium specialist at Harper
them to make an entry on the grain passport “Conversely, fields which have had mini- robust T3 (or ‘earwash’) treatment.
when levels of mycotoxins in Last season very wet growing and harvest Adams University College.
that accompanies each load on sale and mal cultivations
wheat made trading conditions conditions led to extensive early lodging, high “This year risk of fusarium is currently
identify loads at risk and in need of further or are direct-
difficult to say the least. So disease levels and a protracted harvest – all moderate to high, depending on rainfall in
testing. drilled will be
what can be done to prevent a factors which made 2008 break all records the area where crops are being grown,” says
Last season the system seriously broke at higher risk
reoccurrence? Lucy de la Pasture for exceeding EU limits for mycotoxins, Dr Edwards.
down and the passports failed to adequately of developing
of Pinstone Communications deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone “There is a lot of inoculum as a result of high Making the World¥s Food Safer Æ
give grain buyers an indication of mycotoxin fusarium and the
Ltd in the UK finds out more (ZON) in raw grain. levels of fusarium head blight (FHB) last year.”
risk. mycotoxins they
on this subject for GFMT So why do mycotoxins occur and what
Dr Edwards, explaining why this hap- produce.”
Reduce your
can growers do to reduce the risk of them Rainfall and timing dependent
pened, says, “The HGCA risk assessment Late planted
The quality of the British wheat crop is occurring and make sure grain is fit for The level of mycotoxins is highly depen-
was based on data from 2001 to 2007 and wheat follow-
mycotoxin risk
always subject to the vagaries of our climate, human consumption? dent on rainfall over flowering and during
during this time average rainfall in the pre- ing potatoes
ripening. Many areas have had
harvest period was 20mm. and maize, a
rainfall over flowering this season,
“Last year actual rainfall was in the region known source
but this has been very variable.
of 100mm, with a substantial delay to harvest of inoculum, are
“Much of the wheat crop had
because of the wet weather in August and also factors that
finished flowering before recent Öby checking your
September - none of this was factored in increase risk. A
rainfall on the south coast, whilst sample with our
the model!” large percentage
late drilled wheat in Lincolnshire
So can grain millers and processors have of the national fast and convenient
and Yorkshire was just starting to
confidence in the risk assessment system in wheat crop was
flower so was more vulnerable to rapid test kits…
place after last season? planted late in
fusarium infection,” comments Dr
The HGCA have taken urgent action to 2008 as a result www.romerlabs.com
Edwards.
address the issue. of the protracted
“The west and the Midlands
“This season the risk assessment has been harvest – another
has also had plenty of rain over Öor by letting your
revised to take these factors in to account contributory fac-
the flowering period and generally samples be tested in
and enable growers to identify fields at par- tor to the high
the east of the country has had
much less.”
ticular risk which may then require testing,” levels of inoculum one of our accredited
reassures Dr Edwards. currently being laboratories around
Timing of rainfall is important
As well as rainfall, the risk assessment found in some
because as well as dictating the the globe.
scores other factors such as region, previous crops.
amount of fusarium infection likely in
crop, cultivation, variety and T3 fungicide. On a practi- www.quantas-analytics.com
crops, it also influences the type of
mycotoxin produced. DON myco- cal level, once a
toxin is produced from fusarium Reducing risk crop is planted
Romer Labs Diagnostic GmbH - Europe, Austria
Æ

infection during the flowering period, Growers can reduce much of the risk the only mea- Tel: +43 2272 615331-0, Fax: +43 2272 615331-11
so rainfall at this timing may mean of mycotoxins by taking measures before a sures grow- e-Mail: ofce-europe@romerlabs.com

higher risk of DON occurring. crop is planted. ers can take to distributed in the UK by: QuadraChem Laboratories Ltd.
Tel: 01342 820820, Fax: 01342 820825, E-Mail: enquiries@qclscientic.com

12 | July-august 2009 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy Grain &feed millinG technoloGy PREVIOUS PAGE NEXT PAGE July-august 2009 | 13
Ad_Grain&FeedMilling_GMI_7_09.indd 1 17.07.2009 12:14:33 Uhr
Mycotoxins Feature Feature Mycotoxins

Procam agronomist Tom Scotson the first time,” explains Weetabix’s Keith for grain producers, the costs associated
explains that whereas T3 decisions used to Turnbull. with load rejections is much higher.
be a top-up for septoria and rust control, “ZON appeared late and was a problem One of the problems with mycotoxins
things have definitely changed. in raw material supply but now testing is in is that they don’t occur in a homogenous
“Concerns with DON levels in milling place for this as well.” way, one load can be high and another
wheat and breakfast cereals, means we must low, yet they come from the same field.
have a planned strategy to control fusarium,” Rapid testing Sampling is an area being closely looked
says Mr Scotson. So is rapid testing here to stay? At least at by The Mycotoxin Stakeholder Group,
“Mycotoxins are a matter growers are until the true picture for harvest 2009 has a cross-industry informal body who are
now taking very seriously. been established, believes Mr Turnbull. working to find a better sampling regime
“The T3 spray is no longer a case of “Now the industry is set to manage an than the HGCA and the official EU tech-
using up whatever fungicides are left in the exceptionally bad season for mycotoxins. niques currently used.
spray store!” The whole grain chain has the opportunity “Sampling remains an area of concern
to learn from it, make British farming as safe from the growers perspective,” explains
Useful additions to the armoury as possible, manage the risk in the crop and Simon Christensen, Frontier’s head of
With fungicide options limited for myco- come out stronger than before.” wheat trading.
toxin reduction, Mr Scotson describes thio- And Martin Savage, Trade Policy Manager “They need to be confident that the tests
phanate-methyl as a useful addition to the for the National Association of British and carried out at intake are accurate and that
armoury this season, especially important Irish Millers, agrees rapid testing needs to the wheat imported also follows the same
because it has a different mode of action to stay in place for at least the first six weeks requirements from a testing and sampling
prothioconazole, the industry standard for after harvest. regime to ensure a level playing field exists
“The limits for control of FHB.
Even when every possible measure has
“Food safety is paramount and the trade
need reassurance that the revised risk assess-
with foreign counterparts. But the message
about the importance of mycotoxins has
mycotoxins tighten as been taken to reduce risk sometimes the
weather has the last word! Rainfall later in
ment is working and that growers are com-
pleting the passports diligently. The introduc-
been understood by farmers.”
In all likelihood, 2009 harvest is not
tion of the mycotoxin legislation has made likely to be as bad as last season but the
you move further down the season increases risk of ZON produc-
tion. And this was seen clearly last year growers legally responsible for food safety on potential remains for mycotoxin prob-
when ZON proved to be a real problem raw wheat for the first time,” he adds. lems to occur – but hopefully this season
the food chain. Where for the first time and 29 percent of samples Although rapid testing is an unwanted cost the industry is one step ahead!
exceeded the 100 ppb EU limit.
the limit for DON in “Any delay in harvest has an impact on
ZON levels and after last seasons protracted
raw wheat is 1250 ppb,
for breakfast cereals the
harvest, more samples exceeded the EU
limit for ZON than the limit for DON myco-
toxins (1250 ppb),” explains Dr Edwards.
Flour Milling Training
limit is just 500 ppb”
“Many high ZON samples don’t make
milling specification as they tend to have Seven Steps to Success Course Fees
low Hagbergs and specific weights and are
therefore effectively ‘screened out’ and less – Hygiene, Health and Safety The cost per module is: £295
of an issue at mill intake.” – Wheat and the Screenroom (as at 2009 – VAT at 15% where applicable)
But this isn’t always the case, as suppliers
to breakfast cereal manufacturers found out
– Mill Processes and Performance includes postage, textbook and exam registration
last season when initially load after load was – Product Handling, Storage and Distribution
rejected. – Flour nabim Members: Discount £95 per module (£200)
FHB is caused by several species of Not all fungicides control Mycotoxins are found mostly in the bran
Fusarium that affect wheat and Microdochium To complicate matters not all fungicides – Power and Automation
and, because this is the main fibre source in Non-UK Companies: Discount £50 per module (£245)
spp. but only the true Fusarium spp. produce will control true Fusarium spp.
mycotoxins. In the UK this means that breakfast cereals, bran is an essential ingredi- – Flour Milling Management
Azoxystrobin from the strobilurin group
the presence of FHB in a crop does not ent! As grain is dried during processing to
of fungicides, is renowned for keeping wheat
necessarily indicate a risk from mycotoxins, ears golden and bright but only controls
approximately five percent moisture con- • Enhance your • Internationally • Developed • Studied every
tent the mycotoxins become concentrated,
whether they’ll be produced depends on the Microdochium spp. and not Fusarium spp.
meaning raw grain at intake needs to be well
career prospects recognised for millers year by hundreds
fungal species causing the infection. To cover all the bases, T3 mixes must below the limits already set. and increase distance learning by industry of millers
One of the problems with fusarium contain triazoles or new approval Topsin And to further compound matters, the
control is that it is not a disease that is ‘vis- WG (thiophanate-methyl) to reduce the risk
potential programme professionals worldwide
limits for mycotoxins tighten as you move
ible’ when treatment needs to be applied, of mycotoxins. And of the available active further down the food chain. Where the
symptoms of head blight don’t show until the ingredients only those containing prothio- limit for DON in raw wheat is 1250 ppb, 7 Modular Courses provide millers with an essential understanding and
wheat begins to ripen. conazole, bromuconazole and thiophanate- for breakfast cereals the limit is just 500 ppb. underpinning knowledge of the milling industry.
‘Crop Monitor’ is a system that provides methyl go as far as claiming mycotoxin Faced with a problem that becomes worse
growers with real-time information about reduction on the label. during processing and the implications of a An indispensable tool for those new to the milling industry and for
the levels of fusarium infection and the Getting timing of T3 fungicides right is product recall, breakfast cereal manufactur- 21 Arlington Street
species of fungi which have been isolated crucial for maximum control of fusarium, developing the skills of the competent miller.
ers were the first to introduce rapid testing London SW1A 1RN, UK
from samples in their growing region - useful with best results achieved in the early flower- for DON in November 2008.
Dedicated tutor support given to every student, providing professional Tel: +44 (0) 20 7493 2521
information for getting a ‘feel’ for the season ing period – from the onset of flowering to “Once we had the DON situation under Fax: +44 (0) 20 7493 6785
and influencing spray decisions. 50 percent anthesis (GS61-65). control, we identified issues with ZON for guidance throughout the course year. email: info@nabim.org.uk

14 | July-august 2009 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy Grain &feed millinG technoloGy PREVIOUS PAGE NEXT PAGE July-august 2009 | 15
This digital Re-print is part of the July | August 2009 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine.
Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our
website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website.
LINKS
Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com.

• See the full issue


August 2009

• Visit the Pinstone Communications website


• Growing
concerns over
mycotoxins

• Visit the GFMT website


In this issue:
• Vacuum plays an
• Enzymes in important role in
breadmaking: delivering
Economic relevance,
markets, and future
micro-ingredients
perspectives to livestock

• Preserving
feed materials


Are you ready
for new crop?
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after harvest • Flour
a multifaceted a delivery system
approach to for vitamins and

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our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove.
ure Mycotoxins
Feature Mycotoxins

the first time,” explains Weetabix’s Keith for grain producers, the costs associated
Turnbull. with load rejections is much higher.
“ZON appeared late and was a problem One of the problems with mycotoxins
in raw material supply but now testing is in is that they don’t occur in a homogenous
place for this as well.” way, one load can be high and another
low, yet they come from the same field.
Rapid testing Sampling is an area being closely looked
So is rapid testing here to stay? At least at by The Mycotoxin Stakeholder Group,
until the true picture for harvest 2009 has a cross-industry informal body who are
been established, believes Mr Turnbull. working to find a better sampling regime
“Now the industry is set to manage an than the HGCA and the official EU tech-

ADVERTISERS LINKS INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE


exceptionally bad season for mycotoxins. niques currently used.
The whole grain chain has the opportunity “Sampling remains an area of concern
to learn from it, make British farming as safe from the growers perspective,” explains
as possible, manage the risk in the crop and Simon Christensen, Frontier’s head of
come out stronger than before.” wheat trading.
And Martin Savage, Trade Policy Manager “They need to be confident that the tests
for the National Association of British and carried out at intake are accurate and that
Irish Millers, agrees rapid testing needs to the wheat imported also follows the same
stay in place for at least the first six weeks requirements from a testing and sampling
after harvest. regime to ensure a level playing field exists
“Food safety is paramount and the trade with foreign counterparts. But the message
need reassurance that the revised risk assess- about the importance of mycotoxins has
ment is working and that growers are com- been understood by farmers.”
t growers use a risk assessment “Crop debris is an important source of reduce the risk of FHB occurring is to apply pleting the passports diligently. The introduc- In all likelihood, 2009 harvest is not
veloped by the Home-Grown inoculum and burying this by ploughing will a fungicide programme using products with tion of the mycotoxin legislation has made likely to be as bad as last season but the
Authority (HGCA), which enables reduce risk,” explains Dr Edwards. some fusarium activity and culminating in a growers legally responsible for food safety on potential remains for mycotoxin prob-
make an entry on the grain passport “Conversely, fields which have had mini- robust T3 (or ‘earwash’) treatment. raw wheat for the first time,” he adds. lems to occur – but hopefully this season
ompanies each load on sale and mal cultivations Although rapid testing is an unwanted cost the industry is one step ahead!
oads at risk and in need of further or are direct-
drilled will be
eason the system seriously broke at higher risk
d the passports failed to adequately
n buyers an indication of mycotoxin
of developing
fusarium and the
mycotoxins they
Making the World¥s Food Safer Æ

Flour Milling Training


dwards, explaining why this hap-
ays, “The HGCA risk assessment
produce.”
Late planted
Reduce your Seven Steps to Success Course Fees
d on data from 2001 to 2007 and wheat follow-
is time average rainfall in the pre-
eriod was 20mm.
ing potatoes
and maize, a mycotoxin risk – Hygiene, Health and Safety
– Wheat and the Screenroom
The cost per module is: £295

• Visit Romer Labs online • Visit nabim online


(as at 2009 – VAT at 15% where applicable)
year actual rainfall was in the region known source – Mill Processes and Performance includes postage, textbook and exam registration
m, with a substantial delay to harvest of inoculum, are
of the wet weather in August and also factors that – Product Handling, Storage and Distribution
Öby checking your nabim Members: Discount £95 per module (£200)
er - none of this was factored in increase risk. A – Flour
el!” large percentage sample with our
– Power and Automation Non-UK Companies: Discount £50 per module (£245)
n grain millers and processors have of the national fast and convenient
ce in the risk assessment system in wheat crop was – Flour Milling Management
rapid test kits…
er last season? planted late in
HGCA have taken urgent action to 2008 as a result www.romerlabs.com • Enhance your • Internationally • Developed • Studied every
he issue. of the protracted career prospects recognised for millers year by hundreds
season the risk assessment has been harvest – another

• Email Romer Labs • Email nabim


o take these factors in to account contributory fac-
Öor by letting your and increase distance learning by industry of millers
le growers to identify fields at par- tor to the high samples be tested in potential programme professionals worldwide
k which may then require testing,” levels of inoculum one of our accredited
Dr Edwards. currently being laboratories around 7 Modular Courses provide millers with an essential understanding and
ell as rainfall, the risk assessment found in some
her factors such as region, previous the globe. underpinning knowledge of the milling industry.
crops.
ivation, variety and T3 fungicide. On a practi- www.quantas-analytics.com
cal level, once a An indispensable tool for those new to the milling industry and for
21 Arlington Street
ng risk crop is planted developing the skills of the competent miller.
Romer Labs Diagnostic GmbH - Europe, Austria
Æ London SW1A 1RN, UK
ers can reduce much of the risk the only mea- Tel: +43 2272 615331-0, Fax: +43 2272 615331-11
oxins by taking measures before a sures grow- e-Mail: ofce-europe@romerlabs.com Dedicated tutor support given to every student, providing professional Tel: +44 (0) 20 7493 2521
anted. ers can take to distributed in the UK by: QuadraChem Laboratories Ltd. Fax: +44 (0) 20 7493 6785
Tel: 01342 820820, Fax: 01342 820825, E-Mail: enquiries@qclscientic.com
guidance throughout the course year. email: info@nabim.org.uk

feed millinG technoloGy July-august 2009 | 13 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy July-august 2009 | 15
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