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Joist

Catalogue
Joists and
Joist Girders
A division of Canam Group
Canam is a trademark of Canam Group Inc.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Products, services and solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
General information
The advantages of using steel joists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Description of a joist girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Denition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Components of a joist girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Advantages of joist girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Design standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Quality assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Accessories
Material / Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Axes convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Section properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Material / Imperial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Axes convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Section properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Bridging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Bridging line requirements / Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Bridging line requirements / Imperial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Spacing for bridging / Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Spacing for bridging / Imperial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Knee braces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Material weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Standard details
Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Maximum duct openings / Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Maximum duct openings / Imperial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Geometry and shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Standard shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Non-standard shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Special shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Minimum depth and span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Shoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Particularities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Bearing on concrete or masonry wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Bearing on steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Ceiling extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Flush shoe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Bolted splice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Bottom chord bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Cantilever joist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Joist and joist girder identication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Standard connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Surface preparation and paint
Paint standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Paint costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Colours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Joists exposed to the elements or corrosive conditions . . . . . . . . . . 34
Vibration
Steel joist oor vibration comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Special conditions
Special joist deection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Deection of cantilevered joists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Special loads and moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Various types of loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Transfer of axial loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Unbalanced loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Load reduction according to tributary area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
End moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Gravitational moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Wind moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Joist or joist girder analysis and design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Joists adjacent to more rigid surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Joists with lateral slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Anchors on joists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Special joists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Joist girder to column connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Bearing reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Bearing on top of the column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Bearing facing the column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Bearing facing the column with center reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Standards
CAN/CSA S16-01 standards (16. Open-web steel joists)
and CISC commentaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Joist depth selection tables
Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Imperial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Joist girder depth selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Graphics / Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Graphics / Imperial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Joist girder specications
Information required from the building designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Checklist - joist
Joist design essential information checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Take-off sheet - quotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Sales ofces and plant certications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Canam specializes in the fabrication of steel joists, joist girders, steel deck, purlins
and girts, and welded wide-flange shapes. We also design and fabricate the Murox


high performance building system and Econox foldaway portable buildings. Canam
offers customers value-added engineering and drafting support, architectural
flexibility and customized solutions and services.
Another Canam solution, the BuildMaster approach, has redefined the way in
which buildings are designed and built by offering a safer, faster and greener
process that can reduce field erection time by between 15% and 25%.
Factors such as product quality, worksite supervision and construction time are
critical in the execution of any project, big or small, and Canam's reputation for
reliability simplifies these considerations for customers. In addition to a rigorous
jobsite management process that is specifically designed to ensure that deadlines
are met, our cutting-edge equipment, skilled employees and high quality products
are also key in allowing Canam to keep its promises. Whatever your project, we will
meet your requirements while also complying with all applicable building codes.
Another aspect of our exceptional service is just-in-time delivery as per customer
specifications. To eliminate delays, components are transported by our very own
fleet, which stands ready to ensure on-time delivery, regardless of the location.
Depending on the region and worksite, Canam can transport components measuring
up to 16 ft. (4.9 m) wide and 120 ft. (36.5 m) long.
Canam is one of the largest steel joist fabricators in North America.
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT
Although every effort was made to ensure that the information contained in this
catalog is factual and that the numerical values presented herein are consistent
with applicable standards, Canam does not assume any responsibility whatsoever
for errors or oversights that may result from the use or interpretation of this data.
Anyone making use of this catalog assumes all liability arising from such use.
All comments and suggestions for improvements to this publication are greatly
appreciated and will receive full consideration in future editions.
4
Products, services and solutions
THE ADVANTAGES OF USING STEEL JOISTS
Using a steel joist and steel deck system for floor and roof construction has proven
itself to be a most advantageous solution. It can result in substantial savings
based on:
Efficiences of high-strength steel;
Speed and ease of erection;
Low self-weight of roof and floor construction allowing for smaller columns and
foundations than for a concrete structure;
Increased bay dimensions, which reduces the number of joists and columns
and simplifies building erection;
Greater floor plan layout flexibility for the building occupant due to the
increased bay dimensions;
Maximum ceiling height due to installation of ducts through the joist web
system;
Easy adaptation to acoustical insulation systems;
Floor and roof composition having long-term resistance to fire, as established
by the Underwriters Laboratories of Canada (ULC).
DESCRIPTION OF A JOIST GIRDER
DEFINITION
A joist girder is a primary structural component of a building. Generally, it supports
floor or roof joists in simple span conditions, or other secondary elements (purlins,
wood trusses, etc.) evenly spaced along the length of the joist girder. The loads
applied to a spandrel joist girder come from one side, while on an inside bay the
loads are applied on either side of the joist girder.
COMPONENTS OF A JOIST GIRDER
An open web joist girder, or commonly known as a cantruss at Canam, is
composed of a top chord and a bottom chord, which are usually parallel to each
other. These chords are held in place using vertical and diagonal web members. In
conventional construction, a joist girder rests on a column and the bottom chord is
held in place horizontally by a stabilizing plate.
The standard main components are:
1. Top and bottom chords: two angles back-to-back with a gap varying between
25 mm (1 in.) and 76 mm (3 in.),
2. Diagonals: U-shaped channels or two angles back-to-back,
3. Verticals: U-shaped channels, boxed angles or HSS,
4. Shoes: two angles back-to-back.
Top chord
Bottom chord Diagonal
Vertical
Shoe
Components of a joist girder
Appuis sphriques
5
General information
ADVANTAGES OF JOIST GIRDERS
The use of open web joist girders is widespread in North America, mostly in the
United States, for roof construction of commercial and industrial buildings. The
joist girders are advantageous compared with conventional load bearing systems
composed of beams with a W profile. Here are the various options for supporting
systems when designing a steel building:
Economical factors associated with the specification of joist girders include
the following:
1. The steel used in joist girders has a yield strength higher than steel used for
shaped or welded beams: 380 MPa (55 ksi) versus 350 MPa (50 ksi).
2. Better cost control for material purchases (angles) on the Canadian market
compared with importing the beam sections.
3. Open web joist girders are lighter than the full web beams of the same depth.
4. The speed and ease of site erection improves jobsite co-ordination.
5. The joist girders can be used to facilitate the installation of ventilation ducts
and plumbing as compared to a beam.
Carrying system
Simple beam
Gerber system
Joist girder
Beam
Joist girder
Mechanical conduits
Passage of mechanical conduits
Appuis sphriques
6
General information
If a larger opening is required, a diagonal member can be removed if the top and
bottom chord are reinforced.
The building designer must consider the following to ensure the economical use of
joist girders:
1. Longer spans of joist girders are preferred as this reduces the number of
columns inside a building.
2. Greater depths reduce the size of the top and bottom chords for increased
weight savings.
3. Bay arrangement should be repetitive since designing and fabricating many
identical pieces will reduce production costs.
4. Regular joist spacing must be maintained by the building designer by lining
up the joists on either side of the joist girders.
5. Rectangular bays are recommended, in a roof or floor system using joist
girders and joists, where the longest dimension corresponds to the joist span,
while the shortest dimension corresponds to the joist girder span. An optimal
rectangular bay would typically have a ratio of joist span to joist girder span
of approximately 1.5.
6. Bearing shoes are used for economical joist girder to column connection,
usually 191 mm (7.5 in.) deep, bolted to the top of the column or on a bearing
bracket on the web or the flange of the column.
STEEL
Our joist and joist girder design makes use of high strength steel purchased in
accordance with the latest issue of the standards below:
Cold formed angles and U-shaped channels: ASTM A1011;
Hot rolled angles and round bars: CAN/CSA-G40.20/G40.21.
DESIGN STANDARDS
Joist and joist girder design is based on the latest issue of the design standards in effect:
Canada: United States:
CAN/CSA S1601 SJI
CAN/CSA S13607
NBCC 2005
QUALITY ASSURANCE
Over the years, we have established strict quality standards. All our welders,
inspectors, and quality assurance technicians are certified by the Canadian Welding
Bureau (CWB). We do visual inspections on 100% of the welded joints and
non-destructive testing if required.
Optimal rectangular bay
Joist girder
Joist girder
A
p
p
r
o
x
i
m
a
t
e
l
y

1
.
5

x

L
Joists
L
Distribution Centre I Cornwall, Ontario
Cold formed angle
Hot rolled angle
Notes:
This catalog was produced by Canam, a business unit of Canam Group Inc. It is intended for use by engineers, architects, and building contractors
working in steel construction. It is a selection tool for our economical steel products. It is also a practical guide for Canam joists and joist girders.
Canam reserves the right to change, revise, or withdraw any product or procedure without notice.
The information presented in this catalog was prepared according to recognized engineering principles and is for general use. Although every effort
has been made to ensure that the information in this catalog is correct and complete, it is possible that errors or oversights may have occurred. The
information contained herein should not be used without examination and verification of its applications by a certified professional.
7
General information
X X
Y
Y
X X
Y
Y
y
x x
Y
Y
x x
y
y
MATERIAL METRIC
Material
(in.)
Grade
(MPa)
Forming
Mass
(kg/m)
Area
(mm
2
)
l
(10
3
mm
4
)
r
(mm)
1/2 350 Hot rolled 0.99 127 1.28 3.2
9/16 350 Hot rolled 1.26 160 2.05 3.6
5/8 350 Hot rolled 1.55 198 3.11 4.0
11/16 350 Hot rolled 1.88 239 4.56 4.4
3/4 350 Hot rolled 2.24 285 6.46 4.8
13/16 350 Hot rolled 2.62 335 8.91 5.2
7/8 350 Hot rolled 3.05 388 11.99 5.6
15/16 350 Hot rolled 3.49 445 15.78 6.0
1 350 Hot rolled 3.97 507 20.43 6.4
1 1/8 350 Hot rolled 5.03 641 32.73 7.1
1 square 350 Hot rolled 5.06 645 34.69 7.3
Axis X-X Axis Y-Y
Material
Grade
(MPa)
Forming
Mass
(kg/m)
Area
(mm
2
)
y
(mm)
l
xx

(10
3
mm
4
)
r
xx

(mm)
l
yy

(10
3
mm
4
)
r
yy

(mm) (in.) (in.) (in.)
1 x 5/8 x 0.090 350 Cold formed 0.84 107 5.1 2.13 4.4 9.30 9.3
1 x 0.8 x 0.090 350 Cold formed 1.01 129 7.1 4.81 6.1 12.18 9.7
1 x 0.85 x 0.090 350 Cold formed 1.07 137 7.8 5.99 6.6 13.11 9.8
1 x 1 x 0.090 350 Cold formed 1.15 146 8.7 7.71 7.3 14.25 9.9
1 x 1 x 0.118 350 Cold formed 1.49 191 9.6 10.70 7.5 17.55 9.6
1 x 1.05 x 0.090 350 Cold formed 1.28 161 10.4 11.61 8.5 16.38 10.1
1 x 1.1 x 0.118 350 Cold formed 1.68 212 11.4 16.20 8.7 20.36 9.8
1 3/8 x 1.27 x 0.118 350 Cold formed 2.11 268 12.1 28.02 10.2 52.23 13.9
1 3/8 x 1 3/8 x 0.118 350 Cold formed 2.21 283 13.1 34.03 11.0 55.72 14.0
1 3/8 x 1 3/8 x 0.157 350 Cold formed 2.94 374 14.3 46.87 11.2 69.47 13.6
1 3/4 x 1 1/2 x 0.157 350 Cold formed 3.45 440 14.5 66.68 12.3 138.13 17.7
1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 0.197 350 Cold formed 4.67 597 18.0 120.22 14.2 183.92 17.6
2 3/8 x 2 x 0.197 350 Cold formed 5.57 711 18.0 171.57 15.5 396.63 23.6
ROUND AND SQUARE BARS
U SHAPES
SECTION PROPERTIES
AXES CONVENTION
8
Accessories
DOUBLE ANGLES (LONG LEGS BACK-TO-BACK)
METRIC
Axis X-X r
yy
with different gaps Axis Z
Material
Grade
(MPa)
Forming
Mass
(kg/m)
Area
(mm
2
)
y
(mm)
l
xx

(10
6
mm
4
)
r
xx

(mm)
12.7
(mm)
19
(mm)
25
(mm)
35
(mm)
45
(mm)
60
(mm)
r
z
(mm) (in.) (in.) (in.)
1 x 1 x 0.090 380 Cold formed 1.74 215 7.4 0.013 7.8 15.8 18.6 21.4 26.1 30.9 38.2 4.9
1 x 1 x 7/64 380 Hot rolled 2.09 266 7.4 0.016 7.8 15.8 18.6 21.3 26.1 30.9 38.2 5.0
1 x 1 x 0.118 380 Cold formed 2.22 275 7.8 0.017 7.8 16.1 19.0 21.7 26.5 31.3 38.6 4.8
1 x 1 x 1/8 380 Hot rolled 2.38 296 7.5 0.018 7.7 15.9 18.7 21.5 26.2 31.0 38.3 5.0
1 1/8 x 1 1/8 x 0.090 380 Cold formed 1.97 244 8.2 0.019 8.9 17.0 19.8 22.5 27.2 31.9 39.2 5.5
1 1/8 x 1 1/8 x 0.118 380 Cold formed 2.53 313 8.6 0.024 8.8 17.3 20.1 22.8 27.5 32.3 39.6 5.5
1 1/4 x 1 1/4 x 0.118 380 Cold formed 2.84 351 9.4 0.034 9.8 18.5 21.3 24.0 28.6 33.3 40.6 6.1
1 1/4 x 1 1/4 x 1/8 380 Hot rolled 3.00 387 9.1 0.037 9.8 18.3 21.0 23.7 28.4 33.1 40.3 6.2
1 1/4 x 1 1/4 x 3/16 380 Hot rolled 4.40 555 9.7 0.051 9.6 18.7 21.4 24.2 28.8 33.6 40.8 6.2
1 3/8 x 1 3/8 x 0.118 380 Cold formed 3.14 390 10.1 0.046 10.9 19.8 22.5 25.1 29.7 34.4 41.6 6.8
1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.118 380 Cold formed 3.45 428 10.9 0.061 11.9 21.0 23.6 26.3 30.8 35.5 42.6 7.4
1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 1/8 380 Hot rolled 3.66 465 10.7 0.065 11.8 20.7 23.4 26.0 30.6 35.2 42.4 7.5
1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 5/32 380 Hot rolled 4.49 573 11.0 0.079 11.7 20.9 23.6 26.2 30.8 35.5 42.6 7.5
1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.157 380 Cold formed 4.47 557 11.4 0.077 11.7 21.3 24.0 26.7 31.2 35.9 43.1 7.3
1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 3/16 380 Hot rolled 5.36 684 11.3 0.092 11.6 21.1 23.8 26.5 31.0 35.7 42.9 7.5
1 5/8 x 1 5/8 x 0.118 380 Cold formed 3.76 466 11.7 0.078 12.9 22.2 24.9 27.5 32.0 36.6 43.7 8.1
1 5/8 x 1 5/8 x 0.157 380 Cold formed 4.87 608 12.2 0.099 12.8 22.5 25.2 27.8 32.3 37.0 44.1 8.0
1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 0.118 380 Cold formed 4.06 504 12.5 0.098 13.9 23.5 26.1 28.6 33.1 37.7 44.8 8.7
1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 5/32 380 Hot rolled 5.31 674 12.6 0.128 13.8 23.4 26.0 28.6 33.1 37.7 44.8 8.8
1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 0.157 380 Cold formed 5.28 659 13.0 0.126 13.8 23.8 26.4 29.0 33.5 38.1 45.2 8.6
1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 3/16 380 Hot rolled 6.31 800 12.9 0.149 13.6 23.6 26.2 28.8 33.3 37.9 45.0 8.7
1 7/8 x 1 7/8 x 0.157 380 Cold formed 5.69 709 13.8 0.156 14.8 25.0 27.6 30.2 34.6 39.2 46.2 9.3
1 7/8 x 1 7/8 x 0.197 380 Cold formed 6.96 870 14.3 0.188 14.7 25.3 27.9 30.5 35.0 39.6 46.7 9.1
2 x 2 x 0.118 380 Cold formed 4.66 580 14.1 0.148 16.0 26.0 28.5 31.0 35.4 39.9 46.9 10.0
2 x 2 x 0.157 380 Cold formed 6.10 760 14.6 0.191 15.8 26.3 28.8 31.4 35.8 40.3 47.3 9.9
2 x 2 x 3/16 380 Hot rolled 7.26 916 14.5 0.227 15.7 26.1 28.6 31.2 35.6 40.2 47.1 10.0
2 x 2 x 0.197 380 Cold formed 7.46 934 15.1 0.231 15.7 26.6 29.2 31.7 36.2 40.7 47.7 9.8
2 x 2 x 7/32 380 Hot rolled 8.37 1 068 14.7 0.259 15.6 26.2 28.8 31.4 35.8 40.4 47.4 10.0
2 x 2 x 1/4 380 Hot rolled 9.50 1 213 15.0 0.289 15.5 26.4 29.0 31.6 36.0 40.6 47.6 9.9
2 1/8 x 2 1/8 x 0.157 380 Cold formed 6.50 811 15.4 0.231 16.9 27.5 30.1 32.6 37.0 41.5 48.4 10.6
2 1/8 x 2 1/8 x 0.197 380 Cold formed 7.97 997 15.9 0.280 16.7 27.8 30.4 32.9 37.3 41.9 48.8 10.4
2 1/8 x 2 1/8 x 0.236 380 Cold formed 9.39 1 181 16.3 0.324 16.6 27.8 30.4 33.0 37.3 41.9 48.9 10.3
2 1/4 x 2 1/4 x 0.197 380 Cold formed 8.48 1 061 16.6 0.335 17.8 29.1 31.6 34.1 38.5 43.0 49.9 11.1
2 1/4 x 2 1/4 x 0.236 380 Cold formed 9.99 1 253 17.1 0.390 17.6 29.4 31.9 34.5 38.9 43.4 50.3 11.0
2 3/8 x 2 3/8 x 0.197 380 Cold formed 8.98 1 124 17.4 0.398 18.8 30.3 32.8 35.3 39.7 44.1 51.0 11.7
2 3/8 x 2 3/8 x 0.236 380 Cold formed 10.60 1 330 17.9 0.463 18.6 30.6 33.2 35.7 40.0 44.5 51.4 11.6
2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 0.197 380 Cold formed 9.49 1 188 18.2 0.467 19.8 31.6 34.1 36.6 40.9 45.3 52.1 12.4
2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 0.236 380 Cold formed 11.20 1 406 18.7 0.545 19.7 31.9 34.4 36.9 41.2 45.7 52.5 12.3
2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 1/4 380 Hot rolled 12.21 1 536 18.2 0.585 19.5 31.4 33.9 36.4 40.7 45.2 52.0 12.5
2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 5/16 380 Hot rolled 14.89 1 890 18.8 0.706 19.3 31.7 34.3 36.8 41.1 45.6 52.5 12.4
2 5/8 x 2 5/8 x 0.236 380 Cold formed 11.81 1 482 19.5 0.636 20.7 33.1 35.6 38.1 42.4 46.8 53.7 12.9
2 3/4 x 2 3/4 x 0.236 380 Cold formed 12.42 1 558 20.3 0.737 21.7 34.4 36.9 39.3 43.6 48.0 54.8 13.6
2 7/8 x 2 7/8 x 0.236 380 Cold formed 13.02 1 634 21.1 0.848 22.7 35.6 38.1 40.6 44.8 49.2 55.9 14.2
3 x 3 x 0.236 380 Cold formed 13.63 1 711 21.9 0.969 23.8 36.9 39.4 41.8 46.0 50.3 57.1 14.9
3 x 2 x 5/16 350 Hot rolled 14.89 1 882 25.8 1.095 24.1 24.2 26.8 29.4 33.8 38.4 45.5 11.0
3 x 3 x 5/16 380 Hot rolled 18.16 2 291 22.0 1.256 23.4 36.7 39.2 41.7 45.9 50.3 57.0 15.0
3 x 3 x 3/8 380 Hot rolled 21.44 2 722 22.5 1.465 23.2 37.1 39.6 42.0 46.3 50.7 57.4 14.9
3 1/8 x 3 1/8 x 0.236 380 Cold formed 14.23 1 787 22.7 1.101 24.8 38.2 40.6 43.0 47.2 51.5 58.2 15.5
3 1/2 x 3 1/2 x 3/8 380 Hot rolled 25.30 3 206 25.7 2.384 27.3 42.1 44.6 47.0 51.1 55.4 62.1 17.4
4 x 3 x 3/8 380 Hot rolled 25.31 3 200 32.6 3.298 32.1 34.4 36.9 39.3 43.5 47.9 54.6 16.4
4 x 4 x 3/8 380 Hot rolled 29.19 3 691 28.9 3.630 31.4 47.2 49.6 52.0 56.0 60.2 66.7 20.0
4 x 3 x 1/2 380 Hot rolled 33.05 4 194 33.7 4.203 31.7 35.1 37.6 40.0 44.3 48.7 55.5 16.2
4 x 4 x 1/2 380 Hot rolled 38.12 4 860 30.1 4.630 30.9 47.8 50.2 52.6 56.7 61.0 67.6 19.9
4 x 4 x 9/16 380 Hot rolled 42.56 5 400 30.6 5.097 30.7 48.1 50.5 53.0 57.1 61.4 68.0 19.8
5 x 3 1/2 x 1/2 350 Hot rolled 40.51 5 161 42.1 8.313 40.1 38.9 41.4 43.8 47.9 52.2 58.9 19.2
5 x 5 x 1/2 380 Hot rolled 48.25 6 129 36.4 9.365 39.1 58.0 60.3 62.6 66.6 70.7 77.1 25.0
5 x 5 x 9/16 380 Hot rolled 53.91 6 850 37.0 10.353 38.9 58.2 60.6 62.9 67.0 71.1 77.5 24.9
5 x 5 x 5/8 380 Hot rolled 59.57 7 561 37.6 11.300 38.7 58.5 60.9 63.3 67.3 71.4 77.9 24.8
6 x 6 x 9/16 380 Hot rolled 65.18 8 296 43.3 18.232 46.9 68.3 70.6 72.9 76.8 80.8 87.0 29.9
6 x 4 x 5/8 350 Hot rolled 59.57 7 561 51.6 17.539 48.2 43.5 45.9 48.3 52.4 56.6 63.2 21.9
6 x 6 x 5/8 380 Hot rolled 72.08 9 161 43.9 20.105 46.8 68.7 71.1 73.3 77.3 81.3 87.5 29.9
6 x 6 x 3/4 300 Hot rolled 85.48 10 887 45.1 23.438 46.4 69.3 71.6 74.0 77.9 82.0 88.3 29.8
8 x 8 x 3/4 300 Hot rolled 115.86 14 758 57.8 58.054 62.7 89.7 92.0 94.2 98.0 101.9 107.9 40.0
8 x 8 x 1 300 Hot rolled 151.90 19 355 60.1 74.075 61.9 90.8 93.1 95.4 99.3 103.2 109.3 39.7
9
Accessories
MATERIAL IMPERIAL
Material
(in.)
Grade
(ksi)
Forming
Mass
(plf)
Area
(in.
2
)
l
(in.
4
)
r
(in.)
1/2 50 Hot rolled 0.67 0.20 0.003 0.13
9/16 50 Hot rolled 0.84 0.25 0.005 0.14
5/8 50 Hot rolled 1.04 0.31 0.007 0.16
11/16 50 Hot rolled 1.26 0.37 0.011 0.17
3/4 50 Hot rolled 1.50 0.44 0.016 0.19
13/16 50 Hot rolled 1.76 0.52 0.021 0.20
7/8 50 Hot rolled 2.05 0.60 0.029 0.22
15/16 50 Hot rolled 2.35 0.69 0.038 0.23
1 50 Hot rolled 2.67 0.79 0.049 0.25
1 1/8 50 Hot rolled 3.38 0.99 0.079 0.28
1 square 50 Hot rolled 3.40 1.00 0.083 0.29
Axis X-X Axis Y-Y
Material
Grade
(ksi)
Forming
Mass
(plf)
Area
(in.
2
)
y
(in.)
l
xx

(in.
4
)
r
xx

(in.)
l
yy

(in.
4
)
r
yy

(in.) (in.) (in.) (in.)
1 x 5/8 x 0.090 50 Cold formed 0.57 0.17 0.20 0.005 0.18 0.022 0.37
1 x 0.8 x 0.090 50 Cold formed 0.68 0.20 0.28 0.012 0.24 0.029 0.38
1 x 0.85 x 0.090 50 Cold formed 0.72 0.21 0.31 0.014 0.26 0.031 0.39
1 x 1 x 0.090 50 Cold formed 0.77 0.23 0.34 0.019 0.29 0.034 0.39
1 x 1 x 0.118 50 Cold formed 1.00 0.30 0.38 0.026 0.30 0.042 0.38
1 x 1.05 x 0.090 50 Cold formed 0.86 0.25 0.41 0.028 0.33 0.039 0.40
1 x 1.1 x 0.118 50 Cold formed 1.13 0.33 0.45 0.039 0.34 0.049 0.39
1 3/8 x 1.27 x 0.118 50 Cold formed 1.42 0.42 0.48 0.067 0.40 0.125 0.55
1 3/8 x 1 3/8 x 0.118 50 Cold formed 1.49 0.44 0.52 0.082 0.43 0.134 0.55
1 3/8 x 1 3/8 x 0.157 50 Cold formed 1.98 0.58 0.56 0.113 0.44 0.167 0.54
1 3/4 x 1 1/2 x 0.157 50 Cold formed 2.32 0.68 0.57 0.160 0.48 0.332 0.70
1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 0.197 50 Cold formed 3.14 0.93 0.71 0.289 0.56 0.442 0.69
2 3/8 x 2 x 0.197 50 Cold formed 3.75 1.10 0.71 0.412 0.61 0.953 0.93
ROUND AND SQUARE BARS
U SHAPES
SECTION PROPERTIES
AXES CONVENTION
X X
Y
Y
X X
Y
Y
y
x x
Y
Y
x x
y
y
10
Accessories
DOUBLE ANGLES (LONG LEGS BACK-TO-BACK)
IMPERIAL
Axis X-X r
yy
with different gaps Axis Z
Material
Grade
(ksi)
Forming
Mass
(plf)
Area
(in.
2
)
y
(in.)
l
xx

(in.
4
)
r
xx

(in.)
1/2
(in.)
3/4
(in.)
1
(in.)
1 3/8
(in.)
1 3/4
(in.)
2 3/8
(in.)
r
z
(in.) (in.)www (in.) (in.)
1 x 1 x 0.090 55 Cold formed 1.17 0.33 0.29 0.031 0.31 0.62 0.73 0.84 1.03 1.22 1.50 0.19
1 x 1 x 7/64 55 Hot rolled 1.40 0.41 0.29 0.039 0.31 0.62 0.73 0.84 1.03 1.22 1.50 0.20
1 x 1 x 0.118 55 Cold formed 1.49 0.43 0.31 0.040 0.31 0.64 0.75 0.86 1.04 1.23 1.52 0.19
1 x 1 x 1/8 55 Hot rolled 1.60 0.46 0.30 0.043 0.30 0.63 0.74 0.84 1.03 1.22 1.51 0.20
1 1/8 x 1 1/8 x 0.090 55 Cold formed 1.32 0.38 0.32 0.046 0.35 0.67 0.78 0.89 1.07 1.26 1.54 0.22
1 1/8 x 1 1/8 x 0.118 55 Cold formed 1.70 0.49 0.34 0.059 0.35 0.68 0.79 0.90 1.08 1.27 1.56 0.22
1 1/4 x 1 1/4 x 0.118 55 Cold formed 1.91 0.54 0.37 0.082 0.39 0.73 0.84 0.94 1.13 1.31 1.60 0.24
1 1/4 x 1 1/4 x 1/8 55 Hot rolled 2.02 0.60 0.36 0.088 0.38 0.72 0.83 0.93 1.12 1.30 1.59 0.25
1 1/4 x 1 1/4 x 3/16 55 Hot rolled 2.96 0.86 0.38 0.123 0.38 0.73 0.84 0.95 1.13 1.32 1.61 0.24
1 3/8 x 1 3/8 x 0.118 55 Cold formed 2.11 0.60 0.40 0.111 0.43 0.78 0.88 0.99 1.17 1.35 1.64 0.27
1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.118 55 Cold formed 2.32 0.66 0.43 0.145 0.47 0.83 0.93 1.03 1.21 1.40 1.68 0.29
1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 1/8 55 Hot rolled 2.46 0.72 0.42 0.156 0.47 0.82 0.92 1.02 1.20 1.39 1.67 0.30
1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 5/32 55 Hot rolled 3.02 0.89 0.43 0.189 0.46 0.82 0.93 1.03 1.21 1.40 1.68 0.29
1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.157 55 Cold formed 3.00 0.86 0.45 0.185 0.46 0.84 0.94 1.05 1.23 1.41 1.70 0.29
1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 3/16 55 Hot rolled 3.60 1.06 0.44 0.220 0.46 0.83 0.94 1.04 1.22 1.41 1.69 0.29
1 5/8 x 1 5/8 x 0.118 55 Cold formed 2.52 0.72 0.46 0.187 0.51 0.87 0.98 1.08 1.26 1.44 1.72 0.32
1 5/8 x 1 5/8 x 0.157 55 Cold formed 3.28 0.94 0.48 0.239 0.50 0.89 0.99 1.10 1.27 1.46 1.74 0.31
1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 0.118 55 Cold formed 2.73 0.78 0.49 0.236 0.55 0.92 1.03 1.13 1.30 1.48 1.76 0.34
1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 5/32 55 Hot rolled 3.57 1.04 0.50 0.307 0.54 0.92 1.02 1.13 1.30 1.48 1.76 0.35
1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 0.157 55 Cold formed 3.55 1.02 0.51 0.302 0.54 0.94 1.04 1.14 1.32 1.50 1.78 0.34
1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 3/16 55 Hot rolled 4.24 1.24 0.51 0.358 0.54 0.93 1.03 1.13 1.31 1.49 1.77 0.34
1 7/8 x 1 7/8 x 0.157 55 Cold formed 3.82 1.10 0.54 0.375 0.58 0.98 1.09 1.19 1.36 1.54 1.82 0.36
1 7/8 x 1 7/8 x 0.197 55 Cold formed 4.68 1.35 0.56 0.452 0.58 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.38 1.56 1.84 0.36
2 x 2 x 0.118 55 Cold formed 3.13 0.90 0.56 0.357 0.63 1.02 1.12 1.22 1.39 1.57 1.85 0.39
2 x 2 x 0.157 55 Cold formed 4.10 1.18 0.57 0.460 0.62 1.03 1.14 1.24 1.41 1.59 1.86 0.39
2 x 2 x 3/16 55 Hot rolled 4.88 1.42 0.57 0.545 0.62 1.03 1.13 1.23 1.40 1.58 1.86 0.39
2 x 2 x 0.197 55 Cold formed 5.02 1.45 0.59 0.555 0.62 1.05 1.15 1.25 1.42 1.60 1.88 0.39
2 x 2 x 7/32 55 Hot rolled 5.62 1.66 0.58 0.622 0.61 1.03 1.13 1.24 1.41 1.59 1.87 0.39
2 x 2 x 1/4 55 Hot rolled 6.38 1.88 0.59 0.695 0.61 1.04 1.14 1.24 1.42 1.60 1.87 0.39
2 1/8 x 2 1/8 x 0.157 55 Cold formed 4.37 1.26 0.61 0.556 0.66 1.08 1.18 1.28 1.45 1.63 1.91 0.42
2 1/8 x 2 1/8 x 0.197 55 Cold formed 5.36 1.55 0.62 0.672 0.66 1.09 1.20 1.30 1.47 1.65 1.92 0.41
2 1/8 x 2 1/8 x 0.236 55 Cold formed 6.31 1.831 0.64 0.781 0.65 1.09 1.20 1.30 1.47 1.65 1.93 0.41
2 1/4 x 2 1/4 x 0.197 55 Cold formed 5.70 1.64 0.66 0.806 0.70 1.14 1.24 1.34 1.52 1.69 1.96 0.44
2 1/4 x 2 1/4 x 0.236 55 Cold formed 6.72 1.94 0.67 0.937 0.69 1.16 1.26 1.36 1.53 1.71 1.98 0.43
2 3/8 x 2 3/8 x 0.197 55 Cold formed 6.04 1.74 0.69 0.955 0.74 1.19 1.29 1.39 1.56 1.74 2.01 0.46
2 3/8 x 2 3/8 x 0.236 55 Cold formed 7.12 2.06 0.71 1.113 0.73 1.21 1.31 1.40 1.58 1.75 2.02 0.46
2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 0.197 55 Cold formed 6.38 1.84 0.72 1.122 0.78 1.24 1.34 1.44 1.61 1.78 2.05 0.49
2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 0.236 55 Cold formed 7.53 2.18 0.74 1.310 0.77 1.25 1.35 1.45 1.62 1.80 2.07 0.48
2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 1/4 55 Hot rolled 8.21 2.38 0.72 1.406 0.77 1.24 1.34 1.43 1.60 1.78 2.05 0.49
2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 5/16 55 Hot rolled 10.00 2.93 0.74 1.697 0.76 1.25 1.35 1.45 1.62 1.79 2.07 0.49
2 5/8 x 2 5/8 x 0.236 55 Cold formed 7.94 2.30 0.77 1.529 0.81 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.67 1.84 2.11 0.51
2 3/4 x 2 3/4 x 0.236 55 Cold formed 8.34 2.42 0.80 1.771 0.86 1.35 1.45 1.55 1.72 1.89 2.16 0.53
2 7/8 x 2 7/8 x 0.236 55 Cold formed 8.75 2.53 0.83 2.037 0.90 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.76 1.94 2.20 0.56
3 x 3 x 0.236 55 Cold formed 9.16 2.65 0.86 2.328 0.94 1.45 1.55 1.65 1.81 1.98 2.25 0.58
3 x 2 x 5/16 50 Hot rolled 10.01 2.92 1.02 2.632 0.95 0.95 1.06 1.16 1.33 1.51 1.79 0.43
3 x 3 x 5/16 55 Hot rolled 12.20 3.55 0.86 3.017 0.92 1.45 1.54 1.64 1.81 1.98 2.24 0.59
3 x 3 x 3/8 55 Hot rolled 14.41 4.22 0.89 3.519 0.91 1.46 1.56 1.65 1.82 1.99 2.26 0.59
3 1/8 x 3 1/8 x 0.236 55 Cold formed 9.56 2.77 0.89 2.646 0.98 1.50 1.60 1.69 1.86 2.03 2.29 0.61
3 1/2 x 3 1/2 x 3/8 55 Hot rolled 17.00 4.97 1.01 5.728 1.07 1.66 1.75 1.85 2.01 2.18 2.44 0.69
4 x 3 x 3/8 55 Hot rolled 17.01 4.96 1.28 7.924 1.26 1.36 1.45 1.55 1.71 1.89 2.15 0.64
4 x 4 x 3/8 55 Hot rolled 19.62 5.72 1.14 8.721 1.23 1.86 1.95 2.05 2.21 2.37 2.63 0.79
4 x 3 x 1/2 55 Hot rolled 22.21 6.50 1.33 10.097 1.25 1.38 1.48 1.58 1.74 1.92 2.19 0.64
4 x 4 x 1/2 55 Hot rolled 25.62 7.53 1.18 11.123 1.22 1.88 1.98 2.07 2.23 2.40 2.66 0.78
4 x 4 x 9/16 55 Hot rolled 28.60 8.37 1.21 12.246 1.21 1.89 1.99 2.08 2.25 2.42 2.68 0.78
5 x 3 1/2 x 1/2 50 Hot rolled 27.22 8.00 1.66 19.971 1.58 1.53 1.63 1.72 1.89 2.06 2.32 0.75
5 x 5 x 1/2 55 Hot rolled 32.42 9.50 1.43 22.501 1.54 2.28 2.37 2.47 2.62 2.78 3.03 0.98
5 x 5 x 9/16 55 Hot rolled 36.23 10.62 1.46 24.874 1.53 2.29 2.39 2.48 2.64 2.80 3.05 0.98
5 x 5 x 5/8 55 Hot rolled 40.03 11.72 1.48 27.148 1.52 2.30 2.40 2.49 2.65 2.81 3.06 0.98
6 x 6 x 9/16 55 Hot rolled 43.80 12.86 1.70 43.802 1.85 2.69 2.78 2.87 3.02 3.18 3.43 1.18
6 x 4 x 5/8 50 Hot rolled 40.03 11.72 2.03 42.139 1.90 1.71 1.81 1.90 2.06 2.23 2.49 0.86
6 x 6 x 5/8 55 Hot rolled 48.44 14.20 1.73 48.302 1.84 2.71 2.80 2.89 3.04 3.20 3.45 1.18
6 x 6 x 3/4 44 Hot rolled 57.44 16.87 1.78 56.310 1.83 2.73 2.82 2.91 3.07 3.23 3.47 1.17
8 x 8 x 3/4 44 Hot rolled 77.85 22.87 2.28 139.480 2.47 3.53 3.62 3.71 3.86 4.01 4.25 1.58
8 x 8 x 1 44 Hot rolled 102.07 30.00 2.37 177.970 2.44 3.57 3.67 3.76 3.91 4.06 4.30 1.56
11
Accessories
Bombardier Centre I La Pocatire, Quebec
Alphonse-Desjardins Sports Complex I Trois-Rivires, Quebec
Athletic Facility I Terrebonne, Quebec
12
Accessories
BRIDGING
SPECIFICATIONS
The CAN/CSA S16-01 standard specifies a bridging system to assure steel joist
stability. Some important points to consider are:
Maximum slenderness ratio by bridging type;
Minimum capacity of the bridging system;
Service load criteria;
Maximum unsupported lengths for the top and bottom chords of the joist;
Erection criteria;
Bridging system requirements for special support conditions.
The two types of bridging used and their maximum unsupported length are as
follows:
Horizontal bridging 300 x r
z
Diagonal bridging 200 x r
z
The horizontal bridging type is most commonly used to stabilize joists. Attachment
of diagonal and horizontal bridging to joist chords with a minimum capacity of 3kN
is in accordance with clause 16.7.6 of CSA S16-01. The selection tables for horizontal
and diagonal bridging angles presented herein meet the slenderness and minimum
capacity criteria.
The bridging system performs two main functions:
To assure joist stability during erection by providing lateral support to the top
and bottom chords of the joists;
To hold the joists in the position shown on the drawings, normally vertical.
In general, the bridging must be spaced along the chords so that the laterally
unsupported distance does not exceed:
Top chord 170 x r
yy
Bottom chord 240 x r
yy
For safety reasons, a line of cross bridging is recommended for joists having a span
longer than 12.2 m (about 40 ft.). No construction loads shall be placed on the joists
until the bridging system is completely installed.
Once installed, the steel deck generally offers sufficient rigidity to provide the
lateral stability to the top chord. The resistance of decking and joints must be
verified by the joist designer to ensure that adequate lateral support is provided to
the top chord. For the bottom chord, bridging must be designed with the maximum
slenderness ratio criterion of this tension member. If the bottom chord is subject to
compression loads, due to uplift forces or other compression causing forces, a
system with more bridging lines must be used. If uplift forces are applied to the
joist, a line of bridging is required at the first bottom chord panel point at both ends
of the joist.
The length of horizontal bridging supplied by Canam is based on a maximum lap of
150 mm (6 in.).
The ends of the bridging system on a beam or masonry wall must comply with
clause 16.7.7 of the CAN/CSA S16-01 standard.
Certain joist loading conditions require special bracing systems. Note that this
reference is to bracing rather than bridging. Members supplied in these cases must
meet the criteria of clause 9.2 of CAN/CSA S16-01. Two such cases are cantilever
joists and perimeter joists that laterally support the top of wind columns.
13
Accessories
BRIDGING LINE REQUIREMENTS
The following tables are a guide to evaluate the number of top and bottom chord
bridging lines for a joist having a uniformly distributed load. The number of lines is
based upon the maximum allowable spacing between the lines at the top chord.
This number can vary with chord angle separation and chord sizes. As previously
mentioned, when uplift forces are applied to the joist, additional bridging lines are
required near both ends of the bottom chord.
METRIC
Span
(m)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
7 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
8 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
9 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
10 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
11 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
12 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1
13 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
14 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
15 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4.5 5.4 6.3 7.2 8.1 9.0 9.9 10.8 11.7 12.6 13.5 14.4 15.3
3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 6.0 6.6 7.2 7.8 8.4 9.0 9.6 10.2
16 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
17 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
18 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
19 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2
20 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2
22 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2
24 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2
26 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
28 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
30 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
34 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
38 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3
42 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3
46 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3
TABLE FOR SELECTING THE NUMBER OF BRIDGING LINES
Legend 0 line 2 lines 4 lines
1 line 3 lines
14
Accessories
IMPERIAL
Span
(ft.)
Factored load (plf)
Service load (plf)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
13 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
20 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
23 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
26 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
30 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
33 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
36 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
40 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1
43 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
46 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
49 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
300 360 420 480 540 600 660 720 780 840 900 960 1,020
200 240 280 320 360 400 440 480 520 560 600 640 680
52 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
56 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
59 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
62 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2
65 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2
72 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2
79 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2
85 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
92 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
98 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
112 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
125 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3
138 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3
151 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3
TABLE FOR SELECTING THE NUMBER OF BRIDGING LINES
Legend 0 line 2 lines 4 lines
1 line 3 lines
15
Accessories
SPACING FOR BRIDGING
MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING (mm) FOR HORIZONTAL BRIDGING
MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING (mm) FOR DIAGONAL BRIDGING
* To use with welded diagonal bridging or bolted diagonal bridging with maximum 10 mm (3/8 in.) bolt diameter.
Note: The diagonal bridging must be tied at mid-length.
Bridging angle size
L 1 1/4 x 1 1/4 x 0.090 L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.090 L 1 5/8 x 0.118 L 1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 0.118 L 2 x 2 x 1/8
L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.118 L 1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 1/8 L 2 x 2 x 0.157
1,720 2,240 2,420 2,620 2,970
Joist depth
(mm)
Bridging angle size
L 1 1/4 x 1 1/4 x 0.090* L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.090 L 1 5/8 x 0.118 L 1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 0.118 L 2 x 2 x 1/8
L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.118 L 1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 1/8 L 2 x 2 x 0.157
300 2,420 2,980 3,220 3,490 3,950
350 2,420 2,970 3,220 3,480 3,950
400 2,410 2,960 3,210 3,480 3,950
450 2,400 2,960 3,200 3,470 3,940
500 2,390 2,950 3,190 3,460 3,930
550 2,380 2,940 3,190 3,450 3,930
600 2,370 2,930 3,180 3,450 3,920
650 2,350 2,920 3,170 3,440 3,910
700 2,340 2,910 3,160 3,430 3,900
750 2,320 2,890 3,140 3,420 3,890
800 2,300 2,880 3,130 3,400 3,880
900 2,270 2,850 3,100 3,380 3,860
1,000 2,220 2,810 3,070 3,350 3,830
1,100 2,170 2,770 3,040 3,320 3,810
1,200 2,120 2,730 3,000 3,280 3,770
1,300 2,680 2,950 3,240 3,740
1,400 2,630 2,910 3,200 3,700
1,500 2,570 2,850 3,150 3,660
1,600 2,510 2,800 3,100 3,620
1,700 2,440 2,740 3,040 3,570
1,800 2,370 2,670 2,980 3,520
METRIC
16
Accessories
MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING (ft.) FOR HORIZONTAL BRIDGING
MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING (ft.) FOR DIAGONAL BRIDGING
* To use with welded diagonal bridging or bolted diagonal bridging with maximum 10 mm (3/8 in.) bolt diameter.
Note: The diagonal bridging must be tied at mid-length.
Bridging angle size
L 1 1/4 x 1 1/4 x 0.090 L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.090 L 1 5/8 x 0.118 L 1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 0.118 L 2 x 2 x 1/8
L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.118 L 1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 1/8 L 2 x 2 x 0.157
5 - 7 7 - 4 7 - 11 8 - 7 9 - 9
Joist depth
(in.)
Bridging angle size
L 1 1/4 x 1 1/4 x 0.090* L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.090 L 1 5/8 x 0.118 L 1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 0.118 L 2 x 2 x 1/8
L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.118 L 1 3/4 x 1 3/4 x 1/8 L 2 x 2 x 0.157
12 7 - 11 9 - 9 10 - 6 11 - 5 12 - 11
14 7 - 11 9 - 8 10 - 6 11 - 5 12 - 11
16 7 - 10 9 - 8 10 - 6 11 - 4 12 - 11
18 7 - 10 9 - 8 10 - 6 11 - 4 12 - 11
20 7 - 10 9 - 8 10 - 5 11 - 4 12 - 10
22 7 - 9 9 - 7 10 - 5 11 - 3 12 - 10
24 7 - 9 9 - 7 10 - 5 11 - 3 12 - 10
26 7 - 8 9 - 6 10 - 4 11 - 3 12 - 9
28 7 - 8 9 - 6 10 - 4 11 - 2 12 - 9
30 7 - 7 9 - 5 10 - 3 11 - 2 12 - 9
32 7 - 6 9 - 5 10 - 3 11 - 1 12 - 8
36 7 - 5 9 - 4 10 - 2 11 - 0 12 - 7
40 7 - 3 9 - 2 10 - 0 10 - 11 12 - 6
44 7 - 1 9 - 1 9 - 11 10 - 10 12 - 5
48 6 - 11 8 - 11 9 - 9 10 - 9 12 - 4
52 8 - 9 9 - 8 10 - 7 12 - 3
56 8 - 7 9 - 6 10 - 5 12 - 1
60 8 - 5 9 - 4 10 - 4 12 - 0
64 8 - 2 9 - 2 10 - 2 11 - 10
68 8 - 0 8 - 11 9 - 11 11 - 8
72 7 - 9 8 - 9 9 - 9 11 - 6
IMPERIAL
17
Accessories
KNEE BRACES
To provide lateral support to the bottom chord of the joist girders, knee bracing is
used. These knee braces are installed into position where required at joist support
locations and generally on both sides of the joist girder. They join the top chord of
the joist girder to the bottom chord of the joist as illustrated below.
A knee brace selection table is provided based on a maximum allowable slenderness
ratio of 200 x r
z
.
In some cases, installation of knee braces can be avoided by extending the bottom
chord length of some joists when the joist girder depth is similar to that of the joist
that it supports.
When a joist girder is used to support girts instead of joists, the knee brace system
may not be recommended. Usually for girt shapes we use cross braces tied at mid-
length as lateral support to the joist girder when the spacing between joist girders
(girts span) is less than 6,000 mm (20 ft.), or when the girt section thickness is
smaller than 2.3 mm (3/32 in.). In all other cases, the standard knee brace system
may be used. The building designer should take into consideration that the knee
brace stabilizing the bottom chord of the joist girder induces loads on the girts at
the connection points.
MAXIMUM KNEE BRACE LENGTH L (mm)
MAXIMUM KNEE BRACE LENGTH L (ft.)
Brace angle size
L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.157 L 2 x 2 x 0.157 L 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 3/16 L 3 x 3 x 0.236
L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 5/32 L 2 x 2 x 5/32 L 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 0.197 L 3 x 3 x 1/4
L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 3/16 L 2 x 2 x 3/16 L 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 1/4 L 3 x 3 x 5/16
1,470 1,990 2,480 2,980
Brace angle size
L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 0.157 L 2 x 2 x 0.157 L 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 3/16 L 3 x 3 x 0.236
L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 5/32 L 2 x 2 x 5/32 L 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 0.197 L 3 x 3 x 1/4
L 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 x 3/16 L 2 x 2 x 3/16 L 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 x 1/4 L 3 x 3 x 5/16
4 - 10 6 - 6 8 - 2 9 - 9
METRIC
IMPERIAL
Joist
TYP.
Joist
girder
By Canam
Joist
APPROX.
45
Knee braces - detail 2
Joist
Joist
girder
Joist
Knee braces - detail 3
Joist
Joist
girder
TYP.
By Canam
Joist
Knee braces - detail 1
18
Accessories
MATERIAL WEIGHTS
The tables below can be used as a guide to establish in which direction the joists
should be orientated compared to the joist girders for a particular bay area and
various total uniform factored loads.
They are also a guide for the building designer to evaluate the dead load of joists
and joist girders to be used for design.
ESTIMATED SELF-WEIGHT OF JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS (kPa)
ESTIMATED SELF-WEIGHT OF JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDERS (psf)
METRIC
IMPERIAL
Bay area
(m
2
)
Joist/Joist girder
Span ratio
Factored uniform load (kPa)
Joist
(m)
J.G.
(m)
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
50 0.5 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.17 0.20 0.23 0.25 0.28 5.0 10.0
50 1 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.13 0.16 0.18 0.21 0.24 0.26 7.1 7.1
50 2 0.07 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.16 0.19 0.22 0.25 0.27 10.0 5.0
100 0.5 0.10 0.12 0.15 0.19 0.22 0.26 0.30 0.34 0.37 7.1 14.1
100 1 0.08 0.10 0.14 0.17 0.21 0.24 0.28 0.31 0.35 10.0 10.0
100 2 0.07 0.11 0.14 0.18 0.22 0.25 0.29 0.33 0.36 14.1 7.1
150 0.5 0.11 0.14 0.18 0.23 0.27 0.32 0.37 0.41 0.46 8.7 17.3
150 1 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.25 0.30 0.34 0.38 0.42 12.2 12.2
150 2 0.09 0.13 0.18 0.22 0.27 0.31 0.35 0.40 0.44 17.3 8.7
200 0.5 0.12 0.16 0.21 0.26 0.32 0.37 0.42 0.48 0.53 10.0 20.0
200 1 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.29 0.34 0.39 0.44 0.49 14.1 14.1
200 2 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.26 0.31 0.36 0.41 0.46 0.51 20.0 10.0
250 0.5 0.13 0.18 0.24 0.30 0.35 0.41 0.47 0.53 0.59 11.2 22.4
250 1 0.11 0.16 0.22 0.27 0.33 0.38 0.44 0.49 0.55 15.8 15.8
250 2 0.11 0.17 0.23 0.29 0.34 0.40 0.46 0.51 0.57 22.4 11.2
300 0.5 0.13 0.19 0.26 0.32 0.39 0.45 0.52 0.58 0.65 12.2 24.5
300 1 0.12 0.18 0.24 0.30 0.36 0.42 0.48 0.54 0.60 17.3 17.3
300 2 0.13 0.19 0.25 0.31 0.38 0.44 0.50 0.56 0.63 24.5 12.2
Bay area
(ft.
2
)
Joist/Joist girder
Span ratio
Factored uniform load (psf)
Joist
(ft.)
J.G.
(ft.)
42 63 83 104 125 146 167 188 209
500 1/2 2.0 2.6 3.1 3.6 4.2 4.9 5.6 6.3 7.0 15.8 31.6
500 1 1.7 2.1 2.5 3.0 3.7 4.3 4.9 5.5 6.1 22.4 22.4
500 2 1.5 1.8 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 6.0 31.6 15.8
1,100 1/2 2.4 3.2 3.9 4.9 5.8 6.8 7.8 8.8 9.8 23.5 46.9
1,100 1 2.0 2.6 3.4 4.2 5.1 6.0 6.8 7.7 8.5 33.2 33.2
1,100 2 1.7 2.5 3.3 4.1 5.0 5.8 6.6 7.5 8.3 46.9 23.5
1,600 1/2 2.7 3.6 4.7 5.9 7.1 8.2 9.4 10.6 11.8 28.3 56.6
1,600 1 2.2 3.1 4.1 5.1 6.1 7.2 8.2 9.2 10.3 40.0 40.0
1,600 2 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 56.6 28.3
2,200 1/2 3.0 4.2 5.5 6.9 8.3 9.7 11.0 12.4 13.8 33.2 66.3
2,200 1 2.4 3.6 4.8 6.0 7.2 8.4 9.6 10.8 12.1 46.9 46.9
2,200 2 2.4 3.5 4.7 5.8 7.0 8.2 9.4 10.6 11.7 66.3 33.2
2,700 1/2 3.3 4.6 6.1 7.6 9.2 10.7 12.2 13.8 15.3 36.7 73.5
2,700 1 2.7 4.0 5.3 6.6 8.0 9.3 10.7 12.0 13.4 52.0 52.0
2,700 2 2.6 3.9 5.2 6.5 7.8 9.1 10.4 11.7 13.0 73.5 36.7
3,200 1/2 3.5 5.0 6.6 8.3 10.0 11.6 13.3 15.0 16.7 40.0 80.0
3,200 1 2.9 4.4 5.8 7.2 8.7 10.2 11.6 13.1 14.5 56.6 56.6
3,200 2 2.8 4.3 5.6 7.0 8.5 9.9 11.3 12.7 14.2 80.0 40.0
19
Accessories
MASS/WWCES TO USE FOR DESIGN
(Using normal density concrete)
The weight of the main materials included in a floor or roof system is reproduced
below. The density of certain materials is also indicated. This table allows the designer
to quickly evaluate the dead and live loads to specify on drawings and specifications.
kg/m
3
kN/m
3
Material pcf
7,850 77.0 Steel 490
2,640 25.9 Aluminum 165
2,580 25.3 Glass (plate) 161
2,400 23.5 Concrete (stone, reinforced) 150
2,000 19.6 Brick (common) 125
801 7.9 Wood (hard or treated) maximum 50
352 3.5 Wood (soft or dry) minimum 22
1,000 9.8 Water (fresh, 4C) 62
897 8.8 Ice 56
641 6.3 Snow (wet) maximum 40
400 3.9 Snow (dry, packed) maximum 25
128 1.3 Snow (dry, fresh fallen) 8
1,100 10.8 Paint (52% of weight solids) 69
929 9.1 Oils 58
785 7.7 Alcohol 49
673 6.6 Gasoline 42
1,920 18.8 Sand and gravel (wet) 120
kg/m
2
kN/m
2
Material psf
10.1 0.10 Steel deck P-3615 (up to 0.91 mm) 2.1
16.3 0.16 Steel deck P-3615 (1.21 to 1.52 mm) 3.3
14.0 0.14 Steel deck P-2436 (up to 0.91 mm) 2.9
22.7 0.22 Steel deck P-2436 (1.21 to 1.52 mm) 4.8
193.7 1.90 Steel deck P-3615 composite (100 mm total slab) 39.7
313.0 3.07 Steel deck P-3615 composite (150 mm total slab) 64.3
259.0 2.54 Steel deck P-2432 composite (140 mm total slab) 53.5
402.7 3.95 Steel deck P-2432 composite (200 mm total slab) 82.9
15.3 0.15 Roong 3 ply asphalt (no gravel) 3.1
5.1 0.05 Fiberglass insulation (batts 100 mm) 1.0
4.1 0.04 Fiberglass insulation (blown 100 mm) 0.8
7.1 0.07 Fiberglass insulation (rigid 100 mm) 1.5
3.1 0.03 Urethane (rigid foam 100 mm) 0.6
6.1 0.06 Insulating concrete (100 mm) 1.3
13.3 0.13 Gypsum wallboard (16 mm) 2.7
7.1 0.07 Sprayed re protection (average) 1.5
25.5 0.25 Ducts, pipes, and wiring (average) 5.0
40.8 0.40 Plaster on lath/furring (20 mm) 8.4
265.1 2.60 Tiled ceiling with suspension and xtures (average) 54.3
356.9 3.50 Hollow core precast (200 mm N.D. no topping) 73.1
14.3 0.14 Hollow core precast (300 mm N.D. no topping) 2.9
12.2 0.12 Plywood or chipboard (20 mm) 2.5
16.3 0.16 Hardwood oor (20 mm) 3.3
10.2 0.10 Wood joists 38 mm x 286 mm (400 mm c/c) 2.1
81.6 0.80 Carpeting 16.7
20.4 0.20 Ceramic (20 mm) on Mortar bed (12 mm) 4.2
178.4 1.75 Hollow concrete block 150 mm thick (cells empty) 36.6
214.1 2.10 Hollow concrete block 200 mm thick (cells empty) 43.9
295.7 2.90 Hollow concrete block 300 mm thick (cells empty) 60.6
221.8 2.18 Hollow concrete block 150 mm thick (1 of 4 cells lled) 45.4
277.8 2.73 Hollow concrete block 200 mm thick (1 of 4 cells lled) 56.9
397.6 3.90 Hollow concrete block 300 mm thick (1 of 4 cells lled) 81.5
20
Accessories
EXTENSIONS
An extension designates a continuation beyond the normal bearing of the joist. The
extension can be the top chord only or the full depth of the joist, in which case, it is
referred to as a cantilever joist.
The extended top chord section varies according to the following conditions: the
design loads, the extension length, the deflection criterion, and the conditions of
bearing and anchorage. The section can be reinforced if required. In a section without
reinforcement, the extension material is the same as the top chord of the joist.
A reinforced section has 2 or 4 angles as extension material, or 1 or 2 channels
having a higher capacity than that of the top chord between the bearings. Also, a
reinforced section projects into one or several interior panels such that the joist can
resist bending and shearing forces brought on by the extension of the top chord.
Top chord extension
Variable
Bearing
Section reinforced with 2 angles
A
A
B
B
C
C
Section A
Section B
Bearing
Section C
Section reinforced with 4 angles
A
A
B
B
C
C
Bearing
Section C Section A
Section B
Section reinforced with 1 channel
A
A
B
B
C
C
Bearing
Section B Section C Section A
Section without reinforcement
A
A
B
B
C
C
Section A
Section B
Section C
Bearing
Section reinforced with 2 channels
A
A
B
B
C
C
Bearing
Section C Section A
Section B
Cantilever joist
Bearing
Variable
21
Standard details
The tables below serve as a guide to determine a suitable shoe depth based on
uniform loading and a maximum extension length. The extensions are based on the
maximum capacity of a 2-channel section without any slope. This is an economical
section for this kind of condition.
The maximum top chord extension is determined by the bending and shear
resistance of the section, or by the deflection of the extension, which is limited to
L/120 with a fixed end. In fact, the joist and its extension are analyzed simultaneously
in a matrix calculation.
METRIC
MAXIMUM TOP CHORD EXTENSION (mm)
Effective
shoe
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
100 1,920 1,750 1,620 1,520 1,450 1,380 1,330 1,290 1,240 1,200 1,150 1,130 1,100
125 2,390 2,170 2,010 1,900 1,800 1,700 1,650 1,550 1,500 1,450 1,400 1,350 1,300
150 2,750 2,500 2,350 2,200 2,050 1,950 1,900 1,800 1,750 1,650 1,600 1,550 1,550
175 3,050 2,800 2,600 2,450 2,300 2,200 2,150 2,050 2,000 1,900 1,850 1,800 1,750
200 3,300 3,000 2,800 2,650 2,550 2,450 2,350 2,250 2,200 2,100 2,050 2,000 1,950
IMPERIAL
MAXIMUM TOP CHORD EXTENSION (ft.)
Effective
shoe
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1035 1140 1245 1350 1455 1560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1040
4 6 - 4 5 - 9 5 - 4 5 - 0 4 - 9 4 - 6 4 - 4 4 - 3 4 - 1 3 - 11 3 - 9 3 - 8 3 - 7
5 7 - 10 7 - 1 6 - 7 6 - 3 5 - 11 5 - 7 5 - 5 5 - 1 4 - 11 4 - 9 4 - 7 4 - 5 4 - 3
6 9 - 0 8 - 2 7 - 8 7 - 3 6 - 9 6 - 5 6 - 3 5 - 11 5 - 9 5 - 5 5 - 3 5 - 1 5 - 1
7 10 - 0 9 - 2 8 - 6 8 - 0 7 - 7 7 - 3 7 - 1 6 - 9 6 - 7 6 - 3 6 - 1 5 - 11 5 - 9
8 10 - 10 9 - 10 9 - 2 8 - 8 8 - 4 8 - 0 7 - 8 7 - 4 7 - 3 6 - 11 6 - 9 6 - 7 6 - 5
The building designer must make allowance for sufficient shoe depth when the top
flange is not horizontal or in case of bolted assembly. In this case, the clear depth
is less than the shoe depth.
Clear depth
Shoe depth
22
Standard details
ING of Canada I Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec
MAXIMUM DUCT OPENINGS
METRIC
DIMENSIONS OF FREE OPENINGS
FOR VARIOUS JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDER CONFIGURATIONS
Conguration (mm) Opening (mm)
H P D S L R
Joist
W
a
r
r
e
n


G
e
o
m
e
t
r
y 200 250 110 95 70 150
250 250 150 120 90 182
300 305 190 150 110 232
350 305 220 175 120 258
M
o
d
i

e
d

W
a
r
r
e
n

G
e
o
m
e
t
r
y
400 610 240 220 140 410
450 610 320 265 200 420
500 610 360 290 220 454
550 610 390 315 240 484
600 610 420 340 250 512
650 610 440 350 260 526
700 610 460 375 270 550
750 610 490 395 280 572
800 610 510 410 290 592
900 610 550 440 310 622
1,000 610 580 465 320 646
1,100 650 630 505 340 694
1,200 700 690 555 380 762
1, 300 800 750 605 410 838
1,500 900 880 705 480 972
Joist girder
750 600 430 345 240 500
900 600 500 400 280 564
1,050 600 560 450 300 616
1,200 600 610 490 330 658
1, 350 600 650 530 340 694
1,500 600 680 560 360 726
Note: Final dimensions of free openings should be verified with Canams joist
design sheet.
When duct-opening dimensions exceed the limits above, some web members must
be removed. The shear forces are then transferred to the adjacent web members of
the top and bottom chords. The chords will need to be reinforced; this will limit the
maximum height of the free opening as well. The maximum opening height should
be limited to the joist depth minus 200 mm (8 in.). If the opening height cannot be
limited to this value, contact Canam.
Because the shear forces carried by the web members increase along the joist
toward the bearing, the location of the duct opening is more critical near the
bearings; more shear forces must be transferred to the top and bottom chords. For
this reason, the duct-opening center must be located away from a bearing by a
distance of at least 2.5 times the joist depth. The best location (for economical
reasons) is at the mid span of the joist.
D
L
R
S
S
P
305 mm
12 in.
H
Warren Geometry; H 350 mm (14 in.)
D
L
R S
S
610 mm (TYP)
24 in. (TYP)
H
Modified Warren Geometry; H 400 mm (16 in.)
Location must be greater than:
2.5 x H
H
100 mm (4 in.) min.
100 mm (4 in.) min.
Modified Warren Geometry
Location must be greater than:
2.5 x H
H
100 mm (4 in.) min.
100 mm (4 in.) min.
Pratt Geometry
23
Standard details
MAXIMUM DUCT OPENINGS
IMPERIAL
DIMENSIONS OF FREE OPENINGS
FOR VARIOUS JOISTS AND JOIST GIRDER CONFIGURATIONS
Conguration (in.) Opening (in.)
H P D S L R
Joist
8 10 4.5 3.5 2.5 5.5
W
a
r
r
e
n

G
e
o
m
e
t
r
y
10 10 6.0 4.5 3.5 7.0
12 12 7.5 6.0 4.5 9.0
14 12 8.5 7.0 5.0 10.0
16 24 9.5 8.5 5.5 16.0
M
o
d
i

e
d

W
a
r
r
e
n

G
e
o
m
e
t
r
y
18 24 13.0 10.5 8.0 16.5
20 24 14.5 11.5 9.0 18.0
22 24 15.5 12.5 9.5 19.0
24 24 17.0 13.5 10.0 20.5
26 24 17.5 14.0 10.5 21.0
28 24 18.5 15.0 11.0 22.0
30 24 19.5 15.5 11.0 23.0
32 24 20.5 16.5 11.5 23.5
36 24 22.0 17.5 12.0 24.5
40 24 23.5 18.5 12.5 25.5
44 26 25.0 20.0 13.5 27.5
48 28 27.5 22.0 15.0 30.5
54 32 31.0 24.5 17.0 34.0
60 36 35.0 28.0 19.5 39.0
Joist girder
30 24 17.0 13.5 10.0 20.0
36 24 20.0 16.0 11.0 22.5
42 24 22.5 18.0 12.0 24.5
48 24 24.5 19.5 13.0 26.5
54 24 26.0 21.0 13.5 27.5
60 24 27.5 22.5 14.5 29.0
Note: Final dimensions of free openings should be verified with Canams joist
design sheet.
When duct-opening dimensions exceed the limits above, some web members must
be removed. The shear forces are then transferred to the adjacent web members of
the top and bottom chords. The chords will need to be reinforced; this will limit the
maximum height of the free opening as well. The maximum opening height should
be limited to the joist depth minus 200 mm (8 in.). If the opening height cannot be
limited to this value, contact Canam.
Because the shear forces carried by the web members increase along the joist
toward the bearing, the location of the duct opening is more critical near the
bearings; more shear forces must be transferred to the top and bottom chords.
For this reason, the duct-opening center must be located away from a bearing by
a distance of at least 2.5 times the joist depth. The best location (for economical
reasons) is at the mid span of the joist.
D
L
R
S
S
P
305 mm
12 in.
H
Warren Geometry; H 350 mm (14 in.)
D
L
R S
S
610 mm (TYP)
24 in. (TYP)
H
Modified Warren Geometry; H 400 mm (16 in.)
Location must be greater than:
2.5 x H
H
100 mm (4 in.) min.
100 mm (4 in.) min.
Modified Warren Geometry
Location must be greater than:
2.5 x H
H
100 mm (4 in.) min.
100 mm (4 in.) min.
Pratt Geometry
24
Standard details
Avon Canada I Pointe-Claire, Quebec
Agora, Collge Saint-Sacrement I Terrebonne, Quebec TransAlta Rainforest I Calgary, Alberta
25
Standard details
GEOMETRY AND SHAPES
The geometry refers to the web profile system. The standard geometry types are
presented below:
In some cases, a joist could have 2 geometrical types. For architectural considerations,
the building designer can specify a fixed geometry applicable to a joist group. More
than one geometrical type may be specified. However, panel alignment of joists
having varying lengths and loading conditions may not be possible.
Joists are usually evenly spaced along a joist girder which can combine two types
of geometry as shown below where a Warren type is combined with a modified
Warren geometry.
The panel points of a joist girder are usually located where joists are bearing.
Depending on the joist spacing, the design engineer can add intermediate panel
points to design the optimum joist girder for the loading conditions and the span.
The different panel point configurations presented below can be specified by the
building designer for architectural purposes or large duct openings.
Type G: The panel points where the joists are bearing correspond to the intersection
of the two diagonals at the top chord.
Type VG: The panel points where the joists are bearing correspond to the position
of the secondary web members (verticals) on the top chord.
Pratt Warren Modified Warren
Combined geometries
Type G configuration
Type VG configuration
26
Standard details
Type BG: The panel points where the joists are bearing correspond to the position
of the secondary web members (verticals) and the intersection of the two
diagonals at the top chord.
The shape of a joist may depend on its use and the type of roofing system requested
by the customer. It can take one or more of the following shapes:
STANDARD SHAPE
NON-STANDARD SHAPES **
SPECIAL SHAPES **
Depending on the radius of curvature, the angles composing the top and/or bottom
chord could require a rolling operation.
* The building designer must consider in the design that the shapes can produce
significant horizontal forces and/or movement on the supporting structure due
to the deflection of the joist.
** Non-standard shapes and special shapes are more expensive due to their
complexity.
Type BG configuration
1 slope 1 slope
2 slopes
Variable
4 slopes
Variable (typ.)
2 slopes
Variable
3 slopes
Variable (typ.)
4 slopes
Variable (typ.)
3 slopes
Variable (typ.)
3 slopes
Variable (typ.)
Parallel chords
Scissor *
Bowstring
R
Barrel *
R
1
R
2
Scissor
27
Standard details
MINIMUM DEPTH AND SPAN
For fabrication reasons, the building designer must consider that minimum joist
depth is limited to 200 mm (8 in.) and minimum joist span is limited to 2 450 mm (8
ft.). For shorter spans, joist substitutes, usually made of 1 or 2 channels, can be
specified by the building designer or proposed by Canam.
SHOES
The standard shoe dimensions vary according to product and span:
Product Span Depth Min. length
Joist 2,450 mm (8 ft.) 15,200 mm (50 ft.) 100 mm (4 in.) 100 mm (4 in.)
15,200 mm (50 ft.) 27,400 mm (90 ft.) 125 mm (5 in.) 100 mm (4 in.)
27,400 mm (90 ft.) and over 190 mm (7 1/2 in.) 150 mm (6 in.)
Joist girder All lengths 190 mm (7 1/2 in.) 150 mm (6 in.)
However specific customer requests can be accommodated.
The shoe depth must always be specified at the gridline. For joists on which the
left and right bearings are not at the same level (sloped joist), the exterior and
interior shoe depths are determined in such a way as to respect the depth at the
gridline.
To ensure that the intersection point of the end diagonal and the top chord occurs
above the bearing, the minimum shoe depth should be specified according to the
slope of the joist and the clearance of the supporting member from the gridline.
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Clearance
250 (metric)
12 (imperial)
28
Standard details
METRIC
IMPERIAL
Clearance of
bearing (mm)
Sloped joist (x/250)
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200
65 100 100 100 100 100 125 150 175
75 100 100 100 100 125 150 175 200
100 100 100 125 125 150 175 225 250
125 100 125 150 175 200 225 275 325
150 125 150 175 200 225 275 325 400
Clearance of
bearing (in.)
Sloped joist (x/12)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2 1/2 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5
3 4 4 4 4 4 5 6 6
4 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 8
5 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
6 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12
MINIMUM SHOE DEPTH (mm)
MINIMUM SHOE DEPTH (in.)
PARTICULARITIES
BEARING ON CONCRETE OR MASONRY WALL
The building designer shall allow for a bearing plate for the joist girder. The plate
shall be in accordance with CAN/CSA S304.1-04 Standard if used for a masonry wall
and CAN/CSA A23.3-04 Standard if used on concrete. The plate shall have minimum
dimensions in length and width to ensure a minimum bearing for the joist girder of
150 mm (6 in.) and to allow the horizontal legs of the seat to be welded to the
bearing plate.
BEARING ON STEEL
The joist girder shall be extended on the steel support to respect the minimum
bearing of 100 mm (4 in.). The building designer must ensure that the type of
connection and bearing support used respect this criteria.
29
Standard details
DETAILS
CEILING EXTENSION
FLUSH SHOE
A flush shoe can be used when the joist reaction does not exceed 45 kN (10 kip).
BOLTED SPLICE
In certain cases, joists are delivered in two sections. This is usually done because
of transportation considerations, difficult installation conditions in an existing
building, or dipping tank dimension limitations when a joist receives hot galvanization
treatment. A bolted splice is usually made at mid span.
The number and position of plates and bolts can vary according to the loads to be
transferred. We use high-strength bolts that meet ASTM A325 or ASTM A490
standards.
A A
Section A
A
A
B B
Section A
Section B
Bolted splice at top chord
Bolted splice at bottom chord
30
Standard details
Depending on dimensions and quantities, joists can be fabricated as a single piece
that is split into two sections for shipping, or fabricated as two separate pieces. In the
plant, two additional metal tags are attached to the central part of the joist to ensure
correspondence of male and female parts. Joists fabricated as a single piece will have
two identical metal tags in the central part of the joist. On the other hand, joists
fabricated as two separate pieces will have different metal tags.
Example of identification for a joist fabricated as a single piece:
If multiple joists with the same mark are fabricated, placement of the male
section of the first joist must correspond with placement of the female section
of the first joist, and so forth in the same manner. Examples: T1-1 with T1-1, T1-2
with T1-2, etc.
Example of identification for a joist fabricated as two separate pieces:
If multiple joists with the same mark are fabricated, the male sections can be
arranged with any female section of the joist. They will be identified in the
following manner: T1-L with T1-R.
BOTTOM CHORD BEARING
When the joist bearing is on the bottom chord, the top chord must be laterally
supported with bridging.
CANTILEVER JOIST
A cantilever joist can have bearing on the top or bottom chord. The bottom chord
must be adequately braced to resist compression loads caused by the cantilever.
It is good practice to install a bridging row next to the joist support as well as at the
end of its cantilevers.
Top chord bearing requires bolted splices on the bottom chord.
Bottom chord bearing Top chord bearing
Erection drawing
mark tag
T1
Male and female section tags
T1-1 T1-1
Erection drawing
mark tag
T1
Male and female section tags
T1-L T1-R
31
Standard details
JOIST AND JOIST GIRDER IDENTIFICATION
Joists and joist girders are identified on erection drawings by piece marks,
examples: T1, T1A, J1, M2, etc. Joists and joist girders from the same family (T1,
T1A) usually have the same chords but differ in terms of connections. Identical
joists and joist girders have the same piece mark. Piece marks are indicated on
the drawing near one of the ends of the line representing the joist or joist girder.
At the plant, a metal identification tag is attached to the left end of the joist or
joist girder. It is essential that the joist or joist girder be erected so that the metal
tag is positioned at the same end of the building as indicated on the erection
drawing.
STANDARD CONNECTIONS
Use of Canam standard connection details is strongly recommended for the
following reasons:
Standardization of fabrication information;
Faster drawing checking;
Minimized risk of error.
However specific customer requests can be accommodated.
The standard connection details can be downloaded from the Canam web site
at: www.canam-construction.com.
Below is the list of available connection details:
Joists bearing on steel structures;
Joists bearing on concrete structures;
Joist girders bearing on steel structures;
Joist girders bearing on concrete structures.
Hillcrest Curling Facility I Vancouver, British Columbia
Nemaska First Nation
Sports Complex I Nemiscau, Quebec
32
Standard details
Surface preparation plays a significant role in paint performance. Adequate surface
preparation allows the paint to adhere to structural steel, providing improved
protection against corrosion. The level of preparation and the paint application
method both depend on the type of environment to which the steel will be exposed.
Thanks to ultramodern equipment selected to meet the most demanding
requirements, Canam Group is poised to offer surface preparation, metallizing and
painting services for all types and scales of structural steel and metal components.
Treatment processes are based on the latest technologies in order to achieve
optimum results.
PAINT STANDARDS
In 1975, The Canadian Institute of Steel Construction (CISC) in cooperation with the
Canadian Paint Manufacturers Association (CPMA) published reference documents
related to the paint specifications for structural steel.
The CISC/CPMA 1-73a paint standard applies to a quickdrying one-coat paint for
use on structural steel that provides adequate protection against exposure to a
non-corrosive environment as found in rural, urban, or semi-industrial settings, for
a period not exceeding six months. Painted structural steel building components
using this standard should not be used on permanent exterior exposed applications.
Exposure of this product in coastal or high industrial areas may cause advanced
deterioration of paint applied to this specification. Surface preparation may be
limited to Solvent Cleaning (SSPC SP1) or Hand Tool Cleaning (SSPC SP2). Because
of possible noncompatibility of this paint with finish coats, this shop applied paint
is not recommended for use as a primer for the application of a multi-layer paint
system.
The CISC/CPMA 2-75 paint standard applies to a quick-drying primer for use on
structural steel. This one-coat primer provides acceptable protection when exposed
to a mainly non-corrosive environment as found in a rural, urban, or semi-industrial
settings, for a period not exceeding twelve months. Painted structural steel building
components using this standard should not be used on permanent exterior exposed
applications. Exposure of this product in coastal or high industrial areas may cause
advanced deterioration of paint applied to this specification. Final surface
preparation must be done by Brush-Off Blast Cleaning (SSPC SP7). This layer of
primer is usually covered with a finish coat according to the paint suppliers
recommendations.
Dip coating is commonly used to apply paint for one or more of the above standards.
When compared with spraying, experts in the field recommend application by
dipping because it provides improved coverage of exposed surfaces. Although a
coat of paint applied by dipping does not create an even dry film layer, it does not
reduce its protection against corrosion.
PAINT COSTS
Canam uses a single type of paint that meets both the CISC/CPMA 1-73a and CISC/
CPMA 2-75 specifications. The cost difference is mainly the result of two factors:
surface preparation (SSPC SP2 or SSPC SP7) and the method of primer application
(dipping or spraying). The following table compares paint costs according to final
surface preparation and paint application methods for both paint standards. For
example, for CISC/CPMA 1-73a type paint using SSPC SP2 final surface preparation,
it is noted that spray painting is twelve times more expensive than dipping.
33
Surface preparation and paint
SELECTION TABLE FOR PAINT COSTS
Paint
type
Surface
preparation
Paint application cost factor
Dipping Spraying
CISC/CPMA 1-73a SSPC SP2 1 12
CISC/CPMA 2-75 SSPC SP7 6 16
Canam may apply paint that meets standards other than those specified in this
document. Prices and delivery schedules are adjusted accordingly. For example,
certain types of paint require nearly 24 hours before handling the joists.
COLOURS
Standard paint colour is gray. Red paint is optional.
JOISTS EXPOSED TO THE ELEMENTS
OR CORROSIVE CONDITIONS
A high performance anti-corrosive paint is recommended for specification on joists
permanently exposed to the elements or corrosive conditions during their service
life. The building designer must pay special attention to item 6.5.7 of the CAN/CSA
16-01 standard. If a minimum thickness of material is required, it must be indicated
on the drawings and specifications.
When specified, joists may be hot dipped galvanized. Brush off blast cleaning
surface preparation (SSPC SP7) is recommended to prevent scaling problems. In the
galvanization process, the joists are acid washed, rinsed, and then dipped in a zinc
bath at a temperature of 450C (840F). The depth and span of joists are limited by
the size of the subcontractors galvanizing tanks. (Reference: www.galvanizeit.org)
For strict conditions of hygiene, such as for meat products or food processing, it
is recommended that the building designer specifies sealed welds. If the welds
are not sealed, there is a risk that the acid used in the cleaning process remains
trapped between the surface of the steel and causes acid bleeding through ruptures
in the zinc film caused by pressure. The building designer must limit specification of
sealed joints unless absolutely necessary because sealed joints require additional
shop time. For galvanization, the thickness of the top and bottom chords shall
be at least 4 mm (0.157 in.), and 3 mm (0.118 in.) for the web members, to avoid
permanent deformation of the chords from overheating.
Galvanized joists may also be painted. The building designer must ensure
compatibility between the paint type and the galvanization product.
34
Surface preparation and paint
STEEL JOIST FLOOR VIBRATION COMPARISON
The increased use of longer spans and lighter floor systems has resulted in the need
to address the problem of floor vibration. The building structural designer must
analyze floor vibration and its effect on the building end users and specify the
proper characteristics to reduce vibration.
The behavior of two-way flooring systems has been studied using models and
in-situ testing. Several simplified equations have been developed to predict floor
behavior and damping values for walking induced vibration and have been
established according to the type of wall partitions and floor finishes. These
equations are now part of Appendix E, a non-mandatory part of CSA standard S16
since 1984. In 2005, the National Building Code also addressed this issue at the
Appendix D of the user guide.
Steel Design Guide no. 11 Floor vibrations due to human activity, jointly published
by the American and Canadian institutes of steel construction in 1997, contains
more recent information on the subject. This guide covers different types of floor
vibrations and is one of the main references of Appendix E of standard
CAN/CSA S16-01.
The formulas shown in these publications allow the user to define the vibration
characteristics of a floor system: the initial acceleration produced by a heel drop
and the natural frequency of the system. These two parameters allow the designer
to verify if the floor system will produce vertical oscillations in resonance with
rhythmic human activities or with enough amplitude to disturb other occupants.
The amplitude of the vibrations will decay according to the type of partitions,
ceiling suspensions, and floor finish. The decay rate will also influence the
sensitivity of the occupants.
This information is not readily available to the joist supplier. The joist supplier
usually receives only the floor drawings and general joist specifications and this
information is used for joist design.
Furthermore, the following examples show that the design of a joist, for which
spacing, depth, span, bearing support, and dead loads have all been predetermined
by the project structural engineer, cannot be easily modified to reduce floor
vibration induced by walking below the annoyance threshold for the other
occupants.
The example is given for office floors where the annoyance threshold is defined as
a floor acceleration of 0.5% of the gravity acceleration. For floors in a shopping
centre, the threshold would be an acceleration of 1.5% of the gravity acceleration.
This higher threshold means that the occupants are less disturbed by vibrations
produced by walking loads.
35
Vibration
TYPICAL OFFICE FLOOR USED AS BASE
In the example, the joists have a 9,000 mm (29 ft.-6 in.) span, a 500 mm (approx.
20 in.) depth, and are spaced at 1,200 mm (3 ft.-11 in.) on center. The joists are
bearing on beams at both ends on 100 mm deep seats. We consider that the beams
will only be partially composite for vibration calculations because of the relative
lack of lateral stiffness of such a bearing seat. The beam span is 7,500 mm
(24 ft.-7 in.) with joists on one side only.
The floor is composed of a 100 mm (4 in.) concrete slab, including the 38 mm
(1 in.) steel deck profile. The loads are as follows:
Structural steel 0.25 kPa ( 5 psf)
Steel joists 0.20 kPa ( 4 psf)
Deck-slab of 100 mm 1.87 kPa (39 psf)
Ceiling, mechanical & floor finish 0.50 kPa (10 psf)
Partitions 1.00 kPa (21 psf)
DEAD LOAD TOTAL 3.82 kPa (79 psf)
LIVE LOAD 2.40 kPa (50 psf)
From the Canam catalog, select a joist with a 9-meter (29 ft.-6
3
8 in.)span to support
the following load:
w
f
= 1.2 m x (3.82 x 1.25 + 2.4 x 1.5)
= 10.05 kN/m
The 9-meter (29 ft.- in.) selection table indicates that joists with a 10.5 kN/m
factored capacity will weigh 16.7 kg/m and that 66% of the service load will produce
a deflection value of span/360. By reducing the simple span deflection formula
under uniform load for span/360, we obtain the following approximation of the
moment of inertia:
I
joist
= 23,436 x percentage x w
s
x (span)
3

where
I
joist
= moment of inertia in mm
4
percentage = value shown in table for deflection / 100
w
s
= total service load (total factored load / 1.5)
span = span of joist in meters
I
joist
= 23,436 x (66 / 100) x (10.5 / 1.5) x (9)
3
= 79 x 10
6
mm
4
The center of gravity of the joist can be assumed to be at mid depth:
A
joist chords
= I
joist
/ (depth / 2)
2
= 1,263 mm
2
A beam can be chosen from the selection tables published by the CISC (assuming
that the beam supports joists on both sides):
W530 x 74 (W21 x 50) with
F
y
= 350 MPa (50 ksi) and a moment of inertia of 156 x 10
6
mm
4
Notes: This example is based on International System of Units (SI) measurements.
An approximate conversion of certain values is provided in parentheses for
reference purposes.
Take care not to confuse composite moment of inertia and modified
moment of inertia (equation 3.15) with effective moment of inertia (equation
3.18) in Guide No. 11. The moment of inertia specified on the drawings must
be the joist moment of inertia based on the top and bottom chords. Always
specify the type of moment of inertia that is indicated on the drawings.
36
Vibration
ALTERNATIVE 1
If a slab of 140 mm (5 in.) instead of 100 mm (4 in.) is used, the dead load increases
and the size of the joists and beams will also increase.
Structural steel 0.25 kPa ( 5 psf)
Steel joists 0.20 kPa ( 4 psf)
Deck-slab of 140 mm 2.79 kPa (58 psf)
Ceiling, mechanical & floor finish 0.50 kPa (10 psf)
Partitions 1.00 kPa (21 psf)
DEAD LOAD TOTAL 4.74 kPa (98 psf)
LIVE LOAD 2.40 kPa (50 psf)
From the Canam catalog, select a joist with a 9-meter (29 ft.-6
3
8 in.) span to support
the following load:
w
f
= 1.2 m x (4.74 x 1.25 + 2.4 x 1.5)
= 11.43 kN/m
The table indicates that the joists will weigh 18.2 kg/m and that 64% of the service
load will produce a deflection value of span/360.
I
joist
= 23,436 x (64 / 100) x (12 / 1.5) x (9)
3
= 88 x 106 mm
4
The center of gravity of the joist can be assumed to be at mid depth:
A
joist chords
= I
joist
/ (depth / 2)
2
= 1,400 mm
2
This time, the beam chosen from the CISC selection tables (considering that the
beam support each side of the joists):
W530 x 82 (W21 x 55) with Fy = 350 MPa (50 ksi)
and
Ix = 478 x 10
6
mm
4
Note: This example is based on International System of Units (SI) measurements.
An approximate conversion of certain values is provided in parentheses for
reference purposes.
ALTERNATIVE 2
Starting from the base example, we consider that the structural engineer of the
building clearly indicates that the size of the joists should be doubled to reduce
floor vibration.
Using the data of those 3 conditions, with the proposed equations of Steel Design
Guide no. 11 published jointly by the American and Canadian institutes for steel
construction, we obtain the vibration properties shown in the following comparison
table:
37
Vibration
This comparison shows that the vibration characteristics improve by adding dead
weight rather than by doubling the joist non-composite moment of inertia.
One must note that the alternative 2 used did not sufficiently improve the vibration
properties of the floor to lower their amplitude to below the annoyance threshold for
offices. Additional calculations indicate that using a 125 mm (5 in.) deck-slab with a
100% increase in the joist and beam sections would lower the vibration amplitude
to below the annoyance threshold of 0.5% of g.
The building designer controls the main parameters affecting floor vibration
characteristics and he or she should make the vibration calculations to find an
economical solution. The information supplied in this catalog will allow the
structural engineer to evaluate the vibration properties of the floor during the
initial design.
The structural engineer of the project should always specify the proper slab
thickness and the minimum moment of inertia of the steel joists to have a floor
with vibration characteristics below the annoyance threshold based on the type
of occupancy. The joist designer will ensure conformity to the minimum moment
of inertia required by the building designer for the joists (see clause 16.5.15
vibration).
Please note that the analysis of floors subject to rhythmic vibrations (dance floor) is
different from that performed for vibrations caused by walking (Steel Design Guide,
no. 11 Floor vibrations due to human activity, chapter 5).
Finally, here are a few tips to obtain satisfactory vibration behavior:
increase the thickness of the concrete slab;
increase beam moment of inertia;
give special consideration to perimeter beams and joists;
add shear transfer elements or shear studs between the beam and the concrete
slab to obtain a composite action;
reduce the span of joists and beams;
increase joist moment of inertia.
COMPARISON OF VARIOUS ARRANGEMENTS
Parameter Base
Alternative 1
(increased thickness
of slab by 30 mm)
Alternative 2
(increased joist moment
of inertia)
Peak acceleration a
o
(% g) 0.80 % 0.50 % 0.57 %
System frequency f (Hz) 4.5 4.5 5
Joist length (mm) 9,000 9,000 9,000
Joist depth (mm) 500 500 500
Joist spacing (mm) 1,200 1,200 1,200
Composite joist moment of inertia (10
6
mm
4
) 198 256 372
Deck depth (mm) 38 38 38
Slab-deck thickness (mm) 100 140 100
Slab-deck-joist dead weight (kPa) 1.87 2.79 1.87
Additional participating load (kPa) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Beam size W530 x 74 W530 x 82 W530 x 74
Beam span (mm) 7,500 7,500 7,500
38
Vibration
SPECIAL JOIST DEFLECTION
Appendix D of the CAN/CSA S16-01 standard provides recommended maximum
values for deflections for specified design live and wind loads. The following are the
maximum values of appendix D recommended for the vertical deflection:
Building type Specied loading Application Maximum
Industrial Live Members supporting inelastic roof coverings. L/240
Live Members supporting inelastic roof coverings. L/180
Live Members supporting oors. L/300
Maximum wheel loads
(no impact)
Crane runway girders for crane capacity of 225 kN and over. L/800
Maximum wheel loads
(no impact)
Crane runway girders for crane capacity of 225 kN. L/600
All others Live Members of oors and roofs supporting
construction and nishes susceptible to cracking.
L/360
Live Members of oors and roofs supporting
construction and nishes not susceptible to cracking.
L/300
Notes: As mentioned in Appendix D, the designer should consider the inclusion of
specified dead loads in some instances. For example, nonpermanent
partitions, which are classified by the National Building Code as dead load,
should be part of the loading considered under Appendix D if they are likely
to be applied to the structure after the completion of finishes susceptible to
cracking.
Please note that the concrete cover at the centre line of the joist will be
reduced by the amount of camber provided minus the deflection realized
under self weight of the concrete alone. This must be accounted by the
designer of the building with respect to the serviceability and fire resistance,
etc.
DEFLECTION OF CANTILEVERED JOISTS
It is important to note that in the calculation of the allowable deflection of
cantilevered joists, we consider that the cantilever end length "L" is equivalent to
twice its length, as mentioned in Commentary D of the National Building Code of
Canada (NBC) 2005 User's Guide.
Therefore, for a 1,000 mm (3 ft.-3 in.) cantilever end length with a deflection criteria
of L/240, the maximum allowable deflection is 2 x 1,000/240 = 8 mm (
5
16 in.).
CAMBER
Camber is specified by the building designer on the plans and specifications.
Unless otherwise indicated by the designer, the standards are applied as stated in
Clause 6.2.2.1 of the CAN/CSA S16-01 Standard and the joist girders are cambered
to compensate for the deflection due to the dead load. Joist girders with a span of
25 m (82 ft.) or more are cambered for the dead load plus one half of the service
load.
In some cases, camber must be restricted for joists and joist girders adjacent to
non-flexible walls.
1,000 mm (3 ft.-3 in.)
39
Special conditions
SPECIAL LOADS AND MOMENTS
Canadian standards classify loads in the following manner: permanent, service,
seismic, and wind loads. For limit states design, loads are factored and combined
to obtain the worst possible effect. Loads applied to joists and joist girders can be
uniform, partial, concentrated, axial, or moment. Snow pile up loads represent a
special partial load case. Uplift loads are applied in an upward direction and should
always be specified as a gross uplift load. Loads can be applied to the top chord,
the bottom chord, or to both chords.
When specifying the dead load, the building designer should always include the
self-weight of the joists and bridging. Unless clearly specified, Canam will assume
that the self-weight of joists is included in the total dead load.
TRANSFER OF AXIAL LOADS
Wind and seismic loads are usually transferred by the roof diaphragm to the axes
of the vertical bracing system. The seismic loads transferred have a cumulative
effect along these axes. The building design engineer specifies these loads on the
plans and specifications.
The transfer of an axial load between joists along the axes of the vertical bracing
system, may require the reinforcement of the first panel at top.
Transfer of axial loads
J
o
i
s
t

(
a
x
i
a
l
)
A Lateral load
Section A-A
Axial:
an additional
load specified by
the building designer
must be considered.
J
o
i
s
t

(
a
x
i
a
l
)
J
o
i
s
t

(
a
x
i
a
l
)
J
o
i
s
t

(
a
x
i
a
l
)
A
Uniform
Triangular
At any panel point
Anywhere
At a specific
location
VARIOUS TYPES OF LOADS
Moment load
Axial load
Concentrated load
Snow pile up load
Partial load
Uniform load
40
Special conditions
41
Special conditions
The building designer may consider a lateral factored capacity of 4.5 kN (1,000 lb)
for the joist seats for the transfer of the deck shear forces to the girder top chord.
Adding shear connectors between the joists on the girder increases the capacity to
transfer diaphragm shear forces.
Depending on the specifications of the building designer, axial loads between two
joist girders may be transferred to the top chord as follows:
By angles placed under the top chord of the joist girders (suggestion 1);
By a transfer plate placed on the top of the top chord (suggestion 2);
By a transfer plate placed between the two angles of the top chord of the joist
girders (suggestion 3);
Without a transfer piece using the capacity of the joist girder shoes
(suggestion 4).
Although not illustrated, the transfer of an axial load by the base of the shoe,
usually requires bracing of the first panel of the top chord.
In the case where a joist girder has adjacent bracing, the effect is represented by an
axial load applied to the bottom chord.
Transfer on an axial load by two angles
placed under the top chord
Suggestion 1
Section A-A
A
A
Supplied by the
steel contractor
unless otherwise
noted.
Transfer of an axial load by a plate
placed on the top of the top chord
Suggestion 2
Supplied by the steel
contractor unless
otherwise noted.
Transfer of an axial load by a plate placed between the angles of the top chord
Suggestion 3
A
A
Section A-A
Supplied by the
steel contractor
unless otherwise
noted.
Transfer of an axial load using the shoes
Suggestion 4
Transfer of an axial load at the bottom chord
and
42
Special conditions
UNBALANCED LOADS
As with a steel supporting beam, the joist girder can have an unbalanced load on
its longitudinal axis. Joists distributed on either side of the joist girder may be at
different lengths or the loads they support may vary. This situation causes torsional
stress in the joist girder, which will be considered by the joist girder designer.
Therefore the designer could specify larger chords and web members for the joist
girder and add additional knee braces between the bottom chord of the joist girders
and the joists bearing on them.
However, to avoid unbalanced loads, the joists must be staggered on each side of
the joist girder:
The offsetting of joists bearing on the joist girder will be considered by Canam
during the design stage.
LOAD REDUCTION ACCORDING TO TRIBUTARY AREA
Although a joist girder may have a tributary area that is much larger than that of a
joist, a reduction of the live load allowed by the National Building Code of Canada
in Clause 4.1.6.9 is very limited. In fact, no reduction is permitted for a live load due
to snow or an assembly area designed for a live load less than 4.8 kPa (100 psf). The
reduction is applicable for a specific use and a minimal surface area (reference:
NBC 2005, Clauses 4.1.6.9.2 and 4.1.6.9.3).
Unbalanced loading
R1 R2
Joist girder
Joist girder
R1
R2
Joist girder
Staggered joists
New spacings for staggered joists
2.2 m
7 - 2
2 m
6 - 8
2 m
6 - 8
2 m
6 - 8
2 m
6 - 8
1.9 m
6 - 2
2 m
6 - 8
2 m
6 - 8
2 m
6 - 8
2 m
6 - 8
2 m
6 - 8
2 m
6 - 8
Joist girder
Joist
Joist
Centre of reaction
C
L
Joists are staggered
as required
Joist girder
Joist girder
Joist girder
top chord
Gravitational moments
END MOMENTS
GRAVITATIONAL MOMENTS
The use of a joist or joist girder in a rigid frame relieves the top chord and carries
the compression loads to the bottom chord.
End moments, as specified by the building designer on the plans and specifications,
result in the analysis of a frame with defined moments of inertia. It is recommended
that the building designer specifies minimum and maximum limits of inertia to
ensure that the frame is designed according to the analysis model.
The moment of inertia of the joist girder may be estimated using the equation
below in either metric or imperial.
METRIC
I = 1,596 M
f
D
where I = Moment of inertia of the joist girder (mm
4
)
M
f
= Factored bending moment (kNm)
D = Depth of joist girder (mm)
Note : M
f
may be calculated by considering a uniform load applied to the joist girder.
M
f
= (1.25DL + 1.5LL) x l x L
2
8
where DL = Dead load (kPa)
LL = Live load (kPa)
l = Tributary width of joist girder (m)
L = Joist girder span (m)
IMPERIAL
I = 0.132 M
f
D
where I = Moment of inertia of the joist girder (in.
4
)
M
f
= Factored bending moment (kipft.)
D = Depth of joist girder (in.)
Note : M
f
may be calculated using a uniform loading applied to the joist girder.
M
f
= (1.25DL + 1.5LL) x l x L
2
8,000
where DL = Dead load (psf)
LL = Live load (psf)
l = Tributary width of joist girder (ft.)
L = Joist girder span (ft.)
43
Special conditions
WIND MOMENTS
Horizontal wind loads on a joist or joist girder in a rigid frame may cause alternating
moments as shown beside. Consequently, the joist will be analyzed with opposite
moments.
Examples: Case No. 1 - 10 kNm and + 10 kNm
Case No. 2 + 10 kNm and - 10 kNm
JOIST OR JOIST GIRDER ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
The erection plans, supplied by Canam, usually instruct the erector to fasten the
bottom chord after all of the dead loads have been applied. In this way, the joist or
joist girder follows the condition for simple span condition under dead loads. In the
case of end gravity moments, Canam will assume that they are caused only by the
live load, unless otherwise specified by the building designer.
When end moments are specified, the joist or joist girder shall first be designed
to support loads on simple span condition. Then according to the combination of
defined loads in the codes, different loading scenarios can be generated during
analysis of the joist or joist girder. Each element shall be designed for worst-case
conditions, whether simple span or with end moments.
In addition to providing the end moment values applicable to the joist or joist girder,
the building designer must pay special attention to ensure that the end connections
develop the moments for which the building was designed.
As in the case of the transfer of axial loads, the transfer of loads generated by an
end moment may require the reinforcement of the first panel at top chord or by
another type of reinforcement calculated according to the load.
The end moment transferred to the joist girder can divide into forces in opposite
directions (couple) applied to the top and bottom chords.
For a connection with a transfer plate, the couple is calculated as follows:
T
f
= C
f
= M
f
d
e
where T
f
= C
f
= Axial force (kN or kip)
M
f
= Factored moment connection ((kNm or kippi)
d
e
= Effective joist girder depth (m or ft.)
Wind moments
Connection at bottom chord
with a tie joist plate
Transfer of the loads via a transfer plate
Transfer plate supplied by
the steel contractor unless
otherwise noted.
Stabilizer plate supplied by
the steel contractor unless
otherwise noted.
M
f
T
f
or C
f
d
e
T
f
or C
f
44
Special conditions
For a connection where the loads are carried by the shoe base, the axial force
increases due to a shorter moment arm.
T
f
= C
f
= M
f
d
e
where T
f
= C
f
= Axial force (kN or kip)
M
f
= Factored moment connection ((kNm or kippi)
d
e
= Effective joist girder depth (m or ft.)
Since the loads transferred by the base of the shoe create significant eccentricity,
normally the first panel must be reinforced by the joist girder engineer.
Different types of reinforcement of the first panel are presented below.
Some connections to the bottom chord of joist or joist girder use an angle welded
to the column and a tie joist plate shop welded to the joist girder. However, this type
of connection, as shown beside, is no longer recommended.
A standard connection with a stabilizer plate is more simple and gives the same
lateral stability.
The steel contractor usually supplies the steel plate on the column at the location
of the bottom chord of the joist girder. The plate is inserted between the vertical
flanges of the bottom chord angles. A plate should have a thickness of 13 mm ( in.)
or 19 mm ( in.). A hole in the stabilizer plate allows the column to be plumbed with
guy wires. The transfer of forces from the column to the bottom chord is achieved
by welding the angles of the bottom chord to the plate, as indicated beside.
Vertical eccentricity at bearing due to the axial load
e
Transfer of the loads by the shoe base
T
f
or C
f
d
e
T
f
or C
f
M
f
Joist girder shoe
Stabilizer plate supplied by
the steel contractor unless
otherwise noted.
M
f
Different types of reinforcement of the first panel
e
A- Addition of a strut
e
B- Addition of stiffener plate
e
C- Shoe extension
Standard connection at bottom
chord with a stabilizer plate
Only in the case or
we must transfer
from the efforts.
Section A-A
A
A
45
Special conditions
JOISTS ADJACENT TO MORE RIGID SURFACES
Joists adjacent to non-flexible walls or to beams and joists having a much
shorter span, must have less deflection. The deflection limitation is necessary to
avoid potential problems resulting from too large a movement differential.These
problems tend to occur in the central part of the joist. To avoid an abrupt transition
from the permitted deflection, it is recommended to change the deflection limit
gradually, for adjacent joists having spans in excess of 12 m (40 ft.):
Adjacent joist
Deection criterion
Metric (mm) Imperial (ft.)
1st joist Span / 50 Span / 0.167
2nd joist Span / 70 Span / 0.229
3rd joist Span / 90 Span / 0.292
4th joist Span / 110 Span / 0.354
5th joist Span / 130 Span / 0.417
Note: In all cases, the deflection criterion (usually under the service load) must be
greater than or equal to that specified on the customer drawings or mentioned
in the specifications.
Example: Span = 25 m; deflection criterion under service load = L / 240
Another solution consists of placing a perimeter joist with a sliding assembly on
the supporting wind column. This also allows for easier building expansion in the
future. Given the weak lateral rigidity of a joist, when it is acted upon laterally by
the top of the wind column, the structural engineer must assure transfer of the
load into the roof diaphragm or another horizontal bracing system.
JOISTS WITH LATERAL SLOPE
Building designers should request joists with a lateral slope only when absolutely
necessary as this is not an economical approach.
When using standing seam metal roofs, the joist top chord must be checked for in
plane and out of plane (lateral) loads when the lateral slope exceeds what is
required for normal roof drainage (2%).
With steel deck attached to the top chord of the joists, the diaphragm action of the
deck should be sufficient to brace the joist top chord as long as the lateral slope
does not exceed 6%.
Special consideration is also required for long-span joists. Since these components
are subject to lateral deformation during installation, special dispositions may be
required during the erection process. It could be advantageous to consider using
steel deck with a higher gage in order to ensure the lateral support of joists.
The following paragraphs explain what is required to provide resistance to the out
of plane load component for the other cases.
When a joist is installed with a lateral slope, a portion of the vertical load applied to
the roof acts upon the joist laterally. Therefore, the lateral load must be considered
when calculating the size of the top chord and the bridging. In this case, the bridging
system plays a more important role.
C B A
2
1
Bridging lines
Horizontal
bracings
Slope Slope
Joists
1
st
joist
2
nd
joist
3
rd
joist
4
th
joist
Criterion = 25,000 / 50 = 500
Criterion = 25,000 / 70 = 357
Criterion = 25,000 / 90 = 278
Criterion = 25,000 / 110 = 227



L/500
L/360
L/280
L/240 min.
25,000
Line with increased stiffness
Typ.
Wind
column
Wind thrust given by the designer.
46
Special conditions
First Alliance Church I Calgary, Alberta
For slopes 15 that are symmetrical between both sides of the summit, horizontal
bracing is not required if the structural bridging rows are attached to the ridge
because the horizontal forces from each slope cancel each other.
For slopes 16, the difference between the forces generated by unbalanced loads
must be taken into consideration. The use of horizontal bracing or steel deck with a
higher gage therefore becomes necessary.
ANCHORS ON JOISTS
It is not recommended to subject joists to torsion loads. Anchors that are attached
to joists will cause significant torsion. The installation of a frame between two joists
will prevent deformation and obtain an economical design.
Not recommended Recommended
Joists
Anchorage
47
Special conditions
SPECIAL JOISTS
Canam can design and manufacture special joists to suit the conditions required by
the building designer. A non standard joist can have particular assembly conditions
and/or a special shape as described on page 27.
Connecting a joist to a primary support like a truss, a beam or a column by others
means than a standard shoe, or replacing some joist components to accommodate
the connection of beams or other pieces, will make a special joist.
Depending of the shape, special loading conditions may apply as per the Canadian
standards in force. The building designer must clearly provide the special loading
conditions on the specification documents and on the drawings.
A special joist, very deep for example, may also require special shipping
arrangements.
The expertise of Canam in design and fabrication goes much higher than
manufacturing only standard products.
Haverstraw Marina I West Haverstraw, New York
48
Special conditions
JOIST GIRDER TO COLUMN CONNECTIONS
BEARING REACTION
This section is intended to present to the building designer possible positions of the
joist girder on the column. Consider the following three types of connections:
bearing on top of the column, bearing on a bracket facing the column, and bearing
facing the column but with a reaction at the center. For the first two types, the
impact of connecting one or two joist girders to the column is also presented.
BEARING ON TOP OF THE COLUMN
A bearing on top of the column is the most economical solution. Sufficient shoe
depth, usually 190 mm (7.5 in.), allows a reaction close to the center of the column.
However, the slope of the end diagonal of the joist girder along with the width of
the column may move the position of the reaction away from the center of
the column.
In general, the reaction of the joist girder occurs at the center or to the outside of
the centerline of the shoe.
Even if there is only one joist girder bearing on top of the column, an extension of
the shoe to completely cover the column does not guarantee that the reaction will
be located at the center of the column. As previously mentioned, the physical
limitations may approach or move away from the reaction.
When two joist girders are bearing on top of a column, their reactions are produced
closer to the exterior faces of the column. Unbalanced reactions caused by varying
bay dimensions, different bay loads, or by unbalanced loading conditions, as
prescribed in the National Building Code of Canada, may cause bending stress in
the column.
The building designer must consider these special conditions when designing
the column.
Joist girder reaction
R
Joist girder reaction on top of the column
R
C
Reactions of two joist girders on top of the column
R1
R2
C
ING of Canada I Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec
Joist girder sitting on a bracket connected
to the web of a column
49
Special conditions
BEARING FACING THE COLUMN
When the joist girder bearing is facing the column, a bending moment is induced in
the column. However, a bracket bearing is more economical for the fabrication of the
joist girder compared to other bearing connections presented in Models 1 and 2.
As mentioned previously, even if two joist girders are bearing on either side of the
column, unbalanced reactions may cause bending stress in the column, similar to
beams framing from both sides.
The design engineer must consider the eccentricity of the position of the reaction
of the joist girder in designing the column. Generally, an eccentricity of 38 mm (1.5
in.) can be considered in the calculation of the column.
BEARING FACING THE COLUMN WITH CENTER REACTION
Although designing a column is made easier by considering that the reaction of the
joist is not eccentric in relation to the column axis, the design and fabrication of
eccentric connections is more complex. Consequently, the cost of a joist girder
increases with this type of connection.
It is recommended to specify on the plan joist girders with a shoe under the top
chord and to allow for the eccentricity of the joist girder reaction when designing
the column.
Bearing facing the column on either sides
R1
R2
C
Bearing facing the column
with centre reaction
R
C
Joist girder sitting on a column bracket
R
C
Model 1 End plate
R
C
Model 2 Knife plate
R
C
50
Special conditions
With the permission of the Canadian Standards Association, material is reproduced
from the CSA Standard CAN/CSA S16-01 Limit States Design of Steel Structures,
which is copyrighted by CSA, 178 Rexdale Blvd., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9W
1R3. While use of this material has been authorized, CSA shall not be responsible
for the manner in which the information is presented, nor for any interpretations
thereof.
While the CISCs comment is not an integral part of the CAN/CSA S16-01 standard,
Canam inserted the paragraphs corresponding to the standard. They are indicated
in italic. Some figures of the comment were modified in order to reflect our
products.
16. OPEN-WEB STEEL JOISTS
16.1 SCOPE
Clause 16 provides requirements for the design, manufacture, transportation, and
erection of open-web steel joists used in the construction of buildings. Joists
intended to act compositely with the deck slab shall also meet the requirements of
Clause 17. Clause 16 shall be used only for the design of joists having an axis of
symmetry in the plane of the joist.
16.1 SCOPE
Open-web steel joists (OWSJ or joists), as described in Clause 16.2, are generally
proprietary products whose design, manufacture, transport, and erection are
covered by the requirements of Clause 16. The Standard clarifies the information to
be provided by the building designer (user-purchaser) and the joist manufacturer
(joist designer-fabricator).
16.2 GENERAL
Open-web steel joists are steel trusses of relatively low mass with parallel or slightly
pitched chords and triangulated web systems proportioned to span between walls
or structural supporting members, or both, and to provide direct support for floor
or roof deck. In general, joists are manufactured on a production line that employs
jigs, with certain details of the members being standardized by the individual
manufacturer. Joists may be designed to provide lateral support to compression
elements of beams or columns, to participate in lateral-load-resisting systems, or
as continuous joists, cantilevered joists, or joists having special support conditions.
16.2 GENERAL
The distinction between standard and non-standard OWSJ no longer exists as
OWSJs are designed specifically for each situation by the joist manufacturer. Those
definitions related to joists that are still required are now found in Clause 2 of the
Standard.
This clause has been expanded to list functions that joists may fulfil other than the
simple support systems for floors or roofs. These include continuous joists,
cantilever joists, joists in lateral-load-resisting systems and support for bracing
members.
51
Standards
16.3 MATERIALS
Steel for joists shall be of a structural quality, suitable for welding, and shall meet
the requirements of Clause 5.1.1. Structural members cold-formed to shape may
use the effect of cold-forming in accordance with Clause 5.2 of CSA Standard S136.
The calculated value of F
y
shall be determined using only the values for F
y
and F
u

that are specified in the relevant structural steel material standard. Yield levels
reported on mill test certificates or determined according to Clause 9.3 of CSA
Standard S136 shall not be used as the basis for design.
16.3 MATERIALS
The use of yield strength levels reported on mill test certificates for the purposes of
design is prohibited here as throughout the Standard. This practice could
significantly lower the margin of safety because any deviation from the specified
value has already been accounted for statistically in the bias value the ratio of the
mean strength to the specified minimum value. Thus, all design rules have been,
and are, based on the use of the specified minimum yield point or yield strength.
For structural members cold-formed to shape, the increase in yield strength due to
cold forming, as given in Clause 5.2 of CAN/CSA-S136, may be taken into account
provided that the increase is based on the specified minimum values in the relevant
structural steel material standard.
16.4 DESIGN DOCUMENTS
16.4.1 BUILDING STRUCTURAL DESIGN DOCUMENTS
The building structural design documents shall include as a minimum:
(a) the uniformly distributed specified live and dead loads, unbalanced
loading conditions, any concentrated loads, and any special loading
conditions such as non-uniform snow loads, ponding loads, horizontal
loads, end moments, net uplift, bracing forces to provide lateral support to
compression elements of beams or columns, allowances for mechanical
equipment, and deflection limits;
(b) joist spacing, camber, joist depth, and shoe depth;
(c) where joists are not supported on steel members, maximum bearing
pressures or sizes of bearing plates;
(d) anchorage requirements in excess of the requirements of Clause 16.5.12;
(e) bracing as may be required by Clause 16.5.6.2;
(f) method and spacing of attachments of steel deck to the top chord; the
documents shall indicate the special cases where the deck is incapable of
supplying lateral support to the top chord (see Clause 16.8.1);
(g) minimum moment of inertia to provide satisfactory design criteria for floor
vibrations if applicable (see Clause 6.2.3.2);
(h) any other necessary information required to design and supply the joists; and
(i) a note that no drilling, cutting, or welding shall be done unless approved by
the building designer.
Note: It is recommended that the building drawings include a note warning that
attachments for mechanical, electrical, and other services should be made by
using approved clamping devices or U-bolt-type connectors.
52
Standards
16.4.1 BUILDING STRUCTURAL DESIGN DOCUMENTS
The Standard recognizes that the building designer may not be the joist designer;
therefore, the building structural design documents are required to provide specific
information for the design of the joists. The information to be supplied has been
increased from six to nine items including a note that any drilling, cutting or welding
has to be approved by the building designer.
Loads such as unbalanced, non-uniform, concentrated, and net uplift, are to be
shown by the building designer. Figure 2-36 shows a joist schedule that could be
used to record all loads on joists.
All heavy concentrated loads such as those resulting from partitions, large pipes,
mechanical, and other equipment to be supported by OWSJ, should be shown on
the structural design documents. Small concentrated loads may be allowed for in
the uniform dead load.
The importance factor, g, (see Clause 7.2.5) when not equal to 1.0, should be
specified by the building designer.
Options, such as attachments for deck when used as a diaphragm, special camber
and any other special requirements should also be provided. Where vibration of a
floor system is a consideration, it is recommended that the building designer give a
suggested moment of inertia I
x
. Because the depth of joists supplied among
different joist manufacturers may vary slightly from nominal values, the depth,
when it is critical, should be specified.
Although steel joist manufacturers may indicate the maximum clear openings for
ducts, etc, which can be accommodated through the web openings of each depth
of their OWSJs, building designers should, in general, show on the building
design drawings the size, location and elevation of openings required through the
OWSJs (Figure 2-37). Large ducts may be accommodated by special design. Ducts
which require open panels and corresponding reinforcement of the joist should,
where possible, be located within the middle half of the joist to minimize shear
problems. This information is required prior to the time of tendering to permit
appropriate costing.
8.9 kN
1.5 kN/m
12,000
3 m
12,000
3 m
10.2 kN/m
12,000
4.38
kN/m
-2.4 kN/m
live =
span
240
live =
span
320
2,000 700 J2
1,300 2.4 kPa
joint
2.6 kPa 600 J1
Mark
Depth
(mm)
Spacing
(mm)
Specified
dead load
Specified
live load
Specified
snow load
Specified
wind load
Remarks
Suggested lx
for vibration
=
Figure 2-36
Joist schedule
Maximum clear opening
When sprayed fire protection is contemplated, reduce clearance by the thickness of sprayed fire protection material.
Thickness
varies
Figure 2-37
Sizes of openings for electrical and mechanical equipment
53
Standards
Specific joist designations from a manufacturers catalogue or from the AISC and
Steel Joist Institute of the U.S.A, are not appropriate and should not be specified.
16.4.2 JOIST DESIGN DOCUMENTS
Joist design documents prepared by the joist manufacturer shall show, as a
minimum, the specified loading, factured member loads, material specification,
member sizes, dimentions, spacers, welds, shoes, anchorages, bracing, bearings,
field splices, bridging locations, camber, and coating type.
16.4.2 JOIST DESIGN DOCUMENTS
The design information of a joist manufacturer may come in varying forms such
as: design sheets, computer printout, and tables. Not all joist manufacturers make
traditional detail drawings.
16.5 DESIGN
16.5.1 LOADING FOR OPEN-WEB STEEL JOISTS
The factored moment and shear resistances of openweb steel joists at every
section shall not be less than the moment and shear due to the loading conditions
specified by the building designer in the documents described in Clause 16.4.1(a) or
to the factored dead load plus the following list of factored live load conditions,
considered separately:
(a) for floor joists, an unbalanced live load applied on any continuous portion of
the joist to produce the most critical effect on any component;
(b) for roof joists, an unbalanced loading condition with 100% of the snow load
plus other live loads applied on any continuous portion of the joist and 50%
of the snow load on the remainder of the joist to produce the most critical
effect on any component;
(c) for roof joists, wind uplift; and
(d) the appropriate factored concentrated load (from Table 4.1.6. B of the National
Building Code of Canada - 2005) applied at any one panel point to produce the
most critical effect on any component.
16.5.1 LOADING FOR OPEN-WEB STEEL JOISTS
Because there is now no distinction between standard and special OWSJ only one
loading clause exists instead of two. This is the clause previously given for special
joists.
Maximum factored moments and shears are established either from the loading
conditions in the design documents or from the factored dead load plus the four
factored live loads listed in Clause 16.4.1.
The four factored live load combinations are consistent with Section 4.1 of the
National Building Code of Canada (2005). In particular, as required by the National
Building Code of Canada, roofs and the joists supporting them may be subject to
uplift loads due to wind.
Joist design documents prepared by the joist manufacturer shall show, as a
minimum, the specified loading, factured member loads, material specification,
member sizes, dimentions, spacers, welds, shoes, anchorages, bracing, bearings,
field splices, bridging locations, camber, and coating type.
54
Standards
16.5.2 DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS
Open-web steel joists shall be designed for loads acting in the plane of the joist
applied to the top chord, which is assumed to be prevented from lateral buckling by
the deck. For the purpose of determining axial forces in all members, members may
be assumed to be pin-connected and the loads may be replaced by statically
equivalent loads applied at the panel points.
16.5.2 DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS
The loads may be replaced by statically equivalent loads applied at the panel
points for the purpose of determining axial forces in all members. It is assumed
that any moments induced in the joist chord by direct loading do not influence the
magnitude of the axial forces in the members. Tests on trusses (Aziz 1972) have
shown that the secondary moments induced at rigid joints due to joint rotations
do not affect the ultimate axial forces determined by a pin-jointed truss analysis.
Maximum clear opening When sprayed fire protection is contemplated, reduce
clearance by the thickness of sprayed fire protection material.
16.5.3 VERIFICATION OF JOIST MANUFACTURERS DESIGN
When the adequacy of the design of a joist cannot be readily demonstrated by
a rational analysis based on accepted theory and engineering practice, the joist
manufacturer may elect to verify the design by test. The test shall be carried out to
the satisfaction of the building designer. The test loading shall be 1.10/0.90 times
the factored loads used in the design.
16.5.3 VERIFICATION OF JOIST MANUFACTURERS DESIGN
When there is difficulty in analyzing the effect of certain specific conditions, for
example a particular web-chord connection, or a geometric configuration of a cold
formed chord, a joist manufacturer may elect to verify the design assumption by a
test. In the numerical factor of 1.10/0.90, stipulated as a multiplier for the factored
loads, the factor of 1.10 provides that the results of limited number of tests bear
a similar statistical relationship to the entire series of joists that the average yield
strength has to the specified minimum yield strength, F
y
and the factor 0.90 the
resistance factor in the divisor increases the test load as is appropriate.
16.5.4 MEMBER AND CONNECTION RESISTANCE
Member and connection resistance shall be calculated in accordance with the
requirements of Clause 13 except as otherwise specified in Clause 16.
16.5.5 WIDTH-TO-THICKNESS RATIOS
16.5.5.1
Width-to-thickness ratios of compressive elements of hot-formed sections shall be
governed by Clause 11. Width-to-thickness ratios of compressive elements of
cold-formed sections shall be governed by CSA Standard S136.
16.5.5.2
For the purposes of determining the appropriate width-to-thickness ratio of
compressive elements supported along one edge, any stiffening effect of the deck
or the joist web shall be neglected.
55
Standards
16.5.6 BOTTOM CHORD
16.5.6 BOTTOM CHORD
A minimum radius of gyration is specified for bottom chord members, when in
tension, to provide a minimum stiffness for handling and erection.
Under certain loading conditions, net compression forces may occur in segments
of bottom chords and must be considered. Bracing of the chord, for compression,
may be provided by regular bridging only if the bridging meets requirements of
Clause 9.2. As a minimum, lines of bracing are specifically required near the ends of
bottom chords in tension in order to enhance stability when the wind causes a net
uplift.
Bottom chord bracing may be required for continuous and cantilever joists as
shown in Figure 2-38.
In those cases, where the bottom chord has little or no net compression, bracing
is not required for cantilever joists. However, it is generally considered good
practice to install a line of bridging at the first bottom chord panel point as shown
in Figure 2-38.
16.5.6.1
The bottom chord shall be continuous and, when in tension, may be designed as an
axially loaded tension member unless subject to eccentricities in excess of those
permitted under Clause 16.5.10.4 or subject to applied load between panel points.
The governing radius of gyration of the tension chord or any component thereof
shall be not less than 1 240 of the corresponding unsupported length. For joists
with the web in the y-plane, the unsupported length of chord for computing Lx/rx
shall be taken as the panel length centre to centre of panel points, and the
unsupported length of chord for calculating Ly/ry shall be taken as the distance
between bridging lines connected to the tension chord. Joist shoes, when anchored,
may be assumed to be equivalent to bridging lines. A tension chord subjected to
concentrated loads between panel points shall be designed in accordance with the
provisions of Clause 13.9 when the chord is in tension or Clause 16.5.7.3,
as applicable.
16.5.6.2
The bottom chord shall be designed in accordance with Clause 16.5.7.3 for the
resulting compressive forces when net uplift is specified, when joists are made
continuous or cantilevered, when end moments are specified, or when it provides
lateral support to compression elements of beams or columns. Bracing, when
required, shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of Clause 9.2. For
joists with net uplift, a single line of bottom-chord bridging shall be provided at
each end of the joists near the first bottom chord panel points, unless the ends of
the bottom-chord are otherwise restrained. (See also Clause 16.7.9(a).)
Bracing
or bridging
Bracing
Figure 2-38
Bracing and bridging of cantilever joists
Reinforced to resist
uplift, if necessary.
Reinforced to resist
uplift, if necessary.
56
Standards
16.5.7 TOP CHORD
16.5.7 TOP CHORD
When the conditions set out in Clause 16.5.7.1 are fulfilled, only axial force need be
considered when the panel length is less than 610 mm (Kennedy and Rowan 1964).
In these cases, the stiffness of the floor or roof structure tends to help transfer loads
to the panel points of the joist, thus offsetting the reduction in chord capacity due
to local bending. When the panel length exceeds 610 mm, axial force and bending
moment need to be considered. When calculating bending moments in the end
panel, it is customary to assume the end of the chord to be pinned, even though the
joist bearing is welded to its support. The stiffening effect of supported deck or of
the web is to be neglected when determining the appropriate width-thickness ratio
(Clause 16.5.5.1) of the compression top chord.
The requirement in Clause 16.5.7.5, that the flat width of the chord component be at
least 5 mm larger than the nominal dimension of the weld, should be considered
an absolute minimum. Increasing the dimension may improve workmanship. See
Clauses 16.8.5.1 and 16.8.5.2 regarding workmanship requirements when laying and
attaching deck to joists.
16.5.7.1
The top chord shall be continuous and may be designed for axial compressive force
alone when the panel length does not exceed 610 mm, when concentrated loads
are not applied between the panel points, and when not subject to eccentricities in
excess of those permitted under Clause 16.5.10.4. When the panel length exceeds
610 mm, the top chord shall be designed as a continuous member subject to
combined axial and bending forces.
16.5.7.2
The slenderness ratio, KL/r, of the top chord or of its components shall not exceed
90 for interior panels or 120 for end panels. The governing KL/r shall be the
maximum value determined by the following:
a) for x-x (horizontal) axis, L
x
shall be the centre-to-centre distance between
panel points and K = 0.9;
(b) for y-y (vertical) axis, L
y
shall be the centre-to-centre distance between the
attachments of the deck. The spacing of attachments shall be not more than
the design slenderness ratio of the top chord times the radius of gyration of
the top chord about its vertical axis and not more than 1000 mm, and K = 1.0;
(c) for z-z (skew) axis of individual components, L
z
shall be the centre-to-centre
distance between panel points or spacers, or both, and K = 0.9. Decking shall
not be considered to fulfil the function of batten plates or spacers for top
chords consisting of two separated components and where r = the appropriate
radius of gyration.
57
Standards
16.5.7.3
Compression chords shall be proportioned such that:
C
f
+ M
f
# 1.0
C
r
M
r
where
M
r
= value given in Clause 13.5
C
r
= value given in Clause 13.3
At the panel point, C
r
may be taken as AF
y
and Clause 13.5(a) may be used to
determine M
r
provided that the chord meets the requirements of a Class 2 section
and M
f
/M
p
< 0.25.
For top chords with panel lengths not exceeding 610 mm, M
f
resulting from any
uniformly distributed loading may be neglected.
The chord shall be assumed to be pinned at the joist supports.
16.5.7.4
Top chords in tension whose panel lengths exceed 610 mm shall be designed in
accordance with the provisions of Clause 13.9.
16.5.7.5
When welding is used to attach steel deck to the chord of a joist, the flat width of
any chord component in contact with the deck shall be at least 5 mm larger than the
nominal design dimensions of the deck welds, measured transverse to the
longitudinal axis of the chord.
16.5.8 WEBS
16.5.8 WEBS
The length of web members for purposes of design are shown in Figure 2-39. With
the exception of web members made of individual members, the effective length
factor is always taken as 1.0. For individual members this factor is 0.9 for buckling
in the plane of the web (see Clause G7 of Appendix G), but is 1.0 for buckling
perpendicular to the plane of the web.
It has been observed, on occasion, in the testing of joists that with critical chords
and webs designed to reach their factored loads more or less simultaneously using
the S16 requirements, that the first compression web member fails first even though
the joist deformations may be quite significant. This appears to happen because the
tension chord, after yielding in the panel where the joist bending moment is a
maximum, continues to carry load into the strain-hardening range. It overloads itself
and the joist. The first compression web member with no such reserve fails by
buckling. By reducing the resistance factors for this member and its connections to
85% more ductile modes of failure are encouraged at little extra cost. This
requirement is also applied to trusses in Clause 15.2.4.
Vertical web members of modified Warren geometry are required to resist load
applied at the panel point plus a bracing force to preclude in-plane buckling of the
compression chord. A frequently used rule to provide full support (Winter 1960) is
for a brace to have a capacity in the order of 2% of the force in the main compression
member.
Length of
web member
Exception:
For individual members when
considering buckling in the plane
of the web, effective length = 0.9 x Length
Figure 2-39
Length of joist web members
58
Standards
Web members in tension are not required to meet a limiting slenderness ratio. This
is significant when flats are used as tension members; however, attention should be
paid to those loading cases where the possibility of shear reversal along the length
of the joist exists. Under these circumstances, it is likely that some diagonals
generally near mid-span may have to resist compression forces.
16.5.8.1
Webs shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of Clause 13 to resist
the shear at any point due to the factored loads given in Clause 16.5.1. Particular
attention shall be paid to possible reversals of force in each web member.
16.5.8.2
The length of a web member shall be taken as the distance between the intersections
of the neutral axes of the web member and the chords. For buckling in the plane of the
web, the effective length factor shall be taken as 0.9 if the web consists of individual
members. For all other cases, the effective length factor shall be taken as 1.0.
16.5.8.3
The factored resistances of the first compression web member subject to transverse
shear, and its connections, shall be determined with their respective resistance
factors, , multiplied by 0.85.
16.5.8.4
The vertical web members of a joist with a modified Warren geometry shall be
designed to resist an axial force equal to the calculated sum of the compressive
force in the web member plus 0.02 times the force in the compression chord at that
location.
16.5.8.5
The slenderness ratio of a web member in tension need not be limited.
16.5.8.6
The slenderness ratio of a web member in compression shall not exceed 200.
16.5.9 SPACERS AND BATTENS
Compression members consisting of two or more sections shall be interconnected
so that the slenderness ratio of each section calculated using its least radius of
gyration is less than or equal to the design slenderness ratio of the built-up member.
Spacers or battens shall be an integral part of the joist.
16.5.9 SPACERS AND BATTENS
Spacers and battens must be an integral part of the joist and (see Clause 16.5.7.2(c)
the steel deck is not to be considered to act as spacers or battens.
59
Standards
16.5.10 CONNECTIONS AND SPLICES
16.5.10 CONNECTIONS AND SPLICES
Although splices are permitted at any point in chord or web members, the splices
must be capable of carrying the factored loads without exceeding the factored
resistances of the members. Butt-welded splices are permitted provided they
develop the factored tensile resistance of the member.
As a general rule, the gravity axes of members should meet at a common point
within a joint. However, when this is not practical, eccentricities may be neglected
if they do not exceed those described in Clause 16.5.10.4; see Figure 2-40.
Kaliandasani et al. (1977) have shown that the effect of small eccentricities is of
minor consequence, except for eccentricities at the end bearing and the intersection
of the end diagonal and bottom chord. (See also Clause 16.5.11.4.)
16.5.10.1
Component members of joists shall be connected by welding, bolting, or other
approved means.
16.5.10.2
Connections and splices shall develop the factored loads without exceeding the
factored member resistances given in Clause 16. Butt-joint splices shall develop the
factored tensile resistance, T
r
, of the member.
16.5.10.3
Splices may occur at any point in chord or web members.
16.5.10.4
Members connected at a joint should have their centroidal axes meet at a point.
Where this is impractical and eccentricities are introduced, such eccentricities may
be neglected if they do not exceed:
a) for continuous web members, the greater of the two distances measured from
the neutral axis of the chord member to the extreme fibres of the chord
member; and
b) for non-continuous web members, the distance measured from the neutral
axis to the back (outside face) of the chord member.
When the eccentricity exceeds these limits, provision shall be made for the
effects of total eccentricity. Eccentricities assumed in design shall be taken as
the maximum fabrication tolerances and shall be stated on the shop details.
16.5.11 BEARINGS
16.5.11.1
Bearings of joists shall be proportioned so that the factored bearing resistance
of the supporting material is not exceeded.
16.5.11.1
As required by Clause 16.4.1(c), the factored bearing resistance of the supporting
material or the size of the bearing plates must be given on the building design
drawings.
e
Full eccentricity e
must be considered.
e
e1
(a)
Continuous web member
(b)
Non-continuous web member
(c)
Non-continuous web member
Chord
web
Chord
web
Chord
web
Figure 2-40
Eccentricity limits
at panel points of joists
y
1
y
Eccentricity limit
Eccentricity e can be
neglected when e e
1
.
Distance equal to y
1
or y
whichever is greater.
Eccentricity limit
60
Standards
16.5.11.2
Where a joist bears, with or without a bearing plate, on solid masonry or concrete
support, the bearing shall meet the requirements of CSA Standards S304.1 for
masonry and CSA Standard A23.3 for concrete.
16.5.11.2
It is likely that the centre of bearing will be eccentric with respect to the intersection
of the axes of the chord and the end diagonal as shown in Figure 2-41. Because the
location of the centre of bearing is dependent on the field support conditions, and
their construction tolerances, it may be wise to assume a maximum eccentricity
when designing the bearing detail. In lieu of specific information, a reasonable
assumption is to use a minimum eccentricity of one half the minimum bearing
on a steel support of 65 mm. When detailing joists, care must be taken to provide
clearance between the end diagonal and the supporting member or wall. See Figure
2-42. A maximum clearance of 25 mm is suggested to minimize eccentricities. One
solution, to obtain proper bearing, is to increase the depth of the bearing shoe.
For spandrel beams and other beams on which joists frame from one side only,
good practice suggests that the centre of the bearing shoe be located within the
middle third of the flange of the supporting beam (Figure 2-43(a). As the depth of
bearing shoes vary, the building designer should check with the joist manufacturer
in setting top of steel elevations. By using a deep shoe, interference between the
support and the end diagonal will be avoided as shown in Figure 2-43(b).
If the support is found to be improperly located, such that the span of the joist is
increased, the resulting eccentricity may be greater than that assumed. Increasing
the length of the bearing shoe to obtain proper bearing may create the more serious
problem of increasing the amount of eccentricity.
16.5.11.3
Where a joist bears on a structural steel member, the end of the shoe shall extend
at least 65 mm beyond the edge of the support, except that when the available
bearing area is restricted, this distance may be reduced, provided that the shoe is
adequately proportioned and anchored to the support.
16.5.11.4
The joist shoe and the end panel of the joist shall be proportioned to include the
effect of the eccentricity between the centre of the bearing and the intersection of
the centroidal axes of the chord and the end diagonal.
16.5.11.5
Bottom bearing joists shall have their top and bottom chords held adequately in
position at the supports.
Centre of bearing
Intersection of
axes of chord
and end diagonal
Bearing width
Figure 2-41
Joist end bearing eccentricity
e
Steel plate with anchor
Reinforced to resist uplift, if necessary.
Depth of bearing shoes vary, check with manufacturer.
Figure 2-42
Joists bearing on steel plate anchored
to concrete and masonry
1
/3 b
b
(a)
Normal shoe
(b)
Deeper than normal shoe
(c)
See Clause 16.6.12.3 when
bearing is less than 65 mm.
May
vary
Figure 2-43
Joists bearing on steel
61
Standards
16.5.12 ANCHORAGE
16.5.12.1
Joists shall be properly anchored to withstand the effects of the combined factored
loads, including net uplift. As a minimum, the following shall be provided:
a) when anchored to masonry or concrete
(i) for floor joists, a 10 mm diameter rod at least 300 mm long embedded
horizontally;
(ii) for roof joists, a 20 mm diameter anchor rod 300 mm long embedded
vertically with a 50 mm, 90 hook;
(b) when supported on steel, one 20 mm diameter bolt, or a pair of fillet welds
satisfying the minimum size and length requirements of CSA Standard W59;
the connection shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal load equal to
10% of the reaction of the joist.
16.5.12.1
When a joist is subject to net uplift, not only must the anchorage be sufficient to
transmit the net uplift to the supporting structure but the supporting structure must
be capable of resisting that force.
The anchorage of joist ends to supporting steel beams provide both lateral restraint
and torsional restraint to the top flange of the supporting steel beam (Albert et al.
1992). When the supporting beam is simply supported, the restraint provided to the
compression flange likely means that the full cross-sectional bending resistance
can be realized. In cantilever-suspended span construction, the restraint provided
by the joists is applied to the tension flange in negative moment regions and is,
therefore, less effective in restraining the bottom (compression) flange from
buckling.
Albert et al. (1992) and Essa and Kennedy (1993) show that, while the increase in
moment resistance due to lateral restraint is substantial, in cantilever-suspended
span construction, the further increase when torsional restraint is considered is
even greater. The torsional restraint develops when the compression flange tends
to buckle sideways distorting the web and twisting the top flange that is restrained
by bending of the joists about the strong axis. The anchorage must therefore be
capable of transmitting the moment that develops. For welds, a pair of 5 mm fillet
welds 50 mm long coupled with the bearing of the joist seat would develop a
factored moment resistance of about 1.8 kN
.
m.
16.5.12.2
Tie joists may have their top and bottom chords connected to a column. Unless
otherwise specified, tie joists shall have top and bottom chord connections that are
each at least equivalent to those required by Clause 16.5.12.1. Either the top or
bottom connection shall utilize a bolted connection.
16.5.12.2
The function of tie joists is to assist in the erection and plumbing of the steel frame.
Either the top or bottom chord is connected by bolting and, after plumbing the
columns, the other chord is usually welded (Figure 2-44). In most buildings, tie joists
remain as installed with both top and bottom chords connected; however, current
practices vary throughout Canada with, in some cases, the bottom chord connections
to the columns being made with slotted holes. Shrivastava et al. (1979) studied the
behaviour of tie joist connections and concluded that they may be insufficient to
carry lateral loads which could result from rigid bolting.
The designation tie joist is not intended to be used for joists participating in
frame action.
Figure 2-44
Tie joists
62
Standards
16.5.12.3
Where joists are used as a part of a frame, the joist-to-column connections shall be
designed to carry the moments and forces due to the factored loads.
16.5.12.3
When joists are used as part of a frame to brace columns, or to resist lateral forces
on the finished structure, the appropriate moments and forces are to be shown on
the bullding design drawings to enable the joists and the joist-to-column connections
to be designed by the joist manufacturer.
In cantilever suspended span roof framing, joists may also be used to provide
stability for girders passing over columns. See also the commentary on Clauses
16.5.12.1, and 13.6.
16.5.13 DEFLECTION
16.5.13 DEFLECTION
The method of computing deflections is now based on truss action, taking into
account the axial deformation of all components rather than the former approximate
method of using a moment of inertia equal to that of the truss chords and adding an
allowance for the shear deformation of the web members.
16.5.13.1
Steel joists shall be proportioned so that deflection due to specified loads is within
acceptable limits for the nature of the materials to be supported and the intended
use and occupancy. Such deflection limits shall be as given in Clause 6.2.1 unless
otherwise specified by the building designer.
16.5.13.2
The deflection shall be calculated based on truss action, taking into account the
axial deformation of all the components of the joists.
16.5.14 CAMBER
Unless otherwise specified by the building designer, the nominal camber shall be
0.002 of the span. For tolerances, see Clause 16.10.9.
16.5.14 CAMBER
The nominal camber based on Clause 16.5.14 is now taken to vary linearly with the
span and is tabulated in Table 2-1 rounded to the nearest millimetre. Manufacturing
tolerances are covered in Clause 16.10.9. The maximum difference in camber of
20 mm for joists of the same span, set to limit the difference between two adjacent
joists, is reached at a span of 16,000 mm.
63
Standards
TABLE 2-1
CAMBER FOR JOISTS
Span
Nominal
camber (mm)
Minimum
camber (mm)
Maximum
camber (mm)
Up to 6 000 12 + 4 20
7,000 14 6 22
8,000 16 8 24
9,000 18 10 26
10,000 20 11 29
11,000 22 13 31
12,000 24 15 33
13,000 26 17 35
14,000 28 18 38
15,000 30 20 40
16,000 32 22 42
16.5.15 VIBRATION
The building designer shall give special consideration to floor systems where
unacceptable vibration may occur. When requested, the joist manufacturer shall
supply joist properties and details to the building designer (see Appendix E of
S16-01 Guide).
16.5.15 VIBRATION
Appendix E of S16-01, Guide for Floor Vibrations, contains recommendations for
floors supported on steel joists. By increasing the floor thickness (mass), both the
frequency and the peak acceleration are reduced, thus reducing the annoyance
more efficiently than by increasing the moment of inertia (I
x
) of the joists. For this
reason, the building designer should weight, at the building design stage, the
options in the Guide for Floor Vibrations to achieve the best performance.
16.5.16 WELDING
16.5.16.1
Welding shall conform to the requirements of Clause 24. Specific welding procedures
for joist fabrication shall be accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau.
16.5.16.1
Many welded joints used in joists are not prequalified under CSA W59, therefore the
certified fabricator must have all these welded joints accepted by the Canadian
Welding Bureau (CWB).
16.5.16.2
When welding joists to supporting members, surfaces to be welded shall be free of
coatings that are detrimental to achieving an adequate weldment.
16.5.16.3
Flux and slag shall be removed from all welds.
16.5.16.3
Flux and slag are removed from all welds to assist in the inspection of the welds,
as well as to increase the life of the protective coatings applied to the joists.
64
Standards
16.6 STABILITY DURING CONSTRUCTION
Means shall be provided to support joist chords against lateral movement and to
hold the joist in the vertical or specified plane during construction.
16.6 STABILITY DURING CONSTRUCTION
A distinction is made between bridging, put in to meet the slenderness ratio
requirements for top and bottom chords, and the temporary support required
by Clause 16.6 to hold joists against movement during construction. Permanent
bridging, of course, can be used for both purposes.
16.7 BRIDGING
16.7 BRIDGING
Figures 2-45, 2-46 and 2-47 provide illustrations of bridging and details of bridging
connections.
16.7.1 GENERAL
Bridging transverse to the span of joists may be used to meet the requirements of
Clause 16.6 and also to meet the slenderness ratio requirements for chords.
Bridging is not to be considered bracing as described in Clause 9.2.
16.7.2 INSTALLATION
All bridging and bridging anchors shall be completely installed before any
construction loads, except for the weight of the workers necessary to install the
bridging, are placed on the joists.
16.7.3 TYPES
Unless otherwise specified or approved by the building designer, the joist
manufacturer shall supply bridging that may be either of the diagonal or of the
horizontal type.
16.7.4 DIAGONAL BRIDGING
Diagonal bridging consisting of crossed members running from top chord to bottom
chord of adjacent joists shall have a slenderness ratio, L/r, of not more than 200,
where L is the length of the diagonal bridging member or onehalf of this length when
crossed members are connected at their point of intersection, and r is the least radius
of gyration. All diagonal bridging shall be connected adequately to the joists by bolts
or welds.
16.7.5 HORIZONTAL BRIDGING
A line of horizontal bridging shall consist of a continuous member perpendicular to
the joist span attached to either the top chord or the bottom chord of each joist.
Horizontal bridging members shall have a slenderness ratio of not more than 300.
16.7.6 ATTACHMENT OF BRIDGING
Attachment of diagonal and horizontal bridging to joist chords shall be by welding or
mechanical means capable of resisting an axial load of at least 3 kN in the attached
bridging member. Welds shall meet the minimum length requirements stipulated in
CSA Standard W59.
Bridging welded
to chord.
Figure 2-46
Horizontal bridging
connections to the joists top chord
Figure 2-45
Diagonal bridging of joists
L
Bridging welded
to diagonals.
Overhead weld is preferred.
Toe to toe weld of chord
angle to bridging angle rod
is not recommended.
Figure 2-47
Horizontal bridging connections
to the joists bottom chord
A
A A-A
65
Standards
16.7.7 ANCHORAGE OF BRIDGING
Each line of bridging shall be adequately anchored at each end to sturdy walls or to
main components of the structural frame, if practicable. Otherwise, diagonal and
horizontal bridging shall be provided in combination between adjacent joists near
the ends of bridging lines.
16.7.7 ANCHORAGE OF BRIDGING
Ends of bridging lines may be anchored to the adjacent steel frame or adjacent
concrete or masonry walls as shown in Figure 2-48.
Where attachment to the adjacent steel frame or walls is not practicable, diagonal and
horizontal bridging shall be provided in combination between adjacent joists near the
ends of bridging lines as shown in Figure 2-49. Joists bearing on the bottom chord
will require bridging at the ends of the top chord.
16.7.8 BRIDGING SYSTEMS
Bridging systems, including sizes of bridging members and all necessary details,
shall be shown on the erection diagrams. If a specific bridging system is required
by the design, the design drawings shall show all information necessary for the
preparation of shop details and erection diagrams.
16.7.9 SPACING OF BRIDGING
Diagonal and horizontal bridging, whichever is furnished, shall be spaced so that
the unsupported length of the chord between bridging lines or between laterally
supported ends of the joist and adjacent bridging lines does not exceed:
a) 170r for chords in compression; and
b) 240r for chords always in tension
where
r = the applicable chord radius of gyration about its axis in the plane of the web
Ends of joists anchored to supports may be assumed to be equivalent to bridging
lines. If ends of joists are not so anchored before deck is installed, the distance
from the face of the support to the nearest bridging member in the plane of the
bottom chord shall not exceed 120r. In no case shall there be less than one line
of horizontal or diagonal bridging attached to each joist spanning 4 m or more. If
only a single line of bridging is required, it shall be placed at the centre of the joist
span. If bridging is not used on joists less than 4 m in span, the ends of such joists
shall be anchored to the supports so as to prevent overturning of the joist during
placement of the deck.
16.7.9 SPACING OF BRIDGING
Either horizontal or diagonal bridging is acceptable, although horizontal bridging is
generally recommended for shorter spans, up to about 15 m, and is usually attached
by welding. Diagonal bridging is recommended for longer spans and is usually
attached by bolting. Bridging need not be attached at panel points and may be
fastened at any point along the length of the joists. When horizontal bridging is used,
bridging lines will not necessarily appear in pairs as the requirements for support
of tension chords are not the same as those for compression chords. Because the
ends of joists are anchored, the supports may be assumed to be equivalent to
bridging lines.
(a) Anchorage of bridging
to steel beam (bolted)
(b) Anchorage of bridging
to steel beam (welded)
(c) Anchorage of bridging
to walls (side connection)
(d) Anchorage of bridging
to walls (top connection)
Figure 2-48
Anchorage of joist bridging
(a) diagonal bridging with horizontal bridging
(b) horizontal bridging with diagonal bridging
Figure 2-49
Bracing of joist bridging
66
Standards
16.8 DECKING
16.8.1 DECKING TO PROVIDE LATERAL SUPPORT
Decking shall bear directly on the top chord of the joist. If not sufficiently rigid to
provide lateral support to the compression chord of the joist, the compression
chord of the joist shall be braced laterally in accordance with the requirements of
Clause 9.2.
16.8.1 DECKING TO PROVIDE LATERAL SUPPORT
When the decking complies with Clause 16.8 and is sufficiently rigid to provide
lateral support to the top (compression) chord, the top chord bridging may be
removed when it is no longer required. Bottom (tension) chord bridging is
permanently required to limit the unsupported length of the chord to 240r, as
defined in Clause 16.7.9.
16.8.2 DECK ATTACHMENTS
Attachments considered to provide lateral support to top chords shall meet the
requirements of Clause 9.2.3. The spacing of attachments shall be not exceed the
design slenderness ratio of the top chord times the radius of gyration of the top
chord about its vertical axis, nor shall it exceed 1 m.
16.8.3 DIAPHRAGM ACTION
Where decking is used in combination with joists to form a diaphragm for the
purpose of transferring lateral applied loads to vertical bracing systems, special
attachment requirements shall be fully specified on the building design drawings.
16.8.4 CAST-IN-PLACE SLABS
Cast-in-place slabs used as decking shall have a minimum thickness of 50 mm.
Forms for cast-in-place slabs shall not cause lateral displacement of the top
chords of joists during installation of the forms or the placing of the concrete.
Non-removable forms shall be positively attached to top chords by means of
welding, clips, ties, wedges, fasteners, or other suitable means at intervals not
exceeding 1 m; however, there shall be at least two attachments in the width of
each form at each joist. Forms and their method of attachment shall be such that
the cast-in-place slab, after hardening, is capable of furnishing lateral support to
the joist chords.
16.8.5 INSTALLATION OF STEEL DECK
16.8.5.1
To facilitate attachment of the steel deck, the location of the top chord of the joist
shall be confirmed by marking the deck at suitable intervals or by other means.
16.8.5.1
Workmanship is of concern when decking is to be attached by arc-spot welding
to top chords of joists. When the joist location is marked on the deck as the
deck is positioned, the welders will be more likely to position the arc-spot welds
correctly.
67
Standards
16.8.5.2
The installer of the steel deck to be fastened to joists by arc spot welding shall be a
company certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau to the requirements of CSA
Standard W47.1.
The welding procedures shall be accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau.
The welders shall have current qualifications for arc spot welding issued by the
Canadian Welding Bureau.
16.8.5.2
Arc-spot welds for attaching the deck to joists are structural welds and require
proper welding procedures.
16.9 SHOP COATING
Joists shall have a shop coating meeting the requirements of Clause 28.8.6, unless
otherwise specified.
16.9 SHOP PAINTING
Interiors of buildings conditioned for human comfort are generally assumed to be
of a non-corrosive environment and therefore do not require corrosion protection.
Joists normally receive one coat of paint suitable for a production line application,
usually by dipping a bundle of joists into a tank. This paint is generally adequate for
three months of exposure, which should be ample time to enclose, or paint, the
joists.
Special coatings, and paints that require special surface preparations, are expensive
because these have to be applied individually to each joist by spraying or other
means. For joists comprised of cold-formed members, surface preparations that
were meant to remove mill scale from hot-rolled members are not appropriate.
16.10 MANUFACTURING TOLERANCES
16.10 MANUFACTURING TOLERANCES
Figure 2-50 illustrates many of the manufacturing tolerance requirements.
16.10.1
The tolerance on the specified depth of the manufactured joist shall be 7 mm.
16.10.2
The deviation of a panel point from the design location, measured along the length
of a chord, shall not exceed 13 mm. The centroidal axes of the bottom chord and
the end diagonals carrying transverse shear should meet at the first bottom panel
point even when the end diagonal is an upturned bottom chord (see Clause
16.5.10.4).
16.10.3
The deviation of a panel point from the design location, measured perpendicular to
the longitudinal axis of the chord and in the plane of the joist, shall not exceed 7 mm.
16.10.4
The connections of web members to chords shall not deviate laterally more than
3 mm from that assumed in the design.
16.10.5
The sweep of a joist or any portion of the length of the joist, upon completion of
manufacture, shall not exceed 1/500 of the length on which the sweep is measured.
Lenght
+
-
7 mm (
1
/4 in.)
Specified
depth
Hole
location
+
-
3 mm (
1
/8 in.)
Nominal or specified camber (see 6.2.9).
Panel point
location
Shoe
W
Specified
shoe
depth
+
-
3 mm (
1
/8 in.)
+
-
25 mm
(1 in.)
+
-
7 mm
(
1
/4 in.)
1/50 W
max.
Figure 2-50
Joist manufacturing tolerances
68
Standards
16.10.6
The tilt of bearing shoes shall not exceed 1 in 50 measured from a plane perpendicular
to the plane of the web and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the joist.
16.10.7
The tolerance on the specified shoe depth shall be 3 mm.
16.10.8
The tolerance on the specified length of the joist shall be 7 mm. The connection
holes in a joist shall not vary from the detailed location by more than 2 mm for joists
10 m or less in length or by more than 3 mm for joists more than 10 m in length.
16.10.9
The tolerance in millimetres on the nominal or specified camber shall be
L
( 6 +
4,000
).
The minimum camber in a joist shall be 3 mm. The range in camber for joists of the
same span shall be 20 mm.
16.11 INSPECTION AND QUALITY CONTROL
16.11.1 INSPECTION
Material and quality of work shall be accessible for inspection at all times by qualified
inspectors representing the building designer. Random in-process inspection shall
be carried out by the manufacturer, and all joists shall be thoroughly inspected
by the manufacturer before shipping. Third-party welding inspection shall be in
accordance with Clause 30.5.
16.11.2 IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL OF STEEL
Steel used in the manufacture of joists shall, at all times, be identified in the
manufacturers plant as to its specification (and grade, where applicable) by
suitable markings, by recognized colour-coding, or by any system devised by the
manufacturer that will ensure to the satisfaction of the building designer that the
correct material is being used.
16.11.3 QUALITY CONTROL
Upon request by the building designer, the manufacturer shall provide evidence of
having suitable quality control measures to ensure that the joists meet all specified
requirements. When testing is part of the manufacturers normal quality control
program, the loading criteria shall be 1.0/0.9 times the factored loads for the specific
joist design.
16.11.3 QUALITY CONTROL
When testing forms part of the manufacturers normal quality control programme,
the test shall follow steps 1 to 4 of the loading procedure given in Part 5 of Steel
Joist Facts (CISC 1980).
69
Standards
16.12 HANDLING AND ERECTION
16.12.1 GENERAL
Care shall be exercised to avoid damage during strapping, transport, unloading,
site storage, piling, and erection. Dropping of joists shall be avoided. Special
precautions shall be taken when erecting long, slender joists, and hoisting cables
shall not be released preferably until the member is stayed laterally by at least one
line of bridging. Joists shall have all bridging attached and permanently fastened
in place before the application of any loads. Construction loads shall be adequately
distributed so as not to exceed the capacity of any joist. Field welding shall not
cause damage to joists, bridging, deck, and supporting steel members.
16.12.2 ERECTION TOLERANCES
16.12.2 ERECTION TOLERANCES
Figure 2-51 illustrates many of the erection tolerance requirements. In this edition,
Clause 16.12.2.5 has been added to control the differential deflection between any
three adjacent joists to smooth the supported decks profile.
16.12.2.1
The maximum sweep of a joist or a portion of the length of a joist upon completion
of erection shall not exceed the limit given in Clause 16.10.5 and shall be in
accordance with the general requirements of Clause 29.
16.12.2.2
All members shall be free from twists, sharp kinks, and bends.
16.12.2.3
The deviation of joists as erected from the location in the plan shown on the
erection diagrams shall not exceed 15 mm.
16.12.2.4
The deviation of the bottom chord with respect to the top chord, normal to the
specified plane of the web of a joist, shall not exceed 1/50 of the depth of the joist
16.12.2.5
The maximum deviation in elevation between the tops of any three adjacent joists
shall not be greater than 0.01 times the joist spacing, and in no case greater than
25 mm. The deviation is the vertical offset from the top of the centre joist to the line
joining the tops of the centres of the adjacent joists.
1/500 L
1
max.
L
1
Plan view
of joists
Lenght = L
1/500 L max.
Sweep
1/50 d
d
90
1
/5
0
d
d
Parrallel
to roof
deck
Figure 2-51
Joist erection tolerances
70
Standards
METRIC
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
3
200
8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 9.5 9.8 10.2 10.6 12.0
200 192 154 128 110 96 86 77 85 81 75 72 79
250
8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.6 8.6 9.8 9.8 9.8
200 200 200 200 178 155 138 124 113 104 116 108 101
300
10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 186 171 159 149
350
10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.6
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200
400
10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.6 10.8 10.8
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200
450
10.6 10.6 10.6 10.6 10.6 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.9 10.9 11.0 11.1
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200
500
10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.9 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.3
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
4
200
7.8 7.8 8.4 8.8 10.3 11.5 12.8 14.4 15.8 17.3 18.8 20.4 22.1
105 79 73 64 65 64 65 65 65 64 64 65 64
250
8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.2 8.8 9.7 11.3 12.0 12.6 13.5 13.9 14.4
170 128 102 85 73 74 68 75 72 69 67 66 66
300
9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 10.3 10.6 12.4 13.4 13.4 13.7
200 200 183 153 131 115 102 96 90 98 95 88 86
350
9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.8 10.1 10.1 10.5 10.5 11.8 12.9 13.6
200 200 200 200 181 159 141 127 121 111 112 116 114
400
9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.9 10.9 12.0
200 200 200 200 200 200 187 168 153 140 135 126 128
450
10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.7 11.1 11.2 11.2
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 195 179 165 153 150
500
10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.6 10.6 10.7 10.7 10.9 10.9 11.3 11.3 11.6
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 191 178
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
5
250
8.0 8.0 9.4 11.4 12.4 13.8 15.6 17.4 19.0 20.1 22.9 24.6 25.9
86 64 65 70 65 65 64 64 65 63 65 65 64
300
9.3 9.3 9.3 9.9 10.2 11.8 12.4 13.5 14.5 15.3 16.9 18.3 19.5
154 115 92 80 72 74 69 67 67 64 66 67 64
350
9.5 9.5 9.5 9.8 10.1 10.7 12.0 12.3 13.3 14.4 15.1 15.6 17.2
200 160 128 107 96 87 86 82 78 81 79 76 76
400
9.6 9.6 9.6 10.0 10.0 10.6 10.6 12.2 13.2 13.6 13.9 15.4 15.9
200 200 169 141 121 111 99 103 99 95 92 92 91
450
9.8 9.8 10.2 10.2 10.6 10.6 10.9 11.3 13.1 13.4 13.9 14.3 14.9
200 200 200 180 155 135 126 113 120 116 107 105 102
500
9.9 9.9 10.2 10.6 10.9 11.9 12.3 13.1 13.5 13.9 14.9 15.1 16.5
200 200 200 200 200 196 182 169 154 144 145 135 136
550
10.8 10.8 10.8 11.2 11.5 12.2 13.0 13.3 13.8 14.5 15.0 15.8 16.7
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 187 182 173 165 154
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (kg/m)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
71
Joist depth selection table
METRIC
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
6
300
9.1 9.7 11.2 12.8 14.6 16.8 18.9 20.8 22.7 24.7 26.3 30.8 30.8
88 69 64 64 65 65 65 65 64 64 63 64 64
350
9.3 9.6 10.0 11.7 12.4 13.6 14.9 16.1 18.3 19.0 20.3 24.1 24.1
122 92 77 74 71 67 68 66 68 64 66 65 64
400
9.4 9.9 9.9 10.6 12.0 13.1 13.6 15.1 15.9 16.9 19.4 21.6 21.6
162 121 97 85 84 82 76 74 74 73 76 74 71
450
9.9 10.1 10.1 10.5 11.0 12.6 13.5 14.8 15.5 16.4 17.4 20.1 20.7
200 155 124 108 97 94 93 91 86 87 83 83 88
500
10.1 10.2 10.2 10.7 11.1 11.6 13.0 14.6 14.9 15.7 16.9 18.9 18.9
200 193 154 129 116 101 104 105 100 98 96 93 93
550
10.7 10.8 11.1 11.1 11.6 11.9 13.5 14.6 15.4 15.8 16.2 16.9 18.4
200 200 188 157 134 123 120 121 110 106 103 103 107
600
10.8 10.9 11.8 12.5 13.4 13.8 15.0 16.0 16.3 17.5 18.5 18.5 18.5
200 200 200 200 196 177 172 158 147 146 138 142 119
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
7
350
9.1 10.5 12.6 14.3 17.1 20.1 21.8 23.7 26.1 28.4 28.7 31.6 33.6
76 66 65 64 65 64 63 64 64 64 64 64 64
400
9.3 10.0 11.8 13.0 14.1 16.4 17.9 19.1 21.3 22.6 24.3 24.3 26.1
101 79 74 68 66 64 65 64 65 63 64 64 65
450
9.9 10.1 10.6 12.9 13.2 16.0 16.5 17.2 20.0 20.7 21.7 23.7 24.8
129 97 81 83 75 74 72 70 75 71 70 70 69
500
9.9 10.2 11.0 12.6 13.2 14.6 16.2 16.9 18.6 18.7 19.2 20.5 21.8
161 121 105 98 89 85 85 84 82 85 84 86 85
550
10.5 10.9 11.2 12.7 13.4 14.3 15.0 15.7 18.0 18.6 19.0 19.1 20.4
196 147 123 111 102 98 96 98 93 92 96 95 94
600
10.7 11.2 12.0 12.9 13.9 14.7 15.2 15.5 17.9 17.9 18.1 18.8 19.3
200 176 148 128 130 114 110 115 105 112 115 110 107
600
12.0 12.3 12.5 13.8 14.3 14.8 15.4 15.7 15.8 16.3 17.6 17.6 19.0
200 200 200 200 189 165 147 136 127 123 126 117 121
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
8
400
9.2 11.5 14.0 16.0 20.5 20.6 24.0 26.5 28.3 31.6 34.4 36.5 38.0
67 65 66 65 65 63 65 65 64 64 64 65 66
450
9.6 10.3 12.5 14.1 16.9 18.5 20.2 21.7 23.9 25.9 28.5 30.3 30.3
86 70 70 66 65 66 65 65 65 64 64 65 63
500
9.7 10.3 11.9 13.4 15.8 16.0 17.0 17.3 19.1 20.5 22.9 24.9 26.0
107 84 78 73 70 68 74 69 69 68 65 67 68
550
10.4 10.6 11.6 13.3 14.5 15.6 16.0 17.1 17.9 19.5 22.7 24.8 24.8
131 98 86 84 80 80 76 81 77 77 77 74 73
600
10.7 10.9 11.8 14.1 15.0 15.2 15.6 16.4 17.6 18.1 22.6 24.5 24.5
156 117 98 101 91 86 92 91 88 84 81 83 82
650
12.2 13.6 13.7 14.3 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.6 16.6 17.9 20.0 22.4 22.8
200 200 176 151 126 110 98 98 104 96 92 98 94
700
12.3 13.7 13.9 14.4 15.8 16.0 16.1 16.5 17.0 18.0 20.3 21.3 22.0
200 200 200 176 158 128 114 106 106 112 106 108 107
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (kg/m)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
72
Joist depth selection table
METRIC
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
9
450
10.7 12.7 15.3 19.9 21.0 23.7 26.6 30.0 34.7 34.7 36.3 38.1 42.4
66 64 66 67 65 64 65 63 65 64 66 64 64
500
10.5 12.5 13.4 14.8 16.7 18.2 20.1 22.8 30.5 30.5 30.5 32.0 34.2
79 73 64 64 66 64 63 64 64 65 64 64 64
550
10.3 11.4 13.2 14.4 16.4 17.1 18.5 20.3 23.6 24.1 25.8 26.8 29.1
91 75 74 70 67 71 68 68 65 65 67 64 65
600
10.7 11.5 13.7 14.2 15.9 16.0 18.3 20.2 23.5 23.8 25.4 26.1 28.0
109 86 85 78 79 78 79 73 80 80 76 75 75
650
12.4 13.6 13.8 14.5 15.2 15.5 18.2 20.0 23.3 23.3 24.7 25.6 26.5
181 154 123 106 95 83 94 90 87 88 83 84 82
700
12.5 13.7 13.9 14.7 15.6 16.2 17.3 19.7 21.5 21.6 23.6 25.3 25.9
200 179 143 123 108 111 88 101 91 95 93 94 91
750
12.7 13.8 14.0 14.9 15.7 16.3 17.6 19.4 19.9 19.9 21.4 22.5 23.6
200 195 165 142 125 103 114 114 106 94 96 92 92
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
10
500
11.6 13.5 16.8 18.2 21.8 24.7 31.5 33.1 33.6 37.0 42.0 45.5 45.5
66 65 64 65 65 64 64 64 64 65 68 69 64
550
10.5 13.3 13.9 15.6 18.4 20.2 24.6 28.3 28.3 30.0 33.3 36.1 38.4
70 68 68 65 65 63 65 65 64 64 64 67 64
600
11.1 13.2 13.6 14.4 17.2 18.8 21.8 23.9 24.8 26.4 28.6 31.7 35.2
83 77 76 70 71 69 67 65 67 65 64 65 68
650
11.8 13.4 13.7 14.2 16.0 17.8 20.7 22.7 23.2 25.3 27.0 28.9 31.8
132 112 89 83 78 76 74 72 72 73 69 70 72
700
11.9 13.5 13.8 14.3 15.4 17.2 19.9 22.3 22.3 24.8 25.2 26.7 29.9
153 14 104 87 85 85 81 80 76 83 75 75 80
750
12.1 13.6 14.0 14.4 15.7 16.8 18.3 19.9 21.6 23.1 25.0 26.5 28.3
177 133 120 100 95 98 90 90 87 88 88 89 87
800
12.3 13.7 14.1 14.5 16.0 17.1 19.3 21.9 21.9 22.9 24.1 26.0 27.4
200 172 137 114 98 95 100 96 93 95 93 94 93
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
11
550
12.9 13.7 17.7 20.1 23.1 26.1 34.6 34.6 36.8 42.3 45.1 49.8 50.5
64 63 66 65 64 65 63 64 65 68 68 69 64
600
12.8 13.2 14.9 17.2 20.4 22.2 27.0 28.2 31.5 33.9 37.4 39.2 45.6
72 71 65 64 65 64 63 64 64 64 64 64 67
650
13.1 13.4 14.1 15.6 18.7 19.6 22.3 25.2 27.6 29.5 31.7 36.2 37.4
112 84 72 67 67 65 64 66 65 64 64 67 66
700
13.3 13.5 14.2 14.5 17.8 19.2 22.0 23.5 25.3 27.6 29.6 32.0 35.8
115 98 78 70 76 69 72 71 70 71 69 70 73
750
13.4 13.7 14.4 14.7 16.3 17.9 20.9 21.9 24.9 26.7 28.0 30.2 32.4
133 113 90 81 77 77 77 75 78 78 76 74 75
800
13.5 13.9 14.6 14.9 17.3 18.8 21.0 21.4 23.2 25.8 27.1 28.5 30.7
172 129 103 86 89 88 83 85 82 82 82 81 79
900
13.8 14.1 14.7 15.0 17.6 19.0 21.3 21.8 23.4 24.6 26.5 27.8 29.1
200 164 131 109 104 107 95 98 95 96 97 95 94
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (kg/m)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
73
Joist depth selection table
METRIC
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
12
600
13.9 15.0 18.4 21.4 26.6 32.8 32.8 36.7 42.4 46.1 50.8 50.8 54.6
65 65 66 64 64 64 64 66 68 68 68 64 65
650
13.1 13.4 15.8 18.8 23.3 25.5 28.3 31.6 34.2 38.0 43.3 47.0 47.4
86 64 64 65 65 65 65 64 64 64 68 65 65
700
13.5 13.5 14.4 17.6 20.5 21.9 24.9 27.5 29.5 31.8 36.1 37.5 41.5
100 75 67 68 64 64 66 66 65 64 66 65 67
750
13.5 13.6 14.6 16.5 18.2 21.1 23.4 25.3 27.9 31.1 32.9 36.0 40.9
115 87 74 75 70 70 70 68 69 70 68 71 74
800
13.6 13.8 14.7 16.7 18.8 19.6 22.7 23.9 26.7 29.6 31.6 33.2 36.4
132 99 79 79 77 76 75 72 75 75 74 72 76
900
13.8 14.0 14.9 16.8 19.0 19.8 21.4 23.6 25.2 27.4 28.9 30.9 33.5
168 126 101 93 94 88 87 89 88 85 85 84 82
1 000
14.1 14.3 15.0 17.0 19.1 20.0 21.5 23.7 25.4 27.0 28.3 29.8 31.4
200 156 125 107 108 102 100 99 97 100 98 96 94
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
13
650
13.5 16.6 20.4 23.6 27.3 31.5 35.6 39.5 43.2 46.4 51.1 54.9 63.5
67 64 65 64 65 64 64 64 63 64 64 65 67
700
13.3 15.4 17.9 20.8 23.9 27.2 29.9 33.6 37.5 40.8 45.5 46.5 50.3
79 68 64 65 65 65 64 64 64 64 69 64 65
750
13.4 13.8 15.4 18.2 21.7 23.8 27.6 29.6 32.8 35.9 38.9 41.9 46.9
91 68 65 64 65 64 66 65 65 65 64 65 69
800
13.6 13.9 15.6 17.4 21.2 23.1 25.5 27.2 31.1 33.4 36.6 38.2 42.4
103 78 69 70 71 68 68 66 67 68 69 67 69
900
13.7 14.2 15.7 17.6 19.5 21.3 23.3 26.2 28.4 30.8 33.5 37.2 38.5
132 99 85 86 85 80 77 78 79 77 77 80 77
1 000
13.9 14.8 15.8 17.7 19.6 21.5 23.4 25.3 27.0 28.8 32.4 34.1 37.2
164 127 98 99 92 92 90 91 91 88 88 88 90
1 100
14.1 15.2 15.9 17.9 19.8 21.8 23.6 25.5 27.2 29.1 31.5 32.8 35.1
199 154 123 103 112 108 102 102 101 101 101 98 100
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
14
700
14.8 18.0 20.9 25.8 28.9 33.0 36.8 42.1 46.0 49.8 53.5 58.4 67.1
68 66 65 65 64 64 64 65 65 65 65 64 68
750
13.5 15.5 18.9 22.5 25.7 29.3 33.2 38.0 40.8 45.9 46.9 50.2 54.5
72 65 66 64 65 65 65 67 64 69 64 64 65
800
14.1 14.6 17.4 21.0 23.1 26.4 29.2 32.2 35.9 38.5 42.3 47.5 50.5
83 67 68 65 65 65 64 64 65 64 64 68 69
900
14.4 14.8 16.5 19.5 21.5 24.1 26.5 29.7 31.8 34.4 38.5 42.1 43.9
105 79 83 74 73 72 72 72 70 69 72 74 74
1 000
14.6 15.0 16.6 18.5 20.0 22.2 26.1 27.6 29.9 33.5 36.4 38.6 42.0
135 98 87 86 82 81 86 82 81 80 83 82 84
1 100
14.9 15.2 16.9 18.7 20.2 22.4 24.3 26.8 29.0 31.8 34.7 37.9 38.7
164 119 98 104 96 95 94 92 93 90 92 94 90
1 200
15.3 15.5 17.0 18.9 20.5 22.6 24.5 27.1 29.3 32.2 33.2 35.1 38.2
190 143 114 115 110 105 103 106 102 104 101 99 105
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (kg/m)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
74
Joist depth selection table
METRIC
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
15
750
14.8 18.5 22.3 26.5 31.1 35.4 42.2 45.7 50.0 53.5 58.8 63.7 67.5
68 64 64 65 65 64 68 67 66 66 65 63 64
800
13.7 16.9 20.3 24.0 27.4 31.6 35.6 40.1 43.1 46.8 50.3 54.2 59.8
67 64 65 65 64 65 64 64 64 64 64 65 64
900
13.8 14.8 18.1 21.2 23.8 26.9 29.8 32.8 36.8 40.0 43.7 51.7 51.7
86 71 70 69 67 67 65 66 68 65 69 76 71
1 000
14.0 14.9 17.1 19.4 22.5 25.3 27.4 31.0 34.5 39.7 41.8 43.3 44.8
106 80 84 77 76 76 74 74 75 83 79 77 75
1 100
14.3 15.1 17.3 19.6 21.5 24.1 27.4 29.3 32.3 35.8 38.3 42.3 43.7
129 97 94 93 86 86 88 83 84 83 85 90 86
1 200
15.6 15.6 17.5 19.8 21.7 24.6 27.6 29.6 31.1 33.7 37.5 39.2 43.1
154 116 103 101 99 98 95 97 95 92 96 94 97
1 300
15.9 15.9 17.6 19.9 21.8 24.8 27.7 29.9 31.5 34.0 35.1 38.0 42.9
182 140 122 110 108 112 111 108 106 105 102 105 112
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
16
750
16.5 19.9 22.6 25.5 28.4 31.5 35.2 37.7 41.4 45.9 49.1 53.7 53.7
64 65 65 65 64 63 64 64 65 66 67 68 64
800
14.9 17.8 20.1 23.1 25.4 28.4 31.1 34.1 37.3 43.0 43.0 45.8 50.2
64 65 64 65 64 64 65 65 66 69 64 66 67
900
13.6 15.3 17.5 19.0 21.4 23.7 26.1 28.0 30.2 32.8 34.6 36.5 38.7
70 65 66 64 65 64 65 65 65 65 65 64 64
1 000
13.9 14.3 16.5 17.6 19.1 22.1 23.5 25.8 27.4 29.1 31.5 33.6 36.5
87 73 82 74 71 72 70 72 70 69 70 70 68
1 100
14.0 14.4 16.6 17.9 19.3 20.4 22.2 24.0 25.6 28.2 29.2 31.5 33.1
106 89 85 87 83 82 80 78 79 80 78 78 77
1 200
14.5 14.9 16.7 18.0 19.4 20.5 22.4 24.4 26.5 27.8 28.3 29.7 33.2
127 106 93 96 92 89 90 90 91 89 86 85 87
1 300
15.3 15.3 16.8 18.2 19.6 20.7 22.5 24.5 26.7 28.3 29.2 31.3 32.0
154 125 110 113 101 101 98 99 98 99 98 100 97
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
17
800
18.3 20.4 24.2 26.8 30.3 34.0 37.0 41.5 45.2 49.0 50.4 53.8 58.5
67 64 65 64 64 65 65 67 68 68 64 65 65
900
15.2 17.1 19.9 22.5 25.4 27.7 29.8 32.7 34.9 37.9 42.7 43.3 46.7
68 64 66 65 66 65 64 65 64 64 68 64 66
1 000
14.0 15.4 18.3 19.6 22.2 24.0 25.7 27.9 30.4 32.1 36.3 38.2 38.8
73 68 71 66 67 66 66 65 65 66 69 66 64
1 100
14.1 15.5 17.2 18.5 20.2 23.2 24.4 26.5 28.6 31.3 32.8 34.2 37.8
89 82 83 78 76 75 73 73 73 74 73 71 74
1 200
14.4 15.6 17.4 18.6 20.4 21.7 24.0 25.9 28.4 29.3 30.8 33.8 35.5
106 88 92 87 85 84 82 85 83 81 80 81 80
1 300
15.2 15.8 17.6 18.9 20.5 21.9 24.2 26.2 27.2 28.6 30.0 32.2 34.3
125 104 102 94 93 93 90 93 92 91 89 90 89
1 400
16.1 17.0 17.7 20.0 21.7 23.1 24.4 26.4 28.1 29.3 30.7 32.6 34.0
145 124 107 116 111 109 101 99 104 102 101 102 101
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (kg/m)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
75
Joist depth selection table
METRIC
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
18
900
17.0 21.7 26.7 31.9 35.4 39.6 42.1 44.6 46.5 47.4 49.1 51.2 52.9
65 71 76 80 85 86 94 94 91 98 99 98 97
1 000
15.0 18.9 22.9 27.0 31.1 36.2 38.1 40.9 41.6 43.1 46.4 46.7 47.8
68 72 78 80 84 87 87 90 91 92 93 100 101
1 100
14.2 18.1 20.8 25.5 28.6 30.7 31.4 36.5 37.8 38.4 39.0 41.3 46.2
75 81 83 89 91 92 96 100 109 103 104 98 115
1 200
14.6 17.2 20.5 23.9 25.4 27.1 29.0 31.6 33.4 35.1 36.2 38.6 41.9
89 97 95 98 101 101 105 106 111 108 125 117 110
1 300
15.0 17.9 19.1 20.0 23.0 25.2 28.1 30.7 32.3 33.8 34.1 36.1 38.7
105 106 105 109 112 113 114 121 128 125 119 138 130
1 400
16.3 18.1 20.3 21.9 23.9 26.0 26.4 28.4 30.9 31.7 33.0 35.4 38.0
122 108 117 117 126 127 126 128 130 138 136 130 152
1 600
16.9 19.0 21.3 22.9 24.3 27.0 27.4 29.2 31.1 31.5 32.5 34.8 37.3
160 149 143 142 152 156 150 153 172 165 165 159 169
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
19
1 000
17.0 19.7 22.0 25.7 28.1 30.8 33.7 37.3 40.3 44.5 47.4 52.9 53.9
68 65 64 66 64 64 64 66 65 65 67 68 64
1 100
15.7 17.9 20.0 22.3 25.4 27.5 29.3 31.8 35.9 38.7 42.0 44.0 48.3
70 69 68 66 68 66 66 65 67 66 68 67 71
1 200
14.9 17.7 19.3 21.0 24.1 26.1 28.8 30.2 33.0 36.9 38.2 43.6 44.2
78 83 76 73 74 73 72 71 72 75 74 77 74
1 300
15.4 17.8 19.6 20.8 23.6 26.0 27.9 29.5 31.2 34.5 37.3 39.4 42.4
92 90 86 83 84 83 83 80 78 80 82 79 83
1 400
16.5 17.9 19.9 21.7 23.8 26.1 28.1 29.2 31.0 32.7 35.1 38.9 39.1
104 91 100 93 89 88 87 88 88 86 87 90 87
1 600
17.0 18.3 20.2 22.3 24.0 26.3 28.3 29.7 31.5 32.5 33.7 36.8 38.4
140 123 121 118 107 107 106 110 112 106 104 107 104
1 800
19.5 21.0 22.4 23.1 25.3 28.0 28.9 30.3 32.4 33.5 34.3 37.0 39.5
187 152 141 141 139 132 129 126 124 123 121 120 124
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
20
1 000
18.5 21.7 26.0 28.1 31.9 35.6 39.2 42.8 46.4 51.7 55.1 55.2 59.8
65 64 67 64 64 64 65 65 66 67 68 64 64
1 100
17.5 19.3 21.9 24.7 27.5 29.9 34.1 38.3 39.2 42.1 44.7 48.5 51.7
71 66 64 65 65 64 64 68 64 64 64 66 67
1 200
16.4 18.6 20.8 23.9 25.6 28.3 31.9 32.9 37.7 38.3 42.1 44.2 45.4
74 73 72 72 69 68 70 66 71 68 72 69 67
1 300
15.5 18.4 20.1 21.8 25.5 28.0 29.9 32.1 34.9 38.0 39.4 43.4 44.7
79 83 79 76 79 78 76 74 74 78 74 77 77
1 400
17.1 18.7 20.7 22.8 25.0 27.0 29.4 30.9 33.5 34.9 38.0 42.8 43.3
91 90 85 85 84 82 84 81 82 80 82 88 85
1 600
17.2 19.1 20.9 23.0 25.4 27.9 29.6 31.1 31.9 33.4 35.9 41.0 42.6
120 108 104 101 102 104 103 98 96 97 108 98 102
1 800
19.9 22.0 22.7 23.7 26.5 28.6 30.0 32.0 33.3 34.8 36.3 42.8 43.1
157 141 123 123 119 122 118 115 118 115 113 124 122
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (kg/m)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
76
Joist depth selection table
METRIC
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
22
1 100
20.1 23.7 27.6 31.3 35.3 38.7 43.9 47.3 52.4 55.7 59.8 65.5 69.2
64 64 65 64 64 64 65 66 66 67 66 66 67
1 200
18.3 21.2 24.1 27.3 32.1 34.1 37.7 41.1 44.4 48.3 52.3 53.1 56.5
66 65 63 64 65 65 65 66 64 67 68 64 66
1 300
18.2 20.4 23.5 26.9 29.3 31.7 34.4 37.9 42.7 44.5 45.4 49.4 53.4
75 72 70 69 68 67 67 68 72 70 67 76 71
1 400
18.7 21.5 23.0 26.2 28.6 31.0 33.6 37.2 39.3 42.8 44.9 48.0 53.3
81 80 76 77 75 76 72 77 73 77 79 74 83
1 600
19.1 21.8 23.5 24.5 27.9 29.6 31.4 32.9 37.6 42.2 43.8 45.4 46.7
97 98 92 89 92 88 88 85 91 93 93 89 86
1 800
21.1 22.8 25.6 26.7 28.2 31.0 32.8 34.7 37.2 40.1 43.1 45.2 46.2
124 115 115 107 106 106 104 103 101 103 107 104 104
2 000
21.9 24.5 26.4 27.2 28.6 31.4 33.1 35.0 37.7 43.2 43.2 44.9 45.8
149 134 128 124 120 123 119 121 118 128 124 125 121
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
24
1 200
22.2 25.5 30.9 33.7 42.0 42.8 47.4 52.1 55.3 60.4 69.1 70.7 75.4
65 64 65 64 71 64 66 66 66 65 70 66 67
1 300
20.4 23.3 27.5 30.5 33.6 37.9 42.1 44.7 49.1 52.9 57.2 66.2 66.6
66 65 64 64 64 64 65 65 66 66 68 72 68
1 400
21.0 23.0 27.0 29.2 32.6 34.7 38.7 42.7 44.7 49.8 53.5 58.1 64.2
74 68 70 69 68 66 68 69 67 71 72 68 80
1 600
21.3 23.2 25.8 28.5 30.2 32.4 35.8 42.1 44.0 45.5 50.3 54.2 54.8
91 83 84 83 80 78 77 86 82 80 77 89 84
1 800
22.9 24.4 26.4 29.3 31.3 32.8 35.6 39.3 43.8 44.9 50.0 50.3 51.6
107 101 96 98 96 91 92 93 98 94 100 90 93
2 000
23.2 24.6 27.2 30.0 31.7 33.5 36.1 41.5 43.0 44.7 45.9 50.0 51.5
126 117 117 113 112 111 107 119 114 110 109 113 109
2 200
25.2 27.6 30.9 32.4 33.3 34.3 36.5 42.3 43.6 44.9 45.7 46.4 51.3
200 142 135 131 127 122 118 134 129 128 124 120 125
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
26
1 300
24.2 28.6 32.5 41.1 44.3 48.1 52.9 55.6 60.9 71.1 71.4 75.8 81.6
65 64 64 72 68 67 66 67 65 70 65 66 66
1 400
22.8 26.4 29.7 33.7 37.5 42.2 45.8 49.0 53.4 57.2 63.3 67.7 73.4
64 65 64 64 64 66 65 65 65 66 66 66 67
1 600
22.0 25.6 28.5 31.0 34.3 38.2 44.0 44.5 46.9 53.8 54.4 60.9 67.0
78 77 75 73 72 73 76 74 72 80 75 79 77
1 800
24.0 26.2 29.0 31.5 33.6 37.8 43.8 44.3 46.1 48.3 52.5 56.2 66.0
93 88 88 87 84 82 91 86 84 82 86 89 95
2 000
24.8 26.4 29.6 31.8 34.5 36.7 43.3 43.7 45.1 46.7 51.2 53.4 55.6
108 105 104 101 97 96 106 100 99 95 100 96 94
2 200
25.8 26.6 30.0 32.1 35.1 36.9 43.5 44.5 45.6 45.7 48.7 52.9 55.5
134 122 116 115 118 112 119 118 113 108 107 111 107
2 400
27.3 28.2 32.3 33.5 36.8 38.1 45.1 45.6 47.5 48.4 53.1 53.7 55.6
160 136 147 131 135 124 137 131 130 125 128 124 121
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (kg/m)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
77
Joist depth selection table
METRIC
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
28
1 400
27.7 31.4 35.9 40.3 47.2 52.1 56.0 60.8 67.1 71.6 75.1 81.9 94.5
65 65 64 65 70 68 68 66 66 65 66 65 70
1 600
23.7 28.2 32.6 34.5 40.7 44.2 46.4 53.2 53.9 59.3 63.4 68.8 81.0
69 70 67 67 72 69 66 75 69 68 70 70 75
1 800
25.3 28.9 31.4 34.4 39.7 43.2 45.8 47.4 51.7 56.4 59.5 65.4 68.1
81 82 79 78 80 83 80 77 79 82 81 83 79
2 000
25.5 29.3 31.7 33.8 36.7 42.6 44.6 46.0 50.8 53.8 57.5 65.0 68.0
96 97 93 91 88 96 91 88 92 91 94 100 89
2 200
26.3 29.9 32.1 35.2 37.2 42.7 44.8 46.9 47.6 53.0 54.4 64.4 67.2
107 108 103 108 100 109 106 101 99 101 100 108 114
2 400
27.8 30.7 33.8 36.5 38.9 43.9 45.5 47.2 49.6 53.5 55.7 59.9 65.1
128 123 127 129 121 121 118 117 111 117 113 114 121
2 600
28.1 33.6 36.9 39.6 44.2 45.9 47.0 50.2 53.6 53.7 57.2 60.4 63.0
137 200 150 131 135 136 134 127 127 129 125 131 127
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
30
1 600
29.2 32.8 35.9 40.9 43.5 50.1 53.2 59.8 63.4 72.5 75.8 79.8 84.8
69 65 64 66 64 67 66 64 65 70 66 66 66
1 800
28.1 31.1 35.1 39.2 43.3 45.6 51.1 55.7 59.3 65.9 68.8 72.6 81.3
87 74 72 74 75 73 76 77 76 77 72 72 78
2 000
27.6 30.7 34.0 36.7 43.0 44.8 47.0 52.8 56.7 63.5 68.2 68.8 77.7
87 88 84 82 87 84 80 83 89 87 87 84 89
2 200
27.9 31.0 34.7 36.8 43.3 45.6 46.1 52.4 53.3 60.0 61.6 63.8 64.0
101 98 99 94 102 98 92 96 93 106 99 93 88
2 400
29.7 33.0 35.7 37.7 44.3 45.9 48.6 52.9 54.7 60.2 62.0 65.4 70.2
115 114 108 105 113 109 107 108 106 109 119 111 111
2 600
31.3 36.5 38.2 38.9 45.0 46.4 48.8 53.2 55.2 60.7 62.5 66.9 70.4
131 168 146 118 128 120 117 123 117 121 117 139 123
2 800
37.4 37.7 39.3 39.8 46.3 46.9 49.0 53.8 55.9 61.0 62.9 68.3 71.0
200 195 170 151 149 134 131 132 132 132 132 134 130
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
34
1 800
33.9 41.9 50.6 51.2 54.8 59.5 64.4 70.3 76.1 77.9 84.7 89.1 95.0
68 72 74 64 71 68 68 67 66 65 66 65 66
2 000
33.0 35.1 49.0 49.5 50.7 55.9 61.6 64.5 69.8 72.6 78.7 82.0 86.4
79 73 88 74 74 79 76 70 71 71 75 71 72
2 200
33.2 36.0 42.8 45.4 46.5 51.9 61.5 64.0 66.2 71.2 74.3 81.9 82.6
107 83 90 84 80 83 93 85 79 86 80 86 81
2 400
33.4 36.3 43.5 45.6 48.1 51.0 59.1 63.5 65.9 67.9 73.1 77.3 80.2
98 96 100 94 92 94 95 102 94 87 96 90 89
2 600
33.9 37.0 43.8 45.8 49.1 53.2 58.9 60.5 64.7 67.6 69.4 76.6 79.9
117 117 113 107 102 104 106 103 111 103 96 106 99
2 800
35.6 37.5 44.9 46.2 49.9 53.7 62.2 62.2 65.1 65.1 69.0 75.5 79.8
138 115 131 119 114 117 127 113 111 107 111 111 121
3 200
49.0 50.1 53.0 55.4 58.9 61.5 65.9 67.2 67.7 69.7 70.5 79.6 87.6
200 200 200 151 159 137 167 153 137 131 126 145 143
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (kg/m)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
78
Joist depth selection table
METRIC
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
38
2 000
49.5 53.0 56.0 60.8 61.4 65.1 70.0 76.3 85.0 89.8 95.3 101.4 106.7
78 76 72 75 67 66 64 64 67 66 67 68 67
2 200
40.3 52.0 55.0 55.6 60.6 63.2 68.4 75.2 79.6 85.2 87.8 93.6 99.7
95 90 82 78 81 80 73 72 76 70 71 71 67
2 400
36.3 43.5 54.0 55.0 58.1 62.8 65.9 74.5 76.1 83.8 85.4 87.0 95.7
82 86 95 89 83 87 79 86 79 84 78 73 80
2 600
38.0 55.2 55.4 55.2 58.9 64.3 65.6 66.8 75.9 77.6 83.9 86.2 91.9
134 135 94 93 93 103 93 86 93 86 92 87 87
2 800
38.4 56.3 56.3 56.3 61.0 64.9 67.5 69.1 73.6 77.5 80.5 84.5 90.5
113 157 101 105 108 100 109 100 98 100 98 92 95
3 200
45.2 60.7 60.7 60.7 69.9 70.1 72.4 74.2 76.1 79.7 81.2 89.0 93.1
170 199 123 123 200 127 116 112 121 119 111 121 114
3 600
64.5 66.5 68.5 69.9 71.6 74.1 75.4 76.3 80.4 84.6 89.9 93.1 101.9
200 200 200 200 200 162 147 135 128 151 141 138 130
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
42
2 200
51.7 59.5 65.5 65.8 70.7 71.9 96.6 98.8 101.5 104.9 106.9 109.7 117.2
77 79 82 72 71 64 84 70 65 70 68 64 64
2 400
43.8 47.5 58.1 63.5 68.1 69.3 81.4 89.7 92.4 99.9 101.2 106.2 113.3
80 73 77 101 72 200 69 73 67 72 67 71 67
2 600
53.4 54.4 55.3 59.9 64.4 67.3 75.3 80.1 85.1 93.6 99.0 102.5 107.3
120 93 86 82 85 76 81 78 79 78 79 78 78
2 800
54.9 55.3 56.0 59.5 64.2 67.0 74.9 77.0 85.0 90.1 96.4 100.5 106.7
135 91 92 173 98 89 85 87 84 85 85 86 85
3 200
57.8 60.2 62.5 63.7 66.1 71.9 77.0 81.6 85.9 87.8 94.5 99.2 106.1
151 147 139 121 105 116 112 103 110 102 101 104 102
3 600
67.8 69.4 71.5 78.5 84.4 90.2 95.5 97.4 99.4 101.6 105.9 107.6 108.6
200 200 200 154 137 120 115 130 126 117 128 120 118
4 000
73.3 74.2 78.6 87.5 98.4 101.1 102.5 104.2 108.1 110.6 111.7 115.7 117.4
200 200 200 191 170 153 150 138 190 145 175 171 140
Span
(m)
Joist
depth
(mm)
Factored load (kN/m)
Service load (kN/m)
4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5 21.0 22.5
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0
46
2 400
55.1 58.8 70.1 73.6 76.9 82.4 88.1 97.0 111.9 115.7 118.4 125.5 131.0
77 70 109 96 85 66 65 64 70 67 66 65 65
2 600
56.4 58.5 66.1 70.9 73.6 78.6 87.0 95.0 102.0 106.7 112.7 123.9 128.3
91 78 129 113 76 81 71 75 70 73 71 73 68
2 800
57.6 58.9 62.9 66.4 72.0 76.9 86.1 86.5 99.2 103.0 108.6 116.9 124.5
106 88 83 105 79 79 83 76 81 79 79 78 80
3 200
60.8 61.9 64.1 68.0 72.1 77.0 86.6 88.8 98.8 100.1 108.4 116.4 117.1
139 200 106 114 98 94 99 91 98 91 96 95 89
3 600
68.7 69.9 71.8 73.2 73.9 82.3 89.1 95.9 99.0 100.8 110.5 118.7 121.4
177 200 200 117 107 119 113 126 113 105 112 110 113
4 000
76.1 76.4 76.8 76.9 78.3 84.0 93.3 96.9 100.7 108.4 121.2 123.2 123.5
200 200 200 145 129 126 140 128 125 135 145 136 128
4 400
110.9 113.1 114.8 116.3 117.8 118.6 120.3 122.0 125.4 125.7 126.1 127.7 129.2
200 200 200 200 200 200 139 200 200 140 193 165 155
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (kg/m)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
79
Joist depth selection table
IMPERIAL
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1 ,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
10
8
5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.9 6.4 6.6 6.8 7.8 8.7
200 193 153 127 108 95 84 87 83 79 73 78 77
10
5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.8 5.8 6.6 6.6 7.2
200 200 200 200 175 153 136 122 111 101 113 105 103
12
6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 7.3
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 198 181 167 155 145
14
6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.4
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200
16
7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.5
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200
18
7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.3 8.4 8.7 9.0
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200
20
7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.7 7.9 8.1 8.4 8.5 8.7 9.1
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
13
8
5.3 5.3 5.3 5.7 6.5 8.2 8.7 9.5 10.6 11.9 12.8 13.8 14.6
116 86 68 65 64 71 65 64 65 64 64 65 64
10
5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 6.3 6.5 6.9 8.3 8.4 9.1 9.3 10.4
187 138 110 91 78 82 76 71 76 73 70 68 70
12
6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.9 7.0 8.4 8.4 9.0 9.0
200 200 197 163 139 122 108 101 92 103 95 93 86
14
6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.6 8.7 8.7
200 200 200 200 193 168 149 134 122 117 108 123 114
16
6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.9 6.9 6.9 7.0 7.3 7.6 7.8
200 200 200 200 200 200 198 178 161 148 143 132 135
18
6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.5 7.8 8.0
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 189 174 162 158
20
6.9 6.9 6.9 7.1 7.5 8.1 8.2 8.5 8.8 9.1 9.1 9.8 10.1
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
16
10
5.3 5.3 5.8 6.5 7.5 8.8 9.6 10.4 12.0 12.6 14.1 15.3 16.7
99 73 67 64 64 67 64 64 65 64 65 64 64
12
6.3 6.3 6.3 6.5 6.7 7.6 8.2 8.6 9.3 10.3 10.8 11.4 12.5
177 131 104 86 77 78 73 72 70 71 67 67 69
14
6.4 6.4 6.4 6.6 6.6 7.0 8.0 8.3 8.8 9.2 9.7 10.5 11.0
200 181 144 119 102 93 96 91 87 83 82 84 78
16
6.5 6.5 6.5 6.7 6.7 7.0 7.2 7.4 8.5 8.9 9.2 9.7 10.4
200 200 191 158 135 118 109 102 104 100 97 94 95
18
6.6 6.6 6.6 6.8 7.2 7.5 8.0 8.3 8.6 9.2 9.7 10.1 10.7
200 200 200 200 188 175 162 146 136 136 129 126 127
20
6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 7.3 7.6 8.0 8.6 8.8 9.3 9.8 10.2 10.8
200 200 200 200 200 200 194 182 165 156 157 146 139
22
7.2 7.2 7.2 7.4 7.6 8.0 8.4 8.8 9.1 9.5 10.0 10.4 11.1
200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 195 185 179 164
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (lb. /ft.)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
80
Joist depth selection table
IMPERIAL
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
20
12
6.1 6.4 7.5 8.6 9.9 11.3 12.8 14.0 15.8 17.7 18.4 19.9 20.3
89 69 64 63 64 64 64 64 65 64 64 64 64
14
6.2 6.4 6.7 7.9 8.3 9.2 10.1 10.8 12.4 13.6 14.1 15.3 16.2
124 92 76 73 70 66 66 64 66 65 64 65 65
16
6.3 6.7 6.7 7.1 8.1 8.8 9.4 10.1 10.7 12.0 13.5 13.9 14.5
164 121 96 84 83 81 75 72 72 71 77 74 73
18
6.7 6.7 6.7 7.1 8.1 8.7 9.3 9.9 10.7 11.8 12.3 13.7 13.9
200 155 123 107 106 98 95 89 87 87 86 89 86
20
6.8 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.8 8.3 8.9 9.8 10.3 11.1 11.4 11.6 11.8
200 193 153 133 118 115 108 103 101 99 98 94 94
22
7.2 7.3 7.5 7.5 7.8 8.5 9.1 9.8 10.0 10.9 11.3 11.4 11.7
200 200 187 155 132 121 118 119 114 109 108 106 104
24
7.2 7.5 7.9 8.7 9.3 9.6 10.4 10.6 10.7 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.2
200 200 200 200 199 178 172 158 146 145 134 124 116
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
23
14
6.1 6.8 8.2 9.3 11.2 13.4 14.6 15.5 17.2 18.6 19.3 20.8 22.1
81 66 64 63 65 66 65 64 64 64 65 64 64
16
6.5 6.5 7.9 8.4 9.5 10.8 11.8 12.8 14.0 15.2 16.3 16.3 17.2
107 79 76 71 68 65 64 66 64 65 65 64 64
18
6.6 6.6 7.2 8.4 9.0 10.6 11.1 11.6 13.5 14.0 15.0 15.9 15.9
137 101 84 81 77 76 74 72 77 73 71 71 72
20
6.7 6.7 7.4 8.5 8.9 10.3 10.9 11.4 12.5 12.5 12.7 13.5 14.7
170 126 109 101 91 87 87 85 83 87 86 84 87
22
7.0 7.3 7.6 8.6 9.0 9.7 9.9 10.4 12.1 12.4 12.5 12.8 13.7
200 154 128 114 105 101 98 101 95 93 98 97 96
24
7.2 7.5 8.1 8.7 9.4 10.1 10.3 10.3 12.1 12.1 12.1 12.6 13.1
200 184 153 132 134 117 113 118 107 115 108 112 109
26
8.1 8.3 8.4 9.4 9.6 10.1 10.5 10.6 10.7 11.0 11.8 11.8 12.9
200 200 200 200 194 169 150 139 129 125 128 119 123
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
26
16
6.3 7.5 8.7 11.2 12.5 13.6 15.4 16.9 18.2 20.3 22.5 23.1 24.5
74 66 64 65 67 65 65 65 64 65 64 64 63
18
6.3 6.7 8.2 9.2 10.2 11.4 12.8 14.0 15.5 15.7 17.1 18.2 19.2
94 73 71 65 66 64 65 64 65 64 64 64 63
20
6.5 6.9 7.7 9.0 9.9 10.7 10.8 11.7 12.8 13.7 16.9 16.9 17.1
117 91 84 78 75 72 73 73 73 71 70 72 70
22
7.2 7.2 7.8 9.5 9.6 9.7 10.1 11.5 12.1 12.8 16.4 16.7 16.7
143 106 88 90 81 82 81 86 81 79 78 77 78
24
7.2 7.5 8.6 9.6 9.8 9.9 10.0 10.3 11.9 12.2 14.4 14.6 15.9
171 133 122 108 103 99 94 87 93 89 90 88 88
26
8.3 8.7 9.2 9.7 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.8 12.0 13.5 13.7 14.5
200 200 189 161 144 117 103 103 96 101 97 96 95
28
8.4 8.7 9.3 9.8 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.9 12.1 13.2 13.3 13.8
200 200 200 161 165 136 121 108 109 118 114 105 104
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (lb. /ft.)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
81
Joist depth selection table
IMPERIAL
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
30
18
6.7 8.5 10.7 13.1 14.7 16.4 18.3 20.1 23.4 23.4 25.0 28.0 30.8
64 64 65 68 64 64 64 64 65 64 64 67 68
20
6.7 8.4 9.7 11.1 11.5 12.5 13.9 15.4 20.7 20.7 20.7 21.6 23.8
76 73 66 65 65 66 64 64 65 65 64 64 65
22
7.1 7.8 9.4 9.4 10.3 11.8 12.2 13.7 18.5 18.5 18.5 19.8 21.3
92 75 74 72 68 72 66 68 66 66 67 68 68
24
7.3 7.8 9.0 9.3 10.3 10.7 12.0 13.1 17.9 17.9 17.9 18.3 19.2
111 90 84 80 79 76 77 76 74 74 77 75 73
26
8.3 9.1 9.3 9.5 9.7 10.6 11.9 12.5 15.3 15.3 16.0 18.1 18.9
183 154 122 101 87 94 92 90 84 80 79 83 85
28
8.4 9.1 9.7 9.9 9.9 10.7 11.1 12.0 14.1 14.5 15.5 16.9 16.9
200 179 142 122 101 95 93 92 90 88 87 92 84
30
8.5 9.2 9.8 10.0 10.1 10.8 12.2 13.3 14.2 14.2 14.8 16.2 16.5
200 195 164 140 116 102 114 114 110 100 98 97 99
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
33
20
7.3 9.4 10.3 11.9 14.6 16.8 22.7 23.6 23.6 24.9 28.4 30.7 31.1
65 66 65 64 64 64 65 64 64 65 68 69 65
22
7.1 8.6 9.1 10.2 12.4 14.2 17.1 19.8 19.8 20.5 22.4 23.5 26.1
73 70 65 64 64 64 64 66 65 64 65 64 64
24
7.3 8.7 9.0 9.4 11.9 13.2 14.4 15.5 16.8 17.4 20.3 21.3 21.9
83 79 77 71 72 69 68 65 68 64 67 66 64
26
7.9 8.9 9.1 9.4 11.4 12.5 13.9 14.9 15.7 17.1 18.1 20.4 21.7
137 115 91 78 80 77 77 74 72 74 70 74 72
28
8.0 9.0 9.2 9.5 10.4 11.5 13.0 14.1 14.8 16.5 17.1 18.4 21.0
160 134 107 88 86 86 82 81 77 83 79 79 82
30
8.0 9.1 9.2 9.6 10.8 11.6 12.4 13.4 14.4 16.0 16.9 17.8 18.6
185 137 123 102 100 99 91 90 87 88 89 87 86
32
8.9 9.1 9.2 9.8 10.9 11.7 12.5 14.3 14.3 15.5 16.3 16.8 18.5
200 177 141 117 100 97 101 97 94 95 93 90 93
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
36
22
8.3 9.3 10.9 13.2 15.4 18.6 21.9 24.3 24.3 26.1 28.5 31.1 33.9
65 67 65 64 64 65 64 65 64 64 64 64 66
24
7.8 9.0 9.4 11.7 13.2 15.8 19.2 19.2 20.6 22.1 24.0 25.7 30.6
70 64 64 64 64 65 64 64 65 65 64 64 69
26
8.0 9.1 9.1 10.8 12.2 13.9 15.2 16.8 18.5 20.1 21.1 22.6 24.6
106 88 70 69 68 65 67 68 67 66 66 64 66
28
8.1 9.2 9.2 9.8 12.0 13.3 14.4 15.8 17.0 18.5 20.0 21.5 23.9
123 103 82 73 76 71 74 73 72 73 71 72 75
30
8.1 9.3 9.3 10.1 10.7 12.0 13.6 15.2 16.8 17.5 18.8 20.4 21.3
142 119 95 84 80 80 80 80 81 78 78 77 75
32
8.9 9.4 9.4 10.2 10.9 12.7 12.8 14.2 16.1 17.3 18.2 19.2 20.7
184 136 108 90 85 87 86 83 85 85 85 83 82
36
9.1 9.5 9.5 10.4 11.1 13.0 13.0 14.4 14.8 16.3 17.9 18.7 19.7
200 173 138 114 100 103 99 101 98 96 100 98 96
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (lb. /ft.)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
82
Joist depth selection table
IMPERIAL
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
40
24
9.3 10.0 12.8 14.7 18.0 22.5 22.6 25.0 29.1 31.1 33.4 37.2 40.0
66 65 65 65 63 65 64 65 67 67 67 68 66
26
8.8 9.3 11.3 12.7 15.7 17.6 19.6 21.5 23.5 27.1 29.4 32.1 34.3
87 64 65 64 64 64 65 64 64 65 67 67 69
28
9.1 9.1 10.3 11.8 14.2 15.2 16.8 18.5 20.4 22.0 24.1 26.5 30.5
101 75 66 67 66 65 64 64 65 64 65 64 70
30
9.2 9.1 9.5 10.8 12.2 14.5 15.9 17.7 19.9 21.0 24.0 25.0 28.5
117 87 74 75 69 70 68 70 71 68 73 70 73
32
9.3 9.3 9.7 11.2 12.5 13.3 15.2 17.0 18.2 20.3 22.3 23.7 25.5
133 99 79 85 76 77 74 76 73 74 76 72 74
36
9.4 9.5 9.9 11.6 12.7 13.4 14.4 15.6 17.5 19.0 20.0 21.8 22.9
170 126 100 92 93 90 85 87 86 86 83 86 84
40
9.5 9.6 10.0 11.8 12.9 13.6 14.6 15.7 17.6 18.4 19.5 21.6 22.1
200 156 124 103 107 101 102 97 103 100 98 98 97
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
43
26
9.0 11.3 13.3 15.4 17.8 21.0 23.5 26.4 29.0 31.1 34.4 36.8 42.8
70 64 64 63 64 65 64 64 64 64 64 65 67
28
8.9 10.3 12.0 13.6 16.2 17.8 20.2 22.6 26.3 28.7 31.0 31.3 34.0
81 65 65 64 65 63 64 64 66 68 67 64 65
30
9.0 9.3 10.2 12.2 14.5 16.8 18.2 20.0 22.1 24.2 26.1 31.3 31.3
94 70 66 65 65 67 65 65 65 65 64 72 69
32
9.1 9.7 10.3 11.6 14.2 15.2 17.2 19.2 21.4 22.6 24.6 28.1 29.5
107 79 70 71 72 67 68 70 69 68 69 72 72
36
9.2 10.0 10.5 11.9 13.0 14.1 15.8 17.6 19.6 20.9 22.7 25.1 26.5
137 101 87 87 83 80 78 78 81 77 78 80 78
40
9.3 10.4 10.6 12.0 13.2 14.3 16.0 17.0 18.3 20.5 22.4 23.1 25.6
170 129 100 100 93 92 91 91 91 88 90 88 93
44
9.5 10.7 10.9 12.2 13.3 14.5 16.1 17.2 18.4 20.3 21.2 22.8 23.6
200 157 125 104 113 105 102 102 101 103 101 101 99
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
46
28
9.3 11.7 13.6 16.1 18.9 21.8 24.9 28.3 30.9 33.5 35.8 39.2 42.2
66 65 65 64 64 65 66 67 66 66 66 65 64
30
9.2 10.0 12.0 14.3 16.9 19.3 21.8 25.1 27.0 28.8 31.6 33.7 36.7
77 65 63 64 65 65 65 67 64 64 65 65 67
32
9.5 9.7 11.6 13.1 15.5 17.4 19.2 21.2 24.2 25.4 28.5 31.9 31.9
87 70 67 64 65 65 64 64 67 64 65 69 64
36
9.7 10.1 10.7 12.6 14.4 16.1 17.8 20.0 21.4 23.1 26.0 28.3 29.6
111 83 78 76 75 74 73 73 72 71 74 76 75
40
10.2 10.2 10.8 11.7 13.5 15.7 17.1 18.5 20.1 22.5 24.6 26.0 28.3
143 103 91 88 84 83 86 84 82 82 85 83 86
44
10.3 10.3 10.9 11.9 13.7 15.0 16.3 18.3 19.5 21.6 23.4 25.5 26.1
168 125 99 100 98 97 92 94 95 92 94 96 92
48
10.4 10.4 11.2 12.0 13.9 15.2 16.5 18.4 19.7 21.8 22.5 23.6 25.8
200 149 132 119 113 108 106 108 104 106 103 101 107
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (lb. /ft.)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
83
Joist depth selection table
IMPERIAL
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
49
30
9.4 12.0 14.2 17.0 20.0 23.0 26.1 28.5 31.5 36.1 36.7 42.8 45.9
68 64 64 64 64 64 65 64 64 69 64 66 66
32
9.3 10.9 12.9 15.4 18.0 20.5 23.0 25.2 29.1 31.3 34.4 37.0 40.3
72 64 64 64 65 64 64 63 66 67 67 68 67
36
9.5 9.8 12.1 13.7 16.1 17.7 20.4 21.5 25.4 28.3 31.6 32.3 34.7
92 73 74 70 70 68 69 67 70 73 74 73 74
40
9.6 10.0 11.3 13.2 15.1 16.9 18.4 21.2 22.6 25.2 29.1 31.7 32.7
114 85 88 81 79 80 77 77 76 78 82 86 83
44
10.0 10.1 11.5 12.8 14.2 15.7 18.1 20.2 22.6 23.6 28.1 28.1 31.9
139 103 91 89 90 89 86 87 85 84 95 90 95
48
10.5 10.4 11.6 12.9 14.4 15.8 18.5 20.0 21.3 22.2 25.0 26.3 28.5
166 123 101 106 100 98 99 98 96 96 99 97 101
52
10.6 10.8 11.8 13.0 15.0 15.9 18.7 20.2 21.5 22.5 23.9 25.6 28.5
200 149 119 116 115 109 113 108 112 106 106 108 112
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
52
30
10.5 12.4 14.1 15.6 17.9 19.8 21.7 23.7 25.4 28.3 30.4 33.2 33.5
65 64 65 64 65 65 64 64 65 66 67 68 64
32
9.4 11.3 12.8 14.4 16.1 17.7 19.2 21.1 22.7 25.1 26.2 28.6 30.8
65 64 65 65 65 65 64 65 64 67 65 66 68
36
9.1 10.0 11.4 12.1 13.3 15.0 16.0 17.6 18.6 19.9 21.4 24.2 24.6
77 69 72 66 64 66 64 65 64 64 65 68 66
40
9.3 9.6 10.1 11.5 13.0 13.8 15.1 16.3 17.5 18.5 20.2 21.9 22.6
96 80 76 78 75 74 72 73 73 71 72 73 72
44
9.5 9.8 10.3 11.7 12.4 13.2 13.7 16.1 17.3 18.0 19.4 20.1 21.3
116 97 85 88 85 85 82 82 83 82 81 80 80
48
9.8 9.8 10.5 11.8 12.6 13.4 14.0 15.1 16.9 17.8 19.1 20.0 20.8
139 116 99 105 101 94 95 92 91 92 91 90 90
52
10.6 10.6 11.4 12.0 12.7 13.5 14.4 15.4 17.2 18.2 19.3 19.8 20.7
163 140 130 105 110 110 107 105 103 107 104 101 102
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
56
32
11.2 13.3 15.4 17.7 19.4 21.4 23.9 25.6 28.6 30.4 33.3 36.0 36.2
64 65 65 65 64 64 64 65 65 66 67 68 64
36
9.7 11.4 12.6 14.5 16.0 17.8 19.3 21.0 23.0 25.0 25.9 28.8 31.6
66 67 64 64 64 64 64 65 64 67 64 67 68
40
9.4 10.0 11.8 13.3 14.4 15.7 17.3 18.8 20.8 20.8 21.8 26.6 26.6
76 71 71 70 69 67 69 68 68 65 64 73 67
44
9.6 10.3 11.4 12.4 13.2 15.1 16.0 17.4 18.9 20.0 21.5 23.2 25.1
93 80 80 79 77 77 75 74 75 75 74 73 78
48
9.7 10.4 11.6 12.6 13.3 14.0 15.8 17.3 18.5 19.9 21.1 22.5 23.5
111 92 91 91 87 83 86 86 84 85 84 83 82
52
10.1 10.7 11.8 12.7 13.5 15.0 15.9 17.0 18.2 19.1 20.4 21.3 22.6
131 109 96 99 98 94 95 93 93 92 91 90 92
56
10.7 11.4 12.0 13.1 14.2 15.1 16.3 17.2 18.8 19.5 20.7 21.6 22.0
152 130 115 115 114 105 106 106 104 103 102 101 101
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (lb. /ft.)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
84
Joist depth selection table
IMPERIAL
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
59
36
10.7 12.4 14.6 16.2 18.3 20.3 22.3 24.7 26.4 28.9 31.4 33.8 34.5
65 64 65 63 65 65 65 67 65 66 67 69 65
40
9.9 11.6 13.0 14.4 15.7 17.3 18.6 20.1 22.1 25.1 26.0 28.5 28.9
70 71 68 66 64 65 64 64 65 65 65 67 65
44
9.6 10.8 12.6 13.2 15.0 16.0 17.7 19.1 21.1 22.0 23.0 25.9 26.2
79 76 74 72 73 70 72 69 71 70 68 72 70
48
9.8 10.2 12.2 13.0 14.2 15.9 16.9 18.9 19.6 20.6 22.2 23.6 25.6
95 81 89 83 79 79 80 80 78 77 78 77 79
52
10.0 10.5 12.0 12.9 14.0 15.7 16.8 18.6 19.4 20.2 21.4 22.6 25.2
112 96 97 94 89 89 86 86 88 86 84 83 95
56
11.2 11.4 12.6 13.3 14.5 16.0 16.7 18.3 19.2 20.1 21.1 21.9 23.5
130 115 103 101 100 102 96 97 99 97 95 94 93
64
11.4 11.6 12.9 13.6 14.9 16.4 16.9 18.6 19.4 20.2 22.0 23.9 26.7
170 146 136 122 123 126 117 117 120 118 121 125 130
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
62
40
10.7 12.2 14.1 15.7 17.4 19.5 21.3 22.8 25.5 27.1 31.1 32.0 32.4
67 64 65 64 64 64 65 63 64 65 66 66 64
44
10.3 11.9 13.2 14.8 15.8 17.5 19.2 21.2 22.8 23.6 25.8 28.8 29.1
76 75 71 71 67 68 69 68 66 65 66 71 68
48
9.8 11.7 12.6 13.9 15.3 16.8 18.4 19.7 22.0 22.8 25.0 25.9 28.6
82 83 79 76 75 76 76 73 75 72 75 75 78
52
10.2 11.3 12.5 13.5 15.0 16.6 17.9 19.4 20.8 22.3 23.4 25.2 26.0
96 92 90 87 85 82 84 84 81 82 81 83 81
56
11.1 11.8 13.0 14.2 14.8 16.4 17.8 19.3 20.4 21.5 22.8 23.8 25.7
112 99 97 94 96 91 94 92 90 88 89 88 91
64
11.4 12.2 13.1 14.4 15.5 16.1 17.7 19.1 20.1 21.0 22.0 22.8 25.4
151 129 120 120 118 111 114 112 110 108 107 105 116
72
12.9 14.1 14.9 15.3 15.8 17.8 19.3 20.0 21.4 22.0 22.9 27.0 27.8
197 164 148 133 132 132 134 133 130 129 128 140 137
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
65
40
11.6 13.6 15.5 17.4 19.8 22.0 24.0 26.4 29.0 31.3 34.4 34.7 37.1
64 64 64 64 63 65 64 66 66 67 68 64 66
44
10.9 12.5 13.7 15.8 17.7 19.2 20.8 22.5 25.1 26.5 28.4 30.0 32.6
68 67 66 65 65 65 65 64 65 65 66 65 68
48
10.7 12.2 13.3 15.1 16.4 18.3 19.6 21.2 22.6 25.5 26.6 29.2 30.6
79 77 76 73 69 72 71 69 70 72 69 74 71
52
10.3 11.9 12.8 14.6 16.2 17.9 19.3 20.8 21.9 23.3 25.6 28.9 30.0
86 84 80 80 79 80 77 79 77 75 79 82 80
56
11.4 12.1 13.7 14.5 16.1 17.6 18.9 20.0 21.3 22.6 24.4 28.3 28.7
100 13 93 87 86 90 87 84 85 83 93 84 90
64
11.7 12.6 14.0 15.2 15.9 16.9 18.7 19.8 20.9 22.3 23.3 27.4 28.1
135 112 116 115 107 104 103 101 101 102 100 111 101
72
13.5 14.7 14.9 15.6 17.6 18.3 19.5 21.1 21.7 23.5 26.3 27.7 29.2
171 150 132 129 127 122 121 123 121 126 135 123 128
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (lb. /ft.)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
85
Joist depth selection table
IMPERIAL
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
72
44
13.0 15.2 17.3 19.7 22.1 26.0 27.0 29.4 32.0 35.1 37.4 40.6 43.6
63 65 64 64 64 67 64 64 65 65 67 66 67
48
12.4 13.6 15.6 17.6 19.6 21.4 23.4 26.0 28.3 30.2 32.6 35.6 37.9
68 65 66 65 64 64 64 65 67 66 67 68 64
52
12.1 13.4 15.3 17.5 18.9 20.4 21.8 24.7 25.6 29.4 29.5 31.2 35.6
74 74 73 71 69 69 69 71 69 73 70 68 76
56
12.9 13.6 15.4 16.4 18.7 20.2 21.4 23.2 25.1 28.4 29.2 30.4 31.3
86 80 78 76 78 77 75 75 76 81 77 76 74
64
13.2 13.7 15.6 16.9 18.4 19.4 20.6 21.9 23.7 26.0 29.0 30.0 30.7
104 97 92 92 93 92 91 90 88 90 96 93 90
72
14.2 14.9 16.8 17.8 18.8 20.7 21.0 22.9 24.1 27.9 28.7 29.7 30.5
129 116 120 112 106 111 107 106 105 114 103 111 108
80
14.6 15.2 17.0 18.1 19.4 21.0 21.4 23.2 24.7 28.5 29.7 29.9 32.9
159 143 142 133 131 124 125 122 119 124 128 128 133
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
79
48
14.2 16.6 19.2 21.6 27.7 28.7 31.8 32.1 35.4 37.5 41.3 45.5 47.4
64 64 64 64 73 64 69 64 64 65 64 69 65
52
13.8 15.7 18.3 19.8 21.5 24.7 28.1 28.9 32.7 34.8 36.2 38.4 41.0
67 66 65 64 63 64 67 64 69 70 65 67 67
56
13.6 15.5 17.6 19.3 20.8 23.5 26.0 28.6 29.5 33.3 35.9 36.0 37.3
73 72 71 70 68 68 70 73 69 73 76 71 67
64
13.7 15.0 16.3 18.8 20.2 21.7 24.6 25.7 29.3 30.0 31.3 34.1 36.5
88 87 83 84 82 82 79 82 84 82 79 84 88
72
15.3 16.4 17.8 19.6 21.1 22.0 23.9 25.2 28.9 29.6 30.8 31.5 34.4
103 106 97 98 97 96 92 92 100 99 95 92 97
80
15.4 16.7 18.3 19.7 21.4 22.7 24.0 27.5 29.1 29.9 30.4 31.1 32.1
127 123 123 119 118 113 108 121 115 115 111 108 104
88
16.0 18.1 19.6 21.2 22.9 23.7 24.9 29.5 30.5 30.9 31.1 31.5 31.7
200 136 128 129 128 128 124 121 135 130 126 122 119
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
85
52
15.1 18.4 20.5 23.9 27.1 29.9 32.1 35.9 37.6 41.0 44.5 48.2 50.9
64 65 64 65 65 66 66 65 66 65 70 66 65
56
15.0 17.2 19.4 21.4 23.9 28.0 28.9 30.9 35.2 35.8 38.9 45.3 45.7
66 67 64 65 64 68 66 64 70 65 67 71 67
64
14.4 16.1 18.4 20.2 22.0 24.8 28.4 29.7 30.6 33.5 36.4 36.6 45.2
78 77 77 76 73 76 80 77 75 77 80 75 80
72
15.8 17.3 19.2 21.1 21.9 24.2 27.9 29.4 30.4 31.2 34.4 35.5 37.9
92 91 94 88 86 85 95 90 88 84 89 86 90
80
16.3 17.5 19.9 21.2 22.5 24.1 26.7 28.9 29.9 30.7 32.3 34.6 36.0
116 107 107 104 102 97 102 108 103 99 97 100 97
88
17.6 17.7 20.1 21.5 23.5 25.0 27.7 29.4 30.1 30.8 32.7 34.9 35.7
144 122 127 118 122 116 123 122 116 112 112 115 112
96
18.4 19.0 21.3 22.6 23.9 25.5 28.9 29.8 31.3 32.2 33.8 35.8 36.3
172 146 151 141 130 136 126 135 134 129 125 129 126
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (lb. /ft.)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
86
Joist depth selection table
IMPERIAL
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
92
56
17.3 20.0 23.2 25.7 28.9 32.5 34.9 38.1 42.0 45.1 49.7 51.7 56.0
64 65 65 64 65 66 65 66 65 64 65 66 65
64
16.0 18.4 20.4 22.7 26.0 29.4 30.1 33.5 36.0 37.5 44.5 46.9 48.0
73 71 70 68 69 71 68 71 73 68 74 74 70
72
16.6 19.0 20.8 22.5 25.6 29.0 29.9 31.5 34.3 36.7 42.4 43.2 47.9
84 86 82 80 82 85 82 79 81 86 85 80 89
80
16.8 19.3 21.2 22.6 24.1 28.7 29.6 30.9 31.7 35.2 37.2 41.4 45.6
100 98 94 91 90 98 96 91 89 93 90 100 94
88
17.0 19.6 21.9 22.8 24.3 28.9 29.5 30.7 31.5 35.0 36.3 37.2 44.3
113 114 109 106 105 111 108 107 102 107 103 99 121
96
18.7 20.1 22.3 24.7 25.7 29.9 30.3 31.5 33.0 35.5 37.3 37.6 42.2
135 125 125 136 123 127 120 119 114 120 116 112 117
104
19.6 21.4 23.6 25.3 26.3 30.2 31.3 32.1 33.6 35.7 37.8 39.2 42.6
200 178 155 138 143 144 136 135 129 132 132 128 130
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
98
64
19.2 21.4 22.9 26.9 29.4 31.1 35.6 36.5 43.7 44.0 48.1 52.0 53.9
73 64 65 69 67 66 71 65 70 65 65 66 66
72
18.2 20.7 22.4 25.9 29.0 30.5 32.4 35.0 38.7 41.8 44.8 48.5 51.9
78 76 76 76 78 75 72 75 77 76 78 78 77
80
17.8 20.6 22.1 24.2 28.6 29.9 31.0 34.2 36.7 40.8 44.0 46.5 49.6
90 90 86 84 90 87 84 87 86 94 88 87 85
88
18.3 20.5 22.0 24.1 28.0 29.5 30.6 31.8 36.0 37.6 43.2 45.7 48.4
104 101 100 98 106 102 96 94 98 93 107 100 94
96
18.8 21.4 22.7 25.3 28.2 30.5 31.2 32.9 36.8 37.4 42.3 45.4 48.0
114 115 109 108 117 114 111 105 110 106 110 127 119
104
19.9 22.5 24.1 26.5 28.6 31.0 31.5 33.6 37.4 37.8 42.4 44.6 47.8
134 135 133 140 120 129 121 120 122 121 122 127 141
112
24.3 24.7 25.6 27.4 30.6 31.5 32.0 35.0 38.9 41.0 42.6 45.4 49.0
200 200 152 160 160 144 136 137 136 142 137 133 135
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
112
72
22.5 23.8 28.5 31.5 37.3 38.5 40.9 44.2 47.1 51.1 54.2 57.2 60.2
71 64 69 64 70 67 64 65 64 65 63 65 65
80
21.1 23.4 26.4 30.9 33.8 35.1 39.4 43.6 45.1 48.7 52.5 53.8 54.5
77 75 89 75 73 75 80 73 75 74 75 74 70
88
21.7 22.8 26.2 30.3 32.4 34.8 37.3 42.0 44.3 46.8 49.6 50.3 54.0
94 83 91 86 84 85 82 89 82 84 84 79 85
96
21.9 23.6 26.9 30.6 31.9 34.6 37.0 41.6 43.8 44.1 45.6 49.8 53.4
98 99 101 98 94 96 92 107 98 91 85 94 89
104
22.9 24.6 27.2 30.9 32.2 35.4 37.4 42.1 44.2 45.5 46.0 49.1 52.6
150 118 113 108 103 106 103 105 116 108 100 100 104
112
24.0 27.4 29.2 31.1 34.6 36.8 41.9 42.6 44.8 45.7 47.0 50.7 53.6
171 120 122 120 115 119 133 119 113 125 117 110 114
128
25.6 30.2 33.4 37.4 39.9 41.8 44.4 45.2 45.9 46.5 47.8 54.0 56.6
200 200 200 158 195 136 175 160 148 137 128 153 144
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (lb. /ft.)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
87
Joist depth selection table
IMPERIAL
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1 ,040
125
80
32.7 34.3 36.1 40.8 42.8 45.3 46.6 51.1 52.8 57.3 60.7 64.7 69.5
83 80 73 79 70 70 68 67 65 66 65 66 67
88
30.2 33.5 34.9 38.6 39.2 44.0 45.6 49.6 51.9 55.4 59.6 62.1 64.4
100 85 75 76 133 77 70 75 70 74 69 70 71
96
32.6 34.0 34.5 37.9 38.0 43.1 44.5 45.4 50.3 53.5 56.4 57.9 64.0
140 91 100 91 81 92 84 77 83 77 83 77 84
104
34.0 35.6 36.4 37.2 37.4 40.5 43.4 45.2 47.5 52.0 54.8 57.2 59.2
113 142 95 95 93 93 98 90 88 91 89 91 86
112
36.2 37.0 37.8 38.9 41.0 41.9 44.4 45.6 46.7 50.2 53.9 56.9 59.0
104 165 107 107 114 102 98 105 97 95 104 97 100
128
38.6 40.6 41.3 43.2 44.6 46.9 48.1 49.6 50.9 53.1 55.5 57.8 63.6
200 200 180 168 200 134 122 115 127 125 117 115 120
144
45.6 45.8 46.7 47.3 49.4 51.2 56.9 59.9 62.2 67.2 69.6 71.0 73.5
200 200 200 200 200 200 155 142 131 136 148 146 137
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
138
88
34.2 39.3 41.0 43.5 45.0 47.9 59.9 61.6 62.4 65.6 69.5 72.5 77.7
73 84 74 122 67 67 81 74 69 64 69 68 67
96
36.5 36.7 38.6 41.9 43.8 46.8 50.4 55.2 58.2 63.0 64.9 70.7 71.6
108 87 79 85 76 75 73 77 71 76 71 75 70
104
37.0 37.2 37.4 41.5 43.4 44.8 50.1 52.0 57.1 59.4 64.8 65.6 69.1
127 95 86 157 89 80 86 79 83 77 84 79 77
112
37.2 38.0 38.8 42.5 43.1 45.3 49.2 51.8 55.4 58.4 62.9 64.9 68.9
142 92 94 101 89 94 90 92 89 90 89 84 90
128
41.0 41.4 42.1 43.5 43.8 45.6 49.3 52.0 55.9 59.8 60.4 64.7 68.6
160 156 147 128 114 106 112 109 105 108 101 110 104
144
43.8 46.2 47.0 48.9 49.1 49.9 51.7 55.9 60.1 62.6 63.9 67.6 68.5
200 200 200 163 145 130 119 138 162 123 128 127 120
160
48.5 49.9 50.2 51.0 51.6 52.1 53.9 56.3 67.8 68.6 72.1 74.4 78.2
200 200 200 200 179 161 159 141 200 186 185 134 170
Span
(ft.)
Joist
depth
(in.)
Factored load (lb. /ft.)
Service load (lb. /ft.)
300 405 510 615 720 825 930 1,035 1,140 1,245 1,350 1,455 1,560
200 270 340 410 480 550 620 690 760 830 900 970 1,040
151
96
37.0 38.6 41.9 65.8 66.3 66.4 66.8 71.6 73.1 71.1 75.6 80.1 85.7
82 73 74 101 90 81 74 74 67 65 64 65 65
104
36.2 38.5 41.4 55.1 57.0 59.1 60.6 61.9 64.6 68.7 72.6 78.0 83.6
86 80 137 119 106 72 87 69 74 72 72 71 72
112
37.9 38.7 41.2 43.2 45.9 51.9 54.8 59.1 63.8 66.5 70.6 77.5 79.1
112 94 85 89 79 84 80 80 79 80 78 82 77
128
40.8 41.4 42.6 44.2 48.0 52.5 56.2 58.4 63.5 66.4 70.4 73.7 78.8
147 200 200 98 104 99 133 96 94 96 93 96 94
144
46.6 47.2 48.6 49.2 49.5 56.1 60.1 61.2 67.5 68.0 73.4 78.1 79.7
187 200 200 124 111 126 120 110 119 111 119 116 109
160
50.7 51.2 52.0 52.3 53.2 56.6 63.3 64.9 67.7 69.8 73.8 81.6 82.7
200 200 200 154 137 129 148 136 132 137 133 144 136
176
69.1 74.6 78.4 79.0 79.2 79.7 80.0 81.9 82.7 83.8 84.1 85.1 85.9
200 200 200 200 200 149 200 200 152 200 200 191 165
Lightest joist
: Mass of joist (lb. /ft.)
: % of service load to produce a deflection of L/360
XXX
XXX
88
Joist depth selection table
Selecting a joist girder can be done using graphs on pages 93 to 96 inclusive. The
horizontal axis gives the factored moment of the joist girder, while the vertical axis
indicates the joist girder weight. The various lines indicate different joist girder
depths. The building designer must calculate the factored moment of the joist
girder in order to use the graphs.
To select the depth, it is unnecessary to calculate the bending moment from the
concentrated loads of the joists bearing on the joist girder. Considering an
equivalent uniform load is sufficiently accurate. When designing the joist girders,
the designer will consider the actual loadings, as well as other forces and special
conditions, if applicable.
Unless advised otherwise, Canam will consider that the weight of the joist girders
is included in the loads specified in the documents and on the drawings.
The two following examples explain how to select the depth of a joist girder.
Note: You will find an interactive engineering tool at www.canam-construction.com,
allowing you to select the economical depth of trusses. This solution will save
you time.
IMPERIAL
EXAMPLE 1 Comparisons
For the building conditions below, use one or two intermediate columns on the two
longest exterior walls. Here is the impact comparison of the weight of joist girders
G1 versus G2:
Uniform dead load (DL): 20 psf
Uniform live load (LL): 55 psf
Maximum allowable deflection under the service load: L /240
Solution
The total moment of the joist girder can be calculated as follows:
M
f
=(1.25DL + 1.5 LL) x girder tributary width x girder span
2
8,000
The two joist girder lengths to be used are 12.2 m (40 ft.) and 18.3 m (60 ft.). The
tributary width of the joist girder is 9.1 m (30 ft.); one-half the length of the joists.
M
f alt 1
=(1.25 x 20 + 1.5 x 55) x 30 x 40
2
= 645 kipft.
8,000
M
f alt 2
=(1.25 x 20 + 1.5 x 55) x 30 x 60
2
= 1,450 kipft.
8,000
89
Joist girder depth selection
Example 1
18.3 m (60 ft.)
G2
12.2 m (40 ft.)
G1
12.2 m (40 ft.)
G1
12.2 m (40 ft.)
G1
18.3 m (60 ft.)
G2
1
8
.
3

m

(
6
0

f
t
.
)
Alternative 1:
3 joist girders (G1), 12.2 m (40 ft.) span,
depths allowed: 0.6 to 1.1 m (24 to 44 in.)
Alternative 2:
2 joist girders (G2), 18.3 m (60 ft.) span,
depths allowed: 1 to 1.7 m (40 to 66 in.)
Joists equally spaced at 1.5 m (50 ft.) c/c
From the table on page 95, select the weight of the joist girders for the different
depths permitted. Then calculate the unit weight of the joist girders and the total
weight for each alternative. The results are presented below.
METRIC
JOIST GIRDER WEIGHT
Unit weight Total weight
(kg/m) (kg) (kg)
Depth (mm) Alt. 1 Alt. 2 Alt. 1 Alt. 2 Alt. 1 Alt. 2
610 0.99 1,234 3,701
710 0.88 1,089 3,266
810 0.71 889 2,667
914 0.66 816 2,449
1,015 0.61 1.31 762 2,449 2,286 4,899
1,120 0.58 1.23 726 2,286 2,177 4,572
1,220 1.15 2,150 4,300
1,370 1.08 2,014 4,028
1,524 0.99 1,851 3,701
1,675 0.93 1,742 3,484
Alternative 1: 3 joist girders
Alternative 2: 2 joist girders
IMPERIAL
JOIST GIRDER WEIGHT
Unit weight Total weight
(plf) (lb.) (lb.)
Depth (in.) Alt. 1 Alt. 2 Alt. 1 Alt. 2 Alt. 1 Alt. 2
24 68 2,720 8,160
28 60 2,400 7,200
32 49 1,960 5,880
36 45 1,800 5,400
40 42 90 1,680 5,400 5,040 10,800
44 40 84 1,600 5,040 4,800 10,080
48 79 4,740 9,480
54 74 4,440 8,880
60 68 4,080 8,160
66 64 3,840 7,680
Alternative 1: 3 joist girders
Alternative 2: 2 joist girders
For both alternatives, the greater the depth of the joist girder, the less it weighs. In
addition, alternative 1 requires three joist girders but the total weight is generally
less than that of alternative 2. However, in making a choice, the building designer
should also consider the cost of the intermediate columns (including the foundations)
on the overall building costs.
90
Joist girder depth selection
Alternatives 1 and 2 can be verified to see if the maximum deflection under the
service load is respected in the worst case scenario for a depth of 0,6 m (24 in.)
(alternative 1) and a depth of 1 m (40 in.) (alternative 2).
I
alt 1
= 0.132 M
f
D
= 0.132 x 645 x 24
= 2,043 in.
4
I
alt 2
= 0.132 M
f
D
= 0.132 x 1,450 x 40
= 7,656 in.
4
The joist girder deflection can be estimated by using the deflection equation of a
simple beam, increased by 10% to include the elongation of web members.
= 1.10
(
5W
L
L
4
)
384 EI
By integrating the above formula of inertia and by simplifying the equation for
deflection, we obtain:
=
(
W
L
L
4

)
154,667 M
f
D

alt1
= 55 x 30 x 40
4

154,667 x 645 x 24
= 1.76 in. < 2.0 in. (40 x 12/240) OK

alt2
= 55 x 30 x 60
4
154,667 x 1,450 x 40
= 2.38 in. < 3.0 in. (60 x 12/240) OK
EXAMPLE 2 Special loading
Here is the weight evaluation of the joist girder for the conditions below:
Uniform dead load: 15 psf
Uniform live load: 45 psf
Maximal deflection allowed under live load: L/240
Concentrated (P.L.) dead load: 5 kip
live load: 10 kip
Example 2
4.6 m (15 ft.)
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91
Joist girder depth selection
Solution
Contrary to the previous example, the maximum moment of the joist girder does
not occur at mid-span. Therefore the maximum moment must be located first. Then
its value is calculated and the unit weight (plf) of the joist girder is selected from
the vertical axis.
1. Calculate the loading on the joist girder:
a) uniformly distributed loads
W
f
= (1.25 x 15 + 1.5 x 45) x 25 = 2,156 plf
b) concentrated loads
P
f
= (1.25 x 5 + 1.5 x 10) x 35 =149 kip = 14,875 lb.
50
2. Locate the maximum moment:
The maximum moment is produced at the location where shear is zero. Starting
from point A,
R
A
= 2,156 x 36 + 14,875 x 24 = 48,725 lb.
2 36
L
vo
= 48,725 = 22.6 ft.
2,156
3. Calculate the maximum moment and determine the weight of the joist girder:
M
fmax
= 2,156 x 22.6 x (36 22.6) + 14,875 x 12 x 22.6
2 36
= 438,520 lb.ft. = 438.5 kipft.
A moment of 438.5 kip-ft. and a depth of 1 m (40 in.) result in a joist girder with a
weight of approximately 30 plf or 1,080 lb. total.
4. Verify the maximum deflection criteria under the service load:
I = 0.132 M
f
D
= 0.132 x 438.5 x 40
= 2,315 in.
4
= 1.10
[
5W
L
x L
4
+ P
L
x a x L
vo
(L
2
a
2
L
vo
2
)
]
384 EI 6EI L
= 1.10
[
5 x 45 x 25 x 36
4
x 12
3
+ 10 x 35 x 12 x 22.6 (36
2
12
2
22.6
2
) x 12
3

]
384 x 29 x 10
6
x 2,315 50 3 x 29,000 x 2,315 x 36
= 1.10 [0.63 + 0.15]
= 0.86 in. < 1.8 in. (36 x 12/240) OK
Note: Calculations for example 2 can be simplified by adding separately the
maximum moments under the uniform and concentrated loads. A value of
468.3 kipft. is then obtained which corresponds to a weight of 32 plf.
92
Joist girder depth selection
93
Joist girder depth selection

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94
Joist girder depth selection
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95
Joist girder depth selection
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96
Joist girder depth selection
2
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97
Joist girder specications
INFORMATION REQUIRED FROM THE BUILDING
DESIGNER
The building designer using joist girders shall consider the following, and provide
all the required information in the specification documents and on the drawings:
The loads that are carried by the joist girders can be specified by area (kPa or
psf), or calculated as point loads (kN or lb.) by the building designer. For
special loading conditions, a loading diagram is recommended.
The building engineer shall indicate the possible live load reduction of a floor.
The horizontal forces, applied to the joist girders and the steel joists that will
affect the buildings lateral stability, shall be indicated on the drawing for
consideration in designing the joist girders.
The building designer shall indicate special conditions, such as net uplift or
fixed ends, that will produce compression forces in the bottom chord for
consideration in determining chord size or number of knee braces required
for stability of that chord.
The depth of the joist girders must be specified.
The connection of joist girders to the columns is economical if a bearing shoe
is used, usually 190 mm (7.5 in.) deep, bolted to the top of the column or on a
bearing bracket on the web or the flange of the column. This bracket is
designed by the building designer to safely support the reaction.
Joist girder bearing must be large enough to allow a minimum bearing length
on steel 100 mm (4 in.) and concrete 150 mm (6 in.).
The maximum deflection under the live loads and the total load must be
given, if required.
All special cambers to be specified, if applicable.
Minimum and maximum inertias must be given to ensure that they follow the
analysis model for a rigid frame or the vibration calculations made by the
building designer.
The types of geometry Pratt, Warren or modified Warren, and the panel point
configurations G, BG or VG, if required, is to be specified by the building
designer. Otherwise, Canam will use the most economical geometry and
panel point configuration.
Notes: No perforating or cutting of the joist girders shall be performed without
the authorization of the building designer.
All loads or forces specified on the plans and specifications are considered
unfactored unless otherwise indicated.
The following joist design information checklist was created to assist the building designer in the preparation of the building
design drawings. (Reference: CAN/CSA S16-01 clause 16.4.1)
JOIST DESIGN ESSENTIAL INFORMATION CHECKLIST
Notes: All loads on plans are considered service loads unless otherwise indicated.
Pictorial representations of the items in this list can be downloaded in the Documentation center at www.canam-construction.com.
Disclaimer note
This document is provided as a customer service to facilitate the provision of information required for joist design in connection with an order for joists placed with Canam, a business unit of Canam Group Inc. This document is
not intended to provide engineering advice, and all joist orders are subject to the terms and provisions specified in the actual order, including Canams Standard Terms and Conditions for Joists and Decking. Canam shall have no
liability for the use of this document, and in no event shall Canam be liable for any direct, consequential or incidental damages or cost resulting from the use of this document.
A. Loads
A.1 - Uniform dead and live loads acting on roof,
oor and mezzanines:
Specify if joist self weight is included or not in the uniform
dead load;
Show the area of various loading (examples: concrete pavers,
corridors, etc).
A.2 - Gross wind uplift load at the roof:
Include a load distribution diagram.
A.3 - Concentrated, distributed or unbalanced loads:
Break down the content of the load and specify if it applies to
top or bottom chord (examples: moveable partition, hanger,
roof anchor, etc.).
A.4 - Snow pile up loads:
Show maximum accumulation and distribution length on
a lower roof or in area adjacent to obstructions such as
mechanical units, screen wall, etc.
A.5 - Mechanical units and openings:
(stairs, skylight opening, etc.)
Specify the position, dimensions and load affecting the joist.
A.6 - Sprinkler system loads:
Specify linear load, position and (if any) obstructions
clearance requirements;
ESFR sprinkler system.
A.7 - Loads on joist cantilever ends:
(examples: canopy, brick wall, etc.).
A.8 - Ponding load on ow control drain roofs:
Indicate if the rain load is concurrent with the snow load.
A.9 - Crane/monorail load:
Pecify loads to be applied to joist;
Consider component weights (hoist, bridge, rail), wheel axis
c/c,capacity and impact coefcient.
B. Forces
B.1 - Axial loads (wind or seismic ) in joist top or bottom
chord coming from building bracing system (horizontal,
vertical and/or diaphragm).
B.2 - Knee brace axial loads attached to joist top or bottom chord.
B.3 - Joist end moment connection:
Indicate the magnitude and the load type for each type of load
or combination of loads (dead, live, wind or seismic).
B.4 - Lateral loads in joist top or bottom chord
(wind post column, roof anchors, etc.).
C. Design criteria
C.1 - Maximum allowable deections on roof and oor under live load
and (if required) total load:
Specify defections for special conditions at mid-span and at
the end of cantilever (masonry, brick wall, cranes, etc.).
C.2 - Floor vibration criteria (if any):
Specify minimum joist inertia or maximum allowable defection.
C.3 - Roof drain slopes:
Identify the joist affected and specify insulation where
required.
C.4 - Special camber (if any):
Specify total camber or residual camber (after installation);
Identify the joists affected.
C.5 - ULC Fire rating resistance requirement (if any).
C.6 - Duct opening passing through joists (if any):
Specify dimensions. Free opening, and position.
C.7 - Minimal material thickness for corrosion resistance (if applicable).
98
Checklist - joist
99
Take-off sheet - quotation
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Take-off sheet - quotation
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Quotation No:
Type Size Quantity
Bridging Steel deck
Project Name:
Type Quantity
Steel deck accessory
Page of
Type Quantity
102
Take-off sheet - quotation
HEAD OFFICE, ADMINISTRATIVE CENTER AND MANAGEMENT
GROUPE CANAM INC.
www.groupecanam.ws
CANAM STEEL CORPORATION
www.canam-construction.com
CANAM SALES OFFICES
CANAM PLANTS
CANADA
Calgary, Alberta BCS, SJI
Mississauga, Ontario BCS, SJI
Saint-Gdon-de-Beauce, Qubec ISO 9001:2000, BCS, SJI, AISC, ICCA
Boucherville, Qubec ISO 9001:2000, BCS, ICCA
UNITED STATES
Jacksonville, Florida AISC, SJI
Peru, Illinois SDI
Point of Rocks, Maryland AISC, SJI
Washington, Missouri AISC, SJI
South Plainfield, New Jersey SDI
Sunnyside, Washington AISC, SJI, ICC
Quebec
Head Office
11535, 1
re
Avenue, bureau 500
Saint-Georges (Qubec) G5Y 7H5
Telephone: 418-228-8031
Toll-free: 1-877-499-6049
Fax: 418-228-1750
Administrative Center
270, chemin Du Tremblay
Boucherville (Qubec) J4B 5X9
Telephone: 450-641-4000
Toll-free: 1-866-506-4000
Fax: 450-641-4001
Point of Rocks
Management
4010 Clay Street, PO Box 285
Point of Rocks, Maryland 21777-0285
Telephone: 301-874-5141
Toll-free: 1-800-638-4293
Fax: 301-874-5685
CANADA
www.canam-construction.com
Alberta
323 - 53rd Avenue South East
Calgary, Alberta T2H 0N2
Telephone: 403-252-7591
Toll-free: 1-866-203-2001
Fax: 403-253-7708
British Columbia
95 Schooner Street
Coquitlam, British Columbia V3K 7A8
Telephone: 403-252-7591
Toll-free: 1-866-203-2001
Fax: 604-523-2181
New Brunswick
95, rue Foundry
Heritage Court, Suite 417
Moncton, Nouveau-Brunswick E1C 5H7
Telephone: 506-857-3164
Toll-free: 1-800-210-7833
Fax: 506-857-3253
Ontario
1739 Drew Road
Mississauga, Ontario L5S 1J5
Telephone: 905-671-3460
Toll-free: 1-800-446-8897
Fax: 905-671-3924
Quebec
200, boulevard Industriel
Boucherville (Qubec) J4B 2X4
Telephone: 450-641-8770
Toll-free: 1-800-463-1582
Fax: 450-641-8769
270, chemin Du Tremblay
Boucherville (Qubec) J4B 5X9
Telephone: 450-641-4000
Toll-free: 1-866-466-8769
Fax: 450-641-9585
UNITED STATES
www.canam-construction.com
Florida
140 South Ellis Road
Jacksonville, Florida 32254
Telephone: 904-781-0898
Toll-free: 1-888-781-0898
Fax: 904-781-4090
450 East Hillsboro Boulevard
Deerfield Beach, Florida 33441
Telephone: 954-571-3030
Toll-free: 1-800-546-9008
Fax: 954-571-3031
Illinois
9 Unytite Drive
Peru, Illinois 61354
Telephone: 815-224-9588
Fax: 815-224-9590
Indiana
3425 Old Highway 135 Southwest
Corydon, Indiana 47112
Telephone: 812-734-1080
Toll-free: 1-800 546-9008
Fax: 812-734-1081
Massachusetts
50 Eastman Street
South Easton, Massachusetts 02375
Telephone: 508-238-4500
Fax: 508-238-8253
Mississsippi
4925 24th Place
Meridian, Mississippi 39305
Telephone: 601-483-3345
Fax: 601-483-3070
Missouri
2000 West Main Street
Washington, Missouri 63090-1008
Telephone: 636-239-6716
Fax: 636-239-4135
New jersey
14 Harmich Road
South Plainfield, New Jersey 07080
Telephone: 908-561-3484
Toll-free: 1-800-631-1215
Fax: 908-561-6772
Pennsylvania
1401 North Cedar Crest Boulevard, Suite 50
Allentown, Pennsylvania 18104
Telephone: 610-432-1600
Fax: 610-432-6900
Washington
2002 Morgan Road
Sunnyside, Washington 98944
Telephone: 509-837-7008
Toll-free: 1-800-359-7308
Fax: 509-839-0383
240 North West Gilman Boulevard, Suite G
Issaquah, Washington 98027
Telephone: 425-392-2935
Fax: 425-392-3149
Canadian
Welding
Bureau
www.cwbgroup.com
Canada Green
Building Council
www.cagbc.org
A
P
P
R O V
A
L
C
A
N
A
D
IA
N
WELDING
B
U
R
E
A
U

American
Institute of Steel
Construction Inc.
www.aisc.org
Underwriters
Laboratories
Inc.
www.ul.com
Underwriters
Laboratories
of Canada
www.ulc.ca
Association de
la construction
du Qubec
www.acq.org
Steel Deck
Institute
www.sdi.org
International
Code Council
www.iccsafe.org
Factory Mutual
System
www.fmglobal.com
Canadian
Institute of Steel
Construction
www.cisc.ca
Steel Joist
Institute
www.steeljoist.org
Canadian Sheet
Steel Building
Institute
www.cssbi.ca
Steel Plus
Network
www.steelplus.com
103
Sales ofces and plant certications
www.fsc.org
The mark of
responsible forestry


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www.canam-construction.com