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1

AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT CONTROLLER WITH


BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER


A PROJECT REPORT


Submitted by
SARATH M.R.

SARATH PRADEEP

SHILPA VINOD



in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree

of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

in

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,
KADAYIRUPPU
MG UNIVERSITY : KOTTAYAM

MAY 2011




2

SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
KOLENCHERY

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering
MINI PROJECT REPORT 2011

CERTIFICATE



Certified that this project report AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT
CONTROLLER WITH BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER is the
bona fide work of SARATH M.R. who carried out the project work under my
supervision.


HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR




INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER





3



SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
KOLENCHERY

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering
MINI PROJECT REPORT 2011

CERTIFICATE



Certified that this project report AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT
CONTROLLER WITH BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER is the
bona fide work of SARATH PRADEEP who carried out the project work
under my supervision.


HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR




INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER
4

SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
KOLENCHERY

Department of Electronics and communication Engineering
MINI PROJECT REPORT 2011

CERTIFICATE



Certified that this project report AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT
CONTROLLER WITH BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER is the
bona fide work of SHILPA VINOD who carried out the project work under my
supervision.


HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR




INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER



5


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


Before we get into the thick of things, we present our wholehearted compliments,
with higher regards and warm thanks to one and all, who were the bone behind the
sinews of this project.

We give all glory and honour to Almighty God whose blessings and help
made this endeavour a success.

We wish to express our sincere thanks to our Principal, Dr.C.E.Krishnan, for
providing an opportunity to undertake this project. We hereby acknowledge our
sincere thanks to Prof. Arumuga Samy, our H.O.D. for his invaluable remarks and
supervision in completing this project work successfully.


Also we would like to express our boundless thanks and gratitude to Mr.
Deepak P., Mr. Mahesh P S, Mr. Vishnu, Lecturers in ECE Dept. for their valuable
guidance and suggestions in the whole course of our mini project activity.

It would be unfair if we do not mention the invaluable contribution and
timely co-operation extended by staff members of our dept.

We would like to thank our Institution without which this project would
have been a distant reality. We also extend our heartfelt thanks to our family and
well wishers.

Not the least, but the most, we are grateful to all the 6th semester students of
this institution, our beloved companions for the inspiration and the co-operation
they have shown at all levels of our work.







6



ABSTRACT

This Project Automatic Room Light Controller with Bidirectional Visitor
Counter is a reliable circuit that takes over the task of controlling the room lights
as well us counting number of persons / visitors in the room very accurately. When
somebody enters into the room then the counter is incremented by one and the light
in the room will be switched ON and when any one leaves the room then the
counter is decremented by one. The light will be only switched OFF until all the
persons in the room go out. The total number of persons inside the room is also
displayed on the seven segment displays. The microcontroller does the above job.
It receives the signals from the sensors, and this signal is operated under the
control of software which is stored in ROM. Microcontroller AT89S52
continuously monitor the Infrared Receivers. When any object pass through the IR
Receiver's then the IR Rays falling on the receivers are obstructed. This obstruction
is sensed by the Microcontroller.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.


LIST OF FIGURES
1. Block Diagram of Circuit 10
2. Transmission Circuit 13
3. Receiver Circuit 15
4. Infrared Sensor 19
5. Block Diagram of TSOP 1738 20
6. Application Circuit 20
7. Timer IC (555) 20
8. LTS 542 (7-Segment Display) 22
9. LM7805 (Voltage Regulator) 23
10. Relay Circuit 24
11. Flow Chart 25
12. Circuit Diagram in PCB 35


1. INTRODUCTION 9

2. BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION 11
2.1 Power Supply 11
2.2 Enter and Exit Circuits 11
2.3 89S52 Microcontroller 12
2.4 Relay Driver Circuit 12
3. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 13
3.1 Transmission Circuit 13
3.2 Receiver circuit 15

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4. LIST OF COMPONENTS 16
5. DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPONENTS USED 17
5.1 Microcontroller AT89S52 17

5.2 TSOP1738 19

5.3 555 (TIMER IC) 20

5.4 LTS 542 22

5.5 LM7805 23

5.6 Relay Circuit 24


6. FLOW CHART 25


7. PROGRAM 26


8. PCB FABRICATION 30


9. CONCLUSION 36


10. BIBLIOGRAPHY 37




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INTRODUCTION

Project title is AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT CONTROLLER WITH
BIDIRECTIONAL VISITOR COUNTER.

The objective of this project is to make a controller based model to count
number of persons visiting particular room and accordingly light up the room.
Here we can use sensor and can know present number of persons.

In todays world, there is a continuous need for automatic appliances.
With the increase in standard of living, there is a sense of urgency for
developing circuits that would ease the complexity of life.

Also if at all one wants to know the number of people present in room so
as not to have congestion, this circuit proves to be helpful.










10




BLOCK DIAGRAM


















7-SEGMENT DISPLAY






ENTER
SENSOR
SIGNAL
CONDITIONING
EXIT
SENSOR
SIGNAL
CONDITIONING

A
T
8
9
S
5
2
RELAY
DRIVER
LIGHT
POWER
SUPPLY
11



BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION

The basic block diagram of the bidirectional visitor counter with automatic light
controller is shown in the above figure. Mainly this block diagram consists of the
following essential blocks.
1. Power Supply
2. Entry and Exit sensor circuit
3. AT89S52 micro-controller
4. Relay driver circuit

1. Power Supply:-
Here we used +12V and +5V dc power supply. The main function of this block
is to provide the required amount of voltage to essential circuits. +12V is given to
relay driver. To get the +5V dc power supply we have used here IC 7805, which
provides the +5V dc regulated power supply.

2. Enter and Exit Circuits:-
This is one of the main part of our project. The main intention of this block is to
sense the person. For sensing the person we are using a TSOP 1738 sensor. By
using this sensor and its related circuit diagram we can count the number of
persons.


12

3. 89S52 Microcontroller:-
It is a low-power, high performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8KB of
Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). The device is
manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is
compatible with the MCS-51
TM
instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash
allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional
nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash
on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful Microcontroller, which
provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution for many embedded control
applications.

4. Relay Driver Circuit:-

This block has the potential to drive the various controlled devices. In this block
mainly we are using the transistor and the relays. One relay driver circuit we are
using to control the light. Output signal from AT89S52 is given to the base of the
transistor, which energizes the particular relay, because of this, appropriate device
is selected and which performs its allotted function.








13

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
There are two main parts of the circuits.
1. Transmission Circuit (Infrared LEDs)
2. Receiver Circuit (Sensors)

1. Transmission Circuit:

14


This circuit diagram shows how a 555 timer IC, configured to function as a
basic astable multivibrator. The astable multivibrator generates a square
wave, the period of which is determined by the circuit external to IC 555. The
astable multivibrator does not require any external trigger to change the state
of the output. Hence the name free running oscillator. The time during which
the output is either high or low is determined by the two resistors and
a capacitor which are externally connected to the 555 timer.

IR Transmission circuit is used to generate the modulated 36 kHz IR signal.
The IC555 in the transmitter side is to generate 36 kHz square wave. Adjust the
preset in the transmitter to get a 38 kHz signal at the o/p. Then you point it over the
sensor and its o/p will go low when it senses the IR signal of 38 kHz.


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2. Receiver Circuit:


Fig. 3.4 Receiver circuit
The IR transmitter will emit modulated 38 kHz IR signal and at the receiver
we use TSOP1738 (Infrared Sensor). The output goes high when there is an
interruption and it return back to low after the time period determined by the
capacitor and resistor in the circuit i.e. around 1 second. CL100 is to trigger the
IC555 which is configured as monostable multivibrator. Input is given to the Port 1
of the microcontroller. Port 0 is used for the 7-Segment display purpose. Port 2 is
used for the Relay Turn On and Turn off Purpose.LTS 542 (Common Anode) is
used for 7-Segment display and that time Relay will get voltage and triggered, so
light will get voltage and it will turn on and when counter will be 00 and at that
time Relay will be turned off. Reset button will reset the microcontroller

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LIST OF COMPONENTS

Microcontroller AT89S52

IC 7805

Sensor TSOP 1738 (Infrared Sensor)

Transformer 12-0-12, 500 mA

Preset 4.7K

Disc capacitor 104,33pF

Reset button switch

Rectifier diode IN4148

Transistor BC 547, 2N2222

7-Segment Display











17


DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPONENTS USED

1. Microcontroller AT89S52:

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit
microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The
device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory
technology and is compatible with the Industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and
pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-
system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory pro-grammar. By combining a
versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the
Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible
and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash,
256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit
timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial
port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed
with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software
selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the
RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The
Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all
other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.




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FEATURES:-

8 KB Reprogrammable flash.

32 Programmable I/O lines.

16 bit Timer/Counter3.

8 Interrupt sources.

Power range: 4V 5.5V

Endurance : 1000 Writes / Erase cycles

Fully static operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz

Three level program memory lock

Power off flag

Full duplex UART serial channel

Low power idle and power down modes

Interrupt recovery from power down modes

256 KB internal RAM

Dual data pointer






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2.TSOP1738 (INFRARED SENSOR)
Fig. Infrared Sensor

Description:
The TSOP17.. Series are miniaturized receivers for infrared remote control
systems. PIN diode and preamplifier are assembled on lead frame, the epoxy
package is designed as IR filter. The demodulated output signal can directly be
decoded by a microprocessor. TSOP17.. is the standard IR remote control receiver
series, supporting all major transmission codes.
Features:
Photo detector and preamplifier in one package
Internal filter for PCM frequency
Improved shielding against electrical field disturbance
TTL and CMOS compatibility
Output active low
Low power consumption
High immunity against ambient light
Continuous data transmission possible (up to 2400 bps)
Suitable burst length .10 cycles/burst
20

Block Diagram:

Fig. Block Diagram of TSOP 173
Application Circuit:


Fig. Application circuit
3) 555 (TIMER IC):

Fig. Timer IC (555)
21


Description

The LM555 is a highly stable device for generating accurate time delays
or oscillation. Additional terminals are provided for triggering or resetting if
desired. In the time delay mode of operation, the time is precisely controlled by
one external resistor and capacitor. For astable operation as an oscillator, the free
running frequency and duty cycle are accurately controlled with two external
resistors and one capacitor. The circuit may be triggered and reset on falling
waveforms, and the output circuit can source or sink up to 200mA or drive TTL
circuits.

Features:
Direct replacement for SE555/NE555
Timing from microseconds through hours
Operates in both astable and monostable modes
Adjustable duty cycle
Output can source or sink 200 mA
Output and supply TTL compatible
Temperature stability better than 0.005% per C
Normally on and normally off output
Available in 8-pin MSOP package

Applications:

Precision timing
Pulse generation
Sequential timing
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Time delay generation
Pulse width modulation
Pulse position modulation
Linear ramp generator

4) LTS 542 (7-Segment Display)

Description:

The LTS 542 is a 0.52 inch digit height single digit seven-segment display.
This device utilizes Hi-eff. Red LED chips, which are made from GaAsP on GaP
substrate, and has a red face and red segment.
Fig.7 Segment Display

Features:

Common Anode
0.52 Inch Digit Height
Continuous Uniform Segments
Low power Requirement
Excellent Characters Appearance
High Brightness & High Contrast
Wide Viewing Angle
23

5) LM7805 (Voltage Regulator)


Fig. Voltage Regulator

Description:
The KA78XX/KA78XXA series of three-terminal positive regulator
are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output
voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs
internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection,
making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can
deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage
regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable
voltages and currents.

Features:
Output Current up to 1A
Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V
Thermal Overload Protection
Short Circuit Protection
Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection
24

6) RELAY CIRCUIT:


Fig. Relay


A single pole dabble throw (SPDT) relay is connected to port RB1 of the
microcontroller through a driver transistor. The relay requires 12 volts at a current
of around 100ma, which cannot be provided by the microcontroller. So the driver
transistor is added. The relay is used to operate the external solenoid forming part
of a locking device or for operating any other electrical devices. Normally the relay
remains off. As soon as pin of the microcontroller goes high, the relay operates and
releases. Diode D2 is the standard diode on a mechanical relay to prevent back
EMF from damaging Q3 when the relay releases.
25

FLOW CHART:



Fig. 4.7 Flow Chart

If the sensor 1 is interrupted first then the microcontroller will look for
the sensor 2, and if it is interrupted then the microcontroller will
26

increment the count and switch on the relay, if it is first time
interrupted.
If the sensor 2 is interrupted first then the microcontroller will look for
the sensor 1, and if it is interrupted then the microcontroller will
decrement the count.
When the last person leaves the room then counter goes to 0 and that
time the relay will turn off, and light will be turned off.

PROGRAM
// Program to make a bidirectional visitor counter using IR sensor
#include <reg51.h>
#define msec 1
unsigned int num=0;
sbit dig_ctrl_4=P2^6; //declare the control pins of seven segments
sbit dig_ctrl_3=P2^5;
sbit dig_ctrl_2=P2^6;
sbit dig_ctrl_1=P2^5;
sbit relay1 = P2^0;
sbit pin = P3^7;

unsigned char
digi_val[11]={0xFE,0x18,0x6D,0x3d,0x1B,0X37,0x77,0x1C,0xfF,0x3F};
unsigned int dig_1,dig_2,dig_3,dig_4,test=0;
unsigned char dig_disp=0;
sbit up=P1^0; //up pin to make counter count up
sbit down=P1^1; //down pin to make counter count down


void delay(int x)
{
char y = 200;
pin = !pin;
while((x--))
{
27

while((y--));
}
}

void init() // to initialize the output pins and Timer0
{
up=down=1;
dig_ctrl_4 = 0;
dig_ctrl_3 = 0;
dig_ctrl_2 = 0;
dig_ctrl_1 = 0;
relay1 = 0;
TMOD=0x01;
TL0=0xf6;
TH0=0xFf;
IE=0x82;
TR0=1;
P0=0x00;
}

void delay1() //To provide a small time delay
{
TMOD=0x01;
TL0=0x36;
TH0=0xF6;
TR0=1;
while(TF0==0);
TR0=0;
TF0=0;
}

void display() interrupt 1 // Function to display the digits on seven segment. For
more details refer seven segment multiplexing.
{
TL0=0x36;
TH0=0xf6;
P0=0xFF;
dig_ctrl_1 = dig_ctrl_3 = dig_ctrl_2 = dig_ctrl_4 = 0;
dig_disp++;
dig_disp=dig_disp%2;
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switch(dig_disp)
{

case 0:
P0= ~digi_val[dig_1];
dig_ctrl_1 = 1;
break;

case 1:
P0= ~digi_val[dig_2];
dig_ctrl_2 = 1;
break;

case 2:
P0= ~digi_val[dig_3];
dig_ctrl_3 = 1;
break;

case 3:
P0= ~digi_val[dig_4];
dig_ctrl_4 = 1;
break;
}
}

void main()
{
unsigned int cnt=0;
init();
relay1 = 0;
dig_ctrl_2 = 0;
dig_ctrl_1 = 0;

cnt = 0;
relay1 = 1;
delay(100);
relay1 = 0;
delay(100);
while(1)
{
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if(up==1)
{
cnt=0;
delay(1000);
if(down==1)
{
if(test<99)test++;
dig_2=test%10;
dig_1=test/10;
relay1 = 1;
}
}
if(down==1)
{
cnt=0;
delay(1000);
if(up==1)
{
if(test>0)test--;
if(test == 0) { relay1 = 0; }
dig_2=test%10;
dig_1=test/10;
}
}
}
}








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PCB FABRICATION
Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is piece of art. The performance of an electronic
circuit depends on the layout and the design of PCB. A PCB mechanically supports
and connects components by conductive pathways, etched from copper sheets
laminated on to insulated substrate. PCB ape used to rotate electrical currents and
signals through copper tracts which are firmly bonded to an insulating base.

PCB Fabrication involves the following steps:

1. Drawing the layout of the PCB in the paper. The track layout of the
Electronic circuit should be made in such manner that the paths are in easy
routes. It is then transferred to a Mylar sheet. The sheet is then touched with
black ink.
2. The solder side of the Mylar sheet is placed on the shiny side of the five-
Star sheet and is placed in a frame. Then it is exposed to sunlight with Mylar
sheet facing the sunlight.
3. The exposed five- star sheet is put in Hydrogen Peroxide solution. Then it is
put in hot water and shook till unexposed region becomes transparent.
4. This is put in cold water and then the rough side is stuck on to the silk
screen. This is then pressed and dried well.
5. The plastic sheet of the five-star sheet is removed leaving the pattern on the
screen.
6. A copper clad sheet is cut to the size and cleaned. This is placed under
screen.
7. As it resistant ink if spread on the screen so that a pattern of tracks and a pad
is obtained on a copper clad sheet. It is then dried.
8. The dried sheet is then etched using Ferric chloride solution (32Baume) till
all the unwanted Copper is etched away. Swish the board to keep each fluid
moving. Lift up the PCB and check whether all the unwanted Copper is
removed. Etching is done by immersing the marked copper clad in Ferric
Chloride solution after that the etched sheet is dried.
9. The unwanted resist ink is removed using Sodium Hydroxide solution Holes
are them dried.


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PCB PARAMETERS


Copper thickness - 72mil (1mm=39.37 mils)
Track width - 60mil
Clearance - 60mil
Pad width - 86mil
Pad height - 86mil
Pad shape - Oval
Pad hole size - 25mil
On board - Through
Hole size - 0.9mm (36mil)
Base - Paper phenolic, Hylam
PCB Quality - FRC4




SOLDERING

Soldering is the process of joining metals by using lower melting point to
weld or alloy with joining surface.



SOLDER

Solder is the joining material that melts below 427 degree connections
between components. The popularly used solders are alloys of tin (Sn) and lead
(Pb) that melts below the melting point of tin.

Types:
1. Rosin core: - 60/40 Sn/Pb solders are the most common types used for
electronics assembly. These solders are available in various diameters and
are most appropriate for small electronics work (0.02-0.05 dia is
recommended)

32

2. Lead free: - lead free solders are used as more environmental-friendly
substitutes for leaded solder, but they are typically not as easy to use mainly
because of their higher melting point and poorer wetting properties.


3. Silver: - Silver solders are typically used for low resistance connections but
they have a higher melting point and are expensive than Sn/ Pb solders.

4. Acid core: - Acid-core solders should not be used for electronics. They are
intended for plumbing or non-electronics assembly work. The acid-core flux
will cause corrosion of circuitry and can damage components.

5. Other special solders :-


Various melting point eutectics: These special solders are
typically used for non-electronic assembly of difficult to
construct mechanical items that must be assembled in a
particular sequence.

Paste solders: These solders are used in the field application or
in specialized manufacturing application.



FLUX

In order to make the surface accept the solder readily, the components
terminals should be free oxides and other obstructing films. The lead should be
cleaned chemically or by abrasion using blades or knives.
Small amount of lead coating can be done on the portion of the leads using
soldering iron. This process is called thinning. Zinc chloride or ammonium
chloride separately or in combination is mostly used as fluxes. These are available
in petroleum jelly as paste flux.


33

Flux medium used to remove the degree of wetting. The desirable properties of
flux are:-

It should provide a liquid cover over the materials and exclude
air gap up to the soldering temperature.
It should dissolve any Oxide on the metal surface.
It should be easily replaced from the metal by the molten
soldering operation
Residue should be removable after completing soldering
operation.

The most common flux used in hand soldering of electronic components is
rosin, a combination of mild organic acids extracted from pine tree.

SOLDERING IRON

It is a tool used to melt the solder and apply it at the joints in the circuit. It
operates in 230V supply. The iron at the tip gets heated while few minutes. The
50W and 25W soldering irons are commonly used for soldering of electronics
circuit.

SOLDERING STEPS

1. Make the layout of the component in the circuit. Plug in the chord of the
soldering iron the mains to get heated.
2. Straighten and clean the component leads using a blade or a knife.
3. Mount the components on the PCB by bending the leads of the
components. Use nose pliers.
4. Apply flux on the joints and solder the joints. Soldering must be in
minimum time to avoid dry soldering and heating up of the components.
5. Wash the residue using water and brush.
6. Solder joins should be inspected when completed to determine if they
have been properly made.
34


CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD SOLDER JOINTS:

A. Shiny surface.
B. Good, smooth fillet.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A POOR SOLDER JOINTS:
1. Dull or crystallized surface: This is an indicator of a cold solder joint.
Cold solder joint result from moving the component after soldering has
been removed, but before the solder has hardened. Cold solder joints may
work at first, but will eventually fail.
2. Air pocket: Air pocket (voids) result from incomplete wetting of surface,
allowing air to be in contact with the connecting metals. This will cause
oxidation of the joints and eventual failure. Blow holes can occur due to
vaporization of the moisture on the surface of the board and existing
through the molten solder. Boards should be clean and dry. Prior to
soldering. Ethanol (100%) can be used as a moisture chaser if boards are
wet prior to soldering.
3. Dimples: Dimples in the surface do not always indicate a serious
problem, but they should be avoided since they are precursors to voids.
4. Floaters: Black spots floating in the soldering fillet should be avoided
because they indicate contamination and a potential for failure as in the
case of voids. These black spots usually result from overheated (burnt)
Rosin or other contaminants such as burnt wire insulation. Maintaining a
clean tip will help to avoid these problems.
5. Balls: A solder balls, instead of a fillet can occur if the trace was heated
but the leads was not (vice versa). This prevents proper wetting of both
surfaces and result in solder being attached to only one surface
(component or trace)
6. Excess solder: Excess solder usage can cover up other potential problems
and should be avoided. It can lead to solder bridges. In addition, spherical
solder joints can result from the application of too much solder.

35

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM IN PCB


36

CONCLUSION

Here by we come to the end of our project AUTOMATIC ROOM LIGHT
CONTROLLER WITH BIDIRECTIONL VISITOR COUNTER


Application of this project
For counting purposes
For automatic room light control

Advantages of this project
Low cost
Easy to use
Implement in single door

Future Expansion
By using this circuit and proper power supply we can implement various
applications such as fans, tube lights, etc.
By modifying this circuit and using two relays we can achieve a task of
opening and closing the door.







37

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reference Books
Programming in ANSI C: E BALAGURUSAMY

The 8051microcontroller and embedded systems:

MUHAMMAD ALI MAZIDI
JANICE GILLISPIE MAZIDI

The 8051 microcontroller: KENNETH J. AYALA


Website

www.datasheets4u.com

www.datasheetcatalog.com

www.8051.com