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Waste Management:
practical application of
the new ethical concepts of
Eco-Ethics International Union


by
Romeo D. Caturao, MSc in Marine Ecology
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What are Wastes?
Basel Convention Definition of Wastes

substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended
to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the
provisions of the law

Disposal means
any operation which may lead to resource recovery,
recycling, reclamation, direct re-use or alternative uses
(Annex IVB of the Basel convention)


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Kinds of Wastes
Solid wastes: domestic, commercial and industrial wastes
especially common as co-disposal of wastes

Examples: plastics, styrofoam containers, bottles,
cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash

Liquid Wastes: wastes in liquid form

Examples: domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste
water from ponds, manufacturing industries
and other sources

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Classification of Wastes according
to their Properties

Bio-degradable
can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)

Non-biodegradable
cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines,
cans, styrofoam containers and others)
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Classification of Wastes according to
their Effects on Human Health and the Environment
Hazardous wastes
Substances unsafe to use commercially, industrially,
agriculturally, or economically that are shipped, transported to
or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal
in, or in transit through, any part of the territory of the
Philippines

Non-hazardous
Substances safe to use commercially, industrially,
agriculturally, or economically that are shipped, transported to
or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal
in, or in transit through, any part of the territory of the
Philippines

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Sources of Wastes

Households


Commerce and
Industry
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Sources of Wastes
Agriculture








Fisheries
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Waste Generation by Country
(Global Waste Survey Final Report Published by IMO 1995)*


Countries Amount /year
Japan 395 M tonnes/year
Germany 104 M tonnes/year
Netherlands 6.1 M tonnes/year
Hungary 102 M tonnes/year
Poland 130 M tonnes/year
Romania 607 M tonnes/year
Bahrain 92,000 tonnes/year
China 6 B tonnes/year
Philippines 1.3 M tonnes/year
*from primary and secondary industry sectors

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Waste Generation in the Philippines

In Metro Manila:

It is estimated that 25 million m
3
of acid and alkaline
liquid waste is disposed of annually from the electronics
industry.
Almost 2,000 m
3
of solvents and 22,000 tonnes of heavy
metals, infectious wastes, biological sludges, lubricants
and intractable wastes are disposed of on land or into
water courses.
4,000 tonnes of solid wastes are generated daily. Of
these, only about 3,400 tonnes are collected and
transported to existing sites.
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Waste Generation in
Iloilo Province
Hundreds of tons of domestic wastes are
generated daily by households contributing to
the enormous environmental problems the
world is facing.*
*Chua, TE (1996) Waste management in the coastal areas of
the ASEAN region. ECLARM Proceedings No. 33
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EFFECTS OF WASTE IF NOT
MANAGED WISELY

Affects our health
Affects our socio-economic conditions
Affects our coastal and marine environment
Affects our climate


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EFFECTS OF WASTE
According to NAS:

GHGs are accumulating in Earths atmosphere as a result of human activities,
causing global mean surface air temperature and subsurface ocean
temperature to rise.

Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels and change
precipitation and other local climate conditions.

Changing regional climates could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies.

This could also affect human health, animals, and many types of ecosystems.

Deserts might expand into existing rangelands, and features of some of our
national parks might be permanently altered.

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EFFECTS OF WASTE
According to NAS:
- Some countries are expected to become warmer, although sulfates might
limit warming in some areas.

- Scientists are unable to determine which parts of those countries will
become wetter or drier, but there is likely to be an overall trend toward
increased precipitation and evaporation, more intense rainstorms, and
drier soils.

- Whether rainfall increases or decreases cannot be reliably projected for
specific areas.
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Effects of waste.
Activities that have altered the chemical composition of the
atmosphere:

-Buildup of GHGs primarily carbon dioxide (CO
2
) methane (CH
4
), and
nitrous oxide (N
2
0).

-C0
2
is released to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels, wood
and wood products, and solid waste.

-CH
4
is emitted from the decomposition of organic wastes in landfills,
the raising of livestock, and the production and transport of coal,
natural gas, and oil.

-N0
2
is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as
during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. In 1977, the US
emitted about one-fifth of total global GHGs.



Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000, US EPA, Office of Atmospheric
Programs, April 2002 EPA 236-R-02-003.
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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Reduce Waste
- Reduce office paper waste by implementing a formal policy
to duplex all draft reports and by making training manuals
and personnel information available electronically.

- Improve product design to use less materials.

- Redesign packaging to eliminate excess material while
maintaining strength.

- Work with customers to design and implement a packaging
return program.

- Switch to reusable transport containers.

- Purchase products in bulk.

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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Reuse

- Reuse corrugated moving boxes internally.

- Reuse office furniture and supplies, such as interoffice
envelopes, file folders, and paper.

- Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins, dishes, cups, and
glasses.

- Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing shipments.

- Encourage employees to reuse office materials rather than
purchase new ones.
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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Donate/Exchange

- old books

- old clothes

- old computers

- excess building materials

- old equipment to local organizations

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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Employee Education

- Develop an office recycling procedures packet.

- Send out recycling reminders to all employees including
environmental articles.

- Train employees on recycling practices prior to
implementing recycling programs.

- Conduct an ongoing training process as new technologies
are introduced and new employees join the institution.


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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Employee Education


- education campaign on waste management that
includes an extensive internal web site, quarterly
newsletters, daily bulletins, promotional signs and
helpful reference labels within the campus of an
institution.



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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Preventing Waste

- packaging waste reductions and
changes in the manufacturing process

- use biodegradable materials
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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Conduct outreach program adopting an
ecologically sound waste management
system which includes:

waste reduction
segregation at source
composting
recycling and re-use
more efficient collection
more environmentally sound disposal
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Residents are organized into small groups to
carry out the following:
1. construction of backyard compost pit

2. construction of storage bins where recyclable and reusable
materials are stored by each household

3. construction of storage centers where recyclable and
reusable materials collected by the street sweepers are stored
prior to selling to junk dealers

4. maintenance of cleanliness in yards and streets

5. greening of their respective areas

6. encouraging others to join
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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
SYSTEMS: EMS
What is an EMS?

An EMS is a formal set of policies and procedures that define how an
organization will evaluate, manage, and track its environmental
impact. It follows the basic model:

Plan > Do > Check > Act

This facilitates cost-effective environmental performance by defining
and continuously improving the process and actions that an
organization undertakes to meet its environmental goals.


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EMS Development
A Policy Statement that communicates an
organizations environmental priorities to employees.

Managerial endorsement of the policy statement
demonstrates the organizations commitment to the
effort and willingness to allocate resources for
implementation.

Once a policy statement is in place, the organization
implements it following the model.
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Stages in the Implementation of EMS
understanding of eco-ethics
environmental and health effects
economic impacts
liabilities

After establishing a complete list of significant aspects, the
organization sets environmental goals and develops a plan
to achieve those goals.
Identify all environmental aspects: any environmental or
health and safety impacts resulting from activities and
services. The organization then evaluates each aspect
according to a variety of criteria:
1. Plan
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2. Do
The do-phase of the model involves implementation of the
environmental plan through employee training and
establishment of operation controls.


3. Check
Evaluates progress toward meeting program goals through
ongoing monitoring and measuring and periodic EMS audits.


4. Act
Involves taking corrective action to update and improve the
environmental plan. For example, if an organization makes
significant progress on one environmental aspect, another
environmental aspect will replace it on the priority list.
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Why Should an Organization Adopt an EMS?
1. Improve environmental performance
It helps monitor energy and water conservation, resource
efficiencies, and pollution prevention.

2. Better regulatory compliance
Increase regulatory compliance which is especially important for
organizations that spend time and resources with regulatory
violations.

3. Certification and recognition
EMS implementation can enhance an organizations image and
improve public community relations.
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EMS Certification
EPA encourages organizations to use recognized
EMS frameworks to improve compliance, pollution
prevention, and other measures of environmental
performance.

Third-party certification can also add credibility to an
organizations EMS.


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Several organizations which offer
certification programs:
American Chemistry Council
American Forest and Paper Association
International Chamber of Commerce
Coalition for Environmentally Responsible
Economies
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
developed the most widely recognized EMS standard
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Principles of an Effective EMS
For better environmental and overall organizational
performance, an EMS should:

1. Focus on continual improvement
2. Serve the organization and its mission
3. Receive top management support
4. Remain dynamic and flexible
5. Fit the culture of the organization
6. Represent employees and their actions
7. Establish employees awareness and involvement
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That ends my presentation.

I hope this lecture about ECO-ETHICS will
make you aware of what is happening to our
environment.

Now I urge you to join
Eco-Ethics International Union
to help build a better house for humanity!

Thank you for listening!