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EXPERIMENT NO.

1
HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON PLANE SURFACES

Nicole Elizabeth G. Cruz
Date Performed: June 10, 2014
Date Submitted: June 17, 2014

I. INTRODUCTION
In water tanks, dams and even in glass of water, hydrostatic force is present. From the
name itself, it is present whenever there is static water being pulled by gravity. As mentioned,
hydrostatic forces are everywhere, therefore knowing the principles about it has several uses
like safety purposes, designing structure or everyday objects. In this experiment, trials will be
conducted by having different magnitudes of force acting in a plane surface.

II. OBJECTIVE
Understanding how the apparatus works and how the hydrostatic force on its plane
surface is computed for.
Utilize the formulas learned in classroom discussions by experiment in the laboratory.

III. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

The variables are introduced as:
hs = vertical height from fulcrum to water surface
h = vertical height from the water surface to top of
quadrant plane surface; this has value only if plane is fully submerged
d = height of end face of quadrant submerged; if end
face is partially submerged, h = 0
b = width of end face of quadrant

IV. EQUIPMENT SET-UP

The equipment used are as follows:
1 set of weights
1 beaker
1 Vernier calliper
1 ruler
1 bottle dropper
1 center of pressure apparatus
1 hydraulic bench

V. PROCEDURE

The first step is setting up the apparatus: make sure it is leveled with the bubble, if nit
adjust the screws in the four legs and ensure that the balance is set by adjusting the
counterweight. After which, add the weight on the hook and begin pouring the water slowly
until the apparatus is balanced, record the height obtained. Six trials are enough for the
experiment. Note that if the surface is not partially submerged the first time, add more weight.
Have three trials where the surface is partially and fully submerged. Also note that the formulas
are different for both.

VI. DATA AND RESULTS

TRIAL
NO.
d
(mm)
h
(mm)
Hs=
200-h-
d
F
(N)
Xcp
(mm)
F*(Xcp+hs)
(N-mm)
W
(N)
W*r
(N-
mm)
%Diff.
1 46 0 154 0.78 30.67 144.04 0.49 135.87 5.84%
2 55 0 145 1.10 36.67 199.84 0.69 191.13 4.46%
3 72 0 128 1.70 48.00 334.40 1.18 326.86 2.28%
4 100 12 88 4.56 75.44 745.29 2.65 734.05 1.52%
5 100 25 75 5.50 86.11 886.11 3.14 869.78 1.86%
6 100 30 70 5.88 98.42 943.27 3.34 925.18 1.94%

r= 277mm; b= 74.9mm








0
200
400
600
800
1000
0 200 400 600 800 1000
W
*
r

F*(xcp+hs)
F*(xcp+hs) vs W*r
GRAPH OF DATA

VII. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

Knowing the height from the fulcrum to the various heights of water, in both the
submerged and not fully submerged levels the hydrostatic forces given by the use of the
apparatus were computed. This was compared to the hydrostatic force computed from
knowing the weight in Newton and the radius from the fulcrum to weights. The percent
differences are then listed down. It can be seen on the chart that the more water there is, the
less prone it us to error. The errors could have been brought upon by human error which
includes the droplets of water the proponents got on top of the apparatus which could have
affected its balance.
VIII. CONCLUSION

Despite the differences with the two computed sets of forces, their percent differences
are relatively small. The largest percent error the proponents got was 5.84% and the smallest
was 1.94%. It can therefore be concluded that the use of the apparatus and the theory behind
its use to measure hydrostatic forces is possible.

IX. RECOMMENDATION

To avoid getting water on the top of the block, it is recommended to start with the
partially submerged trials. This way, the water can creep up the block slowly. Another way to
avoid it is to pour the water in apparatus gently.