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## ECEg6442 Radar Communications

1. A monostatic radar is calibrated at a range of 8 Km using a target of 1.5 m
2

known RCS and the
available received signal power is 10
-12
W. If this radar requires a minimum signal power of 10
-14

W for
proper performance, what RCS must a target have if the radar must operate properly out to 50 Km?
2. A monostatic radar receives pulses from target that are delayed 296 sec from the transmitted pulses.
What is the targets range in meters and in statute miles and in nautical miles?

3. A search radar is required to produce SNR=14 dB when detecting a = 10 m
2
target over a range of 40
NM. It scans the search volume at the rate of 0.1 steradians per second and its system noise temperature
is 3000
0

K at the receiver input. Assuming the transmitter has average power =1 KW and losses =10
dB, determine the effective area of the antenna and its gain at 10 GHz if the illumination efficiency is
0.55.
4. What frequency will result in the maximum radar cross section of a metallic sphere whose diameter is 1
m? At what frequency the radar cross section of a ball bearing one millimeter in diameter is maximum?

5. A targets range from a monostatic radar is 17.5 Km. What delay will the system measure?

6. You are supervising the designer of radar for finding and mapping rainfall. In the region where it will
operate, raindrops range in diameter from 0.1 inch to 0.5 inches. What frequencies should be used?

7. An L-band medium range primary radar rotating at 6 RPM with 480 Hz PRF, pulse duration 1.5 sec and
at 12 RPM, with 691 Hz PRF, pulse duration 1 sec. P
t
=1.2 MW (peak), find the duty cycle and the
mean power for the two modes of operation. If the beam width (3dB) is 1.2
o

, then how many hits/scan
are there for each mode?
8. A conducting sphere with diameter of 25 cm is the target of a monostatic radar at 10 GHz. What is the
targets radar cross section? Is the scattering in the Rayleigh, resonance, or optical region?

9. A monostatic pulsed radar has a repetition rate of f
R
=1/T
R

=1700 pulses/s and transmits rectangular
pulses of duration 15 sec. What maximum range can a target have if no part of its delayed pulse is to
overlap any part of a transmitted pulse and not be delayed by more than one PRF interval?
10. The two antennas in a bistatic radar are circular, have the same diameter, the same radiation efficiency of
0.97, the same aperture efficiency of 0.67, and operate at wavelength = 0.025 m. If P
t
=180 KW, L
t
=
1.24, and distances are R
1
=50 Km and R
2
= 36 Km to a target of cross section = 5.8 m
2
, what antenna
diameter is required to produce a received available power S
r
=10
-12
W when channel losses are L
ch1
=
1.8 and L
ch2

=1.3? Assume that both antennas point toward the target.
11. Three amplifiers defined by T
e1
=350
o
K with G
a,1
=3.0, T
e2
=330
o
K with G
a,2
=2.6, and T
e3
=300
o
K
with G
a,3

=2.2, can be cascaded in any order. What is the best order from a low-noise standpoint?
12. A particular radar receiver has a noise figure of 2.1 dB when operating from an antenna with an effective
noise temperature T
a
=180
o
K. What is the standard noise figure of the receiver?
2

13. Two apertures, one square with sides of length L and one circular with diameter D, are both origin
centered. If both antennas are to produce the same principal plane beamwidths, what is the relationship
between L and D? Sketch the two apertures using the same scale, and observe their relative shapes.

14. (a) The largest RCS for a conducting sphere occurs at approximately at a/=0.165 where is
approximately 3.65a
2
. At what radar frequency, will the maximum value of equal 0.1 m
2
(b) A monostatic radar at 5 GHz is to track a conducting sphere for calibration. If a/=10 for the sphere,
what is the spheres RCS?
(c) Compare the results of problems (a) & (b).

?
15. (a) A radar noncoherently integrates n=18 pulses, each of uniform amplitude. The IF BW is 100 KHz. If
the average time between false alarms is 20 min, what must be (S/N)
1
and (S/N)
n
in order to achieve a
P
d
(b) What SNR required to make a detection of target by a radar on the basis of single pulse, when P
=0.8? [4 marks]
d
=0.5
and P
fa
=10
-6
(c) Repeat problem (b) for P
?
d
=0.99 with the same P
fa
(d) Compare the results of problem (b) and (c).
.

16. A 9 GHz FM-CW airborne radar flying over the earth, transmitting EM waves in a narrow beam with
solid angle
0
=6
0
x 4
0
making an angle =60
0

with the horizontal. The aircrafts forward velocity V=
700 knots. The angle of incidence of the beam at the ground =30
0
. IF BW=1 MHz, NF=3dB, T
0
=290
0

K, the distance between the aircraft and the ground target along the beam axis, R=20000 m, antenna
gain=30 dB, P
t
a) SNR at the radar IF receiver.
=1100 W, RCS per unit area=1 and the frequency deviation=25 KHz. Calculate the
following:
b) Doppler shift in carrier frequency.
c) Error introduced in altitude measurement.

17. An FM-CW radar where the signal transmitted is triangular modulation one in which the frequency
changes 1000 Hz every microsecond. Show how a filter bank can be used in the radar to produce a range
resolution of 1000 feet. What should be the bandwidth of each filter be?

18. A radar at 12 GHz is to measure objects with speeds up to v
max

=700 m/s when using a single constant
frequency rectangular pulse of duration 250 sec. (a) What maximum Doppler frequency can be
expected? (b) At what minimum target range can the radar operate? (c) How many filters must be used in
a Doppler filter bank?
19. A 10 GHz FM-CW radar measures the range and velocity of the target at a particular time instant as 100
Km and 200 NM/sec respectively. The radar operates with a frequency deviation of 25 MHz and the
triangular modulating frequency of 1000 KHz. Calculate the up and down beat note frequencies of the

20. A doppler radar operating at 10,000 MHz is to have velocity resolution of 5 MPH and is to cover a range
of targets speeds from 5 to 100 MPH. How many filters must the bank contain? What should be the
bandwidth of each filter?

3

21. The transfer function of a recursive single canceller used in 10 GHz MTI radar is H(z)=(1-z
-1
)/(1-Kz
-1
a) Derive the magnitude of the frequency response of this canceller.
)
where K is a constant and PRF=1000 pps.
b) Plot the frequency response of this canceller for K=0 and K=0.95.
c) Calculate the first blind speed of this radar.

22. The input to a DLC is the sequence ., +1, 0, -1, 0, .. where the basic sequence is repeated
continually. What is the output sequence of the canceller? What is the output of a second canceller which
is added in series with the first?

23. A range-gated MTI radar with pulse duration of 6.2 sec is to detect all targets between 1 mile and 20
miles away. If the range gates are open for an amount of time equal to the pulse duration, how many
range gates are needed?

24. A one-axis monopulse system uses two-horn feeds. The voltage radiation pattern of each feed is given by
G()=sin()/ ()
a) Find the squint angles which maximize
0
=sum pattern, k
D
=slope of the difference pattern and the
product
0
k
D
b) Obtain the RMS angle error for this case.
.

25. What is the crossover loss L of a conical scan radar having a Gaussian beam when
q
= 0.35
B

?
26. A ground - based surveillance radar with effective aperture 10m
2
operates at a wavelength of 25 cm,
using 1sec pulses and a peak power of 1 MW. Assuming a matched filter and a noise figure of 10dB,
what would be the single-pulse detection probability from an aircraft with RCS 5m
2
at a range of (a) 50
Km & (b) 100Km, if the false alarm rate was set at 10
-6

, system losses =10dB.
27. A radar operates with 0.1sec pulse, 1.5
0
beamwidth, 300 pps, antenna scan rate of 5 rpm, using matched
filter at the receiver integrates the echo pulses with uniform amplitude. (i) If the average time between
false alarm is 20 min, what must be the (S/N)
n
per pulse in order to achieve P
d
=0.8? (ii) What is the
corresponding value of (S/N)
1

? Assume an integration loss of -10 dB.
28. The input signal to its matched filter is s(t) =(A/T) (T t), where 0 t T. Sketch the following: (i) the
input signal, (ii) the impulse response of the matched filter, and (iii) the output signal from the matched
filter. (iv) Why is this particular waveform unrealizable?

29. Find the transfer function H
opt
() and the impulse response h
opt
(t) of the white noise matched filter for
the signal s
r
(t) = A rect(t/T) cos(
0
t) where A, T, and
0

are positive constants.
30. Consider two different radar signal waveforms:
a) s
1
(t)=(A/T) (T-t) for 0 t T and s
1
b) s
(t)=0 for t <0; t >T
2
(t)=exp(-jat
2
) for |t| T and s
2
i) Find the matched filter output for both the signal cases.
(t)=0 for |t| >T
ii) Compare their merits and demerits in terms of detection performance and range resolution.

4

31. Consider two different likelihood detection methods with likelihood functions of H
0
& H
1
a)
hypotheses
as:

>

=
5 . 1 | | 0
5 . 1 | | 3 / 1
) (
|
0
x
x
x p
X H
and

>

=
1 | | 0
1 | | 1
) (
|
1
x
x x
x p
X H

b) x all for x x p
X H
) 2 / exp(
2
1
) (
2
|
0
=

and

<

=
0 0
0 ) 2 exp( 2
) (
|
1
x
x x
x p
X H

i) Find the Neyman-Pearson detector in both cases with P
fa
=0.1, P(H
0
)=0.25 and P(H
1
)=0.75
ii) Calculate P
m
32. A Gaussian pulse is defined by g(t)=A exp(-t
in both cases and compare their merits and demerits.

2
/2
2
) where A and
2

a) Obtain the ambiguity function of the Gaussian pulse.
are constants.
b) Obtain the rms range error starting from C-R lower bound equation.

33. Sketch the rms range error (in meters) for a quasi-rectangular pulse with a half-power pulse width of 2
sec, as a function of the peak-signal-to-mean ratio (2E/N
0

) over the range values from 10 to 60 dB.
34. A monostatic radar measures a targets delay with an rms error due to noise of 0.05 sec. What is the
corresponding rms error in measuring the range?

35. A radar uses a typical pulse for which
,max =1
sec. Pulse transmission rate is 10
4

pulses/s. How much
larger is the single pulse rms Doppler measurement error than that for N pulses if N =2, 4, and 6?
36. Derive an expression for use of the optimum receiving antenna pattern and optimum filter, the variance
of error in the measurement of angle .

37. A radar uses a circular antenna of radius 15 that is optimum for measurement of . What value of E/N
0

is needed if the rms error in measurement to be 0.2 degree?
38. Assume that a radar can transmit an impulse, that is, suppose that g(t) = (t). In words describe the form
of (, 0).

39. A 3-stage shift register feeds back stages 2 and 3 to the input to generate a maximal length sequence.
Assume all stages are initially zero except stage 2. (a) How long is the sequence in digits? (b) Find the
binary codeword for the first full period.

40. Consider a radar speed trap based on a 10 GHz unity radar system (1W, antenna gain=1, zero losses,
1sec pulse). The radar detects a car at a range of 100 m and the RCS of car is 10 m
2
a) If the car using a spot jammer, how much would this need to increase the noise level in the radar receiver
to reduce the range to 10m for the same received SNR?
.
b) What noise power would the jammer have to radiate to achieve the result in problem (a) assuming the
noise was concentrated in the same BW as the radar signal?
c) If the radar trap above were to use random frequency hopping over the range 10-30 GHz and the jammer
were to counter the barrage jamming the entire band, by how much would the jammer output noise power
have to be raised?
d) What ECCM is most suitable for this case?
e) Which of the following ECM is most economical in this case?
5

(i) To build an in-car radar warning receiver (ii) to keep the speed of the car under limit (iii) to
develop a radar jammer (iv) to cover the car in stealth materials

41. In a direction finder, a square loop antenna receives a radio wave with strength of 100 mV/m from a
transmitter operating at a frequency 300 KHz. The number of turns in the loop is 20, height of the loop is
3 feet, and width of the loop is 2 feet.
a) Plot the resultant voltage acting on the loop as a function of direction of travel of wave with respect to the
plane of the loop.
b) Repeat problem (a) with frequency of 3000 KHz.
c) Compare the results of (a) and (b)
d) By increasing the number of turns in the loop, what is the effect on the direction finding?
e) By increasing the frequency, what is the effect on the direction finding?

42. Looking close to the horizon at low-flying satellites, radar can see radial velocities of 12,600 feet per sec
at ranges of about 1000 NM. Visualize a satellite-cataloguing radar with a beam width of 1, required to
cover 50 X 2 beam widths with two pulses each at a maximum range of 2000 NM. Assuming no special
beam forming and 1msec for beam switching, how many tracks at the same range could this radar
accomplish with a 1 sec data rate? with a 20 sec data rate?

43. A C-band (5.5 GHz) ballistic-missile detection radar employs a linear-FM pulse compression radar with
1.0 msec uncompressed pulse-width having a down-chirp covering a bandwidth of 200 MHz If the target
has a radial velocity of 2 km/s, what is the error in range (km) due to the doppler shift of the target?
What is the range error in terms of the resolution of the compressed pulse?

44. A radars pulses each uses linear FM of 8.5 MHz over a duration of 10 sec. What is the systems
compression ratio? What is the pulses duration at the output of the pulse compression filter?

45. A radar is used to measure the position of a spacecraft traveling to the moon. The system includes a
communication link at 30 MHz for voice contact. Explain why this frequency might be a bad choice.
Would a higher or lower frequency be better.

46. Two receiving sites of a 2-receiver multistatic radar are separated by 1000m. The sites report their ranges
to a target are R
2
=1900 m (site 1) and R
3

=1450 m (site 2). What angles does the target make at each
of the two sites relative to the line between sites 1 and 2?