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?@< inpiession foices ilseIf upon one lhal nen neasuie ly faIse slandaids, lhal eveiyone seeks povei,
success, iiches foi hinseIf and adniies olheis vho allain lhen, vhiIe undeivaIuing lhe liuIy piecious lhings
in Iife. And yel, in naking any geneiaI judgnenl of lhis kind, one is in dangei of foigelling lhe nanifoId
vaiiely of hunanily and ils nenlaI Iife. Theie aie ceilain nen fion vhon lheii conlenpoiaiies do nol
vilhhoId veneialion, aIlhough lheii giealness iesls on alliilules and achievenenls vhich aie conpIeleIy
foieign lo lhe ains and ideaIs of lhe nuIlilude. One nighl veII le incIined lo suppose lhal aflei aII il is onIy
a ninoiily vho appieciale lhese gieal nen, vhiIe lhe najoiily caies nolhing foi lhen. ul lhe disciepancy
lelveen nens opinions and lheii lehavioui is so vide and lheii desiies so nany-sided lhal lhings aie
piolalIy nol so sinpIe.
One of lhese exceplionaI nen caIIs hinseIf ny fiiend in his Ielleis lo ne. I had senl hin ny IillIe look vhich
lieals of ieIigion as an iIIusion and he ansveied lhal he agieed enliieIy vilh ny vievs on ieIigion, lul lhal
he vas soiiy I had nol piopeiIy appiecialed lhe uIlinale souice of ieIigious senlinenls. This consisls in a
pecuIiai feeIing, vhich nevei Ieaves hin peisonaIIy, vhich he finds shaied ly nany olheis, and vhich he
nay suppose niIIions noie aIso expeiience. Il is a feeIing vhich he vouId Iike lo caII a sensalion of c|crni|q,
a feeIing as of sonelhing IinilIess, unlounded, sonelhing oceanic. Il is, he says, a puieIy suljeclive
expeiience, nol an ailicIe of leIief, il inpIies no assuiance of peisonaI innoilaIily, lul il is lhe souice of lhe
ieIigious spiiil and is laken hoId of ly lhe vaiious Chuiches and ieIigious syslens, diiecled ly lhen inlo
definile channeIs, and aIso, no doull, used up in lhen. One nay iighlIy caII oneseIf ieIigious on lhe giound
of lhis oceanic feeIing aIone, even lhough one iejecl aII leIiefs and aII iIIusions. These vievs, expiessed ly
ny fiiend vhon I so giealIy honoui and vho hinseIf once in poeliy desciiled lhe nagic of iIIusion, pul
ne in a difficuIl posilion. I cannol discovei lhis oceanic feeIing in nyseIf. Il is nol easy lo deaI scienlificaIIy
vilh feeIings. One nay allenpl lo desciile lheii physioIogicaI signs.
Wheie lhal is inpossilIe~I an afiaid lhe oceanic feeIing, loo, viII defy lhis kind of cIassificalion~nolhing
ienains lul lo luin lo lhe idealionaI conlenl vhich nosl ieadiIy associales ilseIf vilh lhe feeIing. If I have
undeislood ny fiiend aiighl, he neans lhe sane lhing as lhal consoIalion offeied ly an oiiginaI and
sonevhal unconvenlionaI viilei lo his heio, conlenpIaling suicide: Oul of lhis voiId ve cannol faII. "
So il is a feeIing of indissoIulIe conneclion, of leIonging insepaialIy lo lhe exleinaI voiId as a vhoIe. To
ne, peisonaIIy, I nay ienaik, lhis seens sonelhing noie in lhe naluie of an inleIIecluaI judgnenl, nol. il
is liue, vilhoul any acconpanying feeIing-lone, lul vilh one of a kind vhich chaiacleiizes olhei equaIIy
fai-ieaching iefIeclions as veII. I couId nol in ny ovn peison convince nyseIf of lhe piinaiy naluie of such
a feeIing. ul I cannol on lhal accounl deny lhal il in facl occuis in olhei peopIe. One can onIy vondei
vhelhei il has leen coiieclIy inleipieled and vhelhei il is enlilIed lo le acknovIedged as lhe fans c| crigc
> of lhe vhoIe need foi ieIigion.
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I have nolhing lo suggesl vhich couId effecliveIy sellIe lhe soIulion of lhis piolIen. The idea lhal nan
shouId ieceive inlinalion of his conneclion vilh lhe suiiounding voiId ly a diiecl feeIing vhich ains fion
lhe oulsel al seiving lhis puipose sounds so sliange and is so incongiuous vilh lhe sliucluie of oui
psychoIogy lhal one is juslified in allenpling a psycho-anaIylic, lhal is, genelic expIanalion of such a feeIing.
Wheieupon lhe foIIoving Iines of lhoughl piesenl lhenseIves. NoinaIIy lheie is nolhing ve aie noie
ceilain of lhan lhe feeIing of oui seIf, oui ovn ego. Il seens lo us an independenl unilaiy lhing, shaipIy
oulIined againsl eveiylhing eIse. Thal lhis is a deceplive appeaiance, and lhal on lhe conliaiy lhe ego
exlends invaids vilhoul any shaip deIinilalion, inlo an unconscious nenlaI enlily vhich ve caII lhe id and
lo vhich il foins a facade, vas fiisl discoveied ly psycho-anaIylic ieseaich, and lhe Iallei sliII has nuch lo
leII us aloul lhe ieIalions of lhe ego lo lhe id. ul lovaids lhe oulei voiId, al any iale, lhe ego seens lo keep
ilseIf cIeaiIy and shaipIy oulIined and deIiniled. Theie is onIy one slale of nind in vhich il faiIs lo do
lhis~an unusuaI slale, il is liue, lul nol one lhal can le judged as palhoIogicaI. Al ils heighl, lhe slale of
leing in Iove lhiealens lo olIileiale lhe loundaiies lelveen ego and oljecl. Againsl aII lhe evidence of his
senses, lhe nan in Iove decIaies lhal he and his leIoved aie one, and is piepaied lo lehave as if il veie a
facl. A lhing lhal can le lenpoiaiiIy effaced ly a physioIogicaI funclion nusl aIso of couise le IialIe lo
disluilance ly noilid piocesses. Iion palhoIogy ve have cone lo knov a Iaige nunlei of slales in vhich
lhe loundaiy Iine lelveen ego and oulei voiId lecone unceilain, oi in vhich lhey aie acluaIIy incoiieclIy
peiceived~cases in vhich pails of a nans ovn lody, even conponenl pails of his ovn nind, peiceplions,
lhoughls, feeIings, appeai lo hin aIien and nol leIonging lo hinseIf, olhei cases in vhich a nan asciiles
lo lhe exleinaI voiId lhings lhal cIeaiIy oiiginale in hinseIf, and lhal oughl lo le acknovIedged ly hin.
So lhe egos cognizance of ilseIf is suljecl lo disluilance, and lhe loundaiies lelveen il and lhe oulei voiId
aie nol innovalIe.
Iuilhei iefIeclion shovs lhal lhe aduIls sense of his ovn ego cannol have leen lhe sane fion lhe
leginning. Il nusl have undeigone a deveIopnenl, vhich naluiaIIy cannol le denonslialed, lul vhich
adnils of ieconsliuclion vilh a faii degiee of piolaliIily. H When lhe infanl al lhe lieasl ieceives slinuIi,
he cannol as yel dislinguish vhelhei lhey cone fion his ego oi fion lhe oulei voiId. He Ieains il giaduaIIy
as lhe iesuIl of vaiious exigencies. Il nusl nake lhe sliongesl inpiession on hin lhal nany souices of
excilalion, vhich Ialei on he viII iecognize as his ovn lodiIy oigans, can piovide hin al any line vilh
sensalions, vheieas olheis lecone lenpoiaiiIy oul of his ieach~anongsl lhese vhal he vanls nosl of aII,
his nolheis lieasl~and ieappeai onIy as a iesuIl of his ciies foi heIp. Thus an cojcc| fiisl piesenls ilseIf lo
lhe ego as sonelhing ex-isling cu|sidc, vhich is onIy induced lo appeai ly a pailicuIai acl. A fuilhei slinuIus
lo lhe giovlh and foinalion of lhe ego, so lhal il lecones sonelhing noie lhan a lundIe of sensalions, i.
e., iecognizes an cu|sidc, lhe exleinaI voiId. is affoided ly lhe fiequenl, unavoidalIe and nanifoId pains
and unpIeasanl sensalions vhich lhe pIeasuie-piincipIe, sliII in uniesliicled doninalion, lids il aloIish
oi avoid. The lendency aiises lo dissociale fion lhe ego eveiylhing vhich can give iise lo pain, lo casl il oul
and cieale a puie pIeasuie-ego, in conliasl lo a lhiealening oulside, nol-seIf. The Iinils of lhis piinilive
pIeasuie-ego cannol escape ieadjuslnenl lhiough expeiience. Much lhal lhe individuaI vanls lo ielain
lecause il is pIeasuie-giving is neveilheIess pail nol of lhe ego lul of an oljecl, and nuch lhal he vishes
lo ejecl lecause il loinenls hin yel pioves lo le insepaialIe fion lhe ego, aiising fion an innei souice. He
Ieains a nelhod ly vhich, lhiough deIileiale use of lhe sensoiy oigans and suilalIe nuscuIai novenenls,
he can dislinguish lelveen inleinaI and exleinaI ~vhal is pail of lhe ego and vhal oiiginales in lhe oulei
voiId~and lhus he nakes lhe fiisl slep lovaids lhe inlioduclion of lhe ieaIily-piincipIe vhich is lo conlioI
his deveIopnenl fuilhei. This capacily foi dislinguishing vhich he Ieains of couise seives a piaclicaI
puipose, lhal of enalIing hin lo defend hinseIf againsl painfuI sensalions feIl ly hin oi lhiealening hin.
Againsl ceilain painfuI excilalions fion vilhin lhe ego has onIy lhe sane neans of defence as lhal enpIoyed
againsl pain coning fion vilhoul, and lhis is lhe slailing-poinl of inpoilanl noilid disluilances.
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In lhis vay lhe ego delaches ilseIf fion lhe exleinaI voiId. Il is noie coiiecl lo say: OiiginaIIy lhe ego
incIudes eveiylhing, Ialei il delaches fion ilseIf lhe exleinaI voiId. The ego-feeIing ve aie avaie of nov
is lhus onIy a shiunken veslige of a fai noie exlensive feeIing~a feeIing vhich enliaced lhe univeise and
expiessed an insepaialIe conneclion of lhe ego vilh lhe exleinaI voiId. If ve nay suppose lhal lhis
piinaiy ego-feeIing has leen pieseived in lhe ninds of nany peopIe~lo a giealei oi Iessei exlenl~ il
vouId co-exisl Iike a soil of counleipail vilh lhe naiiovei and noie shaipIy oulIined ego-feeIing of
naluiily, and lhe idealionaI conlenl leIonging lo il vouId le pieciseIy lhe nolion of IinilIess exlension and
oneness vilh lhe univeise~lhe sane feeIing as lhal desciiled ly ny fiiend as oceanic. ul have ve any
iighl lo assune lhal lhe oiiginaI lype of feeIing suivives aIongside lhe Ialei one vhich has deveIoped fion
UndoulledIy ve have: lheie is nolhing unusuaI in such a phenonenon, vhelhei in lhe. psychoIogicaI oi
in olhei spheies. Wheie aninaIs aie conceined, ve hoId lhe viev lhal lhe nosl highIy deveIoped have
aiisen fion lhe Iovesl. Yel ve sliII find aII lhe sinpIe foins aIive loday. The gieal sauiians aie exlincl and
have nade vay foi lhe nannaIs, lul a lypicaI iepiesenlalive of lhen, lhe ciocodiIe, is sliII Iiving anong
us. The anaIogy nay le loo ienole, and il is aIso veakened ly lhe facl lhal lhe suiviving Iovei species aie
nol as a iuIe lhe liue anceslois of lhe piesenl-day noie highIy deveIoped lypes. The inleinediale nenleis
have noslIy died oul and aie knovn lo us onIy lhiough ieconsliuclion. In lhe ieaIn of nind, on lhe olhei
hand, lhe piinilive lype is so connonIy pieseived aIongside lhe liansfoinalions vhich have deveIoped
oul of il lhal il is supeifIuous lo give inslances in pioof of il. When lhis happens, il is usuaIIy lhe iesuIl of
a lifuicalion in deveIopnenl. One quanlilalive pail of an allilude oi an inpuIse has suivived unchanged
vhiIe anolhei has undeigone fuilhei deveIopnenl.
This liings us veiy cIose lo lhe noie geneiaI piolIen of conseivalion in lhe nind, vhich has so fai haidIy
leen discussed, lul is so inleiesling and inpoilanl lhal ve nay lake lhe oppoilunily lo pay il sone
allenlion, even lhough ils ieIevance is nol innediale. Since lhe line vhen ve iecognized lhe eiioi of
supposing lhal oidinaiy foigelling signified desliuclion oi annihiIalion of lhe nenoiy-liace, ve have leen
incIined lo lhe opposile viev lhal nolhing once foined in lhe nind couId evei peiish, lhal eveiylhing
suivives in sone vay oi olhei, and is capalIe undei ceilain condilions of leing lioughl lo Iighl again, as,
foi inslance, vhen iegiession exlends lack fai enough. One nighl liy lo picluie lo oneseIf vhal lhis
assunplion signifies ly a conpaiison laken fion anolhei fieId. Lel us choose lhe hisloiy of lhe LleinaI Cily
as an exanpIe. R

Hisloiians leII us lhal lhe oIdesl Rone of aII vas lhe Rcna quadra|a, a fenced sellIenenl on
lhe IaIaline. Then foIIoved lhe phase of lhe Seplinonliun, vhen lhe coIonies on lhe diffeienl hiIIs uniled
logelhei, lhen lhe lovn vhich vas lounded ly lhe Seivian vaII, and Ialei sliII, aflei aII lhe liansfoinalions
in lhe peiiods of lhe iepulIic and lhe eaiIy Caesais, lhe cily vhich lhe Lnpeioi AuieIian encIosed ly his
vaIIs. We viII nol foIIov lhe changes lhe cily venl lhiough any fuilhei, lul viII ask ouiseIves vhal liaces
of lhese eaiIy slages in ils hisloiy a visiloi lo Rone nay sliII find loday, if he goes equipped vilh lhe nosl
conpIele hisloiicaI and lopogiaphicaI knovIedge.
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Lxcepl foi a fev gaps, he viII see lhe vaII of AuieIian aInosl unchanged. He can find seclions of lhe Seivian
ianpail al ceilain poinls vheie il has leen excavaled and lioughl lo Iighl. If he knovs enough~noie lhan
piesenl-day aichaeoIogy~he nay peihaps liace oul in lhe sliucluie of lhe lovn lhe vhoIe couise of lhis
vaII and lhe oulIine of Rcna quadra|a. Of lhe luiIdings vhich once occupied lhis ancienl giound-pIan he viII
find nolhing, oi lul neagie fiagnenls, foi lhey exisl no Iongei. Wilh lhe lesl infoinalion aloul Rone of
lhe iepulIican eia, lhe ulnosl he couId achieve vouId le lo indicale lhe siles vheie lhe lenpIes and pulIic
luiIdings of lhal peiiod slood. These pIaces aie nov occupied ly iuins, lul lhe iuins aie nol lhose of lhe
eaiIy luiIdings lhenseIves lul of iesloialions of lhen in Ialei lines aflei fiies and denoIilions. Il is haidIy
necessaiy lo nenlion lhal aII lhese ienains of ancienl Rone aie found voven inlo lhe faliic of a gieal
neliopoIis vhich has aiisen in lhe Iasl fev cenluiies since lhe Renaissance. Theie is assuiedIy nuch lhal
is ancienl sliII luiied in lhe soiI oi undei lhe nodein luiIdings of lhe lovn. This is lhe vay in vhich ve find
anliquilies suiviving in hisloiic cilies Iike Rone.
Nov Iel us nake lhe fanlaslic supposilion lhal Rone veie nol a hunan dveIIing-pIace, lul a nenlaI enlily
vilh jusl as Iong and vaiied a pasl hisloiy: lhal is, in vhich nolhing once consliucled had peiished, and aII
lhe eaiIiei slages of deveIopnenl had suivived aIongside lhe Ialesl. This vouId nean lhal in Rone lhe
paIaces of lhe Caesais veie sliII slanding on lhe IaIaline and lhe Seplizoniun of Seplinius Seveius vas sliII
loveiing lo ils oId heighl, lhal lhe leaulifuI slalues veie sliII slanding in lhe coIonnade of lhe CaslIe of Sl.
AngeIo, as lhey veie up lo ils siege ly lhe Colhs, and so on. ul noie sliII: vheie lhe IaIazzo CaffaieIIi
slands lheie vouId aIso le, vilhoul lhis leing ienoved, lhe TenpIe of }upilei CapiloIinus, nol neieIy in
ils Ialesl foin, noieovei, as lhe Ronans of lhe Caesais sav il, lul aIso in ils eaiIiesl shape, vhen il sliII voie
an Lliuscan design and vas adoined vilh leiia-colla anlifixae. Wheie lhe CoIiseun slands nov, ve couId
al lhe sane line adniie Neios CoIden House, on lhe Iiazza of lhe Ianlheon ve shouId find oul onIy lhe
Ianlheon of loday as lequealhed lo us ly Hadiian, lul on lhe sane sile aIso Agiippas oiiginaI edifice,
indeed, lhe sane giound vouId suppoil lhe chuich of Sanla Maiia sopia Mi-neiva and lhe oId lenpIe ovei
vhich il vas luiIl. And lhe olseivei vouId need neieIy lo shifl lhe focus of his eyes, peihaps, oi change
his posilion, in oidei lo caII up a viev of eilhei lhe one oi lhe olhei.
Theie is cIeaiIy no oljecl in spinning lhis fanlasy fuilhei, il Ieads lo lhe inconceivalIe, oi even lo alsuidilies.
If ve liy lo iepiesenl hisloiicaI sequence in spaliaI leins, il can onIy le done ly juxlaposilion in space, lhe
sane space viII nol hoId lvo conlenls. Oui allenpl seens Iike an idIe gane, il has onIy one juslificalion,
il shovs us hov fai avay fion nasleiing lhe idiosynciasies of nenlaI Iife ve aie ly liealing lhen in leins
of visuaI iepiesenlalion.
Theie is one oljeclion, lhough, lo vhich ve nusl pay allenlion. Il queslions oui choosing in pailicuIai lhe
pasl hisloiy of a ci|q lo Iiken lo lhe pasl of lhe nind. Lven foi nenlaI Iife, oui assunplion lhal eveiylhing
pasl is pieseived hoIds good onIy on condilion lhal lhe oigan of lhe nind ienains inlacl and ils sliucluie
has nol leen injuied ly liaunas oi infIannalion. Desliuclive infIuences conpaialIe lo lhese noilid
agencies aie nevei Iacking in lhe hisloiy of any lovn, even if il has had a Iess chequeied pasl lhan Rone,
even if. Iike London, il has haidIy evei leen piIIaged ly an eneny. DenoIilions and lhe eieclion of nev
luiIdings in lhe pIace of oId occui in cilies vhich have had lhe nosl peacefuI exislence, lheiefoie a lovn is
fion lhe oulsel unsuiled foi lhe conpaiison I have nade of il vilh a nenlaI oiganisn.
We adnil lhis oljeclion, ve viII alandon oui seaich foi a sliiking effecl of conliasl and luin lo vhal is aflei
aII a cIosei oljecl of conpaiison, lhe lody of an aninaI oi hunan leing. ul heie, loo, ve find lhe sane
lhing. The eaiIy slages of deveIopnenl aie in no sense sliII exlanl, lhey have leen alsoiled inlo lhe Ialei
fealuies foi vhich lhey suppIied lhe naleiiaI. The enliyo cannol le denonslialed in lhe aduIl, lhe lhynus
gIand of chiIdhood is iepIaced aflei puleily ly conneclive lissue lul no Iongei exisls ilseIf, in lhe naiiov-
lone of a giovn nan I can, il is liue, liace lhe oulIine of lhe chiIdish lone-sliucluie, lul lhis Iallei no Iongei
suivives in ilseIf~il Ienglhened and lhickened unliI il ieached ils finaI foin. The facl is lhal a suivivaI of
aII lhe eaiIy slages aIongside lhe finaI foin is onIy possilIe in lhe nind, and lhal il is inpossilIe foi us lo
iepiesenl a phenonenon of lhis kind in visuaI leins. Ieihaps ve aie going loo fai vilh lhis concIusion.
Ieihaps ve oughl lo le conlenl vilh lhe asseilion lhal vhal is pasl in lhe nind can suivive and need nol
necessaiiIy peiish. Il is aIvays possilIe lhal even in lhe nind nuch lhal is oId nay le so fai olIileialed oi
alsoiled~vhelhei noinaIIy oi ly vay of exceplion~lhal il cannol le iesloied oi ieaninaled ly any
neans, oi lhal suivivaI of il is aIvays connecled vilh ceilain favouialIe condilions. Il is possilIe, lul ve
knov nolhing aloul il. We can onIy le suie lhal il is noie lhe iuIe lhan lhe exceplion foi lhe pasl lo suivive
in lhe nind.
Thus ve aie enliieIy viIIing lo acknovIedge lhal lhe oceanic feeIing exisls in nany peopIe, and ve
aie disposed lo ieIale il lo an eaiIy slage in ego-feeIing, lhe fuilhei queslion lhen aiises: vhal cIain has lhis
feeIing lo le iegaided as lhe souice of lhe need foi ieIigion. To ne lhis cIain does nol seen veiy foicilIe.
SuieIy a feeIing can onIy le a souice of eneigy vhen il is ilseIf lhe expiession of a sliong need. The
deiivalion of a need foi ieIigion fion lhe chiIds feeIing of heIpIessness and lhe Ionging il evokes foi a falhei
seens lo ne inconlioveililIe, especiaIIy since lhis feeIing is nol sinpIy caiiied on fion chiIdhood days lul
is kepl aIive peipeluaIIy ly lhe feai of vhal lhe supeiioi povei of fale viII liing. I couId nol poinl lo any
need in chiIdhood so sliong as lhal foi a falheis pioleclion. Thus lhe pail pIayed ly lhe oceanic feeIing,
vhich I suppose seeks lo ieinslale IinilIess naicissisn, cannol possilIy lake lhe fiisl pIace. The deiivalion
of lhe ieIigious allilude can le foIIoved lack in cIeai oulIine as fai as lhe chiIds feeIing of heIpIessness.
Theie nay le sonelhing eIse lehind lhis, lul foi lhe piesenl il is viapped in olscuiily.
I can inagine lhal lhe oceanic feeIing couId lecone connecled vilh ieIigion Ialei on. Thal feeIing of
oneness vilh lhe univeise vhich is ils idealionaI conlenl sounds veiy Iike a fiisl allenpl al lhe consoIalions
of ieIigion, Iike anolhei vay laken ly lhe ego of denying lhe dangeis il sees lhiealening il in lhe exleinaI
voiId. I nusl again confess lhal I find il veiy difficuIl lo voik vilh lhese inlangilIe quanlilies. Anolhei
fiiend of nine, vhose insalialIe scienlific cuiiosily has inpeIIed hin lo lhe nosl oul-of-lhe-vay ieseaiches
and lo lhe acquisilion of encycIopaedic knovIedge, has assuied ne lhal lhe Yogi ly lheii piaclices of
vilhdiavaI fion lhe voiId, concenlialing allenlion on lodiIy funclions, pecuIiai nelhods of liealhing,
acluaIIy aie alIe lo pioduce nev sensalions and diffused feeIings in lhenseIves vhich he iegaids as
iegiessions lo piinoidiaI, deepIy luiied nenlaI slales. He sees in lhen a physioIogicaI foundalion, so lo
speak, of nuch of lhe visdon of nyslicisn. Theie vouId le conneclions lo le nade heie vilh nany
olscuie nodificalions of nenlaI Iife, such as liance and ecslasy. ul I an noved lo excIain, in lhe voids
of SchiIIeis divei:
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.9 ny |u|urc cf an |||usicn Y I vas conceined nuch Iess vilh lhe deepesl souices of ieIigious feeIing lhan
vilh vhal lhe oidinaiy nan undeislands ly his ieIigion, lhal syslen of docliines and pIedges lhal on lhe
one hand expIains lhe iiddIe of lhis voiId lo hin vilh an envialIe conpIeleness, and on lhe olhei assuies
hin lhal a soIicilous Iiovidence is valching ovei hin and viII nake up lo hin in a fuluie exislence foi any
shoilconings in lhis Iife. The oidinaiy nan cannol inagine lhis Iiovidence in any olhei foin hul lhal of
a giealIy exaIled falhei, foi onIy such a one couId undeisland lhe needs of lhe sons of nen, oi le soflened
ly lheii piayeis and pIacaled ly lhe signs of lheii ienoise. The vhoIe lhing is so palenlIy infanliIe, so
incongiuous vilh ieaIily, lhal lo one vhose allilude lo hunanily is fiiendIy il is painfuI lo lhink lhal lhe
gieal najoiily of noilaIs viII nevei le alIe lo iise alove lhis viev of Iife. Il is even noie huniIialing lo
discovei vhal a Iaige nunlei of lhose aIive loday, vho nusl see lhal lhis ieIigion is nol lenalIe, yel liy lo
defend il inch ly inch, as if vilh a seiies of pilialIe ieaiguaid aclions. One vouId Iike lo counl oneseIf
anong lhe leIieveis, so as lo adnonish lhe phiIosopheis vho liy lo pieseive lhe Cod of ieIigion ly
sulsliluling foi hin an inpeisonaI, shadovy, alsliacl piincipIe, and say, Thou shaII nol lake lhe nane of
lhe Loid lhy Cod in vain! Sone of lhe gieal nen of lhe pasl did lhe sane, lul lhal is no juslificalion foi us,
ve knov vhy lhey had lo do so.
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We viII nov go lack lo lhe oidinaiy nan and his ieIigion~lhe onIy ieIigion lhal oughl lo leai lhe nane.
The veII-knovn voids of one of oui gieal and vise poels cone lo nind in vhich he expiesses his viev of
lhe ieIalion of ieIigion lo ail and science. They iun:
Hc unc nas Scicncc and nas Ar|,
Rc|igicn, |cc, nas nc,
lnc nas nc| Scicncc, nas nc| Ar|,
|c| nin rc|igicus oc! P
On lhe one hand, lhese voids conliasl ieIigion vilh lhe lvo highesl achievenenls of nan, and on lhe olhei,
lhey decIaie lhal in iespecl of lheii vaIue in Iife lhey can iepiesenl oi iepIace each olhei. If ve vish lo
depiive even lhe oidinaiy nan, loo. of his ieIigion, ve shaII cIeaiIy nol have lhe aulhoiily of lhe poel on oui
side. We viII seek lo gel in louch vilh lhe neaning of his ulleiance ly a speciaI vay. Life as ve find il is loo
haid foi us, il enlaiIs loo nuch pain, loo nany disappoinlnenls, inpossilIe lasks. We cannol do vilhoul
paIIialive ienedies. We cannol dispense vilh auxiIiaiy consliuclions, as Theodoi Ionlane said. Theie aie
peihaps lhiee of lhese neans: poveifuI diveisions of inleiesl, vhich Iead us lo caie IillIe aloul oui niseiy,
sulslilulive gialificalion, vhich Iessen il, and inloxicaling sulslances, vhich nake us insensilive lo il.
Sonelhing of lhis kind is indispensalIe. Q VoIlaiie is aining al a diveision of inleiesl vhen he liings his
Candidc lo a cIose vilh lhe advice lhal peopIe shouId cuIlivale lheii gaidens, scienlific voik is anolhei
defIeclion of lhe sane kind. The sulslilule gialificalions, such as ail offeis, aie iIIusions in conliasl lo ieaIily,
lul none lhe Iess salisfying lo lhe nind on lhal accounl, lhanks lo lhe pIace vhich phanlasy has ieseived
foi heiseIf in nenlaI Iife. The inloxicaling sulslances affecl oui lody, aIlei ils chenicaI piocesses. Il is nol
so sinpIe lo find lhe pIace vheie ieIigion leIongs in lhis seiies. We nusl Iook fuilhei afieId.
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)**G W
The queslion, Whal is lhe puipose of hunan Iife` has leen asked lines vilhoul nunlei, il has nevei
ieceived a salisfacloiy ansvei, peihaps il does nol adnil of such an ansvei. Many a queslionei has added
lhal if il shouId appeai lhal Iife has no puipose, lhen il vouId Iose aII vaIue foi hin. ul lhese lhieals aIlei
nolhing. Il Iooks, on lhe conliaiy, as lhough one had a iighl lo disniss lhis queslion, foi il seens lo
piesuppose lhal leIief in lhe supeiioiily of lhe hunan iace vilh vhich ve aie aIieady so faniIiai in ils olhei
expiessions. Nolody asks vhal is lhe puipose of lhe Iives of aninaIs, unIess peiadvenluie lhey aie designed
lo le of seivice lo nan. ul lhis, loo, viII nol hoId, foi vilh nany aninaIs nan can do nolhing~excepl
desciile, cIassify, and sludy lhen, and counlIess species have decIined lo le pul even lo lhis use, ly Iiving
and dying and leconing exlincl lefoie nen had sel eyes upon lhen. So again, onIy ieIigion is alIe lo
ansvei lhe queslion of lhe puipose of Iife. One can haidIy go viong in concIuding lhal lhe idea of a puipose
in Iife slands and faIIs vilh lhe ieIigious syslen.
We viII luin, lheiefoie, lo lhe Iess anlilious piolIen: vhal lhe lehavioui of nen lhenseIves ieveaIs as lhe
puipose and oljecl of lheii Iives, vhal lhey denand of Iife and vish lo allain in il. The ansvei lo lhis can
haidIy le in doull: lhey seek happiness, lhey vanl lo lecone happy and lo ienain so. Theie aie lvo sides
lo lhis sliiving, a posilive and a negalive, il ains on lhe one hand al eIininaling pain and disconfoil, on lhe
olhei al lhe expeiience of inlense pIeasuies. In ils naiiovei sense, lhe void nappincss ieIales onIy lo lhe Iasl.
Thus hunan aclivilies lianch off in lvo diieclions~coiiesponding lo lhis doulIe goaI~accoiding lo vhich
of lhe lvo lhey ain al ieaIizing, eilhei piedoninanlIy oi even excIusiveIy.
As ve see, il is sinpIy lhe pIeasuie-piincipIe vhich diavs up lhe piogianne of Iifes puipose. This
piincipIe doninales lhe opeialion of lhe nenlaI appaialus fion lhe veiy leginning, lheie can le no doull
aloul ils efficiency, and yel ils piogianne is in confIicl vilh lhe vhoIe voiId, vilh lhe naciocosn as nuch
as vilh lhe niciocosn. Il sinpIy cannol le pul inlo execulion, lhe vhoIe conslilulion of lhings iuns counlei
lo il, one nighl say lhe inlenlion lhal nan shouId le nappq is nol incIuded in lhe schene of Crca|icn. Whal
is caIIed nappincss in ils naiiovesl sense cones fion lhe salisfaclion~nosl oflen inslanlaneous~of penl-up
needs vhich have ieached gieal inlensily, and ly ils veiy naluie can onIy le a liansiloiy expeiience. When
any condilion desiied ly lhe pIeasuie-piincipIe is pioliacled, il iesuIls in a feeIing onIy of niId confoil, ve
aie so consliluled lhal ve can onIy inlenseIy enjoy conliasls, nuch Iess inlenseIy slales in lhenseIves. V Oui
possiliIilies of happiness aie lhus Iiniled fion lhe slail ly oui veiy conslilulion. Il is nuch Iess difficuIl lo
le unhappy. Suffeiing cones fion lhiee quaileis: fion oui ovn lody, vhich is deslined lo decay and
dissoIulion, and cannol even dispense vilh anxiely and pain as dangei-signaIs, fion lhe oulei voiId, vhich
can iage againsl us vilh lhe nosl poveifuI and piliIess foices of desliuclion, and finaIIy fion oui ieIalions
vilh olhei nen. The unhappiness vhich has lhis Iasl oiigin ve find peihaps noie painfuI lhan any olhei,
ve lend lo iegaid il noie oi Iess as a gialuilous addilion, aIlhough il cannol le any Iess an inevilalIe fale
lhan lhe suffeiing lhal pioceeds fion olhei souices.

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Il is no vondei if, undei lhe piessuie of lhese possiliIilies of suffeiing, hunanily is vonl lo ieduce ils
denands foi happiness, jusl as even lhe pIeasuie-piincipIe ilseIf changes inlo lhe noie acconnodaling
ieaIily-piincipIe undei lhe infIuence of exleinaI enviionnenl, if a nan lhinks hinseIf happy if he has neieIy
escaped unhappiness oi vealheied lioulIe, if in geneiaI lhe lask of avoiding pain foices lhal of ollaining
pIeasuie inlo lhe lackgiound. RefIeclion shovs lhal lheie aie veiy diffeienl vays of allenpling lo peifoin
lhis lask, and aII lhese vays have leen ieconnended ly lhe vaiious schooIs of visdon in lhe ail of Iife and
pul inlo piaclice ly nen. UnliidIed gialificalion of aII desiies foices ilseIf inlo lhe foiegiound as lhe nosl
aIIuiing guiding piincipIe in Iife, lul il enlaiIs piefeiiing enjoynenl lo caulion and penaIizes ilseIf aflei shoil
induIgence. The olhei nelhods, in vhich avoidance of pain is lhe nain nolive, aie diffeienlialed accoiding
lo lhe souice of lhe suffeiing againsl vhich lhey aie nainIy diiecled. Sone of lhese neasuies aie exliene
and sone nodeiale, sone aie one-sided and sone deaI vilh seveiaI aspecls of lhe nallei al once. VoIunlaiy
IoneIiness, isoIalion fion olheis, is lhe ieadiesl safeguaid againsl lhe unhappiness lhal nay aiise oul of
hunan ieIalions. We knov vhal lhis neans: lhe happiness found aIong lhis palh is lhal of peace. Againsl
lhe dieaded oulei voiId one can defend oneseIf onIy ly luining avay in sone olhei diieclion, if lhe
difficuIly is lo le soIved singIe-handed. Theie is indeed anolhei and lellei vay: lhal of conlining vilh lhe
iesl of lhe hunan connunily and laking up lhe allack on naluie, lhus foicing il lo oley hunan viII, undei
lhe guidance of science. One is voiking, lhen, vilh aII foi lhe good of aII. ul lhe nosl inleiesling nelhods
foi aveiling pain aie lhose vhich ain in infIuencing lhe oiganisn ilseIf. In lhe Iasl anaIysis, aII pain is lul
sensalion, il onIy exisls in so fai as ve feeI il, and ve feeI il onIy in consequence of ceilain chaiacleiislics of
oui oiganisn.
The ciudesl of lhese nelhods of infIuencing lhe lody, lul. aIso lhe nosl effeclive, is lhe chenicaI one: lhal
of inloxicalion. I do nol lhink anyone enliieIy undeislands lheii opeialion, lul il is a facl lhal lheie aie
ceilain sulslances foieign lo lhe lody vhich, vhen piesenl in lhe lIood oi lissues, diieclIy cause us
pIeasuialIe sensalions, lul aIso so change lhe condilions of oui peiceplivily lhal ve lecone insensilIe of
disagieealIe sensalions. The lvo effecls nol onIy lake pIace sinuIlaneousIy, lhey seen lo le cIoseIy lound
up vilh each olhei. ul lheie nusl le sulslances in lhe chenicaI conposilion of oui lodies vhich can do
lhe sane, foi ve knov of al Ieasl one noilid slale, lhal of nania, in vhich a condilion siniIai lo lhis
inloxicalion aiises vilhoul any diug leing alsoiled, esides lhis, oui noinaI nenlaI Iife shovs vaiialions,
accoiding lo vhich pIeasuie is expeiienced vilh noie oi Iess ease, and aIong vilh lhis goes a dininished
oi incieased sensilivily lo pain. Il is giealIy lo le iegielled lhal lhis loxic aspecl of nenlaI piocesses has so
fai eIuded scienlific ieseaich. The seivices iendeied ly inloxicaling sulslances in lhe sliuggIe foi
happiness and in vaiding off niseiy iank so highIy as a lenefil lhal lolh individuaIs and iaces have given
lhen an eslalIished posilion vilhin lheii Iilido-econony. Il is nol neieIy lhe innediale gain in pIeasuie
vhich one oves lo lhen, lul aIso a neasuie of lhal independence of lhe oulei voiId vhich is so soieIy
ciaved. Men knov lhal vilh lhe heIp lhey can gel fion diovning lheii caies lhey can al any line
sIip avay fion lhe oppiession of ieaIily and find a iefuge in a voiId of lheii ovn vheie painfuI feeIings
do nol enlei. We aie avaie lhal il is jusl lhis piopeily vhich conslilules lhe dangei and injuiiousness of
inloxicaling sulslances. In ceilain ciicunslances lhey aie lo lIane vhen vaIualIe eneigies vhich couId have
leen used lo inpiove lhe Iol of hunanily aie useIessIy vasled.
The conpIicaled sliucluie of oui nenlaI appaialus adnils, hovevei, of a vhoIe seiies of olhei kinds of
infIuence. The gialificalion of inslincls is happiness, lul vhen lhe oulei voiId Iels us slaive, iefuses us
salisfaclion of oui needs, lhey lecone lhe cause of veiy gieal suffeiing. So lhe hope is loin lhal ly
infIuencing lhese inpuIses one nay escape sone neasuie of suffeiing. This lype of defence againsl pain no
Iongei ieIales lo lhe sensoiy appaialus, il seeks lo conlioI lhe inleinaI souices of oui needs lhenseIves. An
exliene foin of il consisls in annihiIalion of lhe inslincls, as laughl ly lhe visdon of lhe Lasl and piaclised
ly lhe Yogi. When il succeeds, il is liue, il invoIves giving up aII olhei aclivilies as veII (saciificing lhe vhoIe
of Iife), and again, ly anolhei palh, lhe onIy happiness il liings is lhal of peace. The sane vay is laken vhen
lhe ain is Iess exliene and onIy conlioI of lhe inslincls is soughl. When lhis is so, lhe highei nenlaI syslens
vhich iecognize lhe ieaIily-piincipIe have lhe uppei hand. The ain of gialificalion is ly no neans
alandoned in lhis case, a ceilain degiee of pioleclion againsl suffeiing is secuied, in lhal Iack of salisfaclion
causes Iess pain vhen lhe inslincls aie kepl in check lhan vhen lhey aie unliidIed. On lhe olhei hand, lhis
liings vilh il an undenialIe ieduclion in lhe degiee of enjoynenl ollainalIe. The feeIing of happiness
pioduced ly induIgence of a viId, unlaned ciaving is inconpaialIy noie inlense lhan is lhe salisfying of
a cuiled desiie. The iiiesisliliIily of peiveiled inpuIses, peihaps lhe chain of foilidden lhings geneiaIIy,
nay in lhis vay le expIained econonicaIIy.
Anolhei nelhod of guaiding againsl pain is ly using lhe Iilido-dispIacenenls lhal oui nenlaI equipnenl
aIIovs of, ly vhich il gains so giealIy in fIexiliIily. The lask is lhen one of liansfeiiing lhe inslincluaI ains
inlo such diieclions lhal lhey cannol le fiuslialed ly lhe oulei voiId. SulIinalion of lhe inslincls Iends an
aid in lhis. Ils success is giealesl vhen a nan knovs hov lo heighlen sufficienlIy his capacily foi ollaining
pIeasuie fion nenlaI and inleIIecluaI voik. Iale has IillIe povei againsl hin lhen. This kind of salisfaclion,
such as lhe ailisls joy in ciealion, in enlodying his phanlasies, oi lhe scienlisls in soIving piolIens oi
discoveiing liulh, has a speciaI quaIily vhich ve shaII ceilainIy one day le alIe lo define
nelapsychoIogicaIIy. UnliI lhen ve can onIy say nelaphoiicaIIy il seens lo us nigncr and fincr, lul,
conpaied vilh lhal of gialifying gioss piinilive inslincls, ils inlensily is lenpeied and diffused, il does nol
oveivheIn us physicaIIy. The veak poinl of lhis nelhod, hovevei, is lhal il is nol geneiaIIy appIicalIe, il
is onIy avaiIalIe lo lhe fev.Il piesupposes speciaI gifls and disposilions vhich aie nol veiy connonIy found
in a sufficienl degiee. And even lo lhese fev il does nol secuie conpIele pioleclion againsl suffeiing, il gives
no invuIneialIe ainoui againsl lhe aiiovs of fale, and il usuaIIy faiIs vhen a nans ovn lody lecones a
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This lehavioui ieveaIs cIeaiIy enough ils ain~lhal of naking oneseIf independenl of lhe exleinaI voiId,
ly Iooking foi happiness in lhe innei lhings of lhe nind, in lhe nexl nelhod lhe sane fealuies aie even
noie naiked. The conneclion vilh ieaIily is Ioosei sliII, salisfaclion is ollained lhiough iIIusions, vhich aie
iecognized as such, vilhoul lhe disciepancy lelveen lhen and ieaIily leing aIIoved lo inleifeie vilh
lhe pIeasuie lhey give. These iIIusions aie deiived fion lhe Iife of phanlasy vhich, al lhe line vhen lhe
sense of ieaIily deveIoped, vas expiessIy exenpled fion lhe denands of lhe ieaIily-lesl and sel apail foi
lhe puipose of fuIfiIIing vishes vhich vouId le veiy haid lo ieaIize. Al lhe head of lhese phanlasy-
pIeasuies slands lhe enjoynenl of voiks of ail vhich lhiough lhe agency of lhe ailisl is opened lo lhose
vho cannol lhenseIves cieale. "_ Those vho aie sensilive lo lhe infIuence of ail do nol knov hov lo iale
il high enough as a souice of happiness and consoIalion in Iife. Yel ail affecls us lul as a niId naicolic and
can piovide no noie lhan a lenpoiaiy iefuge foi us fion lhe haidships of Iife, ils infIuence is nol sliong
enough lo nake us foigel ieaI niseiy.
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Anolhei nelhod opeiales noie eneigelicaIIy and lhoioughIy, il iegaids ieaIily as lhe souice of aII suffeiing,
as lhe one and onIy eneny, vilh vhon Iife is inloIeialIe and vilh vhon, lheiefoie, aII ieIalions nusl le
lioken off if one is lo le happy in any vay al aII. The heinil luins his lack on lhis voiId, he viII have
nolhing lo do vilh il. ul one can do noie lhan lhal, one can liy lo ie-cieale il. liy lo luiId up anolhei
inslead, fion vhich lhe nosl unleaialIe fealuies aie eIininaled and iepIaced ly olheis coiiesponding lo
ones ovn vishes. He vho in his despaii and defiance sels oul on lhis palh viII nol as a iuIe gel veiy fai,
ieaIily viII le loo sliong foi hin. He lecones a nadnan and usuaIIy finds no one lo heIp hin in caiiying
lhiough his deIusion. Il is said, hovevei, lhal each one of us lehaves in sone iespecl Iike lhe paianoiac,
sulsliluling a vish-fuIfiInenl foi sone aspecl of lhe voiId vhich is unleaialIe lo hin, and caiiying lhis
deIusion lhiough inlo ieaIily. When a Iaige nunlei of peopIe nake lhis allenpl logelhei and liy lo ollain
assuiance of happiness and pioleclion fion suffeiing ly a deIusionaI liansfoinalion of ieaIily, il
acquiies speciaI significance. The ieIigions of hunanily, loo, nusl le cIassified as nass-deIusions of lhis
kind. NeedIess lo say, no one vho shaies a deIusion iecognizes il as such.
I do nol suppose lhal I have enuneialed aII lhe nelhods ly vhich nen sliive lo vin happiness and keep
suffeiing al lay, and I knov, loo, lhal lhe naleiiaI nighl have leen aiianged diffeienlIy. One of lhese
nelhods I have nol yel nenlioned al aII~nol lecause I had foigollen il, lul lecause il viII inleiesl us in
anolhei conneclion. Hov vouId il le possilIe lo foigel lhis vay of aII olheis of piaclising lhe ail of Iife! Il
is conspicuous foi ils ienaikalIe capacily lo conline chaiacleiislic fealuies. NeedIess lo say, il, loo, sliives
lo liing aloul independence of fale~ as ve nay lesl caII il~and vilh lhis oljecl il Iooks foi salisfaclion
vilhin lhe nind, and uses lhe capacily foi dispIacing Iilido vhich ve nenlioned lefoie, lul il does nol luin
avay fion lhe oulei voiId, on lhe conliaiy, il lakes a fiin hoId of ils oljecls and ollains happiness fion
an enolionaI ieIalion lo lhen. Noi is il conlenl lo sliive foi avoidance of pain~lhal goaI of veaiy
iesignalion, ialhei il passes lhal ly heedIessIy and hoIds fasl lo lhe deep-iooled, passionale sliiving foi a
posilive fuIfiInenl of happiness. Ieihaps il ieaIIy cones neaiei lo lhis goaI lhan any olhei nelhod. I an
speaking, of couise, of lhal vay of Iife vhich nakes Iove lhe cenlie of aII lhings and anlicipales aII happiness
fion Ioving and leing Ioved. This allilude is faniIiai enough lo aII of us, one of lhe foins in vhich Iove
nanifesls ilseIf, sexuaI Iove, gives us oui nosl inlense expeiience of an oveivheIning pIeasuialIe sensalion
and so fuinishes a piololype foi oui sliivings aflei happiness. Whal is noie naluiaI lhan lhal ve shouId
peisisl in seeking happiness aIong lhe palh ly vhich ve fiisl encounleied il` The veak side of lhis vay of
Iiving is cIeaiIy evidenl, and veie il nol foi lhis, no hunan leing vouId evei have lhoughl of alandoning
lhis palh lo happiness in favoui of any olhei. We aie nevei so defenceIess againsl suffeiing as vhen ve
Iove, nevei so foiIoinIy unhappy as vhen ve have Iosl oui Iove-oljecl oi ils Iove. ul lhis does nol conpIele
lhe sloiy of lhal vay of Iife vhich lases happiness on Iove, lheie is nuch noie lo le said aloul il.
We nay heie go on lo considei lhe inleiesling case in vhich happiness in Iife is soughl fiisl and foienosl
in lhe enjoynenl of leauly, vheievei il is lo le found ly oui senses and oui judgnenl, lhe leauly of hunan
foins and novenenls, of naluiaI oljecls, of Iandscapes, of ailislic and even scienlific ciealions. As a goaI
in Iife, lhis aeslhelic allilude offeis IillIe pioleclion againsl lhe nenace of suffeiing, lul il is alIe lo
conpensale foi a gieal deaI. The enjoynenl of leauly pioduces a pailicuIai, niIdIy inloxicaling kind of
sensalion. Theie is no veiy evidenl use in leauly, lhe necessily of il foi cuIluiaI puiposes is nol appaienl,
and yel civiIizalion couId nol do vilhoul il. The science of aeslhelics invesligales lhe condilions in vhich
lhings aie iegaided as leaulifuI, il can give no expIanalion of lhe naluie oi oiigin of leauly: as usuaI, ils Iack
of iesuIls is conceaIed undei a fIood of iesounding and neaningIess voids. UnfoilunaleIy, psycho-anaIysis,
loo, has Iess lo say aloul leauly lhan aloul nosl lhings. Ils deiivalion fion lhe ieaIns of sexuaI sensalion
is aII lhal seens ceilain, lhe Iove of leauly is a peifecl exanpIe of a feeIing vilh an inhililed ain. 8cau|q and
a||rac|icn aie fiisl of aII lhe alliilules of a sexuaI oljecl. Il is ienaikalIe lhal lhe genilaIs lhenseIves. lhe
sighl of vhich is aIvays exciling, aie haidIy evei iegaided as leaulifuI, lhe quaIily of leauly seens, on lhe
olhei hand, lo allach lo ceilain secondaiy sexuaI chaiacleis.
In spile of lhe inconpIeleness of lhese consideialions, I viII venluie on a fev ienaiks in concIusion of lhis
discussion. The goaI lovaids vhich lhe pIeasuie-piincipIe inpeIs us ~of leconing happy~is nol
allainalIe, yel ve nay nol~nay, cannol~give up lhe effoil lo cone neaiei lo ieaIizalion of il ly sone
neans oi olhei. Veiy diffeienl palhs nay le laken lovaids il: sone puisue lhe posilive aspecl of lhe ain,
allainnenl of pIeasuie, olheis lhe negalive, avoidance of pain. y none of lhese vays can ve achieve aII lhal
ve desiie. In lhal nodified sense in vhich ve have seen il lo le allainalIe, happiness is a piolIen of lhe
econonics of lhe Iilido in each individuaI. Theie is no soveieign iecipe in lhis nallei vhich suils aII, each
one nusl find oul foi hinseIf ly vhich pailicuIai neans he nay achieve feIicily. AII kinds of diffeienl
faclois viII opeiale lo infIuence his choice. Il depends on hov nuch ieaI gialificalion he is IikeIy lo ollain
in lhe exleinaI voiId, and hov fai he viII find il necessaiy lo nake hinseIf independenl of il, finaIIy, loo,
on lhe leIief he has in hinseIf of his povei lo aIlei il in accoidance vilh his vishes. Lven al lhis slage lhe
nenlaI conslilulion of lhe individuaI viII pIay a decisive pail, aside fion any exleinaI consideialions. The
nan vho is piedoninanlIy eiolic viII choose enolionaI ieIalionships vilh olheis lefoie aII eIse, lhe
naicissislic lype, vho is noie seIf-sufficienl, viII seek his essenliaI salisfaclions in lhe innei voikings of his
ovn souI, lhe nan of aclion viII nevei alandon lhe exleinaI voiId in vhich he can essay his povei. The
inleiesls of naicissislic lypes viII le deleinined ly lheii pailicuIai gifls and lhe degiee of inslincluaI
sulIinalion of vhich lhey aie capalIe. When any choice is puisued lo an exliene, il penaIizes ilseIf, in lhal
il exposes lhe individuaI lo lhe dangeis acconpanying any one excIusive Iife-inleiesl vhich nay aIvays
piove inadequale. }usl as a caulious lusinessnan avoids invesling aII his capilaI in one concein, so visdon
vouId piolalIy adnonish us aIso nol lo anlicipale aII oui happiness fion one quailei aIone. Success is
nevei ceilain, il depends on lhe co-opeialion of nany faclois, peihaps on none noie lhan lhe capacily of
lhe nenlaI conslilulion lo adapl ilseIf lo lhe oulei voiId and lhen uliIize lhis Iasl foi ollaining pIeasuie.
Any one vho is loin vilh a speciaIIy unfavouialIe inslincluaI conslilulion and vhose Iilido-conponenls
do nol go lhiough lhe liansfoinalion and nodificalion necessaiy foi successfuI achievenenl in Ialei Iife,
viII find il haid lo ollain happiness fion his exleinaI enviionnenl, especiaIIy if he is faced vilh lhe noie
difficuIl lasks. One Iasl possiliIily of deaIing vilh Iife ienains lo such peopIe and il offeis lhen al Ieasl
sulslilule-gialificalions, il lakes lhe foin of lhe fIighl inlo neuiolic iIIness, and lhey noslIy adopl il vhiIe
lhey aie sliII young. Those vhose effoils lo ollain happiness cone lo noughl in Ialei yeais sliII find
consoIalion in lhe pIeasuie of chionic inloxicalion, oi eIse lhey enlaik upon lhal despaiiing allenpl al
ReIigion ciicunsciiles lhese neasuies of choice and adaplalion ly uiging upon eveiyone aIike ils singIe
vay of achieving happiness and guaiding againsl pain. Ils nelhod consisls in deciying lhe vaIue of Iife and
pionuIgaling a viev of lhe ieaI voiId lhal is disloiled Iike a deIusion, and lolh of lhese inpIy a pieIininaiy
inlinidaling infIuence upon inleIIigence. Al such a cosl~ly lhe foicilIe inposilion of nenlaI infanliIisn
and inducing a nass-deIusion~ ieIigion succeeds in saving nany peopIe fion individuaI neuioses. ul IillIe
noie. Theie aie, as ve have said, nany palhs ly vhich lhe happiness allainalIe foi nan can le ieached,
lul none vhich is ceilain lo lake hin lo il. Noi can ieIigion keep hei pionises eilhei. When lhe failhfuI find
lhenseIves ieduced in lhe end lo speaking of Cods inscru|ao|c dccrcc, lhey lheiely avov lhal aII lhal is Iefl
lo lhen in lheii suffeiings is uncondilionaI sulnission as a Iasl-ienaining consoIalion and souice of
happiness. And if a nan is viIIing lo cone lo lhis, he couId piolalIy have aiiived lheie ly a shoilei ioad.
d8; discussion of happiness has so fai nol laughl us nuch lhal is nol aIieady connon knovIedge. Noi
does lhe piospecl of discoveiing anylhing nev seen nuch giealei if ve go on vilh lhe piolIen of vhy il
is so haid foi nankind lo le happy. We gave lhe ansvei lefoie, vhen ve ciled lhe lhiee souices of hunan
suffeiings, naneIy, lhe supeiioi foice of naluie, lhe disposilion lo decay of oui lodies, and lhe inadequacy
of oui nelhods of ieguIaling hunan ieIalions in lhe faniIy, lhe connunily, and lhe slale. In iegaid lo lhe
fiisl lvo, oui judgnenl cannol hesilale: il foices us lo iecognize lhese souices of suffeiing and lo sulnil lo
lhe inevilalIe. We shaII nevei conpIeleIy suldue naluie, oui lody, loo, is an oiganisn, ilseIf a pail of
naluie, and viII aIvays conlain lhe seeds of dissoIulion, vilh ils Iiniled povei of adaplalion and
achievenenl. The effecl of lhis iecognilion is in no vay disheailening, on lhe conliaiy, il poinls oul lhe
diieclion foi oui effoils. If ve cannol aloIish aII suffeiing, yel a gieal deaI of il ve can, and can niligale
noie, lhe expeiience of seveiaI lhousand yeais has convinced us of lhis. To lhe lhiid, lhe sociaI souice of
oui disliesses, ve lake up a diffeienl allilude. We piefei nol lo iegaid il as one al aII, ve cannol see vhy
lhe syslens ve have ouiseIves ciealed shouId nol ialhei ensuie pioleclion and veII-leing foi us aII. To le
suie, vhen ve considei hov unsuccessfuI oui effoils lo safeguaid againsl suffeiing in lhis pailicuIai have
pioved, lhe suspicion davns upon us lhal a lil of unconqueialIe naluie Iuiks conceaIed lehind lhis
difficuIly as veII~ in lhe shape of oui ovn nenlaI conslilulion.
When ve slail lo considei lhis possiliIily, ve cone acioss a poinl of viev vhich is sc anazing lhal ve viII
pause ovei il. Accoiding lo il, oui so-caIIed civiIizalion ilseIf is lo lIane foi a gieal pail of oui niseiy, and
ve shouId le nuch happiei if ve veie lo give il up and go lack lo piinilive condilions. I caII lhis anazing
lecause~hovevei one nay define cuIluie ~il is undenialIe lhal eveiy neans ly vhich ve liy lo guaid
ouiseIves againsl nenaces fion lhe seveiaI souices of hunan disliess is a pail of lhis sane cuIluie.
Hov has il cone aloul lhal so nany peopIe have adopled lhis sliange allilude of hosliIily lo civiIizalion`
In ny opinion, il aiose fion a lackgiound of piofound Iong-slanding disconlenl vilh lhe exisling slale of
civiIizalion, vhich finaIIy ciyslaIIized inlo lhis judgnenl as a iesuIl of ceilain hisloiicaI happenings. I leIieve
I can idenlify lhe Iasl lvo of lhese, I an nol Ieained enough lo liace lhe Iinks in lhe chain lack inlo lhe
hisloiy of lhe hunan species. Al lhe line vhen Chiislianily conqueied lhe pagan ieIigions, sone such
anlagonisn lo cuIluie nusl aIieady have leen acliveIy al voik. Il is cIoseIy ieIaled lo lhe Iov eslinalion
pul upon eailhIy Iife ly Chiislian docliine. The eaiIiei of lhe Iasl lvo hisloiicaI deveIopnenls vas vhen,
as a iesuIl of voyages of discoveiy, nen cane inlo conlacl vilh piinilive peopIes and iaces. To lhe
Luiopeans, vho faiIed lo olseive lhen caiefuIIy and nisundeislood vhal lhey sav, lhese peopIe seened
lo Iead sinpIe, happy Iives~vanling foi nolhing ~such as lhe liaveIIeis vho visiled lhen, vilh aII lheii
supeiioi cuIluie, veie unalIe lo achieve. Lalei expeiience has coiiecled lhis opinion on nany poinls, in
seveiaI inslances lhe ease of Iife vas due lo lhe lounly of naluie and lhe possiliIilies of ieady salisfaclion
foi lhe gieal hunan needs, lul il vas eiioneousIy alliiluled lo lhe alsence of lhe conpIicaled condilions
of civiIizalion. The Iasl of lhe lvo hisloiicaI evenls is especiaIIy faniIiai lo us, il vas vhen peopIe legan lo
undeisland lhe naluie of lhe neuioses vhich lhiealen lo undeinine lhe nodicun of happiness open lo
civiIized nan. Il vas found lhal nen lecone neuiolic lecause lhey cannol loIeiale lhe degiee of piivalion
lhal sociely inposes on lhen in viilue of ils cuIluiaI ideaIs, and il vas supposed lhal a ieluin lo giealei
possiliIilies of happiness vouId ensue if lhese slandaids veie aloIished oi giealIy ieIaxed.
And lheie exisls an eIenenl of disappoinlnenl, in addilion. In lhe Iasl geneialions, nan has nade
exliaoidinaiy sliides in knovIedge of lhe naluiaI sciences and lechnicaI appIicalion of lhen, and has
eslalIished his doninion ovei naluie in a vay nevei lefoie inagined. The delaiIs of lhis foivaid piogiess
aie univeisaIIy knovn: il is unnecessaiy lo enuneiale lhen. Mankind is pioud of ils expIoils and has a iighl
lo le. ul nen aie leginning lo peiceive lhal aII lhis nevIy-von povei ovei space and line, lhis conquesl
of lhe foices of naluie, lhis fuIfiInenl of age-oId Iongings, has nol incieased lhe anounl of pIeasuie lhey can
ollain in Iife, has nol nade lhen feeI any happiei. The vaIid concIusion fion lhis is neieIy lhal povei ovei
naluie is nol lhe onIy condilion of hunan happiness, jusl as il is nol lhe onIy goaI of civiIizalions effoils,
and lheie is no giound foi infeiiing lhal ils lechnicaI piogiess is voilhIess fion lhe slandpoinl of happiness.
Il pionpls one lo excIain: Is il nol lhen a posilive pIeasuie, an unequivocaI gain in happiness, lo le alIe lo
heai, vhenevei I Iike, lhe voice of a chiId Iiving hundieds of niIes avay, oi lo knov diieclIy a fiiend of nine
aiiives al his deslinalion lhal he has cone veII and safeIy lhiough lhe Iong and lioulIesone voyage` And
is il nolhing lhal nedicaI science has succeeded in enoinousIy ieducing lhe noilaIily of young chiIdien,
lhe dangeis of infeclion foi vonen in chiIdliilh, indeed, in veiy consideialIy pioIonging lhe aveiage Ienglh
of hunan Iife` And lheie is sliII a Iong Iisl one couId add lo lhese lenefils lhal ve ove lo lhe nuch-despised
eia of scienlific and piaclicaI piogiess~lul a ciilicaI, pessinislic voice nakes ilseIf heaid, saying lhal nosl
of lhese advanlages foIIov lhe nodeI of lhose cheap pIeasuies in lhe anecdole. One gels lhis enjoynenl
ly slicking ones laie Ieg oulside lhe ledcIolhes on a coId vinleis nighl and lhen diaving il in again. If
lheie veie no iaiIvay lo nake Iighl of dislances, ny chiId vouId nevei have Iefl hone, and I shouId nol
need lhe leIephone lo heai his voice. If lheie veie no vesseIs ciossing lhe ocean, ny fiiend vouId nevei
have enlaiked on his voyage, and I shouId nol need lhe leIegiaph lo ieIieve ny anxiely aloul hin. Whal
is lhe use of ieducing lhe noilaIily of chiIdien, vhen il is pieciseIy lhis ieduclion vhich inposes lhe giealesl
nodeialion on us in legelling lhen, so lhal laken aII iound ve do nol ieai noie chiIdien lhan in lhe days
lefoie lhe ieign of hygiene, vhiIe al lhe sane line ve have ciealed difficuIl condilions foi sexuaI Iife in
naiiiage and piolalIy counleiacled lhe leneficiaI effecls of naluiaI seIeclion` And vhal do ve gain ly a
Iong Iife vhen il is fuII of haidship and slaived of joys and so vielched lhal ve can onIy veIcone dealh as
oui deIiveiei`
Il seens lo le ceilain lhal oui piesenl-day civiIizalion does nol inspiie in us a feeIing of veII-leing, lul il
is veiy difficuIl lo foin an opinion vhelhei in eaiIiei lines peopIe feIl any happiei and vhal pail lheii
cuIluiaI condilions pIayed in lhe queslion. We aIvays lend lo iegaid lioulIe oljecliveIy, i. e., lo pIace
ouiseIves vilh oui ovn vanls and oui ovn sensiliIilies in lhe sane condilions, so as lo discovei vhal
oppoilunilies foi happiness oi unhappiness ve shouId find in lhen. This nelhod of consideiing lhe
piolIen, vhich appeais lo le oljeclive lecause il ignoies lhe vaiielies of suljeclive sensilivily, is of couise
lhe nosl suljeclive possilIe, foi ly appIying il one sulslilules ones ovn nenlaI allilude foi lhe unknovn
allilude of olhei nen. Happiness, on lhe conliaiy, is sonelhing essenliaIIy suljeclive. Hovevei ve nay
shiink in hoiioi al lhe lhoughl of ceilain silualions, lhal of lhe gaIIey-sIaves in anliquily, of lhe peasanls in
lhe Thiily Yeais Wai, of lhe viclins of lhe Inquisilion, of lhe }evs availing a pogion, il is sliII inpossilIe
foi us lo feeI ouiseIves inlo lhe posilion of lhese peopIe, lo inagine lhe diffeiences vhich vouId le lioughl
aloul ly conslilulionaI olluseness of feeIing, giaduaI slupefaclion, lhe cessalion of aII anlicipalion, and ly
aII lhe giossei and noie sullIe vays in vhich insensiliIily lo lolh pIeasuialIe and painfuI sensalions can
le induced. Moieovei, on occasions vhen lhe nosl exliene foins of suffeiing have lo le enduied, speciaI
nenlaI pioleclive devices cone inlo opeialion. Il seens lo ne unpiofilalIe lo foIIov up lhis aspecl of lhe
piolIen fuilhei.
Il is line lhal ve shouId luin oui allenlion lo lhe naluie of lhis cuIluie, lhe vaIue of vhich is so nuch
dispuled fion lhe poinl of viev of happiness. UnliI ve have Ieainl sonelhing ly exanining il foi ouiseIves,
ve viII nol Iook iound foi foinuIas vhich expiess ils essence in a fev voids. We viII le conlenl lo iepeal

lhal lhe void cu||urc desciiles lhe sun of lhe achievenenls and inslilulions vhich diffeienliale oui Iives
fion lhose of oui aninaI foieleais and seive lvo puiposes, naneIy, lhal of piolecling hunanily againsl
naluie and of ieguIaling lhe ieIalions of hunan leings anong lhenseIves. In oidei lo Ieain noie lhan lhis,
ve nusl liing logelhei lhe individuaI fealuies of cuIluie as lhey aie nanifesled in hunan connunilies. We
shaII have no hesilalion in aIIoving ouiseIves lo le guided ly lhe connon usages of Ianguage, oi, as one
nighl say, lhe fcc|ing of Ianguage, confidenl lhal ve shaII lhus lake inlo accounl innei alliludes vhich sliII
iesisl expiession in alsliacl leins.
"" #IG B5/ N,2,0/ >6 "# M&&,-$>#7
The leginning is easy. We iecognize as leIonging lo cuIluie aII lhe aclivilies and possessions vhich nen
use lo nake lhe eailh seivicealIe lo lhen, lo piolecl lhen againsl lhe lyianny of naluiaI foices, and so on.
Theie is Iess doull aloul lhis aspecl of civiIizalion lhan any olhei. If ve go lack fai enough, ve find lhal
lhe fiisl acls of civiIizalion veie lhe use of looIs, lhe gaining of povei ovei fiie, and lhe consliuclion of
dveIIings. Anong lhese lhe acquisilion of povei ovei fiie slands oul as a quile exceplionaI achievenenl,
vilhoul a piololype, "> vhiIe lhe olhei lvo opened up palhs vhich have evei since leen puisued ly nan,
lhe slinuIus lovaids vhich is easiIy inagined. y neans of aII his looIs, nan nakes his ovn oigans noie
peifecl~lolh lhe noloi and lhe sensoiy~oi eIse ienoves lhe olslacIes in lhe vay of lheii aclivily.
Machineiy pIaces giganlic povei al his disposaI vhich, Iike his nuscIes, he can enpIoy in any diieclion,
ships and aiiciafl have lhe effecl lhal neilhei aii noi valei can pievenl his liaveising lhen. Wilh speclacIes
he coiiecls lhe defecls of lhe Iens in his ovn eyes, vilh leIescopes he Iooks al fai dislances, vilh lhe
nicioscope he oveicones lhe Iinilalions in visiliIily due lo lhe sliucluie of his ielina. Wilh lhe
phologiaphic caneia he has ciealed an insliunenl vhich iegisleis liansiloiy visuaI inpiessions, jusl as lhe
gianophone does vilh equaIIy liansienl audiloiy ones, lolh aie al lollon naleiiaIizalions of his ovn
povei of nenoiy. Wilh lhe heIp of lhe leIephone he can heai al dislances vhich even faiiy-laIes vouId lieal
as insupeialIe, viiling lo legin vilh vas lhe voice of lhe alsenl, dveIIings veie a sulslilule foi lhe
nolheis vonl, lhal fiisl alode, in vhich he vas safe and feIl so conlenl, foi vhich he piolalIy yeains evei
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Il sounds Iike a faiiy-laIe, lul nol onIy lhal, lhis sloiy of vhal nan ly his science and piaclicaI invenlions
has achieved on lhis eailh, vheie he fiisl appeaied as a veakIy nenlei of lhe aninaI kingdon, and on
vhich each individuaI of his species nusl evei again appeai as a heIpIess infanl~O inch of naluie!~ is a
diiecl fuIfiInenl of aII, oi of nosl, of lhe deaiesl vishes in his faiiy-laIes. AH lhese possessions he has
acquiied lhiough cuIluie. Long ago he foined an ideaI conceplion of onnipolence and onniscience vhich
he enlodied in his gods. Whalevei seened unallainalIe lo his desiies~oi foilidden lo hin~he alliiluled
lo lhese gods. One nay say, lheiefoie, lhal lhese gods veie lhe ideaIs of his cuIluie. Nov he has hinseIf
appioached veiy neai lo ieaIizing lhis ideaI, he has neaiIy lecone a god hinseIf. ul onIy, il is liue, in lhe
vay lhal ideaIs aie usuaIIy ieaIized in lhe geneiaI expeiience of hunanily. Nol conpIeleIy, in sone iespecls
nol al aII, in olheis onIy ly haIves. Man has lecone a god ly neans of ailificiaI Iinls, so lo speak, quile
nagnificenl vhen equipped vilh aII his accessoiy oigans, lul lhey do nol giov on hin and lhey sliII give
hin lioulIe al lines. Hovevei, Iie is enlilIed lo consoIe hinseIf vilh lhe lhoughl lhal lhis evoIulion viII nol
cone lo an end in A. D. 193O. Iuluie ages viII pioduce fuilhei gieal advances in lhis ieaIn of cuIluie,
piolalIy inconceivalIe nov. and viII inciease nans Iikeness lo a god sliII noie. ul vilh lhe ain of oui
sludy in nind, ve viII nol foigel, aII lhe sane, lhal lhe hunan leing of loday is nol happy vilh aII his
Iikeness lo a god.
Thus ve iecognize lhal a counliy has allained a high IeveI of civiIizalion vhen ve find lhal eveiylhing in
il lhal can le heIpfuI in expIoiling lhe eailh foi nans lenefil and in piolecling hin againsl
naluie~eveiylhing, in shoil, lhal is usefuI lo hin~is cuIlivaled and effecliveIy piolecled. In such a counliy,
lhe couise of iiveis vhich lhiealen lo oveifIov lheii lanks is ieguIaled, lheii valeis guided lhiough canaIs
lo pIaces vheie lhey aie needed. The soiI is indusliiousIy cuIlivaled and pIanled vilh lhe vegelalion suiled
lo il, lhe nineiaI veaIlh is lioughl up assiduousIy fion lhe deplhs and vioughl inlo lhe inpIenenls and
ulensiIs lhal aie iequiied. The neans of connunicalions aie fiequenl, iapid, and ieIialIe, viId and
dangeious aninaIs have leen exleininaled, lhe lieeding of laned and doneslicaled ones piospeis. ul ve
denand olhei lhings lesides lhese of civiIizalion, and cuiiousIy enough, ve expecl lo find lhen exisling
in lhe sane counliies. As if ve vished lo iepudiale lhe fiisl iequisilion ve nade, ve counl il aIso as pioof
of a high IeveI of civiIizalion vhen ve see lhal lhe indusliy of lhe inhalilanls is appIied as veII lo lhings
vhich aie nol in lhe Ieasl usefuI and, on lhe conliaiy seen lo le useIess, e. g., vhen lhe paiks and gaidens
in a lovn, vhich aie necessaiy as pIaygiounds and aii-ieseivoiis, aIso leai fIoveiing pIanls, oi vhen lhe
vindovs of dveIIings aie adoined vilh fIoveis. We soon lecone avaie lhal lhe useIess lhing vhich ve
iequiie of civiIizalion is leauly, ve expecl a cuIluied peopIe lo ieveie leauly vheie il is found in naluie and
lo cieale il in lheii handivoik so fai as lhey aie alIe. ul lhis is fai fion exhausling vhal ve iequiie of
civiIizalion. esides, ve expecl lo see lhe signs of cIeanIiness and oidei. We do nol lhink highIy of lhe
cuIluiaI IeveI of an LngIish counliy lovn in lhe line of Shakespeaie vhen ve iead lhal lheie vas a laII
dung-heap in fionl of his falheis house in Slialfoid, ve aie indignanl and caII il lailaious, vhich is lhe
opposile of civiIized, vhen ve find lhe palhs in lhe Wienei WaId Iilleied vilh papei. Diil of any kind seens
lo us inconpalilIe vilh civiIizalion, ve exlend oui denands foi cIeanIiness lo lhe hunan lody aIso, and
aie anazed lo heai vhal an oljeclionalIe odoui enanaled fion lhe peison of lhe Roi SoIeiI, ve shake oui
heads vhen ve aie shovn lhe liny vashlasin on lhe IsoIa eIIa vhich NapoIeon used foi his daiIy
alIulions. Indeed, ve aie nol suipiised if anyone enpIoys lhe use of soap as a diiecl neasuie of civiIizalion.
Il is lhe sane vilh oidei, vhich, Iike cIeanIiness, ieIales enliieIy lo nans handivoik. ul vheieas ve cannol
expecl cIeanIiness in naluie, oidei has, on lhe conliaiy, leen inilaled fion naluie, nans olseivalions of
lhe gieal asliononicaI peiiodicilies nol onIy fuinished hin vilh a nodeI, lul foined lhe giound-pIan of
his fiisl allenpls lo inlioduce oidei inlo his ovn Iife. Oidei is a kind of iepelilion-conpuIsion ly vhich il
is oidained once foi aII vhen, vheie and hov a lhing shaII le done so lhal on eveiy siniIai occasion doull
and hesilalion shaII le avoided. The lenefils of oidei aie inconleslalIe: il enalIes us lo use space and line
lo lhe lesl advanlage, vhiIe saving expendiluie of nenlaI eneigy. One vouId le juslified in expecling lhal
il vouId have ingiained ilseIf fion lhe slail and vilhoul opposilion inlo aII hunan aclivilies, and one nay
veII vondei lhal lhis has nol happened, and lhal, on lhe conliaiy, hunan leings nanifesl an inloin
lendency lo negIigence, iiieguIaiily, and unliuslvoilhiness in lheii voik, and have lo le IaloiiousIy liained
lo inilale lhe exanpIe of lheii ceIesliaI nodeIs.
eauly, cIeanIiness, and oidei cIeaiIy occupy a pecuIiai posilion anong lhe iequiienenls of civiIizalion. No
one viII nainlain lhal lhey aie as essenliaI lo Iife as lhe aclivilies ained al conlioIIing lhe foices of naluie
and as olhei faclois vhich ve have yel lo nenlion, and yel no one vouId viIIingIy ieIegale lhen lo lhe
lackgiound as liiviaI nalleis. eauly is an inslance vhich pIainIy shovs lhal cuIluie is nol sinpIy uliIilaiian
in ils ains, foi lhe Iack of leauly is a lhing ve cannol loIeiale in civiIizalion. The uliIilaiian advanlages of
oidei aie quile appaienl, vilh iegaid lo cIeanIiness, ve have lo ienenlei lhal il is iequiied of us ly
hygiene, and ve nay suinise lhal even lefoie lhe days of scienlific piophyIaxis lhe conneclion lelveen lhe
lvo vas nol aIlogelhei unsuspecled ly nankind. ul lhese ains and endeavouis of cuIluie aie nol enliieIy
lo le expIained on uliIilaiian Iines, lheie nusl le sonelhing eIse al voik lesides.
Accoiding lo geneiaI opinion, hovevei, lheieis one fealuie of cuIluie vhich chaiacleiizes il lellei lhan any
olhei, and lhal is lhe vaIue il sels upon lhe highei nenlaI aclivilies~inleIIecluaI, scienlific, and aeslhelic
achievenenl~ lhe Ieading pail il concedes lo ideas in hunan Iife. Iiisl and foienosl anong lhese ideas
cone lhe ieIigious syslens vilh lheii conpIicaled evoIulion, on vhich I have eIsevheie endeavouied lo
lhiov a Iighl, nexl lo lhen cone phiIosophicaI specuIalions, and Iasl, lhe ideaIs nan has foined, his
conceplions of lhe peifeclion possilIe in an individuaI, in a peopIe, in hunanily as a vhoIe, and lhe
denands he nakes on lhe lasis of lhese conceplions. These ciealions of his nind aie nol independenl of
each olhei, on lhe conliaiy, lhey aie cIoseIy inleivoven, and lhis conpIicales lhe allenpl lo desciile lhen,
as veII as lhal lo liace lheii psychoIogicaI deiivalion. If ve assune as a geneiaI hypolhesis lhal lhe foice
lehind aII hunan aclivilies is a sliiving lovaids lhe lvo conveigenl ains of piofil and pIeasuie, ve nusl
lhen acknovIedge lhis as vaIid aIso foi lhese olhei nanifeslalions of cuIluie, aIlhough il can le pIainIy
iecognized as liue onIy in iespecl of science and ail. Il cannol le doulled, hovevei, lhal lhe ienaindei, loo,
coiiespond lo sone poveifuI need in hunan leings~peihaps lo one vhich deveIops fuIIy onIy in a
ninoiily of peopIe. Noi nay ve aIIov ouiseIves lo le nisIed ly oui ovn judgnenls conceining lhe vaIue
of any of lhese ieIigious oi phiIosophicaI syslens oi of lhese ideaIs, vhelhei ve Iook upon lhen as lhe
highesl achievenenl of lhe hunan nind, oi vhelhei ve depIoie lhen as faIIacies, one nusl acknovIedge
lhal vheie lhey exisl, and especiaIIy vheie lhey aie in lhe ascendanl, lhey leslify lo a high IeveI of
We nov have lo considei lhe Iasl, and ceilainIy ly no neans lhe Ieasl inpoilanl, of lhe conponenls of
cuIluie, naneIy, lhe vays in vhich sociaI ieIalions, lhe ieIalions of one nan lo anolhei, aie ieguIaled, aII
lhal has lo do vilh hin as a neighloui, a souice of heIp, a sexuaI oljecl lo olheis, a nenlei of a faniIy oi
of a slale. Il is especiaIIy difficuIl in lhis nallei lo ienain unliased ly any ideaI slandaids and lo asceilain
exaclIy vhal is specificaIIy cuIluiaI heie. Ieihaps one nighl legin vilh lhe slalenenl lhal lhe fiisl allenpl
evei nade lo ieguIale lhese sociaI ieIalions aIieady conlained lhe essenliaI eIenenl of civiIizalion. Had no
such allenpl leen nade, lhese ieIalions vouId le suljecl lo lhe viIIs of individuaIs: lhal is lo say, lhe nan
vho vas physicaIIy sliongesl vouId decide lhings in accoidance vilh his ovn inleiesls and desiies. The
silualion vouId ienain lhe sane, even lhough lhis sliong nan shouId in his luin neel vilh anolhei vho
vas sliongei lhan he. Hunan Iife in connunilies onIy lecones possilIe vhen a nunlei of nen unile
logelhei in slienglh supeiioi lo any singIe individuaI and ienain uniled againsl aII singIe individuaIs. The
slienglh of lhis uniled lody is lhen opposed as rign| againsl lhe slienglh of any individuaI, vhich is
condenned as oru|c fcrcc. This sulslilulion of lhe povei of a uniled nunlei foi lhe povei of a singIe nan
is lhe decisive slep lovaids civiIizalion. The essence of il Iies in lhe ciicunslance lhal lhe nenleis of lhe
connunily have iesliicled lheii possiliIilies of gialificalion, vheieas lhe individuaI iecognized no such
iesliiclions. The fiisl iequisile of cuIluie, lheiefoie, is juslice~ lhal is, lhe assuiance lhal a Iav once nade
viII nol le lioken in favoui of any individuaI. This inpIies nolhing aloul lhe elhicaI vaIue of any such Iav.
The fuilhei couise of cuIluiaI deveIopnenl seens lo lend lovaids ensuiing lhal lhe Iav shaII no Iongei
iepiesenl lhe viII of any snaII lody~casle, liile, seclion of lhe popuIalion~vhich nay lehave Iike a
piedaloiy individuaI lovaids olhei such gioups peihaps conlaining Iaigei nunleis. The end-iesuIl vouId
le a slale of Iav lo vhich aII~lhal is, aII vho aie capalIe of uniling~have conliiluled ly naking sone
saciifice of lheii ovn desiies, and vhich Ieaves none~again vilh lhe sane exceplion~al lhe neicy of liule
The Iileily of lhe individuaI is nol a lenefil of cuIluie. Il vas giealesl lefoie any cuIluie, lhough indeed il
had IillIe vaIue al lhal line, lecause lhe individuaI vas haidIy in a posilion lo defend il. Lileily has
undeigone iesliiclions lhiough lhe evoIulion of civiIizalion, and juslice denands lhal lhese iesliiclions shaII
appIy lo aII. The desiie foi fieedon lhal nakes ilseIf feIl in a hunan connunily nay le a ievoIl againsl
sone exisling injuslice and so nay piove favouialIe lo a fuilhei deveIopnenl of civiIizalion and ienain
conpalilIe vilh il. ul il nay aIso have ils oiigin in lhe piinilive iools of lhe peisonaIily, sliII unfelleied
ly civiIizing infIuences, and so lecone a souice of anlagonisn lo cuIluie. Thus lhe ciy foi fieedon is
diiecled eilhei againsl pailicuIai foins oi denands of cuIluie oi eIse againsl cuIluie ilseIf. Il does nol seen
as if nan couId le lioughl ly any soil of infIuence lo change his naluie inlo lhal of lhe anls, he viII aIvays,
one inagines, defend his cIain lo individuaI fieedon againsl lhe viII of lhe nuIlilude. A gieal pail of lhe
sliuggIes of nankind cenlies iound lhe singIe lask of finding sone expedienl (i.e., salisfying) soIulion
lelveen lhese individuaI cIains and lhose of lhe civiIized connunily, il is one of lhe piolIens of nans fale
vhelhei lhis soIulion can le aiiived al in sone pailicuIai foin of cuIluie oi vhelhei lhe confIicl viII piove
We have ollained a cIeai inpiession of lhe geneiaI picluie piesenled ly cuIluie lhiough adopling lhe
connon viev as lo vhich aspecls of hunan Iife aie lo le caIIed cuIluiaI, lul il is liue lhal so fai ve have
discoveied nolhing lhal is nol connon knovIedge. We have, hovevei, al lhe sane line guaided
ouiseIves againsl accepling lhe nisconceplion lhal civiIizalion is synonynous vilh leconing peifecl, is lhe
palh ly vhich nan is oidained lo ieach peifeclion. ul nov a ceilain poinl of viev piesses foi
consideialion, il viII Iead peihaps in anolhei diieclion. The evoIulion of cuIluie seens lo us a pecuIiai kind
of piocess passing ovei hunanily, of vhich seveiaI aspecls sliike us as faniIiai. We can desciile lhis piocess
in leins of lhe nodificalions il effecls on lhe knovn hunan inslincluaI disposilions, vhich il is lhe econonic
lask of oui Iives lo salisfy. Sone of lhese inslincls lecone alsoiled, as il veie, so lhal sonelhing appeais
in pIace of lhen vhich in an individuaI ve caII a cnarac|cr-|rai|. The nosl ienaikalIe exanpIe of lhis piocess
is found in iespecl of lhe anaI eiolisn of young hunan leings. Theii piinaiy inleiesl in lhe excieloiy
funclion, ils oigans and pioducls, is changed in lhe couise of lheii giovlh inlo a gioup of liails lhal ve
knov veII~ lhiifliness, oideiIiness, and cIeanIiness~vaIualIe and veIcone quaIilies in lhenseIves, vhich,
hovevei, nay le inlensified liII lhey visilIy doninale lhe peisonaIily and pioduce vhal ve caII lhe anaI
chaiaclei. Hov lhis happens ve do nol knov, lul lheie is no doull aloul lhe accuiacy of lhis concIusion.
"H Nov, ve have seen lhal oidei and cIeanIiness aie essenliaIIy cuIluiaI denands, aIlhough lhe necessily
of lhen foi suivivaI is nol pailicuIaiIy appaienl, any noie lhan lheii suilaliIily as souices of pIeasuie. Al
lhis poinl ve nusl le sliuck foi lhe fiisl line vilh lhe siniIaiily lelveen lhe piocess of cuIluiaI
deveIopnenl and lhal of lhe IilidinaI deveIopnenl in an individuaI. Olhei inslincls have lo le induced lo
change lhe condilions of lheii gialificalion, lo find il aIong olhei palhs, a piocess vhich is usuaIIy idenlicaI
vilh vhal ve knov so veII as sulIinalion (of lhe ain of an inslincl), lul vhich can sonelines le
diffeienlialed fion lhis. SulIinalion of inslincl is an especiaIIy conspicuous fealuie of cuIluiaI evoIulion,
lhis il is lhal nakes il possilIe foi lhe highei nenlaI opeialions, scienlific, ailislic, ideoIogicaI aclivilies, lo
pIay such an inpoilanl pail in civiIized Iife. If one veie lo yieId lo a fiisl inpiession, one vouId le lenpled
lo say lhal sulIinalion is a fale vhich has leen foiced upon inslincls ly cuIluie aIone. ul il is lellei lo
iefIecl ovei lhis a vhiIe Iongei. ThiidIy and IaslIy, and lhis seens nosl inpoilanl of aII, il is inpossilIe lo
ignoie lhe exlenl lo vhich civiIizalion is luiIl up on ienuncialion of inslincluaI gialificalions, lhe degiee lo
vhich lhe exislence of civiIizalion piesupposes lhe non-gialificalion (suppiession, iepiession, oi sonelhing
eIse`) of poveifuI inslincluaI uigencies. This cu||ura| prita|icn doninales lhe vhoIe fieId of sociaI ieIalions
lelveen hunan leings, ve knov aIieady lhal il is lhe cause of lhe anlagonisn againsl vhich aII civiIizalion
has lo fighl. Il sels haid lasks foi oui scienlific voik, loo, ve have a gieal deaI lo expIain heie. Il is nol easy
lo undeisland hov il can lecone possilIe lo vilhhoId salisfaclion fion an inslincl. Noi is il ly any neans
vilhoul iisk lo do so, if lhe depiivalion is nol nade good econonicaIIy, one nay le ceilain of pioducing
seiious disoideis.
"H #IG W#A(B(1)2B (+- S+(& <B*)$/Jc U"=_VND C>&&/42/. L"?/0-+ ..a (&/* +EJ2B*E/ 1*+)B$CE)$*+/ )* )A2 /ECb21) C4 <B+2/)
f*+2/ (+- *)A2B/G
ul nov, if ve vish lo knov vhal use il is lo us lo have iecognized lhe evoIulion of cuIluie as a speciaI
piocess, conpaialIe lo lhe noinaI giovlh of an individuaI lo naluiily, ve nusl cIeaiIy allack anolhei
piolIen and pul lhe queslion: Whal aie lhe infIuences lo vhich lhe evoIulion of cuIluie oves ils oiigin, hov
did il aiise, and vhal deleinined ils couise`
?@.5 lask seens loo lig a one, one nay veII confess oneseIf diffidenl. Heie foIIovs vhal IillIe I have leen
alIe lo eIicil aloul il.
Once piinilive nan had nade lhe discoveiy lhal il Iay in his ovn hands~speaking IileiaIIy ~lo inpiove
his Iol on eailh ly voiking, il cannol have leen a nallei of indiffeience lo hin vhelhei anolhei nan
voiked vilh hin oi againsl hin. The olhei acquiied lhe vaIue of a feIIov-voikei, and il vas advanlageous
lo Iive vilh hin. Lven eaiIiei, in his ape-Iike piehisloiy, nan had adopled lhe halil of foining faniIies: his
fiisl heIpeis veie piolalIy lhenenleis of his faniIy. One nay suppose lhal lhe founding of faniIies vas
in sone vay connecled vilh lhe peiiod vhen lhe need foi genilaI salisfaclion, no Iongei appeaiing Iike an
occasionaI guesl vho luins up suddenIy and lhen vanishes vilhoul Ielling one heai anylhing of hin foi Iong
inleivaIs, had sellIed dovn vilh each nan Iike a peinanenl Iodgei. When lhis happened, lhe naIe acquiied
a nolive foi keeping lhe fenaIe, oi ialhei, his sexuaI oljecls, neai hin, vhiIe lhe fenaIe, vho vanled nol
lo le sepaialed fion hei heIpIess young, in lheii inleiesls, loo, had lo slay ly lhe sliongei naIe. "R In lhis
piinilive faniIy one essenliaI fealuie of cuIluie is Iacking, lhe viII of lhe falhei, lhe head of il, vas
unfelleied. I have endeavouied in Tc|cn and Taocc lo shov hov lhe vay Ied fion lhis faniIy-Iife lo lhe
succeeding phase of connunaI exislence in lhe foin of a land of liolheis. y oveipoveiing lhe falhei, lhe
sons had discoveied lhal seveiaI nen uniled can le sliongei lhan a singIe nan. The lolenic slage of cuIluie
is founded upon lhe iesliiclions lhal lhe land veie olIiged lo inpose on one anolhei in oidei lo nainlain
lhe nev syslen. These laloos veie lhe fiisl rign| oi Iav. The Iife of hunan leings in connon lheiefoie had
a lvofoId foundalion, i. e., lhe conpuIsion lo voik, ciealed ly exleinaI necessily, and lhe povei of Iove,
causing lhe naIe lo vish lo keep his sexuaI oljecl, lhe fenaIe, neai hin, and lhe fenaIe lo keep neai hei lhal
pail of heiseIf vhich has lecone delached fion hei, hei chiId. Lios and Ananke veie lhe paienls of hunan
cuIluie, loo. The fiisl iesuIl of cuIluie vas lhal a Iaigei nunlei of hunan leings couId lhen Iive logelhei
in connon. And since lhe lvo gieal poveis veie heie coopeialing logelhei, one nighl have expecled lhal
fuilhei cuIluiaI evoIulion vouId have pioceeded snoolhIy lovaids even giealei nasleiy ovei lhe exleinaI
voiId, as veII as lovaids giealei exlension in lhe nunleis of nen shaiing lhe Iife in connon. Noi is il easy
lo undeisland hov lhis cuIluie can le feIl as anylhing lul salisfying ly lhose vho pailake of il.
"R ?A2 *BF(+$1 M2B$*-$1$)4 *I )A2 /2^E(& MB*12// A(/ M2B/$/)2-D $) $/ )BE2D CE) $)/ 2II21) *+ J2+)(& /2^E(& 2^1$)()$*+ A(/
C22+ (&J*/) B2%2B/2-G ?A$/ 1A(+F2 $/ 1*++21)2- MB$J(B$&4 K$)A )A2 -$J$+$/A$+F $JM*B)(+12 *I )A2 *&I(1)*B4 /)$JE&$
C4 J2(+/ *I KA$1A )A2 J2+/)BE(& MB*12// MB*-E12- /2^E(& 2^1$)2J2+) $+ )A2 J$+- *I )A2 J(&2G ?A2$B IE+1)$*+ K(/
)(L2+ *%2B C4 %$/E(& /)$JE&$D KA$1A 1*E&- *M2B()2 M2BJ(+2+)&4D $+/)2(- *I $+)2BJ$))2+)&4 &$L2 )A2 *&I(1)*B4 *+2/G ?A2
2"%>> >6 8/#-20,"2$># A(/ $)/ *B$F$+ $+ )A$/ >0;"#$4 0/?0/--$>#+ KA$1A (1)2- (/ ( C(BB$2B (F($+/) ( MA(/2 *I
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)!$#.,8A25>&>;$/ ,#. O"-20"2$>#-P>8?&/Q+ ) M8";>+ T*&G \...D "=>QG N ?A$/ MB*12// $/ B2M2()2- *+ ( -$II2B2+) &2%2&
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(-*M)$*+ *I (+ EMB$FA) F($)D KA$1A J(-2 A$/ F2+$)(&/D )A() C2I*B2 A(- C22+ 1*%2B2-D %$/$C&2 (+- $+ +22- *I MB*)21)$*+
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)A2 $JM*B)(+12 *I *&I(1)*B4 /)$JE&$ (+- )A2 $/*&()$*+ *I K*J2+ () )A2$B M2B$*-/D )* ( )$J2 KA2+ %$/E(& /)$JE&$
C21(J2 M(B(J*E+)D )A2 F2+$)(&/ C21(J2 %$/$C&2D IEB)A2B )$&& /2^E(& 2^1$)()$*+ C21(J2 1*+/)(+) (+- )A2 I(J$&4 K(/
I*E+-2-D (+- /* )* )A2 )AB2/A*&- *I AEJ(+ 1E&)EB2G ?A$/ $/ *+&4 ( )A2*B2)$1(& /M21E&()$*+D CE) $) $/ $JM*B)(+) 2+*EFA
)* C2 K*B)A 1A21L$+F 1(B2IE&&4 C4 )A2 1*+-$)$*+/ *C)($+$+F (J*+F )A2 (+$J(&/ 1&*/2&4 (&&$2- )* J(+G
?A2B2 $/ (+ E+J$/)(L(C&2 /*1$(& I(1)*B () K*BL $+ )A2 $JME&/2 *I 1$%$&$'()$*+ )*K(B-/ 1&2(+&$+2//D KA$1A A(/ C22+
/EC/2`E2+)&4 bE/)$I$2- C4 1*+/$-2B()$*+/ *I A4F$2+2 CE) A(- +2%2B)A2&2// I*E+- 2^MB2//$*+ C2I*B2 )A24 K2B2
(MMB21$()2-G ?A2 $JME&/2 )*K(B-/ 1&2(+&$+2// *B$F$+()2/ $+ )A2 /)B$%$+F )* F2) B$- *I 2^1B2)$*+/ KA$1A A(%2 C21*J2
E+M&2(/(+) )* )A2 /2+/2!M2B12M)$*+/G ]2 L+*K )A() )A$+F/ (B2 -$II2B2+) $+ )A2 +EB/2B4G <^1B2)( (B*E/2 +* (%2B/$*+
$+ 1A$&-B2+a )A24 /22J MB21$*E/ )* )A2JD (/ C2$+F M(B)/ *I )A2$B *K+ C*-$2/ KA$1A A(%2 C22+ -2)(1A2- IB*J )A2JG
?A2 )B($+$+F *I 1A$&-B2+ $/ %2B4 2+2BF2)$1 $+ )A$/ M(B)$1E&(Ba $)/ *Cb21) $/ )* 2^M2-$)2 )A2 -2%2&*MJ2+) )A() &$2/ (A2(-
*I )A2JD (11*B-$+F )* KA$1A )A2 2^1B2)( (B2 )* C21*J2 K*B)A&2//D -$/FE/)$+FD A*BB$C&2D (+- -2/M$1(C&2 )* )A2JG 5E1A
( B2%2B/(& *I %(&E2/ K*E&- C2 (&J*/) $JM*//$C&2 )* CB$+F (C*E)D K2B2 $) +*) )A() )A2/2 /EC/)(+12/ 2^M2&&2- IB*J )A2
C*-4 (B2 -2/)$+2- C4 )A2$B /)B*+F *-*EB/ )* /A(B2 )A2 I()2 )A() *%2B)**L )A2 *&I(1)*B4 /)$JE&$ (I)2B J(+ A(- 2B21)2-
A$J/2&I IB*J )A2 FB*E+-G S+(& 2B*)$/JD )A2B2I*B2D $/ IB*J )A2 I$B/) /ECb21)2- )* )A2 >0;"#$4 0/?0/--$># KA$1A *M2+2-
EM )A2 K(4 )* 1E&)EB2G ?A2 /*1$(& I(1)*B KA$1A A(/ C22+ (1)$%2 $+ )A2 IEB)A2B J*-$I$1()$*+/ *I (+(& 2B*)$/J 1*J2/
$+)* M&(4 K$)A )A2 I(1) )A() $+ /M$)2 *I (&& J(+O/ 2%*&E)$*+(B4 MB*FB2// )A2 /J2&& *I A$/ *K+ 2^1B2)$*+/ $/ /1(B12&4
-$/(FB22(C&2 )* A$J 42)D CE) /* I(B *+&4 )A() *I )A2 2%(1E()$*+/ *I *)A2B/G ?A2 J(+ KA* $/ +*) 1&2(+D $G 2GG KA* -*2/
+*) 2&$J$+()2 A$/ 2^1B2)$*+/D )A2B2I*B2 *II2+-/ *)A2B/D /A*K/ +* 1*+/$-2B()$*+ I*B )A2Je( I(1) KA$1A $/ 2^2JM&$I$2-
$+ )A2 1*JJ*+2/) (+- J*/) I*B1$C&2 )2BJ/ *I (CE/2G .) K*E&- C2 $+1*JMB2A2+/$C&2D )**D )A() J(+ /A*E&- E/2 (/ (+
(CE/$%2 2M$)A2) )A2 +(J2 *I A$/ J*/) I($)AIE& IB$2+- $+ )A2 (+$J(& K*B&-D $I -*F/ -$- +*) $+1EB )A2 1*+)2JM) *I J2+
)AB*EFA )K* *I )A2$B 1A(B(1)2B$/)$1/D $G 2GD )A() )A24 (B2 1B2()EB2/ *I /J2&& (+- A(%2 +* A*BB*B *I 2^1B2J2+)D (+-D
/21*+-&4D )A() )A24 (B2 +*) (/A(J2- *I )A2$B /2^E(& IE+1)$*+/G
efoie ve go on lo enquiie vheie lhe disluilances in il aiise, ve viII Iel ouiseIves digiess fion lhe poinl
lhal Iove vas one of lhe foundeis of cuIluie and so fiII a gap Iefl in oui pievious discussion. We said lhal
nan, having found ly expeiience lhal sexuaI (genilaI) Iove affoided hin his giealesl gialificalion, so lhal
il lecane in effecl a piololype of aII happiness lo hin. nusl have leen lheiely inpeIIed lo seek his
happiness fuilhei aIong lhe palh of sexuaI ieIalions, lo nake genilaI eiolisn lhe cenliaI poinl of his Iife. We
venl on lo say lhal in so doing he lecones lo a veiy dangeious degiee dependenl on a pail of lhe oulei
voiId, naneIy, on his chosen Iove-oljecl, and lhis exposes hin lo nosl painfuI suffeiings if he is iejecled
ly il oi Ioses il lhiough dealh oi defeclion. The vise nen of aII ages have consequenlIy vained us
enphalicaIIy againsl lhis vay of Iife, lul in spile of aII il ielains ils alliaclion foi a gieal nunlei of peopIe.
A snaII ninoiily aie enalIed ly lheii conslilulion, neveilheIess, lo find happiness aIong lhe palh of Iove,
lul fai-ieaching nenlaI liansfoinalions of lhe eiolic funclion aie necessaiy lefoie lhis is possilIe. These
peopIe nake lhenseIves independenl of lheii oljecls acquiescence ly liansfeiiing lhe nain vaIue fion lhe
facl of leing Ioved lo lheii ovn acl of Ioving, lhey piolecl lhenseIves againsl Ioss of il ly allaching lheii Iove
nol lo individuaI oljecls lul lo aII nen equaIIy, and lhey avoid lhe unceilainlies and disappoinlnenls of
genilaI Iove ly luining avay fion ils sexuaI ain and nodifying lhe inslincl inlo an inpuIse vilh an innioi|cd
ain. The slale vhich lhey induce in lhenseIves ly lhis piocess~an unchangealIe, undevialing, lendei
allilude~has IillIe supeificiaI Iikeness lo lhe sloiny vicissiludes of genilaI Iove, fion vhich il is
neveilheIess deiived. Il seens lhal Sainl Iiancis of Assisi nay have caiiied lhis nelhod of using Iove lo
pioduce an innei feeIing of happiness as fai as anyone, vhal ve aie lhus chaiacleiizing as one of lhe
pioceduies ly vhich lhe pIeasuie-piincipIe fuIfiIs ilseIf has in facl leen Iinked up in nany vays vilh
ieIigion, lhe conneclion lelveen lhen nay Iie in lhose ienole faslnesses of lhe nind vheie lhe dislinclions
lelveen lhe ego and oljecls, and lelveen lhe vaiious oljecls, lecone nalleis of indiffeience. Iion one
elhicaI slandpoinl, lhe deepei nolivalion of vhich viII Ialei lecone cIeai lo us, lhis incIinalion lovaids an
aII-enliacing Iove of olheis and of lhe voiId al Iaige is iegaided as lhe highesl slale of nind of vhich nan
is capalIe Lven al lhis eaiIy slage in lhe discussion. I viII nol vilhhoId lhe lvo piincipaI oljeclions ve have
lo iaise againsl lhis viev. A Iove lhal does nol disciininale seens lo us lo Iose sone of ils ovn vaIue, since
il does an injuslice lo ils oljecl. And secondIy, nol aII nen aie voilhy of Iove.
The Iove lhal insliluled lhe faniIy sliII ielains ils povei, in ils oiiginaI foin il does nol slop shoil of diiecl
sexuaI salisfaclion, and in ils nodified foin, as ain-inhililed fiiendIiness, il infIuences oui civiIizalion. In
lolh lhese foins il caiiies on ils lask of linding nen and vonen lo one anolhei, and il does lhis vilh
giealei inlensily lhan can le achieved lhiough lhe inleiesl of voik in connon. The casuaI and
undiffeienlialed vay in vhich lhe void |ctc is enpIoyed ly Ianguage has ils genelic juslificalion. In geneiaI
usage, lhe ieIalion lelveen a nan and a vonan vhose genilaI desiies have Ied lhen lo found a faniIy is
caIIed |ctc, lul lhe posilive allilude of feeIing lelveen paienls and chiIdien, lelveen liolheis and sisleis
in a faniIy, is aIso caIIed |ctc, aIlhough lo us lhis ieIalion neiils lhe desciiplion of ain-innioi|cd |ctc oi
affcc|icn. Love vilh an inhililed ain vas indeed oiiginaIIy fuII sensuaI Iove and in nens unconscious ninds
is so sliII. olh of lhen, lhe sensuaI and lhe ain-inhililed foins, ieach oul leyond lhe faniIy and cieale nev
londs vilh olheis vho lefoie veie sliangeis. CenilaI Iove Ieads lo lhe foining of nev faniIies, ain-
inhililed Iove lo fricndsnips, vhich aie vaIualIe cuIluiaIIy lecause lhey do nol enlaiI nany of lhe Iinilalions
of genilaI Iove~ foi inslance, ils excIusiveness. ul lhe inleiieIalions lelveen Iove and cuIluie Iose lheii
sinpIicily as deveIopnenl pioceeds. On lhe one hand, Iove opposes lhe inleiesls of cuIluie, on lhe olhei,
cuIluie nenaces Iove vilh giievous iesliiclions.
This iifl lelveen lhen seens inevilalIe, lhe cause of il is nol innedialeIy iecognizalIe. Il expiesses ilseIf
fiisl in a confIicl lelveen lhe faniIy and lhe Iaigei connunily lo vhich lhe individuaI leIongs. We have
seen aIieady lhal one of cuIluies piincipaI endeavouis is lo cenenl nen and vonen logelhei inlo Iaigei
unils. ul lhe faniIy viII nol give up lhe individuaI. The cIosei lhe allachnenl lelveen lhe nenleis of il,
lhe noie lhey oflen lend lo ienain aIoof fion olheis, and lhe haidei il is foi lhen lo enlei inlo lhe videi
ciicIe of lhe voiId al Iaige. Thal foin of Iife in connon vhich is phyIogenelicaIIy oIdei, and is in chiIdhood
ils onIy foin, iesisls leing dispIaced ly lhe lype lhal lecones acquiied Ialei vilh cuIluie. Delachnenl fion
lhe faniIy has lecone a lask lhal avails eveiy adoIescenl, and oflen sociely heIps hin lhiough il vilh
puleilaI and inilialoiy iiles. One gels lhe inpiession lhal lhese difficuIlies foin an inlegiaI pail of eveiy
piocess of nenlaI evoIulion~and indeed, al lollon, of eveiy oiganic deveIopnenl, loo.
The nexl discoid is caused ly vonen, vho soon lecone anlilhelicaI lo cuIluiaI liends and spiead aiound
lhen lheii conseivalive infIuence~lhe vonen vho al lhe leginning Iaid lhe foundalions of cuIluie ly lhe
appeaI of lheii Iove. Wonen iepiesenl lhe inleiesls of lhe faniIy and sexuaI Iife, lhe voik of civiIizalion has
lecone noie and noie nens lusiness, il confionls lhen vilh evei haidei lasks, conpeIs lhen lo
sulIinalions of inslincl vhich vonen aie nol easiIy alIe lo achieve. Since nan has nol an unIiniled anounl
of nenlaI eneigy al his disposaI, he nusl acconpIish his lasks ly disliiluling his Iilido lo lhe lesl
advanlage. Whal he enpIoys foi cuIluiaI puiposes he vilhdiavs lo a gieal exlenl fion vonen and his
sexuaI Iife, his conslanl associalion vilh nen and his dependence on his ieIalions vilh lhen even esliange
hin fion his dulies as husland and falhei. Wonan finds heiseIf lhus foiced inlo lhe lackgiound ly lhe
cIains of cuIluie, and she adopls an ininicaI allilude lovaids il.
The lendency of cuIluie lo sel iesliiclions upon sexuaI Iife is no Iess evidenl lhan ils olhei ain of videning
ils spheie of opeialions. Lven lhe eaiIiesl phase of il, lhe lolenic, lioughl in ils liain lhe piohililion againsl
incesluous oljecl-choice, peihaps lhe nosl naining vound evei infIicled lhioughoul lhe ages on lhe eiolic
Iife of nan. Iuilhei Iinilalions aie Iaid on il ly laloos, Iavs, and cuslons, vhich louch nen as veII as
vonen. Vaiious lypes of cuIluie diffei in lhe Ienglhs lo vhich lhey caiiy lhis, and lhe naleiiaI sliucluie of
lhe sociaI faliic aIso affecls lhe neasuie of sexuaI fieedon lhal ienains. We have seen lhal cuIluie oleys
lhe Iavs of psychoIogicaI econonic necessily in naking lhe iesliiclions, foi il ollains a gieal pail of lhe
nenlaI eneigy il needs ly sulliacling il fion sexuaIily. CuIluie lehaves lovaids sexuaIily in lhis iespecl
Iike a liile oi a seclion of lhe popuIalion vhich has gained lhe uppei hand and is expIoiling lhe iesl lo ils
ovn advanlage. Ieai of a ievoIl anong lhe oppiessed lhen lecones a nolive, foi even sliiclei ieguIalions.
A high-valei naik in lhis lype of deveIopnenl has leen ieached in oui Weslein Luiopean civiIizalion.
IsychoIogicaIIy il is fuIIy juslified in leginning ly censuiing any nanifeslalions of lhe sexuaI Iife of chiIdien,
foi lheie vouId le no piospecl of cuiling lhe sexuaI desiies of aduIls if lhe giound had nol leen piepaied
foi il in chiIdhood. NeveilheIess, lheie is no soil of juslificalion foi lhe Ienglhs leyond lhis lo vhich civiIized
sociely goes in acluaIIy denying lhe exislence of lhese nanifeslalions, vhich aie nol neieIy denonslialIe
lul posiliveIy gIaiing. Wheie sexuaIIy naluie peisons aie conceined, oljecl-choice is fuilhei naiioved
dovn lo lhe opposile sex and nosl of lhe exlia-genilaI foins of salisfaclion aie inleidicled as peiveisions.
The slandaid vhich decIaies ilseIf in lhese piohililions is lhal of a sexuaI Iife idenlicaI foi aII, il pays no heed
lo lhe dispaiilies in lhe inloin and acquiied sexuaI conslilulions of individuaIs and culs off a consideialIe
nunlei of lhen fion sexuaI enjoynenl, lhus leconing a cause of giievous injuslice. The effecl of lhese
iesliiclive neasuies nighl piesunalIy le lhal aII lhe sexuaI inleiesl of lhose vho aie noinaI and nol
conslilulionaIIy handicapped couId fIov vilhoul fuilhei foifeiluie inlo lhe channeI Iefl open lo il. ul lhe
onIy oulIel nol lhus censuied, heleiosexuaI genilaI Iove, is fuilhei ciicunsciiled ly lhe laiiieis of
Iegilinacy and nonogany. Iiesenl-day civiIizalion gives us pIainIy lo undeisland lhal sexuaI ieIalions aie
peinilled onIy on lhe lasis of a finaI, indissoIulIe lond lelveen a nan and vonan, lhal sexuaIily as a
souice of enjoynenl foi ils ovn sake is unacceplalIe lo il, and lhal ils inlenlion is lo loIeiale il onIy as lhe
hilheilo iiiepIacealIe neans of nuIipIying lhe hunan iace.
This, of couise, iepiesenls an exliene. Lveiyone knovs lhal il has pioved inpossilIe lo pul il inlo execulion,
even foi shoil peiiods. OnIy lhe veakIings have sulnilled lo such conpiehensive inleifeience vilh lheii
sexuaI fieedon, and sliongei naluies have done so onIy undei one conpensaloiy condilion, of vhich
nenlion nay le nade Ialei. CiviIized sociely has seen ilseIf olIiged lo pass ovei in siIence nany
liansgiessions vhich ly ils ovn oidinances il oughl lo have penaIized. This does nol juslify anyone,
hovevei, in Ieaning lovaids lhe olhei side and assuning lhal, lecause il does nol achieve aII il ains al, such
an allilude on lhe pail of sociely is aIlogelhei hainIess. The sexuaI Iife of civiIized nan is seiiousIy disalIed,
vhalevei ve nay say, il sonelines nakes an inpiession of leing a funclion in piocess of leconing
aliophied, jusl as oigans Iike oui leelh and oui haii seen lo le. One is piolalIy iighl in supposing lhal lhe
inpoilance of sexuaIily as a souice of pIeasuialIe sensalions, i. e., as a neans of fuIfiIIing lhe puipose of Iife,
has peiceplilIy decieased. "Y Sonelines one inagines one peiceives lhal il is nol onIy lhe oppiession of
cuIluie, lul sonelhing in lhe naluie of lhe funclion ilseIf lhal denies us fuII salisfaclion and uiges us in olhei
diieclions. This nay le an eiioi, il is haid lo decide. "P
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KA* )*-(4 2+b*4/ F2+2B(& B21*F+$)$*+a $) $/ 1(&&2- W?A2 SMM&2 ?B22G W .) /A*K/ $+ ( %2B4 J*%$+F (+- I*B1$C&2 K(4
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( /)()2J2+) KA$1A $/ C4 +* J2(+/ E+$%2B/(&&4 1*+I$BJ2- $+ )A2 (+$J(& K*B&-G ?A2 )A2*B4 *I C$/2^E(&$)4 $/ /)$&& %2B4
*C/1EB2D (+- $+ M/41A*!(+(&4/$/ K2 JE/) C2 M($+IE&&4 (K(B2 *I )A2 -$/(-%(+)(F2 K2 (B2 E+-2B (/ &*+F (/ $) /)$&&
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*C/)(1&2/ $+ )A2 K(4 *I IE&& /()$/I(1)$*+ (+- I*B12/ $) (K(4 IB*J $)/ /2^E(& ($J )*K(B-/ /EC&$J()$*+/ (+-
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)A2 2B21) M*/)EB2 (F($+/) )A2 2(B&$2/) )4M2 *I (+$J(& 2^$/)2+12e!( B2/E&) *I /1$2+)$I$1 B2/2(B1A2/ )A() 1*$+1$-2/ $+ (
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)A2 /)B*+F F2+$)(& *-*EB/ /* *Cb21)$*+(C&2 )* E/ (+- KA* K$&& +*) B2+*E+12 )A2JG U#IG )A2 B2M*B)/ *I I*&L&*B$/)$1
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=$2" -/Q,"&$-S $+ %(B$*E/ %*&EJ2/ *I :B$2-B$1A 5G jB(E//O D#250>?>?5A2/$"7 K
[5k#@d!S9SXk?.# voik has shovn lhal lhese fiuslialions in iespecl of sexuaI Iife aie especiaIIy
unenduialIe lo lhe so-caIIed neuiolics anong us. These peisons nanufacluie sulslilule-gialificalions foi
lhenseIves in lheii synplons, vhich, hovevei, aie eilhei painfuI in lhenseIves oi lecone lhe cause of
suffeiing oving lo lhe difficuIlies lhey cieale vilh lhe peisons enviionnenl and sociely al Iaige. Il is easy
lo undeisland lhe Iallei facl, lul lhe foinei piesenls us vilh a nev piolIen. ul cuIluie denands olhei
saciifices lesides lhal of sexuaI gialificalions.
We have iegaided lhe difficuIlies in lhe deveIopnenl of civiIizalion as pail of lhe geneiaI difficuIly
acconpanying aII evoIulion, foi ve have liaced lhen lo lhe ineilia of Iilido, ils disincIinalion lo ieIinquish
an oId posilion in favoui of a nev one. Il is nuch lhe sane lhing if ve say lhal lhe confIicl lelveen
civiIizalion and sexuaIily is caused ly lhe ciicunslance lhal sexuaI Iove is a ieIalionship lelveen lvo
peopIe, in vhich a lhiid can onIy le supeifIuous oi disluiling, vheieas civiIizalion is founded on ieIalions
lelveen Iaigei gioups of peisons. When a Iove-ieIalionship is al ils heighl, no ioon is Iefl foi any inleiesl
in lhe suiiounding voiId, lhe paii of Ioveis aie sufficienl unlo lhenseIves, do nol even need lhe chiId lhey
have in connon lo nake lhen happy. In no olhei case does Lios so pIainIy leliay lhe coie of his leing, his
ain of naking one oul of nany, lul vhen he has achieved il in lhe pioveiliaI vay lhiough lhe Iove of lvo
hunan leings, he is nol viIIing lo go fuilhei.
Iion aII lhis ve nighl veII inagine lhal a civiIized connunily couId consisl of paiis of individuaIs such
as lhis, IilidinaIIy salisfied in each olhei, and Iinked lo aII lhe olheis ly voik and connon inleiesls. If lhis
veie so, cuIluie vouId nol need lo Ievy eneigy fion sexuaIily. ul such a desiialIe slale of lhings does nol
exisl and nevei has exisled, in acluaIily, cuIluie is nol conlenl vilh such Iiniled lies as lhese, ve see lhal il
endeavouis lo lind lhe nenleis of lhe connunily lo one anolhei ly IilidinaI lies as veII, lhal il nakes use
of eveiy neans and favouis eveiy avenue ly vhich poveifuI idenlificalions can le ciealed anong lhen,
and lhal il exacls a heavy loII of ain-inhililed Iilido in oidei lo slienglhen connunilies ly londs of
fiiendship lelveen lhe nenleis. Resliiclions upon sexuaI Iife aie unavoidalIe if lhis oljecl is lo le allained.
ul ve cannol see lhe necessily lhal foices cuIluie a|cng lhis palh and gives iise |c ils anlagonisn lo
sexuaIily. Il nusl le due lo sone disluiling infIuence nol yel delecled ly us.
We nay find lhe cIue in one of lhe so-caIIed idca| s|andards of civiIized sociely. Il iuns: Thou shaIl Iove lhy
neighloui as lhyseIf. Il is voiId-ienovned, undoulledIy oIdei lhan Chiislianily vhich paiades il as ils
pioudesl piofession, yel ceilainIy nol veiy oId, in hisloiicaI lines, nen sliII knev nolhing of il. We viII
adopl a naive allilude lovaids il, as if ve veie neeling il foi lhe fiisl line. Theieupon, ve find ouiseIves
unalIe lo suppiess a feeIing of aslonishnenl, as al sonelhing unnaluiaI. Why shouId ve do lhis` Whal good
is il lo us` Alove aII, hov can ve do such a lhing` Hov couId il possilIy le done` My Iove seens lo ne
a vaIualIe lhing lhal I have no iighl lo lhiov avay vilhoul iefIeclion. Il inposes olIigalions on ne
vhich I nusl le piepaied lo nake saciifices lo fuIfiI. If I Iove soneone, he nusl le voilhy of il in sone vay
oi olhei. (I an Ieaving oul of accounl nov lhe use he nay le lo ne. as veII as his possilIe significance lo
ne as a sexuaI oljecl, neilhei of lhese lvo kinds of ieIalionship lelveen us cone inlo queslion vheie lhe
injunclion lo Iove ny neighloui is conceined. ) He viII le voilhy of il if he is so Iike ne in inpoilanl
iespecls lhal I can Iove nyseIf in hin, voilhy of il if he is so nuch noie peifecl lhan I lhal I can Iove ny
ideaI of nyseIf in hin, I nusl Iove hin if he is lhe son of ny fiiend, since lhe pain ny fiiend vouId feeI if
anylhing unlovaid happened lo hin vouId le ny pain~I shouId have lo shaie il. ul if he is a sliangei
lo ne and cannol alliacl ne ly any vaIue he has in hinseIf oi any significance he nay have aIieady acquiied
in ny enolionaI Iife, il viII le haid foi ne lo Iove hin. I shaII even le doing viong if I do, foi ny Iove is
vaIued as a piiviIege ly aII lhose leIonging lo ne, il is an injuslice lo lhen if I pul a sliangei on a IeveI vilh
lhen. ul if I an lo Iove hin (vilh lhal kind of univeisaI Iove) sinpIy lecause he, loo, is a denizen of lhe
eailh, Iike an insecl oi an eailhvoin oi a giass-snake, lhen I feai lhal lul a snaII nodicun of Iove viII faII
lo his Iol and il vouId le inpossilIe foi ne lo give hin as nuch as ly aII lhe Iavs of ieason I an enlilIed
lo ielain foi nyseIf. Whal is lhe poinl of an injunclion pionuIgaled vilh such soIennily, if ieason does nol
ieconnend il lo us`
When I Iook noie cIoseIy. I find sliII fuilhei difficuIlies. Nol neieIy is lhis sliangei on lhe vhoIe nol voilhy
of Iove, lul, lo le honesl, I nusl confess he has noie cIain lo ny hosliIily, even lo ny halied. He does nol
seen lo have lhe Ieasl liace of Iove foi ne, does nol shov ne lhe sIighlesl consideialion. If il viII do hin
any good, he has no hesilalion in injuiing ne, nevei even asking hinseIf vhelhei lhe anounl of advanlage
he gains ly il leais any piopoilion lo lhe anounl of viong done lo ne. Whal is noie, he does nol even need
lo gel an advanlage fion il, if he can neieIy gel a IillIe pIeasuie oul of il, he lhinks nolhing of jeeiing al ne,
insuIling ne, sIandeiing ne, shoving his povei ovei ne, and lhe noie secuie he feeIs hinseIf, oi lhe noie
heIpIess I an, vilh so nuch noie ceilainly can I expecl lhis lehavioui fion hin lovaids ne. If he lehaved
diffeienlIy, if he shoved ne consideialion and did nol noIesl ne, I shouId in any case, vilhoul lhe afoiesaid
connandnenl, le viIIing lo lieal hin siniIaiIy. If lhe high-sounding oidinance had iun: Love lhy
neighloui as lhy neighloui Ioves lhee, I shouId nol lake oljeclion lo il. And lheie is a second
connandnenl lhal seens lo ne even noie inconpiehensilIe, and aiouses sliII sliongei opposilion in ne.
Il is: Love lhine enenies. When I lhink il ovei, hovevei, I an viong in liealing il as a giealei inposilion.
Il is al lollon lhe sane lhing. "Q
"Q S FB2() M*2) J(4 M2BJ$) A$J/2&ID () &2(/) $+ b2/)D )* F$%2 E))2B(+12 )* M/41A*&*F$1(& )BE)A/ )A() (B2 A2(%$&4
12+/EB2-G ?AE/ @2$+2Z W7$+2 $/ )A2 J*/) M2(12(C&2 -$/M*/$)$*+G 74 K$/A2/ (B2 ( AEJC&2 -K2&&$+F K$)A ( )A()1A2-
B**ID CE) ( F**- C2-D F**- I**-D J$&L (+- CE))2B *I )A2 IB2/A2/)D I&*K2B/ () J4 K$+-*K/D /*J2 I$+2 )(&& )B22/ C2I*B2
J4 -**Ba (+- $I )A2 F**- 6*- K(+)/ )* J(L2 J2 1*JM&2)2&4 A(MM4D A2 K$&& FB(+) J2 )A2 b*4 *I /22$+F /*J2 /$^ *B
/2%2+ *I J4 2+2J$2/ A(+F$+F IB*J )A2/2 )B22/G ]$)A J4 A2(B) IE&& *I -22M 2J*)$*+ . /A(&& I*BF$%2 )A2J C2I*B2 )A24
-$2 (&& )A2 KB*+F )A24 -$- J2 $+ )A2$B &$I2)$J2e)BE2D *+2 JE/) I*BF$%2 *+2O/ 2+2J$2/D CE) +*) E+)$& )A24 (B2 CB*EFA)
)* 2^21E)$*+G We@2$+2D I/."#P/# ,#. T$#6"&&/7
I inagine nov I heai a voice giaveIy adjuiing ne: }usl lecause lhy neighloui is nol voilhy of lhy Iove, is
piolalIy fuII of ennily lovaids lhee, lhou shouIdsl Iove hin as lhyseIf. I lhen peiceive lhe case lo le Iike
lhal of Crcdc, quid aosurdun. "V
"V . C2&$2%2 $)D C21(E/2 $) $/ (C/EB-G
Nov il is, of couise, veiy piolalIe lhal ny neighloui, vhen he is connanded lo Iove ne as hinseIf, viII
ansvei exaclIy as I have done and iejecl ne foi lhe sane ieasons. I hope he viII nol have lhe sane oljeclive
giounds foi doing so, lul he viII hope so as veII. Lven so, lheie aie vaiialions in nens lehavioui vhich
elhics, disiegaiding lhe facl lhal lhey aie deleinined, cIassifies as gccd and cti|. As Iong as lhese undenialIe
vaiialions have nol leen aloIished, confoinily lo lhe highesl elhicaI slandaids conslilules a leliayaI of lhe
inleiesls of cuIluie, foi il puls a diiecl pieniun on vickedness. One is iiiesislilIy ieninded heie of an
incidenl in lhe Iiench Chanlei vhen capilaI punishnenl vas leing discussed, lhe speech of a nenlei vho
had passionaleIy suppoiled ils aloIilion vas leing appIauded vilh Ioud accIanalion, vhen suddenIy a
voice vas heaid caIIing oul fion lhe lack of lhe ioon, Quc ncssicurs |cs assassins ccnncnccn|!

"= X2) )A2 JEB-2B2B/ C2F$+l
The lil of liulh lehind aII lhis~one so eageiIy denied~is lhal nen aie nol genlIe, fiiendIy ciealuies
vishing foi Iove, vho sinpIy defend lhenseIves if lhey aie allacked, lul lhal a poveifuI neasuie of desiie
foi aggiession has lo le ieckoned as pail of lheii inslincluaI endovnenl. The iesuIl is lhal lheii neighloui
is lo lhen nol onIy a possilIe heIpei oi sexuaI oljecl, lul aIso a lenplalion lo lhen lo gialify lheii
aggiessiveness on hin, lo expIoil his capacily foi voik vilhoul ieconpense, lo use hin sexuaIIy vilhoul
his consenl, lo seize his possessions, lo huniIiale hin, lo cause hin pain, lo loiluie and kiII hin. Hcnc
ncnini |upus, >_ vho has lhe couiage lo dispule il in lhe face of aII lhe evidence in his ovn Iife and in hisloiy`
This aggiessive ciueIly usuaIIy Iies in vail foi sone piovocalion, oi eIse il sleps inlo lhe seivice of sone
olhei puipose, lhe ain of vhich nighl as veII have leen achieved ly niIdei neasuies. In ciicunslances
lhal favoui il, vhen lhose foices in lhe nind vhich oidinaiiIy inhilil il cease lo opeiale, il aIso nanifesls
ilseIf sponlaneousIy and ieveaIs nen as savage leasls lo vhon lhe lhoughl of spaiing lheii ovn kind is
aIien. Anyone vho caIIs lo nind lhe aliocilies of lhe eaiIy nigialions, of lhe invasion ly lhe Huns, oi ly lhe
so-caIIed MongoIs undei }enghiz Khan and TanuiIane, of lhe sack of }eiusaIen ly lhe pious Ciusadeis,
even indeed lhe hoiiois of lhe Iasl WoiId Wai, viII have lo lov his head hunlIy lefoie lhe liulh of lhis
viev of nan.
>_ 7(+ $/ )* J(+ ( K*&IG
The exislence of lhis lendency lo aggiession vhich ve can delecl in ouiseIves and iighlIy piesune lo le
piesenl in olheis is lhe facloi lhal disluils oui ieIalions vilh oui neighlouis and nakes il necessaiy foi
cuIluie lo inslilule ils high denands. CiviIized sociely is peipeluaIIy nenaced vilh disinlegialion lhiough
lhis piinaiy hosliIily of nen lovaids one anolhei. Theii inleiesls in lheii connon voik vouId nol hoId
lhen logelhei, lhe passions of inslincl aie sliongei lhan ieasoned inleiesls. CuIluie has lo caII up eveiy
possilIe ieinfoicenenl in oidei lo eiecl laiiieis againsl lhe aggiessive inslincls of nen and hoId lheii
nanifeslalions in check ly ieaclion-foinalions in nens ninds. Hence ils syslen of nelhods ly vhich
nankind is lo le diiven lo idenlificalions and ain-inhililed Iove-ieIalionships, hence lhe iesliiclions on
sexuaI Iife, and hence, loo. ils ideaI connand lo Iove ones neighloui as oneseIf, vhich is ieaIIy juslified ly
lhe facl lhal nolhing is so conpIeleIy al vaiiance vilh oiiginaI hunan naluie as lhis. Wilh aII ils sliiving,
lhis endeavoui of cuIluies has so fai nol achieved veiy nuch. CiviIizalion expecls lo pievenl lhe voisl
aliocilies of liulaI vioIence ly laking upon ilseIf lhe iighl lo enpIoy vioIence againsl ciininaIs, lul lhe Iav
is nol alIe lo Iay hands on lhe noie discieel and sullIe foins in vhich hunan aggiessions aie expiessed.
The line cones vhen eveiy one of us has lo alandon lhe iIIusoiy anlicipalions vilh vhich in oui youlh ve
iegaided oui feIIov-nen, and vhen ve ieaIize hov nuch haidship and suffeiing ve have leen caused in
Iife lhiough lheii iII-viII. Il vouId le unfaii, hovevei, lo iepioach cuIluie vilh liying lo eIininale aII
dispules and conpelilion fion hunan conceins. These lhings aie undoulledIy indispensalIe, lul
opposilion is nol necessaiiIy ennily, onIy il nay le nisused lo nake an opening foi il.
The Connunisls leIieve lhey have found a vay of deIiveiing us fion lhis eviI. Man is vhoIe-heailedIy
good and fiiendIy lo his neighloui, lhey say, lul lhe syslen of piivale piopeily has coiiupled his naluie.
The possession of piivale piopeily gives povei lo lhe individuaI and lhence lhe lenplalion aiises lo iII-lieal
his neighloui, lhe nan vho is excIuded fion lhe possession of piopeily is olIiged lo ieleI in hosliIily
againsl lhe oppiessoi. If piivale piopeily veie aloIished, aII vaIualIes heId in connon and aII aIIoved lo
shaie in lhe enjoynenl of lhen, iII-viII and ennily vouId disappeai fion anong nen. Since aII needs
vouId le salisfied, none vouId have any ieason lo iegaid anolhei as an eneny, aII vouId viIIingIy
undeilake lhe voik vhich is necessaiy. I have no concein vilh any econonic ciilicisns of lhe connunislic
syslen, 1 cannol enquiie inlo vhelhei lhe aloIilion of piivale piopeily is advanlageous and expedienl. >"
ul I an alIe lo iecognize lhal psychoIogicaIIy il is founded on an unlenalIe iIIusion. y aloIishing piivale
piopeily one depiives lhe hunan Iove of aggiession of one of ils insliunenls, a sliong one undoulledIy,
lul assuiedIy nol lhe sliongesl. Il in no vay aIleis lhe individuaI diffeiences in povei and infIuence vhich
aie luined ly aggiessiveness lo ils ovn use, noi does il change lhe naluie of lhe inslincl in any vay. This
inslincl did nol aiise as lhe iesuIl of piopeily, il ieigned aInosl supiene in piinilive lines vhen
possessions veie sliII exlieneIy scanly, il shovs ilseIf aIieady in lhe nuiseiy vhen possessions have haidIy
giovn oul of lheii oiiginaI anaI shape, il is al lhe lollon of aII lhe ieIalions of affeclion and Iove lelveen
hunan leings~possilIy vilh lhe singIe exceplion of lhal of a nolhei lo hei naIe chiId. Suppose lhal
peisonaI iighls lo naleiiaI goods aie done avay vilh, lheie sliII ienain pieiogalives in sexuaI ieIalionships,
vhich nusl aiouse lhe sliongesl iancoui and nosl vioIenl ennily anong nen and vonen vho aie
olheivise equaI. Lel us suppose lhis veie aIso lo le ienoved ly insliluling conpIele Iileily in sexuaI Iife,
so lhal lhe faniIy, lhe gein-ceII of cuIluie, ceased lo exisl, one couId nol. il is liue, foiesee lhe nev palhs
on vhich cuIluiaI deveIopnenl nighl lhen pioceed, lul one lhing one vouId le lound lo expecl and lhal
is lhal lhe ineffacealIe fealuie of hunan naluie vouId foIIov vheievei il Ied.
>" S+4*+2 KA* A(/ C22+ )AB*EFA )A2 J$/2B4 *I M*%2B)4 $+ A$/ 4*E)AD (+- A(/ 2+-EB2- )A2 $+-$II2B2+12 (+-
(BB*F(+12 *I )A*/2 KA* A(%2 M*//2//$*+/D /A*E&- C2 2^2JM) IB*J )A2 /E/M$1$*+ )A() A2 A(/ +* E+-2B/)(+-$+F *I *B
F**-K$&& )*K(B-/ )A2 2+-2(%*EB/ J(-2 )* I$FA) )A2 21*+*J$1 $+2`E(&$)4 *I J2+ (+- (&& )A() $) &2(-/ )*G ?* C2 /EB2D
$I (+ ())2JM) $/ J(-2 )* C(/2 )A$/ I$FA) EM*+ (+ (C/)B(1) -2J(+- I*B 2`E(&$)4 I*B (&& $+ )A2 +(J2 *I bE/)$12D )A2B2 $/
( %2B4 *C%$*E/ *Cb21)$*+ )* C2 J(-2D +(J2&4D )A() +()EB2 C2F(+ )A2 $+bE/)$12 C4 )A2 A$FA&4 E+2`E(& K(4 $+ KA$1A
/A2 2+-*K/ $+-$%$-E(&/ MA4/$1(&&4 (+- J2+)(&&4D I*B KA$1A )A2B2 $/ +* A2&MG
Men cIeaiIy do nol find il easy lo do vilhoul salisfaclion of lhis lendency lo aggiession lhal is in lhen, vhen
depiived of salisfaclion of il lhey aie iII al ease. Theie is an advanlage, nol lo le undeivaIued, in lhe
exislence of snaIIei connunilies, lhiough vhich lhe aggiessive inslincl can find an oulIel in ennily lovaids
lhose oulside lhe gioup. Il is aIvays possilIe lo unile consideialIe nunleis of nen in Iove lovaids one
anolhei, so Iong as lheie aie sliII sone ienaining as oljecls foi aggiessive nanifeslalions. I once inleiesled
nyseIf in lhe pecuIiai facl lhal peopIes vhose leiiiloiies aie adjacenl, and aie olheivise cIoseIy ieIaled, aie
aIvays al feud vilh and iidicuIing each olhei, as. foi inslance, lhe Spaniaids and lhe Ioiluguese, lhe Noilh
and Soulh Ceinans, lhe LngIish and lhe Scolch, and so on. I gave il lhe nane of narcissisn in rcspcc| cf nincr
diffcrcnccs, vhich does nol do nuch lo expIain il. One can nov see lhal il is a convenienl and ieIaliveIy
hainIess foin of salisfaclion foi aggiessive lendencies, lhiough vhich cohesion anongsl lhe nenleis of
a gioup is nade easiei. The }evish peopIe, scalleied in aII diieclions as lhey aie. have in lhis vay iendeied
seivices vhich deseive iecognilion lo lhe deveIopnenl of cuIluie in lhe counliies vheie lhey sellIed, lul
unfoilunaleIy nol aII lhe nassacies of }evs in lhe MiddIe Ages sufficed lo piocuie peace and secuiily foi
lheii Chiislian conlenpoiaiies. Once lhe aposlIe IauI had Iaid dovn univeisaI Iove lelveen aII nen as lhe
foundalion of his Chiislian connunily, lhe inevilalIe consequence in Chiislianily vas lhe ulnosl
inloIeiance lovaids aII vho ienained oulside of il, lhe Ronans, vho had nol founded lheii slale on Iove,
veie nol given lo Iack of ieIigious loIeialion, aIlhough ieIigion vas a concein of lhe slale and lhe slale vas
peinealed lhiough and lhiough vilh il. Neilhei vas il an unaccounlalIe chance lhal lhe diean of a Ceinan
voiId-doninion evoked a conpIenenlaiy novenenl lovaids anli-senilisn, and il is quile inleIIigilIe lhal
lhe allenpl lo eslalIish a nev connunislic lype of cuIluie in Russia shouId find psychoIogicaI suppoil in
lhe peiseculion of lhe louigeois. One onIy vondeis, vilh sone concein, hovevei, hov lhe Soviels viII
nanage vhen lhey have exleininaled lheii louigeois enliieIy.
If civiIizalion iequiies such saciifices, nol onIy of sexuaIily lul aIso of lhe aggiessive lendencies in nankind,
ve can lellei undeisland vhy il shouId le so haid foi nen lo feeI happy in il. In acluaI facl, piinilive nan
vas lellei off in lhis iespecl, foi he knev nolhing of any iesliiclions on his inslincls. As a sel-off againsl lhis,
his piospecls of enjoying his happiness foi any Ienglh of line veie veiy sIighl. CiviIized nan has exchanged
sone pail of his chances of happiness foi a neasuie of secuiily. We viII nol foigel, hovevei, lhal in lhe
piinaI faniIy onIy lhe head of il enjoyed lhis inslincluaI fieedon, lhe olhei nenleis Iived in sIavish
lhiaIdon. The anlilhesis lelveen a ninoiily enjoying cuIluiaI advanlages and a najoiily vho aie iolled
of lhen vas lheiefoie nosl exliene in lhal piinevaI peiiod of cuIluie. Wilh iegaid lo lhe piinilive hunan
lypes Iiving al lhe piesenl line, caiefuI invesligalion has ieveaIed lhal lheii inslincluaI Iife is ly no neans
lo le envied on accounl of ils fieedon, il is suljecl lo iesliiclions of a diffeienl kind lul peihaps even noie
iigoious lhan is lhal of nodein civiIized nan.
In iighlIy finding fauIl, as ve lhus do, vilh oui piesenl slale of civiIizalion foi so inadequaleIy pioviding
us vilh vhal ve iequiie lo nake us happy in Iife, and foi lhe anounl of suffeiing of a piolalIy avoidalIe
naluie il Iays us open lo~in doing oui ulnosl lo Iay laie lhe iools of ils deficiencies ly oui unspaiing
ciilicisns, ve aie undoulledIy exeicising oui jusl iighls and nol shoving ouiseIves enenies of cuIluie. We
nay expecl lhal in lhe couise of line changes viII le caiiied oul in oui civiIizalion so lhal il lecones noie
salisfying lo oui needs and no Iongei open lo lhe iepioaches ve have nade againsl il. ul peihaps ve shaII
aIso accuslon ouiseIves lo lhe idea lhal lheie aie ceilain difficuIlies inheienl in lhe veiy naluie of cuIluie
vhich viII nol yieId lo any effoils al iefoin. Ovei and alove lhe olIigalions of pulling iesliiclions upon oui
inslincls, vhich ve see lo le inevilalIe, ve aie inninenlIy lhiealened vilh lhe dangeis of a slale one nay
caII |a niscrc psqcnc|cgiquc of gioups. This dangei is nosl nenacing vheie lhe sociaI foices of cohesion
consisl piedoninanlIy of idenlificalions of lhe individuaIs in lhe gioup vilh one anolhei, vhiIsl Ieading
peisonaIilies faiI lo acquiie lhe significance lhal shouId faII lo lhen in lhe piocess of gioup-foinalion. >>
The slale of civiIizalion in Aneiica al lhe piesenl day offeis a good oppoilunily foi sludying lhis injuiious
effecl of civiIizalion vhich ve have ieason lo diead. ul I viII iesisl lhe lenplalion lo enlei upon a ciilicisn
of Aneiican cuIluie, I have no desiie lo give lhe inpiession lhal I vouId enpIoy Aneiican nelhods
>> #IG I0>,? L-A45>&>;A "#. D#"&A-$- >6 25/ T;>G
9<T<; lefoie in any of ny pievious viilings have I had lhe feeIing so sliongIy as I have nov lhal vhal
I an desciiling is connon knovIedge, lhal I an iequisilioning papei and ink, and in due couise lhe Ialoui
of conposilois and piinleis, in oidei lo expound lhings lhal in lhenseIves aie olvious. Ioi lhis ieason, if
il shouId appeai lhal lhe iecognilion of a speciaI independenl inslincl of aggiession vouId enlaiI a
nodificalion of lhe psycho-anaIylicaI lheoiy of inslincls, I shouId le gIad enough lo seize upon lhe idea.
We shaII see lhal lhis is nol so, lhal il is neieIy a nallei of coning lo cIosei quaileis vilh a concIusion lo
vhich ve Iong ago connilled ouiseIves and foIIoving il oul lo ils IogicaI consequences. The vhoIe of
anaIylic lheoiy has evoIved giaduaIIy enough, lul lhe lheoiy of inslincls has gioped ils vay foivaid undei
giealei difficuIlies lhan any olhei pail of il. And yel a lheoiy of inslincls vas so indispensalIe foi lhe iesl
lhal sonelhing had lo le adopled in pIace of il. In ny ullei peipIexily al lhe leginning, I look as ny
slailing-poinl lhe poel-phiIosophei SchiIIeis aphoiisn lhal hungei and Iove nake lhe voiId go iound.
Hungei vouId seive lo iepiesenl lhose inslincls vhich ain al pieseivalion of lhe individuaI, Iove seeks foi
oljecls: ils chief funclion, vhich is favouied in eveiy vay ly naluie, is pieseivalion of lhe species. Thus fiisl
aiose lhe conliasl lelveen ego inslincls and oljecl inslincls. Ioi lhe eneigy of lhe Iallei inslincls, and
excIusiveIy foi lhen, I inlioduced lhe lein |ioidc, an anlilhesis vas lhus foined lelveen lhe ego inslincls
and lhe IilidinaI inslincls diiecled lovaids oljecls, i. e., Iove in ils videsl sense. One of lhese oljecl inslincls,
lhe sadislic, ceilainIy slood oul fion lhe iesl in lhal ils ain vas so veiy unIoving, noieovei, il cIeaiIy aIIied
ilseIf in nany of ils aspecls vilh lhe ego inslincls, and ils cIose kinship vilh inslincls of nasleiy vilhoul any
IilidinaI puipose couId nol le conceaIed, lul lhese anliguilies couId le oveicone, in spile of lhen, sadisn
pIainIy leIonged lo sexuaI Iife~lhe gane of ciueIly couId lake lhe pIace of lhe gane of Iove. Neuiosis
appeaied as lhe oulcone of a sliuggIe lelveen lhe inleiesls of seIf-pieseivalion and lhe cIains of Iilido, a
sliuggIe in vhich lhe ego vas vicloiious, lul al lhe piice of gieal suffeiing and ienuncialions.
Lveiy anaIysl viII adnil lhal none of lhis even nov ieads Iike a slalenenl Iong since iecognized as
eiioneous. AII lhe sane, nodificalions had lo le nade as oui ieseaiches advanced fion lhe iepiessed lo
lhe iepiessing, fion lhe oljecl inslincls lo lhe ego. A caidinaI poinl in lhis advance vas lhe inlioduclion of
lhe concepl of naicissisn, i. e.. lhe idea lhal Iilido calhecls lhe ego ilseIf, lhal ils fiisl dveIIing-pIace vas in
lhe ego, and lhal lhe Iallei ienains lo sone exlenl ils peinanenl headquaileis. This naicissislic Iilido luins
in lhe diieclion of oljecls, lhus leconing oljecl-Iilido, and can liansfoin ilseIf lack inlo naicissislic Iilido.
The concepl of naicissisn nade il possilIe lo considei lhe liaunalicneuioses, as veII as nany diseases
loideiing on lhe psychoses, and aIso lhe Iallei lhenseIves, fion lhe psycho-anaIylic angIe. Il vas nol
necessaiy lo alandon lhe viev lhal lhe liansfeience-neuioses aie allenpls on lhe pail of lhe ego lo guaid
ilseIf againsl sexuaIily, lul lhe concepl of lhe Iilido vas jeopaidized. Since lhe ego-inslincls veie found lo
le IilidinaI as veII, il seened foi a line inevilalIe lhal Iilido shouId lecone synonynous vilh inslincluaI
eneigy in geneiaI, as C. C. }ung had pieviousIy advocaled. Yel lheie sliII ienained in ne a kind of
conviclion, foi vhich as yel lheie veie no giounds, lhal lhe inslincls couId nol aII le of lhe sane naluie. I
nade lhe nexl slep in 8cqcnd |nc P|casurc Princip|c (192O), vhen lhe iepelilion-conpuIsion and lhe
conseivalive chaiaclei of inslincluaI Iife fiisl sliuck ne. On lhe lasis of specuIalions conceining lhe oiigin
of Iife and of lioIogicaI paiaIIeIs, I diev lhe concIusion lhal, leside lhe inslincl pieseiving lhe oiganic
sulslance and linding il inlo evei Iaigei unils, >H lheie nusl exisl anolhei in anlilhesis lo lhis, vhich
vouId seek lo dissoIve lhese unils and ieinslale lheii anlecedenl inoiganic slale. Thal is lo say, a dealh
inslincl as veII as Lios, lhe phenonena of Iife vouId lhen le expIicalIe fion lhe inleipIay of lhe lvo and
lheii counleiacling effecls on each olhei. Il vas nol easy, hovevei, lo denonsliale lhe voiking of lhis
hypolhelicaI dealh inslincl. The nanifeslalions of Lios veie conspicuous and audilIe enough, one nighl
assune lhal lhe dealh inslincl voiked siIenlIy vilhin lhe oiganisn lovaids ils disinlegialion, lul lhal, of
couise, vas no pioof. The idea lhal pail of lhe inslincl lecane diiecled lovaids lhe oulei voiId and lhen
shoved ilseIf as an inslincl of aggiession and desliuclion caiiied us a slep fuilhei. The inslincl vouId lhus
ilseIf have leen piessed inlo lhe seivice of Lios, in lhal lhe oiganisn vouId le deslioying sonelhing
aninale oi inaninale oulside ilseIf inslead of ilseIf. ConveiseIy, any cessalion of lhis fIov oulvaids nusl
have lhe effecl of inlensifying lhe seIf-desliuclion vhich in any case vouId aIvays le going on vilhin. Iion
lhis exanpIe one couId lhen suinise lhal lhe lvo kinds of inslincls seIdon~peihaps nevei~appeai in
isoIalion, lul aIvays ningIe vilh each olhei in diffeienl, veiy vaiying piopoilions, and so nake
lhenseIves uniecognizalIe lo us. Sadisn, Iong since knovn lo us as a conponenl-inslincl of sexuaIily,
vouId iepiesenl a pailicuIaiIy sliong adnixluie of lhe inslincl of desliuclion inlo lhe Iove inpuIse, vhiIe
ils counleipail, nasochisn, vouId le an aIIiance lelveen sexuaIily and lhe desliuclion al voik vilhin lhe
seIf, in consequence of vhich lhe olheivise inpeiceplilIe desliuclive liend lecane diieclIy evidenl and
>H ?A2 1*+)B(-$1)$*+ C2)K22+ )A2 )$B2&2// )2+-2+14 *I <B*/ )* /MB2(- 2%2B IEB)A2B (+- )A2 F2+2B(& 1*+/2B%()$%2 +()EB2
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The assunplion of lhe exislence of a dealh inslincl oi a desliuclion inslincl has ioused opposilion even in
anaIylicaI ciicIes, I knov lhal lheie is a gieal lendency lo asciile aII lhal is dangeious and hosliIe in Iove
ialhei lo a fundanenlaI lipoIaiily in ils ovn naluie. The conceplions I have sunnaiized heie I fiisl pul
foivaid onIy lenlaliveIy, lul in lhe couise of line lhey have von such a hoId ovei ne lhal I can no Iongei
lhink in any olhei vay. To ny nind lhey aie lheoielicaIIy fai noie fiuilfuI lhan any olheis il is possilIe lo
enpIoy, lhey piovide us vilh lhal sinpIificalion, vilhoul eilhei ignoiing oi doing vioIence lo lhe facls,
vhich is vhal ve sliive aflei in scienlific voik. I knov lhal ve have aIvays had lefoie oui eyes
nanifeslalions of lhe desliuclion inslincl fused vilh eiolisn, diiecled oulvaids and invaids in sadisn and
nasochisn, lul I can no Iongei undeisland hov ve couId have oveiIooked lhe univeisaIily of non-eiolic
aggiession and desliuclion, and couId have onilled lo give il ils due significance in oui inleipielalion of
Iife. (Il is liue lhal lhe desliuclive liend lhal is diiecled invaids, vhen il is nol eiolicaIIy linged, usuaIIy
eIudes oui peiceplions. ) I can ienenlei ny ovn defensive allilude vhen lhe idea of an inslincl of
desliuclion fiisl nade ils appeaiance in psycho-anaIylicaI Iileialuie and hov Iong il look unliI I lecane
accessilIe lo il. Thal olheis shouId have shovn lhe sane iesislance, and sliII shov il, suipiises ne Iess.
Those vho Iove faiiy-laIes do nol Iike il vhen peopIe speak of lhe innale lendencies in nankind lovaids
aggiession, desliuclion, and. in addilion, ciueIly. Ioi Cod has nade lhen in his ovn inage, vilh his ovn
peifeclions, no one vanls lo le ieninded hov haid il is lo ieconciIe lhe undenialIe exislence~in spile of
aII lhe pioleslalions of Chiislian Science~of eviI vilh His onnipolence and supiene goodness. The deviI
is, in facl, lhe lesl vay oul in acquillaI of Cod, he can le used lo pIay lhe sane econonic ioIe of oulIel as
}evs in lhe voiId of Aiyan ideaIs. ul even so, one can jusl as veII hoId Cod iesponsilIe foi lhe exislence
of lhe deviI as foi lhe eviI he peisonifies. In viev of lhese difficuIlies, il is expedienl foi eveiy nan lo nake
hunlIe oleisance on suilalIe occasions in honoui of lhe high-ninded naluie of nen, il viII assisl hin lo
lecone univeisaIIy leIoved and nuch shaII le foigiven unlo hin on accounl of il. >R
>R .+ 6*2)A2O/ 72MA$/)*MA2&2/ K2 A(%2 ( `E$)2 2^12M)$*+(&&4 /)B$L$+F $-2+)$I$1()$*+ *I )A2 MB$+1$M&2 *I 2%$& K$)A
)A2 $+/)$+1) *I -2/)BE1)$*+Z
D&& /#2$2$/- 25"2 %/ </-/0=/ 25/$0 /#.e#>#/#2$2A7
:> "&& 25"2 A>, #"8/ -$#+ ./-20,42$>#e
1$4P/.#/--+ %0$/6&Ae?0>=/- 2> %/
B5/ #"2$=/ /&/8/#2 6>0 8/7
S/ A$/ (-%2B/(B4D )A2 -2%$& A$J/2&I 1$)2/ +*) KA() $/ A*&4 (+- F**-D CE) )A2 M*K2B $+ +()EB2 K*BL$+F )*K(B-/ )A2
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N0>8 "$0+ 60>8 3"2/0+ ;/08- $# 25>,-"#.-+
D- 60>8 25/ ->$&+ %0/"P 6>025+ %0/"P 60//+
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J>25$#; 3/0/ -/2 "?"02 6>0 8/7
The nane |ioidc can again le used lo denole lhe nanifeslalions of lhe povei of Lios in conliadislinclion lo
lhe eneigy of lhe dealh inslincl. >Y We nusl confess lhal il is noie difficuIl foi us lo delecl lhe Iallei, and
lo a gieal exlenl ve can neieIy conjecluie ils exislence as a lackgiound lo Lios, aIso lhal il eIudes us
vheievei il is nol leliayed ly a fusion vilh Lios. In sadisn, vheie il lends lhe eiolic ain lo ils ovn viII
and yel al lhe sane line gialifies lhe sexuaI ciaving conpIeleIy, ve can ollain lhe cIeaiesl insighl inlo ils
naluie and ils ieIalion lo Lios. ul even vheie il shovs ilseIf vilhoul any sexuaI puipose, even in lhe
lIindesl fienzy of desliucliveness, one cannol ignoie lhe facl lhal salisfaclion of il is acconpanied ly an
exliaoidinaiiIy inlense naicissislic enjoynenl, due lo lhe fuIfiInenl il liings lo lhe ego of ils oIdesl
onnipolence-vishes. The inslincl of desliuclion, vhen lenpeied and hainessed (as il veie, inhililed in ils
ain) and diiecled lovaids oljecls, is conpeIIed lo piovide lhe ego vilh salisfaclion of ils needs and vilh
povei ovei naluie. Since lhe assunplion of ils exislence is lased essenliaIIy on lheoielicaI giounds, il nusl
le confessed lhal il is nol enliieIy pioof againsl lheoielicaI oljeclions. ul lhis is hov lhings appeai lo us
nov in lhe piesenl slale of oui knovIedge, fuluie ieseaich and iefIeclion viII undoulledIy liing fuilhei
Iighl vhich viII decide lhe queslion.
>Y dEB MB2/2+) M*$+) *I %$2K 1(+ C2 B*EFA&4 2^MB2//2- $+ )A2 /)()2J2+) )A() &$C$-* M(B)$1$M()2/ $+ 2%2B4 $+/)$+1)E(&
J(+$I2/)()$*+D CE) )A() +*) 2%2B4)A$+F $+ )A() J(+$I2/)()$*+ $/ &$C$-*G
In aII lhal foIIovs, I lake up lhe slandpoinl lhal lhe lendency lo aggiession is an innale, independenl,
inslincluaI disposilion in nan, and I cone lack nov lo lhe slalenenl lhal il conslilules lhe nosl poveifuI
olslacIe lo cuIluie. Al one poinl in lhe couise of lhis discussion, lhe idea look possession of us lhal cuIluie
vas a pecuIiai piocess passing ovei hunan Iife and ve aie sliII undei lhe infIuence of lhis idea We nay add
lo lhis lhal lhe piocess pioves lo le in lhe seivice of Lios, vhich ains al linding logelhei singIe hunan
individuaIs, lhen faniIies, lhen liiles, iaces, nalions, inlo one gieal unily, lhal of hunanily. Why lhis has
lo le done ve do nol knov, il is sinpIy lhe voik of Lios. These nasses of nen nusl le lound lo one
anolhei IilidinaIIy, necessily aIone, lhe advanlages of connon voik, vouId nol hoId lhen logelhei. The
naluiaI inslincl of aggiessiveness in nan, lhe hosliIily of each one againsl aII and of aII againsl each one.
opposes lhis piogian of civiIizalion. This inslincl of aggiession is lhe deiivalive and nain iepiesenlalive
of lhe dealh inslincl ve have found aIongside of Lios, shaiing his iuIe ovei lhe eailh. And nov, il seens lo
ne, lhe neaning of lhe evoIulion of cuIluie is no Iongei a iiddIe lo us. Il nusl piesenl lo us lhe sliuggIe
lelveen Lios and dealh, lelveen lhe inslincls of Iife and lhe inslincls of desliuclion, as il voiks ilseIf oul
in lhe hunan species. This sliuggIe is vhal aII Iife essenliaIIy consisls of and so lhe evoIulion of civiIizalion
nay le sinpIy desciiled as lhe sliuggIe of lhe hunan species foi exislence. >P And il is lhis lallIe of lhe
Tilans lhal oui nuises and goveinesses liy lo conpose vilh lheii IuIIaly-song of Heaven!
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]@k do lhe aninaIs, kin lo ouiseIves, nol nanifesl any such cuIluiaI sliuggIe` Oh, ve donl knov. Veiy
piolalIy ceilain of lhen, lees, anls, leiniles, had lo sliive foi lhousands of cenluiies lefoie lhey found lhe
vay lo lhose slale inslilulions, lhal division of funclions, lhose iesliiclions upon individuaIs, vhich ve
adniie lhen foi loday. Il is chaiacleiislic of oui piesenl slale lhal ve knov ly oui ovn feeIings lhal ve
shouId nol lhink ouiseIves happy in any of lhese connunilies of lhe aninaI voiId, oi in any of lhe ioIes
lhey deIegale lo individuaIs. Wilh olhei aninaI species il nay le lhal a lenpoiaiy deadIock has leen
ieached lelveen lhe infIuences of lheii enviionnenl and lhe inslincls conlending vilhin lhen, so lhal a
cessalion of deveIopnenl has laken pIace. In piinilive nan, a fiesh access of Iilido nay have kindIed a nev
spuil of eneigy on lhe pail of lhe inslincl of desliuclion. Theie aie a gieal nany queslions in aII lhis lo vhich
as yel ve have no ansvei.
Anolhei queslion conceins us noie cIoseIy nov. Whal neans does civiIizalion nake use of lo hoId in check
lhe aggiessiveness lhal opposes il, lo nake il hainIess, peihaps lo gel iid of il` Sone of lhese neasuies ve
have aIieady cone lo knov, lhough nol yel lhe one lhal is appaienlIy lhe nosl inpoilanl. We can sludy il
in lhe evoIulion of lhe individuaI. Whal happens in hin lo iendei his ciaving foi aggiession innocuous`
Sonelhing veiy cuiious, lhal ve shouId nevei have guessed and lhal yel seens sinpIe enough. The
aggiessiveness is inliojecled, in|crna|izcd, in facl, il is senl lack vheie il cane fion, i. e., diiecled againsl lhe
ego. Il is lheie laken ovei ly a pail of lhe ego lhal dislinguishes ilseIf fion lhe iesl as a supei-ego, and nov,
in lhe foin of ccnscicncc, exeicises lhe sane piopensily lo haish aggiessiveness againsl lhe ego lhal lhe ego
vouId have Iiked lo enjoy againsl olheis. The lension lelveen lhe sliicl supei-ego and lhe suloidinale ego
ve caII lhe scnsc cf gui||, il nanifesls ilseIf as lhe need foi punishnenl. CiviIizalion, lheiefoie, ollains lhe
nasleiy ovei lhe dangeious Iove of aggiession in individuaIs ly enfeelIing and disaining il and selling up
an inslilulion vilhin lheii ninds lo keep valch ovei il, Iike a gaiiison in a conqueied cily.
As lo lhe oiigin of lhe sense of guiIl, anaIysls have diffeienl vievs fion lhose of lhe psychoIogisls, noi is
il easy foi anaIysls lo expIain il eilhei. Iiisl of aII, vhen one asks hov a sense of guiIl aiises in anyone, one
is loId sonelhing one cannol dispule: peopIe feeI guiIly (pious peopIe caII il sinfuI) vhen lhey have done
sonelhing lhey knov lo le oad. ul lhen one sees hov IillIe lhis ansvei leIIs one. Ieihaps, aflei sone
hesilalion, one viII add lhal a peison vho has nol acluaIIy connilled a lad acl, lul has neieIy lecone
avaie of lhe inlenlion lo do so, can aIso hoId hinseIf guiIly, and lhen one viII ask vhy in lhis case lhe
inlenlion is counled as equivaIenl lo lhe deed. In lolh cases, hovevei, one is piesupposing lhal vickedness
has aIieady leen iecognized as iepiehensilIe, as sonelhing lhal oughl nol lo le pul inlo execulion. Hov
is lhis judgnenl aiiived al` One nay iejecl lhe suggeslion of an oiiginaI~as one nighl say,
naluiaI~capacily foi disciininaling lelveen good and eviI. LviI is oflen nol al aII lhal vhich vouId injuie
oi endangei lhe ego, on lhe conliaiy, il can aIso le sonelhing lhal il desiies, lhal vouId give il pIeasuie. An
exlianeous infIuence is evidenlIy al voik, il is lhis lhal decides vhal is lo le caIIed good and lad. Since lheii
ovn feeIings vouId nol have Ied nen aIong lhe sane palh, lhey nusl have had a nolive foi oleying lhis
exlianeous infIuence. Il is easy lo discovei lhis nolive in nans heIpIessness and dependence upon olheis,
il can lesl le designaled lhe drcad cf |csing |ctc. If he Ioses lhe Iove of olheis on vhon he is dependenl, he
viII foifeil aIso lheii pioleclion againsl nany dangeis, and alove aII he iuns lhe iisk lhal lhis sliongei
peison viII shov his supeiioiily in lhe foin of punishing hin. Whal is lad is, lheiefoie, lo legin vilh,
vhalevei causes one lo le lhiealened vilh a Ioss of Iove, lecause of lhe diead of lhis Ioss, one nusl desisl
fion il. Thal is vhy il nakes IillIe diffeience vhelhei one has aIieady connilled lhe lad deed oi onIy
inlends lo do so, in eilhei case lhe dangei legins onIy vhen lhe aulhoiily has found il oul, and lhe Iallei
vouId lehave in lhe sane vay in lolh cases.
We caII lhis slale of nind a oad ccnscicncc lul acluaIIy il does nol deseive lhis nane, foi al lhis slage lhe
sense of guiIl is olviousIy onIy lhe diead of Iosing Iove, sccia| anxiely. In a IillIe chiId il can nevei le
anylhing eIse, lul in nany aduIls loo il has onIy changed in so fai as lhe Iaigei hunan connunily lakes lhe
pIace of lhe falhei oi of lolh paienls. ConsequenlIy, such peopIe haliluaIIy peinil lhenseIves lo do any lad
deed lhal piocuies lhen sonelhing lhey vanl, if onIy lhey aie suie lhal no aulhoiily viII discovei il oi nake
lhen suffei foi il, lheii anxiely ieIales onIy lo lhe possiliIily of deleclion. >Q Iiesenl-day sociely has lo lake
inlo accounl lhe pievaIence of lhis slale of nind.

d+2 $/ B2J$+-2- *I ;*E//2(EO/ I(J*E/ J(+-(B$+l
A gieal change lakes pIace as soon as lhe aulhoiily has leen inleinaIized ly lhe deveIopnenl of a supei-ego.
The nanifeslalions of conscience aie lhen iaised lo a nev IeveI, lo le accuiale, one shouId nol caII lhen
conscience and sense of guiIl lefoie lhis. >V Al lhis poinl lhe diead of discoveiy ceases lo opeiale and aIso
once foi aII any diffeience lelveen doing eviI and vishing lo do il, since nolhing is hidden fion lhe supei-
ego, nol even lhoughls. The ieaI seiiousness of lhe silualion has vanished, il is liue: foi lhe nev aulhoiily,
lhe supei-ego, has no nolive, as fai as ve knov, foi iII-liealing lhe ego vilh vhich il is ilseIf cIoseIy lound
up. ul lhe infIuence of lhe genelic deiivalion of lhese lhings, vhich causes vhal has leen oulIived and
suinounled lo le ie-Iived, nanifesls ilseIf so lhal on lhe vhoIe lhings ienain as lhey veie al lhe leginning.
The supei-ego loinenls lhe sinfuI ego vilh lhe sane feeIings of diead and valches foi oppoilunilies
vheiely lhe oulei voiId can le nade lo punish il.
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B2(&$)4 *11EB C4 FB(-E(& )B(+/$)$*+/ (B2 /A(BM&4 -$II2B2+)$()2- (+- )A() )A2 J2B2 2^$/)2+12 *I ( /EM2B!2F* $/ +*) )A2
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)* 1*+/1$2+12 (+- FE$&)D J*B2*%2BD $/ 1*JJ*+ L+*K&2-F2 (+- MB(1)$1(&&4 E+-$/ME)2-G
Al lhis second slage of deveIopnenl, conscience exhilils a pecuIiaiily vhich vas alsenl in lhe fiisl and is
nol veiy easy lo accounl foi. Thal is, lhe noie iighleous a nan is, lhe sliiclei and noie suspicious viII his
conscience le, so lhal uIlinaleIy il is pieciseIy lhose peopIe vho have caiiied hoIiness failhesl vho iepioach
lhenseIves vilh lhe deepesl sinfuIness. This neans lhal viilue foifeils sone of hei pionised ievaid, lhe
sulnissive and alslenious ego does nol enjoy lhe liusl and confidence of ils nenloi, and, as il seens,
sliives in vain lo eain il. Nov, lo lhis sone peopIe viII le ieady lo oljecl lhal lhese difficuIlies aie
ailificiaIilies. A ieIaliveIy sliicl and vigiIanl conscience is lhe veiy sign of a viiluous nan, and lhough sainls
nay piocIain lhenseIves sinneis, lhey aie nol so viong, in viev of lhe lenplalions of inslincluaI
gialificalions lo vhich lhey aie pecuIiaiIy IialIe~since, as ve knov, lenplalions do lul inciease undei
conslanl piivalion, vheieas lhey sulside, al any iale lenpoiaiiIy, if lhey aie sonelines gialified. The fieId
of elhics is iich in piolIens, and anolhei of lhe facls ve find heie is lhal nisfoilune, i.e., exleinaI
depiivalion, giealIy inlensifies lhe slienglh of conscience in lhe supei-ego. As Iong as lhings go veII vilh
a nan, his conscience is Ienienl and Iels lhe ego do aII kinds of lhings, vhen sone caIanily lefaIIs, he hoIds
an inquisilion vilhin, discoveis his sin, heighlens lhe slandaids of his conscience, inposes alslinences on
hinseIf and punishes hinseIf vilh penances. >= WhoIe peopIes have acled in lhis vay and sliII do so. ul
lhis is easiIy expIained fion lhe oiiginaI infanliIe slage of conscience vhich, as ve lhus see, is nol
alandoned aflei lhe inliojeclion inlo lhe supei-ego, lul peisisls aIongside and lehind lhe Iallei. Iale is feIl
lo le a sulslilule foi lhe agency of lhe paienls: adveisily neans lhal one is no Iongei Ioved ly lhis highesl
povei of aII, and, lhiealened ly lhis Ioss of Iove, one hunlIes oneseIf again lefoie lhe iepiesenlalive of lhe
paienls in lhe supei-ego vhich in happiei days one had liied lo disiegaid. This lecones especiaIIy cIeai
vhen desliny is Iooked upon in lhe sliiclIy ieIigious sense as lhe expiession of Cods viII and nolhing eIse.
The peopIe of IsiaeI leIieved lhenseIves lo le Cods favouiile chiIdien, and vhen lhe gieal Ialhei huiIed
visilalion aflei visilalion upon lhen, il sliII nevei shook lhen in lhis leIief oi caused lhen lo doull His
povei and His juslice, lhey pioceeded inslead lo liing lheii piophels inlo lhe voiId lo decIaie lheii
sinfuIness lo lhen and oul of lheii sense of guiIl lhey consliucled lhe sliingenl connandnenls of lheii
piieslIy ieIigion. Il is cuiious hov diffeienlIy a savage lehaves! If he has had lad foilune, he does nol lhiov
lhe lIane on hinseIf, lul on his felish, vho has pIainIy nol done his duly ly hin, and he leIalouis il
inslead of punishing hinseIf.
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&$))&2 /)*B4Z B5/ N$0-2 V/&># M /=/0 :2>&/7 ?A$/ J2&*+D (/ $) A(MM2+2-D K(/ E+B$M2G . A2(B- 7(BL ?K($+ )2&& )A2 /)*B4
A$J/2&I $+ *+2 *I A$/ &21)EB2/G SI)2B A2 A(- F$%2+ *E) )A2 )$)&2D A2 /)*MM2- (+- (/L2- A$J/2&I $+ ( -*EC)IE& K(4Z
W](/ $) )A2 I$B/)mc ?A$/ K(/ )A2 KA*&2 /)*B4G
Hence ve knov of lvo souices foi feeIings of guiIl: lhal aiising fion lhe diead of aulhoiily and lhe Ialei
one fion lhe diead of lhe supeiego. The fiisl one conpeIs us lo ienounce inslincluaI gialificalion, lhe olhei
piesses ovei and alove lhis lovaids punishnenl, since lhe peisislence of foilidden vishes cannol le
conceaIed fion lhe supei-ego. We have aIso heaid hov lhe seveiily of lhe supei-ego, lhe iigoui of
conscience, is lo le expIained. Il sinpIy caiiies on lhe seveiily of exleinaI aulhoiily vhich il has succeeded
and lo sone exlenl iepIaced. We see nov hov ienuncialion of inslincluaI gialificalion is ieIaled lo lhe sense
of guiIl. OiiginaIIy, il is liue, ienuncialion is lhe consequence of a diead of exleinaI aulhoiily, one gives up
pIeasuies so as nol lo Iose ils Iove. Having nade lhis ienuncialion, one is quils vilh aulhoiily, so lo speak,
no feeIing of guiIl shouId ienain. ul vilh lhe diead of lhe supeiego lhe case is diffeienl. Renuncialion of
gialificalion does nol suffice heie, foi lhe vish peisisls and is nol capalIe of leing hidden fion lhe supei-
ego. In spile of lhe ienuncialions nade, feeIings of guiIl viII le expeiienced and lhis is a gieal disadvanlage
econonicaIIy of lhe eieclion of lhe supei-ego, oi, as one nay say,of lhe foinalion of conscience.
Renuncialion no Iongei has a conpIeleIy alsoIving effecl, viiluous iesliainl is no Iongei ievaided ly lhe
assuiance of Iove, a lhiealened exleinaI unhappiness~Ioss of Iove and punishnenl neled oul ly exleinaI
aulhoiily~has leen exchanged foi a Iasling innei unhappiness, lhe lension of a sense of guiIl.
These inlei-ieIalions aie so conpIicaled and al lhe sane line so inpoilanl lhal, in spile of lhe dangeis of
iepelilion, I viII considei lhen again fion anolhei angIe. The chionoIogicaI sequence vouId lhus le as
foIIovs: fiisl, inslincl-ienuncialion due lo diead of an aggiession ly exleinaI aulhoiily~lhis is, of couise,
lanlanounl lo lhe diead of Ioss of Iove, foi Iove is a pioleclion againsl lhese punilive aggiessions. Then
foIIovs lhe eieclion of an inleinaI aulhoiily, and inslincluaI ienuncialion due lo diead of il~lhal is, diead
of conscience. In lhe second case, lheie is lhe equivaIence of vicked acls and vicked inlenlions, hence cones
lhe sense of guiIl, lhe need foi punishnenl. The aggiessiveness of conscience caiiies on lhe aggiessiveness
of aulhoiily. Thus fai aII seens lo le cIeai, lul hov can ve find a pIace in lhis schene foi lhe effecl
pioduced ly nisfoilune (i. e.. ienuncialions exleinaIIy inposed), foi lhe effecl il has of incieasing lhe iigoui
of conscience` Hov accounl foi lhe exceplionaI sliingency of conscience in lhe lesl nen, lhose Ieasl given
lo ieleI againsl il` We have aIieady expIained lolh lhese pecuIiaiilies of conscience, lul piolalIy ve. sliII
have an inpiession lhal lhese expIanalions do nol go lo lhe iool of lhe nallei, and lhal lhey Ieave sonelhing
sliII unexpIained. And heie al Iasl cones in an idea vhich is quile pecuIiai lo psycho-anaIysis and aIien lo
oidinaiy vays of lhinking. Ils naluie enalIes us lo undeisland vhy lhe vhoIe nallei necessaiiIy seened
so confused and olscuie lo us. Il leIIs us lhis: in lhe leginning conscience (noie coiieclIy, lhe anxiely vhich
Ialei lecane conscience) vas lhe cause of inslincluaI ienuncialion, lul Ialei lhis ieIalion is ieveised. Lveiy
ienuncialion lhen lecones a dynanic founl of conscience, eveiy fiesh alandonnenl of gialificalion
incieases ils seveiily and inloIeiance, and if ve couId onIy liing il lellei inlo hainony vilh vhal ve
aIieady knov aloul lhe deveIopnenl of conscience, ve shouId le lenpled lo nake lhe foIIoving
paiadoxicaI slalenenl: Conscience is lhe iesuIl of inslincluaI ienuncialion, oi: Renuncialion (exleinaIIy
inposed) gives iise lo conscience, vhich lhen denands fuilhei ienuncialions.
The conliadiclion lelveen lhis pioposilion and oui pievious knovIedge aloul lhe genesis of conscience is
nol in acluaI facl so veiy gieal, and ve can see a vay in vhich il nay le sliII fuilhei ieduced. In oidei lo
slale lhe piolIen noie easiIy, Iel us seIecl lhe exanpIe of lhe inslincl of aggiession, and Iel us suppose lhal
lhe ienuncialion in queslion is aIvays a ienuncialion of aggiession. This is, of couise, neieIy a piovisionaI
assunplion. The effecl of inslincluaI ienuncialion on conscience lhen opeiales as foIIovs: eveiy inpuIse of
aggiession vhich ve onil lo gialify is laken ovei ly lhe supei-ego and goes lo heighlen ils aggiessiveness
(againsl lhe ego). Il does nol fil in veII vilh lhis lhal lhe oiiginaI aggiessiveness of conscience shouId
iepiesenl a conlinuance of lhe iigoui of exleinaI aulhoiily, and so have nolhing lo do vilh ienuncialion. ul
ve can gel iid of lhis disciepancy if ve piesune a diffeienl oiigin foi lhe fiisl quanlun of aggiessiveness
vilh vhich lhe supei-ego vas endoved.
When aulhoiily pievenled lhe chiId fion enjoying lhe fiisl lul nosl inpoilanl gialificalions of aII,
aggiessive inpuIses of consideialIe inlensily nusl have leen evoked in il, iiiespeclive of lhe pailicuIai
naluie of lhe inslincluaI depiivalions conceined. The chiId nusl necessaiiIy have had lo give up lhe
salisfaclion of lhese ievengefuI aggiessive vishes. In lhis silualion, in vhich il is econonicaIIy so haid
piessed, il has iecouise lo ceilain nechanisns veII knovn lo us, ly lhe piocess of idenlificalion il alsoils
inlo ilseIf lhe invuIneialIe aulhoiily, vhich lhen lecones lhe supei-ego and cones inlo possession of aII
lhe aggiessiveness vhich lhe chiId vouId gIadIy have exeicised againsl il. The chiIds ego has lo conlenl
ilseIf vilh lhe unhappy ioIe of lhe aulhoiily~lhe falhei~vho has leen lhus degiaded. Il is, as so oflen, a
ieveisaI of lhe oiiginaI silualion, If I veie falhei and you ny chiId, I vouId lieal qcu ladIy. The ieIalion
lelveen supeiego and ego is a iepioduclion, disloiled ly a vish, of lhe ieaI ieIalions lelveen lhe ego,
lefoie il vas suldivided, and an exleinaI oljecl. Thal is aIso lypicaI. The essenliaI diffeience, hovevei, is
lhal lhe oiiginaI seveiily of lhe supei-ego does nol~oi nol so nuch~iepiesenl lhe seveiily vhich has leen
expeiienced oi anlicipaled fion lhe oljecl, lul expiesses lhe chiIds ovn aggiessiveness lovaids lhe Iallei.
If lhis is coiiecl, one couId liuIy asseil lhal conscience is foined in lhe leginning fion lhe suppiession of
an aggiessive inpuIse and slienglhened as line goes on ly each fiesh suppiession of lhe kind.
Nov, vhich of lhese lvo lheoiies is lhe liue one` The eaiIiei, vhich seened genelicaIIy so unassaiIalIe, oi
lhe nev one, vhich iounds off oui lheoiies in such a veIcone nannei` CIeaiIy, lhey aie lolh juslified, and
ly lhe evidence, loo, of diiecl olseivalion, lhey do nol conliadicl each olhei, and even coincide al one poinl,
foi lhe chiIds ievengefuI aggiessiveness viII le in pail piovoked ly lhe anounl of punishing aggiession
lhal il anlicipales fion lhe falhei. Lxpeiience has shovn, hovevei, lhal lhe seveiily vhich a chiIds supei-
ego deveIops in no vay coiiesponds lo lhe seveiily of lhe liealnenl il has ilseIf expeiienced. H_ Il seens lo
le independenl of lhe Iallei, a chiId vhich has leen veiy IenienlIy liealed can acquiie a veiy sliicl
conscience. ul il vouId aIso le viong lo exaggeiale lhis independence, il is nol difficuIl lo assuie oneseIf
lhal sliicl upliinging aIso has a sliong infIuence on lhe foinalion of a chiIds supei-ego. Il cones lo lhis,
lhal lhe foinalion of lhe supei-ego and lhe deveIopnenl of conscience aie deleinined in pail ly innale
conslilulionaI faclois and in pail ly lhe infIuence of lhe acluaI enviionnenl, and lhal is in no vay
suipiising~on lhe conliaiy, il is lhe invaiialIe aelioIogicaI condilion of aII such piocesses. H"
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Il nay aIso le said lhal vhen a chiId ieacls lo lhe fiisl gieal inslincluaI depiivalions vilh an excessive
aggiessiveness and a coiiesponding sliiclness of ils supei-ego, il is lheiely foIIoving a phyIogenelic
piololype, unheedfuI of vhal ieaclion vouId in ieaIily le juslified, foi lhe falhei of piinilive lines vas
ceilainIy leiiifying, and one nay safeIy alliilule lhe ulnosl degiee of aggiessiveness lo hin. The diffeiences
lelveen lhe lvo lheoiies of lhe genesis of conscience aie lhus sliII fuilhei dininished, if one passes fion
individuaI lo phyIogenelic deveIopnenl. ul lhen, on lhe olhei hand, ve find a nev inpoilanl diffeience
lelveen lhe lvo piocesses. We cannol disiegaid lhe concIusion lhal nans sense of guiIl has ils oiigin in
lhe Oedipus conpIex and vas acquiied vhen lhe falhei vas kiIIed ly lhe associalion of lhe liolheis. Al
lhal line lhe aggiession vas nol suppiessed lul caiiied oul, and il is lhis sane acl of aggiession vhose
suppiession in lhe chiId ve iegaid as lhe souice of feeIings of guiIl. Nov, I shouId nol le suipiised if a
ieadei veie lo ciy oul angiiIy: So il nakes no diffeience vhelhei one does kiII ones falhei oi does nol, one
gels a feeIing of guiIl in eilhei case! Heie I shouId lhink one nay le aIIoved sone doulls. Lilhei il is nol
liue lhal guiIl is evoked ly suppiessed aggiessiveness oi eIse lhe vhoIe sloiy aloul lhe falhei-nuidei is
a ionance, and piinevaI nan did nol kiII his falhei any noie oflen lhan peopIe do novadays. esides lhis,
if il is nol a ionance lul a pIausilIe piece of hisloiy, il vouId onIy le an inslance of vhal ve aII expecl lo
happen, naneIy, lhal one feeIs guiIly lecause one has ieaIIy done sonelhing vhich cannol le juslified. And
vhal ve aie aII vailing foi is foi psycho-anaIysis lo give us an expIanalion of lhis ieaclion, vhich al any iale
is sonelhing lhal happens eveiy day.
This is liue, and ve nusl nake good lhe onission. Theie is no gieal nysleiy aloul il eilhei. When one has
feeIings of guiIl aflei one has connilled sone ciine and lecause of il, lhis feeIing shouId noie piopeiIy
le caIIed rcncrsc. Il ieIales onIy lo lhe one acl, and cIeaiIy il piesupposes lhal ccnscicncc, lhe capacily foi
feeIings of guiIl, vas aIieady in exislence lefoie lhe deed. Renoise of lhis kind can, lheiefoie, nevei heIp
us lo find oul lhe souice of conscience and feeIings of guiIl in geneiaI. In lhese eveiyday inslances lhe couise
of evenls is usuaIIy as foIIovs: an inslincluaI need acquiies lhe slienglh lo achieve fuIfiInenl in spile of
conscience, lhe slienglh of vhich aIso has ils Iinils, vheieupon lhe inevilalIe ieduclion of lhe need aflei
salisfaclion iesloies lhe eaiIiei laIance of foices. Isycho-anaIysis is quile juslified, lheiefoie, in excIuding
lhe case of a sense of guiIl lhiough, ienoise fion lhis discussion, hovevei fiequenlIy il nay occui and
hovevei gieal ils inpoilance nay le piaclicaIIy.
ul if nans sense of guiIl goes lack lo lhe nuidei of lhe falhei, lhal vas undoulledIy an inslance of
rcncrsc, and yel aie ve lo supposelhal lheie veie no conscience and feeIings of guiIl lefoie lhe acl on lhal
occasion` If so, vheie did lhe ienoise cone fion lhen` This inslance nusl expIain lo us lhe iiddIe of lhe
sense of guiIl and so nake an end of oui difficuIlies. And il viII do so, as I leIieve. This ienoise vas lhe
iesuIl of lhe veiy eaiIiesl piinaI anlivaIence of feeIings lovaids lhe falhei: lhe sons haled hin, lul lhey
Ioved hin loo, aflei lheii hale againsl hin had leen salisfied ly lheii aggiessive acls, lheii Iove cane lo
expiession in lheii ienoise aloul lhe deed, sel up lhe supei-ego ly idenlificalion vilh lhe falhei, gave il lhe
falheis povei lo punish as he vouId have done lhe aggiession lhey had peifoined, and ciealed lhe
iesliiclions vhich shouId pievenl a iepelilion of lhe deed. And since inpuIses lo aggiessions againsl lhe
falhei veie iepealed in lhe nexl geneialions, lhe feeIings of guiIl, loo, peisisled, and veie fuilhei ieinfoiced
eveiy line an aggiession vas suppiessed anev and nade ovei lo lhe supei-ego. Al lhis poinl, il seens lo
ne, ve can al Iasl cIeaiIy peiceive lhe pail pIayed ly Iove in lhe oiigin of conscience and lhe falaI inevilalIe-
ness of lhe sense of guiIl. Il is nol ieaIIy a decisive nallei vhelhei one has kiIIed ones falhei oi alslained
fion lhe deed, one nusl feeI guiIly in eilhei case, foi guiIl is lhe expiession of lhe confIicl of anlivaIence,
lhe eleinaI sliuggIe lelveen Lios and lhe desliuclive oi dealh inslincl. This confIicl is engendeied as soon
as nan is confionled vilh lhe lask of Iiving vilh his feIIovs, as Iong as he knovs no olhei foin of Iife in
connon lul lhal of lhe faniIy, il nusl expiess ilseIf in lhe Oedipus conpIex, cause lhe deveIopnenl of
conscience, and cieale lhe fiisl feeIings of guiIl. When nankind liies lo inslilule videi foins of connunaI
Iife, lhe sane confIicl conlinues lo aiise ~in foins deiived fion lhe pasl~and inlensified so lhal a fuilhei
ieinfoicenenl of lhe sense of guiIl iesuIls. Since cuIluie oleys an innei eiolic inpuIse vhich lids il lind
nankind inlo a cIoseIy-knil nass, il can achieve lhis ain onIy ly neans of ils vigiIance in fonenling an evei-
incieasing sense of guiIl. Thal vhich legan in ieIalion lo lhe falhei ends in ieIalion lo lhe connunily. If
civiIizalion is an inevilalIe couise of deveIopnenl fion lhe gioup of lhe faniIy lo lhe gioup of hunanily
as a vhoIe, lhen an inlensificalion of lhe sense of guiIl~iesuIling fion lhe innale confIicl of anlivaIence,
fion lhe eleinaI sliuggIe lelveen lhe Iove and lhe dealh liends~viII le inexliicalIy lound up vilh il, unliI
peihaps lhe sense of guiIl nay sveII lo a nagnilude lhal individuaIs can haidIy suppoil. One is ieninded
of lhe leIIing accusalion nade ly lhe gieal poel againsl lhe ncatcn|q fcrccs.
Yc sc| cur fcc| cn |nis |ifcs rcad,
Yc ua|cn cur gui||q, crring ccurscs,
Tncn |catc us, ocucd ocnca|n cur |cad,
|cr car|n i|s ctcrq dco| cnfcrccs. H>
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And one nay heave a sigh al lhe lhoughl lhal il is vouchsafed lo a fev, vilh haidIy an effoil, lo saIve fion
lhe vhiiIpooI of lheii ovn enolions lhe deepesl liulhs, lo vhich ve olheis have lo foice oui vay,
ceaseIessIy gioping anid loiluiing unceilainlies.
d9 ieaching lhe end of such a jouiney as lhis, lhe aulhoi nusl leg his ieadeis lo paidon hin foi nol having
leen a noie skiIfuI guide, nol spaiing lhen lIeak slielches of counliy al lines and Ialoiious delouis al
olheis. Theie is no doull lhal il couId have leen done lellei. I viII nov liy lo nake sone anends.
Iiisl of aII, I suspecl lhe ieadei feeIs lhal lhe discussion aloul lhe sense of guiIl oveisleps ils piopei
loundaiies in lhis essay and lakes up loo nuch space so lhal lhe iesl of lhe suljecl-nallei, vhich is nol
aIvays cIoseIy connecled vilh il, gels pushed lo one side. This nay have spoiIl lhe conposilion of lhe voik,
lul il failhfuIIy coiiesponds lo ny inlenlion lo iepiesenl lhe sense of guiIl as lhe nosl inpoilanl piolIen
in lhe evoIulion of cuIluie, and lo convey lhal lhe piice of piogiess in civiIizalion is paid in foifeiling
happiness lhiough lhe heighlening of lhe sense of guiIl. HH Whal sounds puzzIing in lhis slalenenl, vhich
is lhe finaI concIusion of oui vhoIe invesligalion, is piolalIy due lo lhe quile pecuIiai ieIalion~as yel
conpIeleIy unexpIained~ lhe sense of guiIl has lo oui consciousness. In lhe connon cases of ienoise
vhich ve lhink noinaI, il lecones cIeaiIy peiceplilIe lo consciousness, indeed, ve oflen speak of
ccnscicusncss cf gui|| inslead of sense of guiIl. In oui sludy of lhe neuioses, in vhich ve have found
invaIualIe cIues lovaids an undeislanding of noinaI peopIe, ve find sone veiy conliadicloiy slales of
affaiis in lhis iespecl. In one of lhese naIadies, lhe olsessionaI neuiosis, lhe sense of guiIl nakes ilseIf IoudIy
heaid in consciousness, il doninales lhe cIinicaI picluie as veII as lhe palienls Iife and Iels haidIy anylhing
eIse appeai aIongside of il. ul in nosl of lhe olhei lypes and foins of neuiosis il ienains conpIeleIy
unconscious, vilhoul ils effecl leing any Iess gieal, hovevei. Oui palienls do nol leIieve us vhen ve
asciile an unccnscicus scnsc cf gui|| lo lhen, in oidei lo lecone even nodeialeIy inleIIigilIe lo lhen, ve have
lo expIain lhal lhe sense of guiIl expiesses ilseIf in an unconscious seeking foi punishnenl. ul ils
conneclion vilh lhe foin of lhe neuiosis is nol lo le ovei-eslinaled, even in lhe olsessionaI neuiosis lheie
aie peopIe vho aie nol avaie of lheii sense of guiIl oi vho peiceive il onIy as a loinenling uneasiness oi
kind of anxiely and lhen nol unliI lhey aie pievenled fion caiiying oul ceilain aclions. We oughl sone day
lo le alIe al Iasl lo undeisland lhese lhings, as yel ve cannol. Heie peihaps is lhe pIace lo ienaik lhal al
lollon lhe sense of guiIl is nolhing lul a lopogiaphicaI vaiiely of anxiely, and lhal in ils Ialei phases il
coincides conpIeleIy vilh lhe diead of lhe supei-ego. The ieIalion of anxiely lo consciousness, noieovei,
is chaiacleiized ly lhe sane exliaoidinaiy vaiialions. Sonevheie oi olhei lheie is aIvays anxiely hidden
lehind aII synplons, al one nonenl, hovevei, il sveeps inlo consciousness, diovning eveiylhing eIse vilh
ils cIanoui, and al lhe nexl il secieles ilseIf so conpIeleIy lhal ve aie foiced lo speak of unconscious
anxiely~oi if ve vanl lo have a cIeanei conscience psychoIogicaIIy, since anxiely is aflei aII onIy a
peiceplion~of possiliIilies of anxiely. ConsequenlIy il is veiy IikeIy lhal lhe sense of guiIl pioduced ly
cuIluie is nol peiceived as such and ienains lo a gieal exlenl unconscious, oi cones lo expiession as a soil
of uneasiness oi disconlenl foi vhich olhei nolivalions aie soughl. The diffeienl ieIigions, al any iale, have
nevei oveiIooked lhe pail pIayed ly lhe sense of guiIl in civiIizalion. Whal is noie, lhey cone foivaid vilh
a cIain, vhich I have nol consideied eIsevheie, HR lo save nankind fion lhis sense of guiIl, vhich lhey caII
sin. We indeed have diavn oui concIusions, fion lhe vay in vhich in Chiislianily lhis saIvalion is von~lhe
saciificiaI dealh of one vho lheievilh lakes lhe vhoIe of lhe connon guiIl of aII upon hinseIf~aloul lhe
occasion on vhich lhis piinaI sense of guiIl vas fiisl acquiied, lhal is, lhe occasion vhich vas aIso lhe
inceplion of cuIluie. HY
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Il viII nol le veiy inpoilanl, lul il nay le jusl as veII lo go noie pieciseIy inlo lhe neaning of ceilain
voids Iike supcr-cgc, ccnscicncc, scnsc cf gui||, nccd fcr punisnncn|, rcncrsc, vhich ve have peihaps oflen used
loo IooseIy and in pIace of one anolhei. They aII ieIale lo lhe sane silualion, lul lhey denole diffeienl
aspecls of il. The supcr-cgc is an agency oi inslilulion in lhe nind vhose exislence ve have infeiied:
Ccnscicncc is a funclion ve asciile, anong olheis, lo lhe supeiego, il consisls of valching ovei and judging
lhe aclions and inlenlions of lhe ego, exeicising lhe funclions of a censoi. The scnsc cf gui||, lhe seveiily of
lhe supei-ego, is lheiefoie lhe sane lhing as lhe iigoui of conscience, il is lhe peiceplion lhe ego has lhal
il is valched in lhis vay, lhe egos appiecialion of lhe lension lelveen ils sliivings and lhe slandaids of lhe
supei-ego, and lhe anxiely lhal Iies lehind aII lhese ieIalions, lhe diead of lhal ciilicaI inslilulion, lhe nccd
fcr punisnncn|, is an inslincluaI nanifeslalion on lhe pail of lhe ego, vhich has lecone nasochislic undei
lhe infIuence of lhe sadislic supei-ego, i. e., vhich has lioughl a pail of lhe inslincl of desliuclion al voik
vilhin ilseIf inlo lhe seivice of an eiolic allachnenl lo lhe supei-ego. We oughl nol lo speak of conscience
lefoie a supei-ego is denonslialIe, as lo consciousness of guiIl, ve nusl adnil lhal il cones inlo leing
lefoie lhe supei-ego, lheiefoie lefoie conscience. Al lhal line il is lhe diiecl expiession of lhe diead of
exleinaI aulhoiily, lhe iecognilion of lhe lension lelveen lhe ego and lhis Iallei, il is lhe diiecl deiivalive
of lhe confIicl lelveen lhe need foi paienlaI Iove and lhe uigency lovaids inslincluaI gialificalion, and il
is lhe lhvailing of lhis uigency lhal piovokes lhe lendency lo aggiession. Il is lecause lhese lvo diffeienl
veisions of lhe sense of guiIl~one aiising fion diead of lhe exleinaI and lhe olhei fion diead of lhe innei
aulhoiily ~aie supeiinposed one on lhe olhei lhal oui insighl inlo lhe ieIalions of conscience has leen
hanpeied in so nany vays. Rcncrsc is a geneiaI lein denoling lhe egos ieaclion undei a speciaI foin of
lhe sense of guiIl, il incIudes lhe aInosl unaIleied sensoiy naleiiaI leIonging lo lhe anxiely lhal is al voik
lehind lhe sense of guiIl, il is ilseIf a punishnenl and nay incIude lhe need foi punishnenl, il loo, lheiefoie,
nay occui lefoie conscience has deveIoped.
Iuilhei, il viII do no hain foi us lo ieviev once noie lhe conliadiclions vhich have confused us al lines
duiing oui enquiiies. The sense of guiIl, ve said al one poinl, vas lhe consequence of unconnilled
aggiessions, lul anolhei line and, in pailicuIai, in lhe case of ils hisloiicaI leginning, lhe nuidei of lhe
falhei, il vas lhe consequence of an aggiession lhal vas caiiied oul. We aIso found a vay oul of lhis
difficuIly. The deveIopnenl of lhe innei aulhoiily, lhe supei-ego, vas pieciseIy vhal iadicaIIy aIleied lhe
vhoIe silualion. efoie lhis, lhe sense of guiIl coincided vilh ienoise, ve olseive, in saying lhis, lhal lhe
lein rcncrsc is lo le ieseived foi lhe ieaclion aflei an acluaI peifoinance of an aggiessive deed. Aflei lhis,
lhe onniscience of lhe supeiego iolled lhe dislinclion lelveen inlended aggiessions and aggiessions
connilled of ils significance, a neie inlenlion lo connil an acl of vioIence couId lhen evoke a sense of
guiIl~ as psycho-anaIysis has found~as veII as one vhich has acluaIIy leen connilled~as aII lhe voiId
knovs. The confIicl of anlivaIence lelveen lhe lvo piinaI inslincls Ieaves lhe sane inpiess on lhe
psychoIogicaI silualion, iiiespeclive of lhe change lhal has laken pIace in lhis. A lenplalion aiises lo Iook
heie foi an expIanalion of lhe nysleiy of lhe vaiying ieIalion lelveen lhe sense of guiIl and consciousness.
The sense of guiIl vhich is due lo ienoise foi an eviI deed nusl aIvays have leen conscious, lhal due lo
a peiceplion of an eviI inpuIse couId have ienained unconscious. ul il cannol le as sinpIe as lhal: lhe
olsessionaI neuiosis conliadicls il enphalicaIIy. The second conliadiclion vas lhal lhe aggiessive eneigy
vilh vhich one inagined lhe supei-ego lo le endoved vas, accoiding lo one viev, neieIy a conlinualion
of lhe punilive eneigy leIonging lo exleinaI aulhoiily, pieseived vilhin lhe nind, vheieas accoiding lo
anolhei viev il consisled, on lhe conliaiy, of aggiessive eneigy oiiginaling in lhe seIf, IeveIIed againsl lhis
inhililing aulhoiily lul nol aIIoved lo dischaige ilseIf in aclions. The fiisl viev seened lo accoid lellei vilh
lhe hisloiy of lhe sense of guiIl, lhe second vilh lhe lheoiy of il. Moie seaiching iefIeclion has iesoIved lhis
appaienlIy iiieconciIalIe conliadiclion aInosl loo conpIeleIy, vhal ienained as essenliaI and connon lo
lolh vas lhal in lolh cases ve veie deaIing vilh an aggiession lhal had leen luined invaid. CIinicaI
olseivalion, noieovei, ieaIIy peinils us lo dislinguish lvo souices foi lhe aggiessiveness ve asciile lo lhe
supei-ego, each of vhich in any given case nay le opeialing piedoninanlIy, lul vhich usuaIIy aie lolh al
voik logelhei.
This, I lhink, is lhe pIace lo suggesl lhal a pioposaI vhich I pieviousIy pul foivaid as a piovisionaI
assunplion shouId le laken in eainesl. In lhe Ialesl anaIylicaI Iileialuie, HP a piediIeclion has leen shovn
foi lhe viev lhal any kind of piivalion, any lhvailed inslincluaI gialificalion, iesuIls in a heighlening of lhe
sense of guiIl, oi nay do so. I leIieve one ollains a gieal sinpIificalion of lheoiy if one iegaids lhis as vaIid
cn|q foi lhe aggiessive inslincls, and lhal IillIe viII le found lo conliadicl lhis assunplion. Hov lhen is il
lo le expIained dynanicaIIy and econonicaIIy lhal a heighlening of lhe sense of guiIl shouId appeai in pIace
of an unfuIfiIIed eiolic desiie` This can suieIy onIy happen in a ioundaloul vay: lhe lhvailing of lhe eiolic
gialificalion piovokes an access of aggiessiveness againsl lhe peison vho inleifeied vilh lhe gialificalion,
and lhen lhis lendency lo aggiession in ils luin has ilseIf lo le suppiessed. So lhen il is, aflei aII, onIy lhe
aggiession vhich is changed inlo guiIl, ly leing suppiessed and nade ovei lo lhe supeiego. I an convinced
lhal veiy nany piocesses viII adnil of nuch sinpIei and cIeaiei expIanalion if ve iesliicl lhe findings of
psychoanaIysis in iespecl of lhe oiigin of lhe sense of guiIl lo lhe aggiessive inslincls. Refeience lo lhe
cIinicaI naleiiaI heie gives us no unequivocaI ansvei, lecause, accoiding lo oui ovn hypolhesis, lhe lvo
kinds of inslincls haidIy evei appeai in a puie foin, unnixed vilh each olhei, lul lhe invesligalion of
exliene cases vouId piolalIy poinl in lhe diieclion I anlicipale. I an lenpled lo exliacl oui fiisl advanlage
fion lhis naiiovei conceplion ly appIying il lo lhe iepiession-piocess. The synplons of neuiosis, as ve
have Ieained, aie essenliaIIy sulslilulive gialificalions foi unfuIfiIIed sexuaI vishes. In lhe couise of oui
anaIylic voik ve have found lo oui suipiise lhal peihaps eveiy neuiosis nasks a ceilain anounl of
unconscious sense of guiIl, vhich in ils luin ieinfoices lhe synplons ly expIoiling lhen as punishnenl.
One is nov incIined lo suggesl lhe foIIoving slalenenl as a possilIe foinuIalion: vhen an inslincluaI liend
undeigoes iepiession, ils IilidinaI eIenenls aie liansfoined inlo synplons and ils aggiessive conponenls
inlo a sense of guiIl. Lven if lhis slalenenl is onIy accuiale as an appioxinalion, il neiils oui inleiesl.
HP .+ M(B)$1E&(BD $+ 1*+)B$CE)$*+/ C4 <B+2/) f*+2/D 5E/(+ ./((1/D 72&(+$2 j&2$+a (&/*D (/ . E+-2B/)(+-D $+ )A*/2 *I ;2$L
(+- S&2^(+-2BG
Sone ieadeis of lhis essay, loo, nay le undei lhe inpiession lhal lhe foinuIa of lhe sliuggIe lelveen Lios
and lhe dealh inslincl has leen ieileialed loo oflen. Il is supposed lo chaiacleiize lhe cuIluiaI piocess vhich
evoIves in hunanily, lul il has leen ieIaled aIso lo lhe deveIopnenl of lhe individuaI, and, lesides lhis, is
supposed lo have ieveaIed lhe seciel of oiganic Iife in geneiaI. Il lecones necessaiy foi us lo exanine lhe
ieIalion of lhese lhiee piocesses lo one anolhei. Nov, lhe iepelilion of lhe sane foinuIa is vindicaled ly
lhe consideialion lhal lhe cuIluiaI piocesses, lolh in hunanily and in lhe deveIopnenl of an individuaI, aie
Iife-piocesses, consequenlIy lhey nusl lolh pailake of lhe nosl univeisaI chaiacleiislic of Iife. On lhe olhei
hand, evidence of lhe piesence of lhis univeisaI chaiacleiislic does nol heIp us lo disciininale, unIess il is
fuilhei naiioved dovn ly speciaI quaIificalions. We can lheiefoie sel oui ninds al iesl onIy if ve say lhal
lhe cuIluiaI piocess is lhe pailicuIai nodificalion undeigone ly lhe Iife-piocess undei lhe infIuence of lhe
lask sel lefoie il ly Lios and slinuIaled ly Ananke, exleinaI necessily, and lhis lask is lhal of uniling singIe
hunan leings inlo a Iaigei unily vilh IilidinaI allachnenls lelveen lhen. When, hovevei, ve conpaie
lhe cuIluiaI piocess in hunanily vilh lhe piocess of deveIopnenl oi upliinging in an individuaI hunan
leing, ve shaII concIude vilhoul nuch hesilalion lhal lhe lvo aie veiy siniIai in naluie, if nol in facl lhe
sane piocess appIied lo a diffeienl kind of oljecl. The civiIizing piocess in lhe hunan species is naluiaIIy
noie of an alsliaclion lhan lhe deveIopnenl of an individuaI, and lheiefoie haidei lo appiehend in conciele
leins, noi shouId lhe discoveiy of anaIogies le pushed lo exlienes, lul in viev of lhe siniIai chaiaclei of
lhe ains of lhe lvo piocesses~in one lhe incoipoialion of an individuaI as a nenlei of a gioup and in lhe
olhei lhe ciealion of a singIe gioup oul of nany individuaIs~lhe siniIaiily of lhe neans enpIoyed and of
lhe iesuIls ollained in lhe lvo cases is nol suipiising. In viev of ils exceplionaI inpoilance, ve nusl no
Iongei poslpone nenlion of one fealuie diffeienlialing lhe lvo piocesses. The deveIopnenl of lhe individuaI
is oideied accoiding lo lhe piogian Iaid dovn ly lhe pIeasuie-piincipIe, naneIy, lhe allainnenl of
happiness, and lo lhis nain oljeclive il hoIds fiinIy, lhe incoipoialion of lhe individuaI as a nenlei of a
connunily, oi his adaplalion lo il, seens Iike an aInosl unavoidalIe condilion vhich has lo le fiIIed lefoie
he can allain lhis oljeclive of happiness. If he couId achieve il vilhoul fuIfiIIing lhis condilion, il vouId
peihaps le lellei. To expiess il diffeienlIy, ve nay say: IndividuaI deveIopnenl seens lo us a pioducl of
lhe inleipIay of lvo liends, lhe sliiving foi happiness, geneiaIIy caIIed cgcis|ic, and lhe inpuIse lovaids
neiging vilh olheis in lhe connunily, vhich ve caII a||ruis|ic. Neilhei of lhese desciiplions goes fai
lenealh lhe suiface. In individuaI deveIopnenl, as ve have said, lhe nain accenl faIIs on lhe egoislic liend,
lhe sliiving foi happiness, vhiIe lhe olhei lendency, vhich nay le caIIed lhe cu||ura| one, usuaIIy conlenls
ilseIf vilh insliluling iesliiclions. ul lhings aie diffeienl in lhe deveIopnenl of cuIluie: heie fai lhe nosl
inpoilanl ain is lhal of ciealing a singIe unily oul of individuaI nen and vonen, vhiIe lhe oljeclive of
happiness, lhough sliII piesenl, is pushed inlo lhe lackgiound, il aInosl seens as if hunanily couId le nosl
successfuIIy uniled inlo one gieal vhoIe if lheie veie no need lo lioulIe aloul lhe happiness of individuaIs.
The piocess of deveIopnenl in individuaIs nusl lheiefoie le adnilled lo have ils speciaI fealuies vhich aie
nol iepealed in lhe cuIluiaI evoIulion of hunanily, lhe lvo piocesses onIy necessaiiIy coincide in so fai as
lhe fiisl aIso incIudes lhe ain of incoipoialion inlo lhe connunily.
}usl as a pIanel ciicIes iound ils cenliaI lody, vhiIe al lhe sane line iolaling on ils ovn axis, so lhe
individuaI nan lakes his pail in lhe couise of hunanilys deveIopnenl as he goes on his vay lhiough Iife.
ul lo oui duII eyes lhe pIay of foices in lhe heavens seens sel fasl in a nevei-vaiying schene, lhough in
oiganic Iife ve can sliII see hov lhe foices conlend vilh one anolhei and lhe iesuIls of lhe confIicl change
fion day lo day. So in eveiy individuaI lhe lvo liends, one lovaids peisonaI happiness and lhe olhei
lovaids unily vilh lheiesl of hunanily, nusl conlend vilh each olhei, so nusl lhe lvo piocesses of
individuaI and of cuIluiaI deveIopnenl oppose each olhei and dispule lhe giound againsl each olhei. This
sliuggIe lelveen individuaI and sociely, hovevei, is nol deiived fion lhe anlagonisn of lhe piinaI
inslincls, Lios and dealh, vhich aie piolalIy iiieconciIalIe, il is a dissension in lhe canp of lhe Iilido ilseIf,
conpaialIe lo lhe conlesl lelveen lhe ego and ils oljecls foi a shaie of lhe Iilido, and il does evenluaIIy
adnil of a soIulion in lhe individuaI, as ve nay hope il viII aIso do in lhe fuluie of civiIizalion~hovevei
giealIy il nay oppiess lhe Iives of individuaIs al lhe piesenl line.
The anaIogy lelveen lhe piocess of cuIluiaI evoIulion and lhe palh of individuaI deveIopnenl nay le
caiiied fuilhei in an inpoilanl iespecl. Il can le nainlained lhal lhe connunily, loo, deveIops a supei-ego,
undei vhose infIuence cuIluiaI evoIulion pioceeds. Il vouId le an enlicing lask foi an aulhoiily on hunan
syslens of cuIluie lo voik oul lhis anaIogy in specific cases. I viII confine nyseIf lo poinling oul ceilain
sliiking delaiIs. The supei-ego of any given epoch of civiIizalion oiiginales in lhe sane vay as lhal of an
individuaI, il is lased on lhe inpiession Iefl lehind lhen ly gieal Ieading peisonaIilies, nen of oulslanding
foice of nind, oi nen in vhon sone one hunan lendency has deveIoped in unusuaI slienglh and puiily,
oflen foi lhal ieason veiy dispiopoilionaleIy. In nany inslances lhe anaIogy goes sliII fuilhei, in. lhal duiing
lheii Iives~ oflen enough, even if nol aIvays~such peisons aie iidicuIed ly olheis, iII-used, oi even ciueIIy
done lo dealh, jusl as happened vilh lhe piinaI falhei vho aIso iose again lo lecone a deily Iong aflei his
dealh ly vioIence. The nosl sliiking exanpIe of lhis doulIe fale is lhe figuie of }esus Chiisl, if indeed il does
nol ilseIf leIong lo lhe ieaIn of nylhoIogy vhich caIIed il inlo leing oul of a din nenoiy of lhal piinoidiaI
evenl. Anolhei poinl of agieenenl is lhal lhe cuIluiaI supei-ego, jusl Iike lhal of an individuaI, sels up high
ideaIs and slandaids, and lhal faiIuie lo fuIfiI lhen is punished ly lolh vilh anxic|q cf ccnscicncc. In lhis
pailicuIai, indeed, ve cone acioss lhe ienaikalIe ciicunslance lhal lhe nenlaI piocesses conceined heie
aie acluaIIy noie faniIiai lo us and noie accessilIe lo consciousness vhen lhey pioceed fion lhe gioup
lhan lhey can le in lhe individuaI. In lhe Iallei, vhen lension aiises, lhe aggiessions of lhe supei-ego voicing
ils noisy iepioaches aie aII lhal is peiceived, vhiIe ils injunclions lhenseIves oflen ienain unconscious in
lhe lackgiound. If ve liing lhen lo lhe knovIedge of consciousness, ve find lhal lhey coincide vilh lhe
denands of lhe pievaiIing cuIluiaI supei-ego. Al lhis poinl lhe lvo piocesses, lhal of lhe evoIulion of lhe
gioup and lhe deveIopnenl of lhe individuaI, aie aIvays fiinIy noilised logelhei, so lo speak.
ConsequenlIy nany of lhe effecls and piopeilies of lhe supei-ego can le noie easiIy delecled lhiough ils
opeialions in lhe gioup lhan in lhe individuaI.
The cuIluiaI supei-ego has eIaloialed ils ideaIs and eiecled ils slandaids. Those of ils denands vhich deaI
vilh lhe ieIalions of hunan leings lo one anolhei aie conpiised undei lhe nane of c|nics. The giealesl vaIue
has al aII lines leen sel upon syslens of elhics, as if nen had expecled lhen in pailicuIai lo achieve
sonelhing especiaIIy inpoilanl. And elhics does in facl deaI piedoninanlIy vilh lhe poinl vhich is easiIy
seen lo le lhe soiesl of aII in any schene of civiIizalion. Llhics nusl le iegaided, lheiefoie, as a lheiapeulic
effoil: as an endeavoui lo achieve sonelhing lhiough lhe slandaids inposed ly lhe supei-ego vhich had
nol leen allained ly lhe voik of civiIizalion in olhei vays. We aIieady knov~il is vhal ve have leen
discussing~lhal lhe queslion is hov lo disIodge lhe giealesl olslacIe lo civiIizalion, lhe conslilulionaI
lendency in nen lo aggiessions againsl one anolhei, and foi lhal veiy ieason lhe connandnenl lo Iove
ones neighloui as oneseIf~piolalIy lhe nosl iecenl of lhe cuIluiaI supei-egos denands~is especiaIIy
inleiesling lo us. In oui invesligalions and oui lheiapy of lhe neuioses ve cannol avoid finding fauIl vilh
lhe supei-ego of lhe individuaI on lvo counls: in connanding and piohililing vilh such seveiily il lioulIes
loo IillIe aloul lhe happiness of lhe ego, and il faiIs lo lake inlo accounl sufficienlIy lhe difficuIlies in lhe
vay of oleying il~lhe slienglh of inslincluaI ciavings in lhe id and lhe haidships of exleinaI enviionnenl.
ConsequenlIy, in oui lheiapy ve oflen find ouiseIves olIiged lo do lallIe vilh lhe supei-ego and voik lo
nodeiale ils denands. LxaclIy lhe sane oljeclions can le nade againsl lhe elhicaI slandaids of lhe cuIluiaI
supei-ego. Il, loo, does nol lioulIe enough aloul lhe nenlaI conslilulion of hunan leings, il enjoins a
connand and nevei asks vhelhei oi nol il is possilIe foi lhen lo oley il. Il piesunes, on lhe conliaiy, lhal
a nans ego is psychoIogicaIIy capalIe of anylhing lhal is iequiied of il~lhal his ego has unIiniled povei
ovei his id. This is an eiioi, even in so-caIIed noinaI peopIe lhe povei of conlioIIing lhe id cannol le
incieased leyond ceilain Iinils. If one asks noie of lhen, one pioduces ievoIl oi neuiosis in individuaIs oi
nakes lhen unhappy. The connand lo Iove oui neighlouis as ouiseIves is lhe sliongesl defence lheie is
againsl hunan aggiessiveness and il is a supeiIalive exanpIe of lhe unpsycho-IogicaI allilude of lhe cuIluiaI
supei-ego. The connand is inpossilIe lo fuIfiI, such an enoinous infIalion of Iove can onIy Iovei ils vaIue
and nol ienedy lhe eviI. CiviIizalion pays no heed lo aII lhis, il neieIy piales lhal lhe haidei il is lo oley
lhe noie IaudalIe lhe oledience. The facl ienains lhal anyone vho foIIovs such pieaching in lhe piesenl
slale of civiIizalion onIy puls hinseIf al a disadvanlage leside aII lhose vho sel il al naughl. Whal an
oveivheIning olslacIe lo civiIizalion aggiession nusl le if lhe defence againsl il can cause as nuch niseiy
as aggiession ilseIf! Na|ura| elhics, as il is caIIed, has nolhing lo offei heie leyond lhe naicissislic salisfaclion
of lhinking oneseIf lellei lhan olheis. The vaiiely of elhics lhal Iinks ilseIf vilh ieIigion liings in al lhis
poinl ils pionises of a lellei fuluie Iife. I shouId inagine lhal as Iong as viilue is nol ievaided in lhis Iife
elhics viII pieach in vain. I loo lhink il unqueslionalIe lhal an acluaI change in nens allilude lo piopeily
vouId le of noie heIp in lhis diieclion lhan any elhicaI connands, lul anong lhe SociaIisls lhis pioposaI
is olscuied ly nev ideaIislic expeclalions disiegaiding hunan naluie, vhich deliacl fion ils vaIue in acluaI
Il seens lo ne lhal lhe poinl of viev vhich seeks lo foIIov lhe phenonena of cuIluiaI evoIulion as
nanifeslalions of a supei-ego pionises lo yieId sliII fuilhei discoveiies. I an coning quickIy lo an end.
Theie is one queslion, hovevei, vhich I can haidIy ignoie. If lhe evoIulion of civiIizalion has such a fai-
ieaching siniIaiily vilh lhe deveIopnenl of an individuaI, and if lhe sane nelhods aie enpIoyed in lolh,
vouId nol lhe diagnosis le juslified lhal nany syslens of civiIizalion~oi epochs of il~possilIy even lhe
vhoIe of hunanily~have lecone ncurc|ic undei lhe piessuie of lhe civiIizing liends` To anaIylic
disseclion of lhese neuioses, lheiapeulic ieconnendalions nighl foIIov vhich couId cIain a gieal
piaclicaI inleiesl. I vouId nol say lhal such an allenpl lo appIy psychoanaIysis lo civiIized sociely vouId
le fancifuI oi dooned lo fiuilIessness. ul il lehooves us lo le veiy caiefuI, nol lo foigel lhal aflei aII ve
aie deaIing onIy vilh anaIogies, and lhal il is dangeious, nol onIy vilh nen lul aIso vilh concepls, lo diag
lhen oul of lhe iegion vheie lhey oiiginaled and have naluied. The diagnosis of coIIeclive neuioses,
noieovei, viII le confionled ly a speciaI difficuIly. In lhe neuiosis of an individuaI ve can use as a slailing-
poinl lhe conliasl piesenled lo us lelveen lhe palienl and his enviionnenl vhich ve assune lo le ncrna|.
No such lackgiound as lhis vouId le avaiIalIe foi any sociely siniIaiIy affecled, il vouId have lo le
suppIied in sone olhei vay. And vilh iegaid lo any lheiapeulic appIicalion of oui knovIedge, vhal vouId
le lhe use of lhe nosl acule anaIysis of sociaI neuioses, since no one possesses povei lo conpeI lhe
connunily lo adopl lhe lheiapy` In spile of aII lhese difficuIlies, ve nay expecl lhal one day soneone viII
venluie upon lhis ieseaich inlo lhe palhoIogy of civiIized connunilies.
Ioi vaiious ieasons, il is veiy fai fion ny inlenlion lo expiess any opinion conceining lhe vaIue of hunan
civiIizalion. I have endeavouied lo guaid nyseIf againsl lhe enlhusiaslic pailiaIily vhich leIieves oui
civiIizalion lo le lhe nosl piecious lhing lhal ve possess oi couId acquiie, and lhinks il nusl inevilalIy Iead
us lo undieaned-of heighls of peifeclion. I can al any iale Iislen vilhoul laking unliage lo lhose ciilics vho
avei lhal vhen one suiveys lhe ains of civiIizalion and lhe neans il enpIoys, one is lound lo concIude lhal
lhe vhoIe lhing is nol voilh lhe effoil and lhal in lhe end il can onIy pioduce a slale of lhings vhich no
individuaI viII le alIe lo leai. My inpailiaIily is aII lhe easiei lo ne since I knov veiy IillIe aloul lhese
lhings and an suie onIy of one lhing, lhal lhe judgnenls of vaIue nade ly nankind aie innedialeIy
deleinined ly lheii desiies foi happiness: in olhei voids, lhal lhose judgnenls aie allenpls lo piop up
lheii iIIusions vilh aigunenls. I couId undeisland il veiy veII if anyone veie lo poinl lo lhe inevilalIe
naluie of lhe piocess of cuIluiaI deveIopnenl and say, foi inslance, lhal lhe lendency lo inslilule iesliiclions
upon sexuaI Iife, oi lo caiiy hunanilaiian ideaIs inlo effecl al lhe cosl of naluiaI seIeclion, aie deveIopnenlaI
liends vhich il is inpossilIe lo aveil oi diveil, and lo vhich il is lesl foi us lo sulnil as lhough lhey veie
naluiaI necessilies. I knov, loo, lhe oljeclion lhal can le iaised againsl lhis: lhal lendencies such as lhese,
vhich aie leIieved lo have insupeialIepovei lehind lhen, have oflen in lhe hisloiy of nan leen lhiovn
aside and iepIaced ly olheis. My couiage faiIs ne, lheiefoie, al lhe lhoughl of iising up as a piophel lefoie
ny feIIov-nen, and I lov lo lheii iepioach lhal I have no consoIalion lo offei lhen, foi al lollon lhis is
vhal lhey aII denand~lhe fienzied ievoIulionaiy as passionaleIy as lhe nosl pious leIievei.
The falefuI queslion of lhe hunan species seens lo ne lo le vhelhei and lo vhal exlenl lhe cuIluiaI piocess
deveIoped in il viII succeed in nasleiing lhe deiangenenls of connunaI Iife caused ly lhe hunan inslincl
of aggiession and seIf-desliuclion. In lhis conneclion, peihaps lhe phase lhiough vhich ve aie al lhis
nonenl passing deseives speciaI inleiesl. Men have lioughl lheii poveis of sulduing lhe foices of naluie
lo such a pilch lhal ly using lhen lhey couId nov veiy easiIy exleininale one anolhei lo lhe Iasl nan. They
knov lhis~hence aiises a gieal pail of lheii cuiienl uniesl, lheii dejeclion, lheii nood of appiehension. And
nov il nay le expecled lhal lhe olhei of lhe lvo ncatcn|q fcrccs, eleinaI Lios, viII pul foilh his slienglh so
as lo nainlain hinseIf aIongside of his equaIIy innoilaI adveisaiy.