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216 Sreez Designers’ HANDBOOK 8.4.2 y 4 & 6 —_ | 70°90 70 | 4 Ir ksbartsl Figure 8.6 Standard bolt gauges and pitches for M20 bolts (see AISC [1985], AISC [1999a] for farther information) Table 8.8 Minimum edge distances as specified in AS 4100 Condition of the plate element edge Distance from centre of the hole Sheared or hand flame-cut 175 dy Rolled plate or section or machine thermally cut, sawn, milled or planed 1.50 4 Rolled edge of hot-rolled flat bar or section 1.25 dy Edge distance will also be governed by bolt tearout failure fn the ply (Clause of AS 4100 or Section¢)). The minimum and the maximum pitch is also specified in Clause 9.6 of AS 4100: Maximum edge distance: 12t, =150 mm Minimum pitch: 2.54, Maximum pitch: 15t, 200 mm Capacity of bolted elements ‘The capacity of the bolted element in a lap joint designed for bearing depends on the plate thickness, grade of steel and edge distance in the direction of force. The design must guard against bole failure and the following types of connection failure: * fracture across the connected element (Figure 8.7(a) and(e)) * bearing failure at bolt interface * tearing failure. The first noted failure mode, fracture across the connected element, is considered when designing the bolted element for tension (Section 7 of AS 4100 or Section 7.4.1 of this Handbook). In this instance, the check considers gross yielding and net fracture— the latter check takes into account the onset of fracture from reduced cross-section area from holes and non-uniform force distribution effects. ‘As noted in Section, the second of the above failure modes, bearing (or crushing) failure at the bolt-ply interface, is verified from: Vi = 3.2dyty fp where fi is the yield strength of the plate material ‘The failure-bearing stress is thus 3.2 times the plate tensile strength because of the three-dimensional stress condition at the bolt-ply interface, whether the bole threads are present at the bearing surface or not (see Figure 8.7(©)). ‘Tearing failure (see Section is usually more critical than bearing-type failure. ‘The capacity of the connected element depends to a large degree on the end distance 4, (see Figure 8.7(d)). The tear-out capacity of the plate is verified by: Vp = daly Sup 8.4.3 Connecrions 217 where 4, is the distance in the direction of force from the edge of the bolt hole to the edge of the member (note this could also be to the perimeter of an adjacent hole). bed mn —_ ZA | @ —Zay + @ » @ bel L + 3 +t G+ ° ° I @ © a Figure 8.7 Bolted shear connections and the potential modes of fuilure of joint (a) plate fracture; « (6) bole files (© eruing on ply bolt shank ee "h plate "ing fedune @ plate fracture where bolts are staggered; (f) bolt hole clearance leads to slippage It can be shown that tear-out failure will be more critical chan bearing failure when a, < 3.2dp, as is normally the case when standard end distances are used. The standard end distances are between 1.75 and 2 bolt diameters, simply to keep the connections as compact as possible. Using a thicker material is beneficial in raising the tear-out capacity. The last resort is in using extra bolts to compensate for the loss of end bearing capacity. Checks on standard spacing between bolt holes will see that these hole spacings are greater than 3.2d, Pin connections For pin connections refer to Section 8.10.2. 8.5 8.5.1 Welded connections Electric metal arc welding has developed into a very efficient and versatile method for shop fabrication and construction of steelwork. The main areas of application of welding are: (a) Fabrication * compounding of sections—that is, joining of several plates or sections parallel to the long axis of the member (Figure 8.8) * splicing of plates and sections to obtain optimal lengths for fabrication and transport to the site + attachment of stiffeners and other details * connection of members to one another + attachment of the field connection hardware. (b) Field work * beam-to-column connections of the moment-resisting type