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ESE 633 Statistics in Education

Assignment (60%)

This Guide explains the basis on which you will be assessed in this course during the semester. It
contains details of the facilitator-marked assignment.

One element in the assessment strategy of the course is that all students should have the same
information as facilitators about the Assignment. Please read through the whole guide at the
beginning of the course.


i) What is Plagiarism?
Any written assignment (essays, project, take-home exams, etc) submitted by a student
must not be deceptive regarding the abilities, knowledge, or amount of work contributed
by the student. There are many ways that this rule can be violated. Among them are:
o Paraphrases: The student paraphrases a closely reasoned argument of an author
without acknowledging that he or she has done so. (Clearly, all our knowledge is
derived from somewhere, but detailed arguments from clearly identifiable sources
must be acknowledged.)
o Outright plagiarism: Large sections of the paper are simply copied from other
sources, and are not acknowledged as quotations.
o Other sources: often include essays written by other students or sold by
unscrupulous organizations. Quoting from such papers is perfectly legitimate if
quotation marks are used and the source is cited.
o Works by others: Taking credit deliberately or not deliberately for works produced
by another without giving proper acknowledgement. Works includes photographs,
charts, graphs, drawings, statistics, video-clips, audio-clips, verbal exchanges such
as interviews or lectures, performances on television and texts printed on the web.
o The student submits the same essay to two or more courses.

ii) How can I avoid Plagiarism?
o Insert quotation marks around copy and paste clause, phrase, sentence, paragraph
and cite the original source
o Paraphrase clause, phrase, sentence or paragraph in your own words and cite your
o Adhere to the APA (American Psychological Association) stylistic format,
whichever applicable, when citing a source and when writing out the bibliography
or reference page
o Attempt to write independently without being overly dependent of information
from anothers original works
o Educate yourself on what may be considered as common knowledge (no copyright
necessary), public domain (copyright has expired or not protected under copyright
law), or copyright (legally protected).

Academic Writing

Documenting Sources
Whenever you quote, paraphrase, summarize, or otherwise refer to the work of another, you are
required to cite its source parenthetical documentation. Offered here are some of the most
commonly cited forms of material.
Simply having a thinking skill is no assurance that children will use
it. In order for such skills to become part of day-to-day behaviour,
they must be cultivated in an environment that value and sustains
them. Just as childrens musical skills will likely lay fallow in an
environment that doesnt encourage music, learners thinking skills
tend to languish in a culture that doesnt encourage thinking
(Tishman, Perkins and Jay, 1995, p.5)

According to Wurman (1988), the new disease of the 21
will be information anxiety, which has been defined as the ever-
widening gap between what one understands and what one thinks
one should understand.

All sources that you cite in your paper should be listed in the Reference section
at the end of your paper. Heres how you should do your Reference.

From a Journal
DuFour, R. (2002). The learning-centred principal: Educational Leadership,
59(8). 12-15.

From an Online Journal
Evnine, S. J. (2001). The universality of logic: On the connection
between rationality and logical ability [Electronic version].
Mind, 110, 335-367.

From a Webpage
National Park Service. (2003, February 11). Abraham Lincoln
Birthplace National Historic Site. Retrieved February 13, 2003,
from http://www.nps.gov/abli/

From a Book
Naisbitt, J. and Aburdence, M. (1989). Megatrends 2000. London:
Pan Books.

From a Chapter in a Book
Nickerson, R. (1987). Why teach thinking? In J. B. Baron & R.J. Sternberg
(Eds), Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice. New York: W.H. Freeman
and Company. 27-37.

From a Printed Newspaper
Holden, S. (1998, May 16). Frank Sinatra dies at 82:
Matchless stylist of pop. The New York Times, pp. A1,

INSTRUCTION: Answer ALL questions.
Question 1: [4 marks]

A teacher gave a mathematics test to students in Class A, B & C and the scores are shown in
the three graphs above. Explain what you observe.

Question 2: [4 marks]

Details about the Assignment -60%

A researcher conducted a study to measure Critical Thinking of a group of 12
year old students. The sample consisted of 280 subjects; 120 males and 160
female subjects. Critical Thinking consisted of two constructs Critical
Thinking Skills and Critical Thinking Dispositions.

Class A
Class B Class C

a) Suggest THREE possible research questions.

b) State the appropriate statistical tests to test the three research questions suggested.

Question 3: [10 marks]
A researcher conducted a study to find out whether attitude towards mathematics was a good
predictor of mathematics performance. The data is shown in the Table below.:


1 40 80
2 32 56
3 37 66
4 28 49
5 35 74
6 29 61
7 32 77
8 27 72
9 30 68
10 31 65
11 25 59
12 26 54
13 34 81
14 33 79
15 24 67

a) What statistical procedure would you use to predict mathematics performance? Give
b) Explain clearly the assumptions that must be met in using the test you have identified in
c) Why it is important these assumptions are met?
d) Calculate the standard deviation for attitude towards mathematics and mathematics
performance. Show the working.

Question 4: [4 marks]

A English test was administered to two groups of university students. The Table above shows
the distributions of scores for the two groups. Explain the distribution of the scores and the
standard deviation.

Question 5: [8 marks]
A researcher was interested in finding out whether Moral Reasoning could be enhanced if
students were taught using Moral Dilemmas. Subjects were given a Moral Reasoning Test
before the treatment (using moral dilemmas) and after the treatment and the results are shown
in Table 1 below.

Group X
Group Y

a) Describe the findings in Table 1
b) State the null hypothesis
c) State the alternative hypothesis

d) Why is the paired t-test used? [as shown in Table 2 above]
e) What can you conclude from Table 2?

Qestion 6: [4 marks]

What can you conclude from the three graphs shown above?
Table 1 : Mean Moral Reasoning Score Before and After
Teaching Using Moral Dilemmas
N Mean Std.
Std. Error Mean
Pretest 30 18.50 5.33 0.97

Posttest 30 23.86 4.75 0.87

Table 2 : Paired t Test
Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Lower Upper t df Sig.
(2 tailed)
Pretest -5.36 2.90 0.62 -6.65 -4.08 -8.66 29 .000

Question 7: [14 marks)
A researcher conducted a study skills course over a period of five days among a group of
beginners, intermediate and advanced speakers of English. At the end of the programme he
administered a test to determine which group of students benefited from the programme.
The results of the study was analysed using One-Way ANOVA and the results are shown in the
tables below:

See Table 1 above and answer the following questions:
a) State one research question for the study
b) Why was the Oneway-ANOVA used?
c) What can conclude from the above table?
d) State the assumptions for using the One-way ANOVA.

See Table 2 above and answer the following questions:
e) What can you conclude from the above table?
f) What does the standard deviation tell you about the results?
g) Explain the meaning of 95% confidence interval for mean?
Table 1
Table 2

See Table 3 above and answer the following questions:
h) What is the meaning of multipe comparison?
i) What can you conclude from Table 3?

Question 8: [6 marks]

See Table 1 above and answer the following:

a) What is the purpose of the statistical test used?

b) Explain the difference between Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk.

c) What can you conclude?

Table 1:

Gender Kolmogorov-Smirnov

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.
Male 0.879 34 0.012 0.971 78 0.016
Female 0.185 39 0.001 0.079 96 0.008
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Table 1:

Gender Kolmogorov-Smirnov

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.
Male 0.879 34 0.012 0.971 78 0.016
Female 0.185 39 0.001 0.079 96 0.008
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Table 1:

Gender Kolmogorov-Smirnov

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.
Male 0.879 34 0.012 0.971 78 0.016
Female 0.185 39 0.001 0.079 96 0.008
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Table 3

Question 9: [6 marks]

A study was conducted to determine the relationships between spatial reasoning, memory,
metacognition, mathematical ability and verbal reasoning. The sample consisted of 80 males
and 80 female 16 year old students. The Table above shows a correlation matrix between the
five variable. Based on the table answer the following questions:

a) State THREE research questions

b) Discuss the findings of the study.


a) 1.5 spacing 12 Times Roman Font
b) Submit to MyPLS
c) Use Cover Page Name and ID

Memory Metacogniton Mathematical
Spatial reasoning 1.00
Memory 0.56 1.00
Metacognition 0,65 0.67 1.00
Mathematical abiliy 0.43 0.60 0.59 1.00 .
Verbal reasoning 0.34 0.41 0.49 0.70 1.00

Cover Page




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