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CREDITS
President of Brasil
Dilma Roussef
Minister of Culture
Marta Suplicy
President of IPHAN
Jurema Machado
IPHAN Direction
Marcos Jos Silva Rgo
Andrey Rosenthal Schlee
Clia Maria Corsino
Luiz Philippe Peres Torelly
Robson Antonio de Almeida
Chief of staff
Rony Carlos Braga Oliveira
PUBLICATION CREDITS
Press Ofce
Writing
Luiz Philippe Peres Torelly, Adlia Soares, Mcia Menescal, Arlete Bonelli, Celma Souza, Fatima Martins
Revision
Caroline Soudant, Anglica Torres
Graphic design
Cristiane Dias
Layout development
Vitor Corra
Photos
IPHAN
English version
Paula Zimbres
Spanish version
Elga Prez-Laborde
Colaborators
Isadora Fonseca, Michele Mendes
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CITIES
1. BELO HORIZONTE FROM MODERNISM TO COLONIAL 05
2. BRASLIA MONUMENTAL BY NATURE 11
3. CUIAB LISTED HISTORICAL CENTRE 19
4. FORTALEZA VISIT THE ATTRACTIONS PROTECTED BY IPHAN 27
5. CURITIBA DIVERSITY OF STYLES 35
6. MANAUS BRAZILS ENVIRONMENTAL CAPITAL 43
7. SO PAULO NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCE 51
8. RIO DE JANEIRO 231 LISTED PROPERTIES 59
9. RECIFE THE INFLUENCE OF DUTCH INVASION 71
10. SALVADOR THE FIRST CAPITAL 77
11. NATAL THIRTY LISTED PROPERTIES IN RIO GRANDE DO NORTE 87
12. PORTO ALEGRE MULTICULTURAL BY NATURE 97
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CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
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Belo Horizonte From Modernism to Colonial
Belo Horizonte is located in a mineral-rich region, to which the entire state owes its name Minas
Gerais, or General Mines. A village called Arraial Del Rey existed in its site since the 18th century.
Its history, beginning with the arrival of the bandeirante pioneers, would have been the same of any
other village in Minas Gerais, had it not been for the Proclamation of the Republic, in 1889, when
Republican ideals advocating the creation of a new capital were widespread. Belo Horizonte was
chosen to replace Ouro Preto as state capital. The place was more viable economically, and had no
topographic limitations to hinder its urban development.
A dynamic metropolis, Belo Horizonte is home to one of the most emblematic Modernist architec-
tural ensembles in Brazil: the Pampulha. At the banks of its namesake pond, the ensemble consists
of the Church of So Francisco de Assis, the Casa de Baile, the Yatch Club and the Casino, now a
Museum of Modern Art, all of them designed by Oscar Niemeyer with landscaping by Burle Marx and
the magnicent panels by Cndido Portinari. The whole ensemble is listed as heritage by IPHAN the
National Historical and Artistic Heritage Institute.
Because it is located in the foremost mining region of the Colonial period, Belo Horizonte is neigh-
bour to some of the most important historical towns of Minas Gerais, allowing access to great works
of Colonial art and architecture, as well as a great diversity of crafts, cuisine and folklore. Standing
out among these towns is Ouro Preto, the rst historical town listed by IPHAN, in 1938, and inscribed
by UNESCO in the List of the Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Some other relevant towns are Sabar,
Mariana, Tiradentes, So Joo del-Rey, Congonhas, Diamantina, Santa Brbara, Caets, also listed by
IPHAN or by state or municipal institutions of cultural heritage preservation.
Belo Horizonte may be reached through the Conns International Airport, through a number of in-
terstate bus lines, by train or by car through the roads connecting the city to other Brazilian states,
such as BR-040, BR-381 and BR-262.
SELECTED MONUMENTS
PAMPULHA BELO HORIZONTE
The Pampulha ensemble is an iconic Modernist work created by Oscar Niemeyer. Built in the 1940s
and listed by IPHAN in 1997, the ensemble consists of a casino, a church, a ballet hall and a club, as
well as a pond created especially for this project, through the construction of a dam enclosing a wide,
sinuous valley, forming a reecting pool measuring several kilometres. The whole ensemble is inter-
spersed with the landscaping of Burle Marx, whose gardens follow the sinuous lines of the buildings.
(Pampulha Ensemble access through Otaclio Negro de Lima Avenue).
LIBERDADE SQUARE BELO HORIZONTE
Built at the time of the foundation of the new capital of Minas Gerais (1895-1897), the Square lies at
the highest point of the citys original area, and was conceived to house the seat of state power. The
landscape design of Liberdade Square was created in accordance with the functions and the social and
political values of the structures surrounding it. From Joo Pinheiro Avenue, ones view follows in a
straight line all the way to the Governors Palace. In a more detailed look, one can see a number of inter-
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mediate settings, such as the fountains and the bandstand, as well as pleasant open spaces for leisure
or artistic events. When the seat of government was transferred elsewhere, in 2010, the surroundings
of Liberdade Square received institutions related to culture, such as museums and a planetarium. (Liber-
dade Square lies between Gonalves Dias and Bias Fortes Streets and Brasil Avenue).
CENTRAL MARKET
The Central Market, formerly known as Belo Horizonte Municipal
Market, was created in 1929 to centralise the citys supply. In 1964,
faced with the possibility of the places shutdown, the merchants cre-
ated a cooperative and built the shed that now accommodates the
market. The construction occupies an entire block in downtown Belo
Horizonte, offering a variety of products including vegetables, fruit,
herbs, domestic utensils, crafts, religious articles, among others, mak-
ing it a popular and democratic place. A number of restaurants also
serve the typical cuisine of Minas Gerais. (Augusto de Lima Ave, n.
744, Downtown).
SANCTUARY OF BOM JESUS DE MATOSINHOS CONGONHAS DO CAMPO
The Congonhas Sanctuary is the countrys greatest and most notable architectural and artistic en-
semble. Considered the masterpiece of Antnio Francisco Lisboa, a.k.a. Aleijadinho, it was built
in several stages, beginning in 1757. The ensemble is formed by the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus, the
parvis of the prophets and six chapels placed in two wings along the ramp leading to the Sanctuary,
on top of a hill. Depicted in the chapels, in life-size gures, are scenes from the Passion of Christ.
The images were sculpted in wood by Aleijadinho and painted by Manuel da Costa Athayde. Other
masters also worked on this sanctuary, such as Antnio Roiz Falcato, Francisco de Lima, Toms de
Maya Brito and Manuel Rodrigues Coelho. The ensemble is included in the UNESCO World Heri-
tage List. (Baslica Square).
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
7
INCONFIDNCIA MUSEUM AND TIRADENTES SQUARE OURO PRETO
The Chamber and Jailhouse of Ouro Preto, now the Incondncia Museum, is a building of great
dimensions and a monumental character. At the angles of the building are statues representing Jus-
tice, Temperance, Charity and Fortitude. The museum is dedicated to preserving the memory of the
insurrection known as Incondncia Mineira, and also offers a rich panorama of Minas Gerais society
and culture during the gold and diamond cycles, in the 18th century, including pieces by Manuel da
Costa Atade and Aleijadinho. It is located at Tiradentes Square, in front of the monument to Joaquim
Jos da Silva Xavier. The Incondncia Museum was created by an act of President Getlio Vargas, in
1936, when he decided to retrieve the mortal remains of the heroes of Incondncia Mineira from
Africa, where they had been sent in exile. (Tiradentes Square, 139 Downtown).
CHURCH OF SO FRANCISCO DE ASSIS OURO PRETO
This church represents one of the most admirable expressions of late 18
th
-century Baroque in Minas
Gerais, with its faade following the layout of the great Portuguese mother churches. Its construction
began in 1766, at the apogee of the history of Ouro Preto. The building is a religious, social and ar-
tistic landmark of the town and the state, and its architectural blueprint, its doorway and ornamental
elements such as pulpits, high retable, lavabo and high chapel ceiling were made by Antnio Fran-
cisco Lisboa, the Aleijadinho, while its paintings were made by Manuel da Costa Atade. The nave
ceiling is completely covered with paintings by Atade, and represents the assumption of Our Lady of
Conception (patron of the Franciscans). Experts consider this church the masterpiece of Aleijadinho
and Atade. (Largo de Coimbra, Downtown).
CASA DOS CONTOS OURO PRETO
The Casa dos Contos, built by gold commissioner Joo Rodrigues de Macedo, was eventually con-
scated by the Crown, to install the Counting House and the Intendency. Some of the Incondentes
were imprisoned there, and poet Cludio Manuel da Costa was found dead in one of its quarters.
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Between 1820 and 1844, the house was expanded, incorporating the Casa dos Contos to the Gold
Casting House and Mint, bringing the Finance Secretariat to the same place of the National Treasure.
MOTHER CHURCH OF PILAR OURO PRETO
The construction of the present-day Mother Church of Pilar began between 1728 and 1730, to re-
place the oldest temple of the town then called Vila Rica, dedicated to the Virgin of the Pillar. Its con-
struction began with the nave, in 1731, when the Blessed Sacrament and the images were moved to
another chapel. Built of adobe and rammed earth, by 1733 it was practically nished, and a solemn
procession marked the return of the Blessed Sacrament and the images to the new Mother Church.
The Church of Nossa Senhora do Pilar is one of the most relevant Baroque exemplars in Minas Gerais.
In addition to its images, of excellent quality, it houses the Museum of Silver. A corridor annex to the
Consistory accommodates the Mother Church Archives, the most complete documental collection in
Ouro Preto.
CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DO ROSRIO DOS
PRETOS OURO PRETO
The Church of Nossa Senhora do Rosrio dos
Pretos (1785) is dedicated to the patron saint
of blacks and mulattos, and possesses the most
original design of all Baroque churches in Minas
Gerais. Its elliptical-shaped ceiling resembles a
ships keel. Its interior is impressive for its acous-
tics and clarity. The lateral altars are dedicated to
Saint Helena, Saint Iphigenia, Saint Anthony of
Nubia, Our Lady Mother of Men, Saint Elesbaan
and Saint Benedict. Some researchers claim that
the images of Saint Anthony and Saint Benedict
were made by Father Felix, Aleijadinhos older
brother.
MOTHER CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DA CONCEIO, DE ANTNIO DIAS OURO PRETO
Located at Antnio Dias Square, between Baro de Queluz Square and Tiradentes Square, the con-
struction of this Mother Church began in 1727 and continued through the second half of the 18th
century. Builder Manuel Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinhos father, worked in the construction of this
church, where they are both buried. One of the oldest parishes of Minas Gerais (1707), the Mother
Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceio de Antnio Dias is also one of the largest and most sump-
tuous. The former sacristy houses the Aleijadinho Museum, displaying several works by this master,
including the Ea lions and the images of Saint Francis of Paola and of Christ Crucied.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
9
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE
Minas cheese (photo) is one of Brazils most characteristic food products. The process for making
Serro cheese was listed as a cultural heritage asset from the north of the state of Minas Gerais, where
rural communities preserve this tradition. In Belo Horizonte, the Central Market of Supply and Ser-
vices has a number of small stores that specialize in cheese and other dairy products, where visitors
may sample and buy Minas cheese. More than a product, cheese making in Minas Gerais is the fruit
of a knowledge that is is strongly associated to the ways of living of each producing region. (Augusto
de Lima Ave., n. 744, Downtown. Phone number: 55 31 3274.9434, www.mercadocentral.com.br)
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CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
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Braslia Monumental by nature
Braslia is the fullment of a historical aspiration of the Brazilian nation. Soon after being elected
President, Juscelino Kubitschek launched, in 1957, a public call for projects for the Pilot Plan of
Braslia. The winner was the architect and urban planner Lucio Costa, who conceived, alongside Os-
car Niemeyer, also an architect and urban planner, one of the greatest cultural achievements of the
20th century. Inaugurated on April 21, 1960, Braslia fullled its historical mission of promoting the
integration of the Brazilian territory and bringing development to the inland. In 1987, the city was the
rst 20th-century urban ensemble to be recognized as World Heritage by UNESCO. Monumentality
is its greatest feature, determined by the monumental, residential, bucolic and gregarious scales and
by its innovative architecture.
Now home to about 2.6 million inhabitants, Braslia is one of the greatest metropolis in Brazil. It is not
only the seat of the Federal Government, but also a great centre for service providers, with a beauti-
ful and singular architectural, urban and landscape heritage. It is a park-city, with a dense canopy of
trees, framed by the Parano Lake. Its innovative architecture features palaces and public buildings,
bridges and gardens, panels and sculptures, gathering the best in Brazilian architecture and art pro-
duced in the 1950-60-70s, including: the Plaza of Three Powers and the Esplanade of Ministries; the
Itamaraty Palace and the Palace of Justice; the Metropolitan Cathedral and the National Theatre; the
Cultural Ensemble of the Republic (Museum and Library) and the TV Tower; the JK Memorial and the
Catetinho; and the Alvorada Palace.
In the Plaza of Three Powers, sculptures of the highest artistic expression and symbolism compose the
landscape The Warriors, by Bruno Giorgi, also known as The Two Candangos, and Justice, by Alfre-
do Ceschiatti. Also note the panels by Athos Bulco, that can be seen in buildings such as the Claudio
Santoro National Theatre, the National Congress and the Itamaraty Palace, among many others. The
landscaping by Burle Marx is a top attraction in the Itamaraty Palace gardens (photo) as well as those
in the Urban Military Sector and in the 308 South Superquadra. In addition to the National Museum,
with its relevant collection of Modern art, several institutions also have notable collections that are
open to public visitation, such as the National Congress, the Itamaraty Palace, the Central Bank, the
Bank of Brazil Cultural Centre and the Caixa Econmica Federal.
Known as the capital of rock, Braslia is also nationally recognized for its chorinho music, represent-
ed by the Clube do Choro school and venue. The Braslia Film Festival is one of the great yearly events
for Brazilian cinema. As a centre that congregates Brazilians from all regions, it shows a diversity of
inuences in its crafts, dance and cuisine: Seu Teodoros Bumba meu Boi, in the town of Sobradinho,
is one example. The TV Tower Fair is a place of great cultural diversity in which handcrafted articles
are sold, music is performed and a rich gastronomy can be experienced, in typical dishes from differ-
ent Brazilian states, North to South.
The town of Pirenpolis and the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park are two excellent options for
tourism, at an average distance of 150 km from Braslia. The Juscelino Kubitschek International Air-
port receives ights from all capitals in the country and from the following international destinations:
Atlanta, Miami, Oporto, Lisbon, Lima, Montevideo and Panama City, as well as international ights
connecting from the cities of So Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The Airport is located at 10 km from the
Pilot Plan, and can be easily reached by bus or taxi. The city can also be reached by ground, since
Braslia is a hub for the roads that lead to most cities and regions in the country.
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MONUMENTS IN BRASLIA
PLAZA OF THREE POWERS
Located at the eastern extremity of the Monumental Axis, the Plaza
of Three Powers is a wide civic space in the shape of an equilateral
triangle, in whose vertices are the buildings that represent and house
the Legislative, Executive and Judiciary branches of the Republic: the
National Congress, the Planalto Palace and the Supreme Federal Court.
The other architectural elements in the Plaza are: the Pantheon, the
Tea House, the City Museum, the Lucio Costa Space and the Flagpole,
arranged in a composition that leaves the horizon always in view. The
sculptures on display at the Plaza were created by Oscar Niemeyer,
Bruno Giorgi, Alfredo Ceschiatti and Jos Pedrosa.
NATIONAL CONGRESS
The focal point connecting the Esplanade of Ministries and the Plaza
of Three Powers, the National Congress represents, with the TV Tower,
the vertical landmarks of the Monumental Axis. Planned by architect
Oscar Niemeyer, it was conceived as a plastic counterpoint to the citys
horizontality. Its vertical axis is marked by the two administrative build-
ings, each with 28 oors: one for the Chamber of Deputies, and the
other for the Federal Senate, in contrast with the horizontal base that
contains the two domes where the assembly halls are located. This
asymmetrical composition is, in the words of the architect, more than
a simple matter of engineering, a manifestation of spirit, imagination
and poetry.
SUPREME FEDERAL COURT
The Supreme Federal Court, designed by architect Oscar Niemeyer, is located at the Plaza of Three
Powers, opposite the Planalto Palace. Its volume was implanted with the smaller side facing the Plaza.
It consists of a three-storied rectangular glass box. The Supreme Federal Court is the highest instance
of the Judiciary Power in Brazil, accumulating the competences of a Supreme Court and a Constitu-
tional Court. It is basically entrusted with safeguarding the Federal Constitution.
MONUMENTAL AXIS
One of the elements that denes the shape of the Pilot Plan, the Monumental Axis is the place where
the monumental scale envisioned by Lucio Costa in the Braslia Pilot Plan Report is exacerbated. The
areas urban proportions, evident in the space between the buildings and in the dimensions of public
areas, highlight the architectural ensembles, particularly those of a governmental and institutional
character. It is 16 km long and consists of six trafc lanes on each direction, separated by a wide
central reservation. On its eastern extremity lies the Plaza of Three Powers, followed by the Esplanade
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
13
of Ministries. On its west side is the TV Tower park, followed by the Convention Centre and the Buriti
Square, the seat of the Federal District Government. The former Rodoferroviria Station lies at its
western extremity.
ITAMARATY PALACE
The Ministry of Foreign Relations, created by architect Oscar
Niemeyer with the structural project of engineer Joaquim
Cardozo, is also known as Palace of Arches and, mostly, as
Itamaraty Palace, a name inherited from its correspondent
in Rio de Janeiro, the countrys former capital. The transi-
tional element that separates it from the public space is a
great reecting pool, whose landscape design by Roberto
Burle Marx incorporates exotic species of tropical ora and
sculptures by Brazilian masters. The works of art integrated
to the architecture were created by Athos Bulco, Maria
Martins, Mary Vieira, Franz Weissmann, Alfredo Volpi, Al-
fredo Ceschiatti, Victor Brecheret, Srgio Camargo, Rubem Valentim, Emanuel Arajo and Pedro
Correia de Arajo. (Esplanade of Ministries, Block H. Phone number: 55 61 3411.8051).
MINISTRY OF JUSTICE
The Ministry of Justice, designed by architect Oscar Niemeyer, follows the same architectural layout
and the same structural solution of the Itamaraty Palace. From its faade in a sequence of interrupted
arches, in reinforced concrete, shell-shaped spouts throw water onto the aquatic garden of exotic
species designed by Roberto Burle Marx. The glass-covered volume that denes the administrative
area is at a recessed position in relation to the main faade. (Esplanade of Ministries, Block T, main
building. Phone number: 55 61 2025.3587).
NOSSA SENHORA APARECIDA CATHEDRAL
Its architectural layout enhances the sculptural shape
of this work by architect Oscar Niemeyer, making it
stand out amidst the homogeneous Ministry buildings.
The contrast may also be noted in the simplicity of the
construction compared to the complexity of the build-
ings structural and volumetric solution a circular oor
plan with 70 m in diameter, from which 16 pillars rise,
sealed by a network of casements that form a stained-
glass window in its interior. As in other monumental
buildings in the city, access to the Cathedral is de-
tached from the public thoroughfare by a ramp leading
to an underground oor where religious activities are
performed. The ensemble also includes a belfry and a
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baptistery. The integrated works of art are the creation of Marianne Peretti, Athos Bulco, Alfredo
Ceschiatti and Di Cavalcanti. (Esplanade of Ministries, Lote 12).
CLAUDIO SANTORO NATIONAL THEATRE
The Claudio Santoro National Theatre, designed by ar-
chitect Oscar Niemeyer, stands out from the Esplanade
of Ministries ensemble by its pyramidal shape con-
trasting with the rectangular Ministries. Along with
the Touring Club building, it connects the administra-
tive axis and the Entertainment Sector. Its project was
structured in three levels: one facing the Rodoviria
Platform, with a connecting footbridge that leads to
a great foyer/exhibit hall; a second level, correspond-
ing to the auditoriums; and a third for administrative
work. The works of art integrated to the architecture
were created by Athos Bulco, Alfredo Ceschiatti and
Marianne Peretti. (Setor Cultural Norte, Via N2).
TV TOWER
Designed by Lucio Costa, the TV Tower is the highest and most promi-
nent element in the urban landscape. It is a visual landmark in the city
as a whole. At the time of its construction, it was one of the highest
buildings in the world. It consists of a metallic structure with a belve-
dere halfway up, on a base of apparent concrete, shaped as a triangu-
lar-based prism, from where the whole city can be seen. It is located
within a park, originally designed by Burle Marx, near the Rodoviria
bus station, at the highest point of the Monumental Axis. It is one of the
most visited leisure spaces in the city. (Monumental Axis).
JK MEMORIAL
Located at the spot where the rst Mass was celebrated in Braslia, the JK
Memorial was designed and built as a tribute to the citys founder, Presi-
dent Juscelino Kubitschek. It is shaped as a broken pyramid on a rectangu-
lar base, coated in white marble, topped by a dome of apparent concrete.
Completing the ensemble is a 28 m high pedestal with a statue of Jusceli-
no. Inside, there is a library, a number of the former presidents personal
objects and his mortuary chamber (Cruzeiro Square Monumental Axis,
Western side).
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
15
CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DE FTIMA
A Catholic temple consisting of a small nave, a sacristy
and an ofce, with a horseshoe-shaped oor plan and
its outer walls covered with tiles designed by Athos Bul-
co. It was the rst masonry sanctuary built in Braslia,
inaugurated on June 28, 1958. Its construction was
completed in only one hundred days, by order of rst
lady Sarah Kubitschek, to full a vow for the healing of
her daughter. Designed by Oscar Niemeyer, the chapels
architecture reminds one of a nuns hat. It is located at
the focal point of its neighbourhood unit, making it dif-
fer from the citys address system its street is known as
Igrejinha Street. (SQS 307, Bloco C, Asa Sul).
CENTRAL SCIENCE INSTITUTE ICC
Designed by Oscar Niemeyer, it is the main academic building of the University of Braslia UnB.
Known as Minhoco, or Big Worm, it comprises two blocks united by an area that was originally
intended to be used as laboratories and to be covered by concrete domes that were never actually
built. Its curve denes two wings North and South, with two main entrances, where great balanced
winding ramps are the main feature. (Darcy Ribeiro University Campus Asa Norte).
CITY PARK
The City Park is located west of Asa Sul, covering an area of 400 hectares. A road ring surrounds the
Park, and its great diversity of settings offers leisure activities according to their zoning: administra-
tive area, Braslia Exhibit Pavilion, sporting area, cultural area and lake area. In Roberto Burle Marxs
original project, the native cerrado vegetation would be maintained in certain places, even creating
environmental protection areas. In other spaces, exotic species would be used, creating environmen-
tal conditions that might alleviate the regions hot and dry climate. The bars, with their pyramidal
roofs, were designed by architect Glauco Campello.
ALVORADA PALACE
With its privileged location, at the banks of Lake
Parano, the Alvorada Palace was built before the
city itself. Erected to be the ofcial residence of
the President of the Republic, it was the rst pal-
ace in Braslia. Its sophistication, sumptuousness
and monumentality are the result of the scale
of its internal and external spaces, more than
its ornaments and proportions. The great fron-
tal garden contributes to enhance the buildings
horizontal and monumental character, allowing
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privacy and protection due to the distance, necessary for an ofcial residence. The area also contains
a small, sculptural lateral chapel and the sculpture As Iaras, by Alfredo Ceschiatti. (Presidential Way,
Civic-Administrative Zone).
CATETINHO, THE FIRST PRESIDENTIAL RESIDENCE
Designed by Oscar Niemeyer, the Wooden Palace was
Braslias rst presidential residence, built in ten days and
inaugurated in November 1956, when President Juscelino
Kubitschek issued the rst acts for the construction of the
future capital. The name Catetinho is a reference to the
Catete Palace, seat of the Brazilian Executive Power in Rio
de Janeiro from 1897 to 1960. This is an absolutely sim-
ple building, with pure Modernist lines, raised pillars at the
ground oor and a rectangular upper oor including four suites, two bedrooms, one hall for pres-
idential acts and a small bar, all reached through an open circulation area. At the back, a ground-
oor annex holds the kitchen and the servants quarters, also made of wood. It is located next to a
fountain that is supplied by four springs of crystal clear mineral water, amidst a dense environment
of native vegetation. (Road Km 0 - BR 040, Gama Interchange).
JK BRIDGE
The JK Bridge covers a total 1.2 thousand me-
ters in length, 24 meters in width, and has two
roadways, each with three lanes, as well as lat-
eral walkways for cyclists and pedestrians. One
of the citys landmarks, the bridge was inau-
gurated on December 15, 2002. Designed by
architect Alexandre Chan, it received in 2003
the Gustav Lindenthal Medal, from the Engi-
neers Society of Western Pennsylvania, United
States, and was voted the worlds most beauti-
ful bridge. The JK Bridge crosses Lake Parano
and connects Lago Sul, Parano and So Se-
bastio to the central Pilot Plan, through the
Monumental Axis.
DIGITAL TV TOWER
Inaugurated on April 21, 2012, commemorating the citys anniversary, the Digital TV Tower is Braslias
newest tourist attraction. The monument designed by Oscar Niemeyer measures 180 meters in height
and can be seen from almost all points in the city. The result is an innovative metaphor: the cerrado
ower. Its cylindrical base represents the owers stem, holding two petals with glass domes. In one
of the petals, an exhibit hall contains a scale model of Braslia, similar to the one on display at the
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
17
Lucio Costa Space, in the Plaza of Three Powers. The other petal holds a bar/caf. At the 13th oor,
on top of the ower, there is a belvedere, offering a panoramic 360
o
view of the city. (Lago Norte).
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE
With its bold monumental architecture, Braslia is
also home to traditional street markets and fairs
that occupy many of its public spaces and its admin-
istrative regions (formerly known as satellite cities).
Crafts, Brazilian stones and typical dishes (acaraj,
abar, cuscuz de tapioca, vatap, bob and mani-
oc cake), among other products, are sold at the TV
Tower Crafts Fair (Pilot Plan, Monumental Axis, next
to the TV Tower). At the Ceilndia Central Market
(QNM 02, Ceilndia Centro, Phone number: 55 61
3372.5512), known as the meeting point of people
from Northeast Brazil, the greatest attraction are the
regional dishes (sarapatel, buchada, mocot and
baio de dois) prepared by families from the North-
east that settled in the capital.
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CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
19
Cuiab Listed historical centre
Actions to recover this heritage began in the 1980s. In 1987, its downtown area was tentatively
listed as national historical heritage by IPHAN and, in 1992, this listing was ratied by the Ministry of
Culture. Since then, many buildings were restored, including the Churches of Rosrio e So Benedito,
Bom Despacho and Nosso Senhor dos Passos; as well as the Palace of Instruction (now a historical
museum and library), Cuiab, the capital of Mato Grosso, was founded during the days of gold min-
ing, in the early 18th century. This intensive but brief activity lasted only from 1722 to 1730. After
the Paraguay War, when the river was opened to navigation, the city achieved a new dynamism,
receiving urban improvements such as gardens with water fountains and bandstands. Interrupted for
two decades, its expansion was resumed during the New State (1930-1945).
The architecture of Cuiabs original urban area, as in other Brazilian historical towns, is typically
Colonial, but through time it was modied and adapted to other styles, such as Neoclassical and
Eclectic. Well preserved until the mid-20th century, the Historical Centre lost part of its originality with
demographic expansion and economic development. Several buildings were demolished, including
the old Mother Church, in 1968, when it was replaced by the present church.
the former War Arsenal (now a cultural centre run by SESC), the Fish Market (now the Cuiab River
Museum) and a two-story house that is now the Cuiab Image and Sound Museum (MISC). The area
listed by IPHAN is the one that retains the most original traits. In the former Ruas de Baixo, do Meio
e de Cima now, respectively, Galdino Pimentel, Ricardo Franco and Pedro Celestino Streets and its
cross streets, the rows of houses still maintain their original architectural features.
Cuiab also offers other options to visitors, such as its zoo, the Rondon Museum and the Museum of
Popular Art and Culture, as well as the mark of the Geodesic Centre of South America. In riverside
communities, visitors may experience their ways of living and their local crafts, as well as enjoy the
rivers and bays used for bathing and shing.
The municipality is surrounded by three great ecosystems, the Amazon, the Cerrado and the Pan-
tanal. It is close to the Chapada dos Guimares, and is considered the entrance to the Amazon For-
est. Cerrado vegetation is predominant, from its shrubland variety to the dense gallery forests at the
riverbanks.
Cuiab is famous for its intense heat, although in the fall and winter temperatures may occasionally
reach 10
o
C, because of the cold fronts from the south that may last one day or up to a week, soon
returning to its habitual heat. Average temperature is about 32
o
C. The climate is tropical and humid.
By air, Cuiab can be reached through the Marechal Rondon International Airport. The city is also
served by buses, taxis and motorcycle-taxis.
20
IPHAN
SELECTED MONUMENTS
CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DO ROSRIO E SO BENEDITO DE CUIAB
The Church is one of the landmarks of the foundation of Cuiab. This work of earthen architecture
was built around 1730, near the Prainha creek, where Miguel Sutil discovered the gold mines that
would boost the regions colonization. Its faade, typical of Brazilian Colonial architecture, guards the
Baroque-Rococo decoration of its altars, with its rich carvings covered in gold and silver the latter a
unique detail in all of Brazil. Listed as heritage by IPHAN, the Church is the stage for the Saint Bene-
dict Festival, the longest religious festivity in the state. The Church of Nossa Senhora do Rosrio e So
Benedito is considered the oldest surviving in Cuiab. It is located at Rosrio Square, at the Historical
Centre of Cuiab. Photo: Wikipedia

BASILICA CATHEDRAL OF SENHOR BOM JESUS DO CUIAB
The construction of this temple, originally in wattle-and-daub, began in 1722, in front of two creeks,
at the highest point of town. The Cathedral was the starting point for the towns urbanization pro-
cess, since the presence of a church was a requisite for the foundation of a village. As the village
developed, the temple went through a number of reforms, received a second tower and went from
Mother Church to Cathedral. On August 14, 1968, the original building was demolished and the
present temple was raised in its place. Located in front of Repblica Square, it contains 18th-century
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
21
images such as the Good Lord Jesus of Cuiab. The church is comprised of three altars. To the right
lies the chapel of Good Jesus the Patron. At the centre, the high altar, where all community Masses
are celebrated, as well as the Cathedra, reserved for the Bishop. The crypt where authorities of the
Catholic Church of Mato Grosso are buried, including the founder of Cuiab, Pascoal Moreira Cabral
Leme, is on the underground oor.

CHURCH OF SENHOR DOS PASSOS
Installed 214 years ago in a seclud-
ed nook of the Historical Centre, the
Church carries many stories and leg-
ends that reveal aspects of the folklore,
the superstitions and the religious spir-
it of old Cuiab. Its oor plan is typical
of churches from the Colonial period,
divided into nave and high chapel.
Unlike most other churches, howev-
er, it has only one lateral corridor, to
the left, with rooms at the back. On its
main faade, to the left, is the tall and
slender belfry. The Church of Senhor
dos Passos is one of the most beautiful
and admired heritage sites in Cuiab.

CUIAB ARCHITECTURAL, URBAN
AND LANDSCAPE ENSEMBLE
The listed site has existed since the late
Colonial period, and is now a part of the central area of Cuiab (about 10% of its urban centre).
In addition to its landscape ensemble, IPHAN also listed, in 1975, the Church of Nossa Senhora do
Rosrio e de So Benedito. This ensemble includes the oldest streets and the equipment that illus-
trate remarkable moments in the citys history, from the Colonial period to the rst decades of the
20th century, in terms of materials and constructive techniques as well as styles. It includes buildings
belonging to the elites as well as the small houses typical of the lower classes.
CUIAB RIVER MUSEUM
Built in 1899 to house the Fish Market, the building was recovered in 1999, regaining its original fea-
tures, and became the Cuiab River Museum Hid Alfredo Scaff, as a tribute to the Arab descendant
who lived in the region and was the most important trader in the old market, exploiting for a long time
the inland navigation of Cuiab river. The Fish Market was built in 1899, as part of a complex of houses
that spread through streets and alleys with interesting names, such as Beco Quente (Hot Alley), Beco da
Confuso (Confusion Alley) and Rua da Lama (Mud Street). Nowadays, in addition to the Museum that
tells the history of the traditional neighbourhood of Porto, this cultural space counts with nine halls,
a restaurant, scale models of the region of old Cuiab and pieces of sacred art. The River Museum is
located at the banks of Cuiab River, at Beira Rio Avenue, in the neighbourhood of Porto.
22
IPHAN
INSTRUCTION PALACE (HISTORICAL MUSEUM AND LIBRARY)
This palace, inaugurated on August 15, 1914, was built according to the architectural style in vogue
at the time, with foundations in canga stone and 80cm-thick adobe walls. The Instruction Palace
was a school building for 57 years, accommodating the schools Liceu Cuiabano, Normal, Modelo
Baro de Melgao as well as the Museum of Natural History and Anthropology. It also housed the
Public Archives and the former secretariats of the Interior and of Justice. In 1975, with the creation of
the Mato Grosso Cultural Foundation, the building was chosen as the most adequate to display the
states cultural production, and the Public Library was permanently installed there.

WATER MEMORIAL
Inaugurated in May 2008, after the revitalization of the Water Treatment Plants. These are works
from the 1940s and 1970s that are still in activity, and are also open to visitation. The Memorial
emphasizes the importance of water in urban life, describing the whole process of treatment, from
collection to distribution, as well as the need for environmental preservation.

OLD WAR ARSENAL
Created under the name of Royal Train of War by a Royal Edict issued by D. Joo VI, in 1818, it was
intended for the manufacture and repair of military weapons. Its construction began in 1819 and was
completed in 1832, when it was inaugurated. Regional constructive techniques and materials were
used to raise a Neoclassical building in French-Portuguese style, characterising most ofcial buildings
in Rio de Janeiro. In 1831, by legal determination, the War Arsenal of the Province of Mato Grosso
was created. The building was expanded and adapted in 1848, with the creation of lateral verandas.
The insignias of the Military House are displayed on the friezes with symmetrical reliefs. The colours
ochre for the at areas and white for the reliefs enhance the composition and make their Classic
linearity even more expressive.

CUIAB IMAGE AND SOUND MUSEUM (MISC)
Inaugurated in 2006, the Museum houses photographic and sound documents that paint a portrait
of the citys daily life since 1910. The images were captured by photographers Eurpedes Andreato
(about eight thousand pictures) and Lzaro Papazian more than 25 thousand. There is also a great
number of vinyl records, VHF video tapes and cassette tapes. Located in the Historical Centre, the
Museum occupies one of the citys most signicant buildings the house of Alferes Joaquim Moura
(at Voluntrios da Ptria Street, n. 75), and is open to visitation from 2 to 6 pm. It also offers photog-
raphy courses, various workshops, shows and exhibits.

CASA DOM AQUINO PRE-HISTORY MUSEUM
This U-shaped building was raised in 1842, in Colonial style. It contains 12 rooms and its faade
faces Cuiab river, a few metres away. This residence is known by some historians as the Predestined
House, since two illustrious personalities in the state were born in it: Dom Aquino (bishop, archbish-
op, province governor, writer and poet) and Joaquim Murtinho (politician, engineer and doctor, the
precursor of Homeopathic Medicine in Brazil). The Pre-History Museum was inaugurated on Decem-
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
23
ber 7, 2006, through a partnership between the State Secretariat of Culture (SEC) and the Institute
for Ecosystems and Traditional Populations (ECOSS). It holds a permanent exhibit of Archaeology and
Paleontology and a technical reserve of more than a hundred thousand pieces. The fossils include the
giant sloth, dinosaurs and marine animals from the period when the Chapada dos Guimares was
under the sea.

RONDON MUSEUM
Created in 1972 as a centre for the research and dissemination of Indigenous cultures in Mato Gros-
so, its collection contains more than a thousand pieces, including feather adornments, costumes,
weapons, magic ritual artefacts, ceramics, musical instruments, woven and braided pieces, utensils.
There is also a photographic collection depicting the daily life of the tribes. Its name is a tribute to
Marshal Cndido Mariano da Silva Rondon, a native of Mato Grosso, for his determination in the
defence of Indian rights. The interior of the Rondon Museum reproduces the most intimate setting
of an Indigenous house, with the hammocks, the rammed earth, the wood, the re. Next to the
building, amidst the coconut trees and under the shade of Cerrado trees, an Indigenous house was
built according to the oval model of the Xingu, requiring from the Bakairi Indians the recovery of their
own memory.

MARK OF THE GEODESIC CENTRE OF SOUTH AMERICA
The city of Cuiab is located at the central portion of South America, exactly at its geodesic centre,
and is therefore the heart of South America. The Mark of the Geodesic Centre is located at Pascoal
Moreira Cabral Square, at 153556 south latitude and 560655, as established by Marshal Cn-
dido Rondon, in 1909, and conrmed by the Brazilian Army in 1975. The square formerly known
as Campo dOurique was the place where slaves were martyrized, and also where the cavalhadas
and bullghts took place. The symbolic mark with the engraved coordinates was built in masonry by
craftsman Jlio Caetano, still in 1909. A 20 metres-high marble obelisk now preserves the original
mark, protected by glass.

CHAPADA DOS GUIMARES
The Chapada dos Guimares National Park is characterized by its gigantic stone sculptures, its
multi-coloured sky and an electromagnetic corridor. It is an old dinosaur pasture, with 46 catalogued
archaeological sites in an area of 33 thousand hectares, including rock inscriptions and paintings.
The Park is considered an open-air museum, with dinosaur bones from the Jurassic period, fossils of
countless other animals and shells, and lies on one of the planets old tectonic plates. Cerrado is its
vegetation, with twisted trees and a great variety of fragrant owers. It is also considered an open-
air pharmacy, since it contains hundreds of medicinal herbs, all of them threatened with extinction.
The main representatives of its fauna are the tortoise known as cgado and the smooth-fronted
caiman, as well as the red-maned wolf, the pampa deer, the pampa cat, the giant anteater and the
giant armadillo. From May to September, the dry season, the hiking trails are accessible, but between
December and April the region is subject to heavy rainfall and the trails become very dangerous. The
most visited places include waterfalls such as Vu da Noiva and Cachoeirinha, archaeological sites
and historical monuments. The Park is open to visitation every day of the week, from 8 am to 5 pm.
The municipality of Chapada dos Guimares is at nine kilometres from the Park.
24
IPHAN
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE
VIOLA DE COCHO
A musical instrument found in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, its name is a ref-
erence to the process of its making: a one-piece wooden log is sculpted in the shape of a guitar and
hollowed in the part corresponding to the sounding chamber. It is made in the same way as a cocho,
an object carved out of a tree log, used as a container to lay out food for farm animals. A sounding
board is attached to this cocho, as well as the parts characterizing the instrument, such as the bridge,
the fretboard, the saddle and the tuning pegs. The Viola de Cocho was acknowledged as national
heritage by IPHAN, in December 2004.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
25
YAOKWA RITUAL OF THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE ENAWENE NAWE
The Yaokwa Ritual is considered the main ceremony in the complex ritual calendar of the Enawene
Nawe, an Indigenous people of the Aruak language, in northwest Mato Grosso. The ritual lasts seven
months, and marks the beginning of the Enawene calendar, when the men leave the tribe to go sh
collectively at a dam. The ritual goes on throughout the dry season, a period marked by interactions
with the fearful natural beings of the underground, the Yakairiti, doomed to live in insatiable hunger,
who need the Enawene Nawe to satisfy their voracious appetite for vegetable salt, sh and food de-
rived from corn and manioc. Thus, the Enawene Nawe must establish an exchange relationship with
these spirits so they can maintain their social and cosmic order.
SIRIRI AND CURURU
Siriri and Cururu, centuries-old traditions of Indigenous origins, are two folkloric dances typical of
the Pantanal region, more popular in rural and riverside areas. To this day, very few studies have been
published on the topic, and those that exist are usually based upon the narratives and the memory of
a few characters that, at 50, 60, 70, 80 or almost 90 years old, still contribute to keep this tradition
alive. The viola de cocho is one of its basic instruments, as a fundamental element for its rhythm, in
spite of its few notes. These manifestations have been considered intangible heritage by IPHAN.
26
IPHAN
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
27
Fortaleza Visit the attractions
protected by IPHAN
The original settlement of Fortaleza dates from the 17th century. Portugal intended to establish there
a fortress to defend the region against foreigners and to facilitate contact with the North of Brazil.
During the Colonial period, Portuguese domination in Cear was interrupted in two moments by the
Dutch, who wished to gain control of the province: In 1637, when they conquered the Fort of So
Sebastio, and in 1649, with the construction of Schoonenborch Fort. With the reestablishment of
Portuguese dominion, the Village of Fortaleza was created in 1699, remaining an inexpressive set-
tlement, in political and economic terms, for more than a century. By the late 18th century, cotton
production and trade had become the pillar of the economy of Cear, fostering its commercial and
political development and creating the necessary conditions for its separation from Pernambuco, in
1799. Fortaleza was raised to the status of a city in 1823, in recognition of its growth and political
relevance.
The citys expansion and the growth of its population were intensied in the second half of the 20th
century. Today, more than a great urban centre, Fortaleza is one of Brazils most important metropolis,
with a population of more than 2.4 million inhabitants. Tourism is one of the citys main activities,
and among its greatest cultural and natural attractions are properties under the protection of IPH-
AN such as the Jos de Alencar Theatre (1908), the Jos de Alencar Birthplace, the Passeio Pblico
(1880), the Provincial Assembly Building, the Cear Museum (1857), the building of the National
Department of Works Against the Draught and the Fortress of Nossa Senhora da Conceio.
Four other towns in the state of Cear possess urban ensembles protected by IPHAN: Ic, Viosa,
Sobral and Aracati. The rst of these towns to be included in heritage lists was Ic, in 1998. One of
the greatest expressions of this town is its historical centre, dating back to the Colonial period, with
the predominance of Baroque style and references to French Neoclassicism. During the cycles of gold
and charque, in the 18th and 19th centuries, Ic was a major trading post in the inlands of the Prov-
ince of Cear. Various constructions remain from this period, veritable documents of the occupation
of the Northeast hinterland by cattle farming. Viosa and Aracati are also cities with a rich heritage,
added to the natural beauties of the Quixad Monoliths.
Fortaleza maintains many of the states cultural traditions, such as cordel literature, one of the most
important creations of Cear, represented by an expressive collection in the Cear Museum, with
popular poet Patativa do Assar as its greatest exponent. Fortaleza can be reached through the Pinto
Martins International Airport; by car, through the roads BR-101, BR-406, BR-304 e BR-116; BR-135,
BR-316, BR-343 and BR-222; and by buses leaving from the main capitals in the country.
28
IPHAN
SELECTED MONUMENTS
JOS DE ALENCAR BIRTHPLACE
The house where novelist Jos de Alencar was
born is located at the old Alagadio Novo farm,
in the outskirts of Messejana. The lands that used
to be the property of senator Alencar, the writers
father, now belong to the Federal University of
Cear. The property contains the house as well
as the ruins of an old sugar mill, the rst steam-powered mill in Cear. The house is simple, with brick
oorings, brick and lime walls, carnauba palm timberwork and a ceilingless roof. Its architectural sig-
nicance, however, is due to the fact that it documents the evolution of the use of carnauba palm as
a roong material in the early 19th century, the most likely period of its construction.
JOS DE ALENCAR THEATRE
This 776-seat theatre is located at Jos de Alencar Square, at Downtown Fortaleza. Its construction
began in 1908 and it was inaugurated on June 17, 1910, representing the early 20th-century ideals
of Civilization and Progress in the capital of Cear. In 1918 the building went through its rst reform,
when it received electrical installations and the pitch ooring in the garden was replaced by hydraulic
tiles. In 1957, the Austrian chairs with cane seats were replaced by plastic upholstered armchairs.
In the 1970s, the theatre was completely restored. In the same period the theatre gained a lateral
garden designed by landscape artist Roberto Burle Marx.
PASSEIO PBLICO
In the early 19th century, the area that is now the Passeio Pblico and the Holy House of Mercy
was called Campo da Plvora or Largo da Misericrdia. After the revolutionary movement known
as Equator Confederacy, the area came to be known as Praa dos Mrtires, or Martyrs Square,
since some of the movements leaders, including Father Moror and Pessoa Anta, were shot by a
ring squad there in 1824. In the middle of the century, when the city began a timid beautifying
process, the Province president, Fausto Augusto de Aguiar, wrote in a report on July 1, 1850, that
the Praa dos Mrtires should be landscaped, becoming a beautiful public promenade. To this
day, a centuries-old baobab tree planted by senator Pompeu exists at the place that witnessed the
ring squad.
PROVINCIAL ASSEMBLY CEAR MUSEUM
In 1835, the Province president, Joaquim Vilela de Castro Tavares, in a report
presented to the Provincial Assembly of Cear, called attention to the neces-
sity of a house that is tting to the role performed by the Province legislators,
since the existing one resembles more a building housing the sessions of some
hamlets municipality. It was inaugurated in 1871. In addition to the Provincial
Assembly, the building had other uses in different moments of the history of
Cear: it accommodated the Law School, the Public Library, the Regional Elec-
toral Court, the Cear Institute and the Cear Academy of Letters.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
29
SOLAR CARVALHO MOTA DRAUGHT MUSEUM
The property that was once the residence of the states
vice-president, Colonel Antnio Frederico de Carvalho Mota,
was built in 1907. Two years later, the Inspectorate of Works
Against the Draught was established in the building. The
house is now the Draught Museum, telling the history of
draughts in the Northeast with photographs, blueprints of
weirs and equipment. The Museum is at Pedro Pereira Street,
n. 683, and is open to visitation from Tuesday to Friday, 8 to
11:30 am.
MOTHER CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DO ROSRIO ARACATI
A straw-covered chapel originated this Church, whose construction began in the rst years of the
18th century and ended in the second half of the 19th. The temple fell apart in 1745, however, and
was rebuilt in 1761. The church houses images and a beautiful communion table in jacaranda wood,
including a carved transom above the door of the baptistery, and a doorway in sandstone from Bahia,
with panelled doors in relief nished with phytomorphic motifs. A great high cross at the front of the
church bears the symbols of the Passion, from 1859.
CHAMBER AND JAILHOUSE ARACATI
The Chamber and Jailhouse of Aracati was built in the second half of the 18th century, to house
the chamber, the court and a prison for men and women. One of the most important documents to
retrace the history of this building is a watercolour by Jos dos Reis Carvalho, now in the National
History Museum. A pupil of Debret in the Imperial Academy and a painter in the Scientic Exploration
Commission, Jos dos Reis travelled through Cear under the direction of botanist Freire Alemo,
between 1859 and 1861.
30
IPHAN
ARACATI HISTORICAL SITE
Aracati arose from a fortlet built in 1603 by a pacifying expedition. The settlement grew with the
occupation of the inland and with the growth of the economy supporting great latifundiums, based
on the sale of cattle products. Its position as a port at a navigable river soon attracted the farmers
in the neighbouring areas. Raised to the status of a village in 1747, it had a major role, in the 18th
and 19th centuries, as centre of the cattle-farming region of Cear. The streets of Aracati, its houses,
churches, its chamber and jailhouse and many other buildings are witness to the ways of life of past
generations.
CHAMBER AND JAILHOUSE QUIXERAMOBIM
Raised by an Azorean builder between 1818 and 1832, the
building still houses the Municipal Chamber. In this construc-
tion, popular elements appear alongside clear signs of a late
Eastern inuence, a solution often observed in ancient Portu-
guese-Brazilian architecture.
CHAMBER AND JAILHOUSE CAUCAIA
Built in the rst half of the 18th century, the Chamber and Jailhouse of Caucaia was restored in 1962
and 1987, when it was adapted as a library. In the last intervention, a supporting annex was added
to the building: a hydraulic block and storage space. The building was retrieved to the community,
after restoration, on February 27, 1988.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
31
MOTHER CHURCH OF SANTANA IGATU
According to popular tradition, the Mother Church of SantAna, in the town of Iguatu, was built by
Indians of the Quixel ethnicity, under the guidance of Jesuit priests, the rst colonizers of this region.
Its construction was complete in 1853, but the steeple would not be raised until the late 19th or early
20th century.
CHAMBER AND JAILHOUSE IC
Little is known about the construction of the Chamber and Jailhouse of Ic. Initiated in the late 18th
century, its construction was at rst entrusted to Jos Bernardes Nogueira. Owing to problems with
its builder, works were interrupted between 1780 and 1800, when ordinary judge Captain Roberto
Correia took over its construction. It is one of the greatest and most important of these houses in
Cear, with an original system of iron bars isolating the cells. The building now houses the public jail
and the forum.
IC HISTORICAL SITE
In the 18th century, at the banks of Salgado river, an afuent of Jaguaribe, a palisade was built to
defend and protect the inhabitants from the skirmishes between the Indians and the colonizers,
allottees, colonists and associates. With the end of these ghts, the Arraial da Ribeira dos Ics our-
ished and developed around the Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Expectao. Ic reached a high level
of development in the 18th century, becoming the states most active centre of cattle trading. By the
19th century it was one of the foremost commercial and cultural centres of Cear, and in 1842 the
village was raised to the status of a town.
32
IPHAN
CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DA CONCEIO DE ALMOFALA ITAREMA
According to tradition, this church was founded in the place of the small chapel that originated the
Tremembs Mission, in 1702. Its construction, completed in 1758, was in the hands of the Brother-
hood of Our Lady of Conception. In 1897, a huge dune began to advance towards the church and
the neighbouring houses, threatening to bury them. As the situation worsened, in 1898, the images
and the cult objects were removed. The episode represented a dramatic chapter in the history of local
population. The building remained buried for almost half a century, reemerging only between 1940
and 1943.
MEAT MARKET AQUIRAZ
Historically, meat markets are associated to the ap-
pearance of charqueadas, or salted meat factories,
in Cear. Cattle was then sold near the slaughter
zones, allowing for a concentration of wealth in the
region and the development of urban centres in the
provinces. The Meat Market of Aquiraz is one of the
most important works of popular architecture in the
country. It features a square oor plan, consisting of
a central nucleus surrounded by porches. Its timberwork is entirely made of carnauba palm, and the
design of its structural pieces is developed as an exploration of the squares inner lines.
CEDRO WEIR QUIXAD
The rst major public construction in the country, the Cedro Weir represents an attempt to respond
to national clamour regarding the tragic consequences of the draught of 1877/79, when the con-
struction of weirs was established as a political option. Of all the suggested works, only the Cedro
Weir was in fact built. Preliminary studies, dated 1882, were made by English engineer Jules Revy.
Works were suspended until 1889 and would not be completed until 1906.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
33
QUIXAD MONOLITH ENSEMBLE
It is considered National Heritage because of the extraordinary beauty of this landscape in the coun-
trys natural scenery. The hills forming this ensemble are known as monoliths or inselbergs, a German
word meaning rock mountains. These granite rocks were formed 600 million years ago, during the
period known as Pre-Cambrian, when life appeared on earth. A bubble of magma, an incandescent
material existing in the planets nucleus, rose to the terrestrial crust. Its ascension was interrupted and
it cooled slowly, solidifying and crystalizing completely. Thus were formed the hills of Quixad, with
an average height ranging between 200 and 500 metres.
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE
XYLOGRAPHY, CORDEL LITERATURE
Written in rhymes and illustrated with xylographs, cordel
literature was brought from Europe by the Portuguese and
spread through much of Brazil, especially in Northeastern
states. Authors create and recite their poems and sell printed
leaets. The cordelistas, cantadores, emboladores and repen-
tistas bring life to tourist attractions and open markets with
their challenges and improvisations, to the sound of violas
and pandeiros. In Fortaleza, they perform at Ferreira Square
(Downtown) and in the Association of Northeast Cantadores
(Coelho da Fonseca Street, n. 195, lvaro Weyne. Phone
number: 55 85 3236.2878), as well as in the Cultural Centre
of Cordelistas of Cear/Cecordel (Gal. Sampaio Street, Down-
town, n. 1128. Phone number: 55 85 3252.3561, www.
cecordel.com.br/historico). Their leaets are also sold at
the Cordel National Stand (Largo dos Correios, Downtown.
Phone number: 55 85 3454.1835).
34
IPHAN
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
35
Curitiba Diversity of styles
The capital of the State of Paran, in the south of the country, founded in March 1693, Curitiba
contains a diversity of ancient and modern architectural styles that enrich its urban landscape and
represent an expressive cultural landscape. The historical and demographic formation of the city is
characterised by the presence of people descending from immigrants of various origins, in addition
to the ethnic foundation of Brazil, consisting of Indians, Africans and Portuguese.
The ways of being and doing, the civic and religious festivities of different ethnicities, the dance, mu-
sic, cuisine, expressions and the memory of their ancestors are incorporated to the city, represented
in the different immigration memorials, in public spaces such as municipal parks and woods. Build-
ings displaying Eclectic, Neoclassical, Colonial, Byzantine and Eastern architecture, as well as styles
inspired in the homeland of immigrants, conrm Curitibas cultural diversity and wealth.
In the citys Historical Centre, some important buildings can be found, such as the Church of Ordem
and the Paranaense Museum, the Church of Rosrio and the Metropolitan Cathedral, the Romrio
Martins House and the Presbyterian Church, the Ruins of So Francisco and the Garibaldi Society,
the City of Curitiba Memorial and the Museum of Sacred Art, as well as the Flowers Clock and the
Fountain of Memory. The place is a traditional meeting point for the population, because of the street
market that has been in activity since 1973 as well as a number of bars, pubs and restaurants, some
serving typical food of the immigrant communities that helped colonize the city.
By airplane, Curitiba can be reached basically through the Afonso Pena International Airport, in the
neighbouring town of So Jos dos Pinhais, the main international airport in the South of Brazil. The
airport is approximately 17 km from downtown Curitiba.
36
IPHAN
SELECTED MONUMENTS
PAO MUNICIPAL
The building was raised between 1914 and 1916, and listed as a heritage site in 1984. It was the seat
of the Curitiba City Hall until 1969. Its architecture is Eclectic with Neoclassical details and art nou-
veau elements, such as the iron marquise facing Tiradentes Square, the wooden mouldings and the
gate at the main entrance. Its strongly ornamented tower contains semi-circular balconies and three
clocks. The monument is considered heritage in the state and federal levels. It was recently revitalised
to accommodate a cultural centre managed by SESC/PR.
ETHNOLOGIC, ARCHAEOLOGICAL, HISTORICAL AND ARTISTIC COLLECTION IN THE PARANAENSE MU-
SEUM
Inaugurated in 1876 at Largo da Fonte (now Zacarias Square), the Museum, originally a private
institution, went into public administration six years later. Since then, it became a research centre,
promoting a number of scientic expeditions throughout the state. It currently develops studies in
the areas of Archaeology, Anthropology and History. Its collection consists of about 400 thousand
items, including documents and photographs, lms and records, paintings in different techniques
and sculptures, as well as a great archaeological and ethnographic collection. Between 1979 and
2005, it received the estate of Czech naturalist Vladimir Kozk, as well as that of the former Paran
State Bank and the collection of the now extinguished Coronel David Carneiro Museum. The Muse-
ums ethnological, archaeological, historical and artistic collection was listed as heritage by IPHAN in
1941.
CORONEL DAVID CARNEIRO MUSEUM: ETHNOLOGIC, ARCHAEOLOGICAL, HISTORICAL AND ARTISTIC
COLLECTION
Its collection consists of coins and medals (Brazilian and foreign), ethnographic articles (ornaments,
clothing and musical instruments) and mineralogy (drawings, watercolours and oil portraits), and was
listed as heritage by IPHAN in 1941. The weaponry and the military uniforms worn by the Brazilian
Army in different periods, including those worn in the Lapa Siege by Federalist troops, are some of
its greatest attractions. There is also a rich collection of everyday objects and furniture used by Pa-
ranaense society in the 19th century.
ARAUCRIA HOUSE
The famous and gigantic araucria or Paran pines,
typical of the South of Brazil, inspired immigrants
from Europe and Asia, who arrived in the country
after the 19th century, to build their own houses,
particularly in Paran. So many houses were built
using its timber that they earned a specic name:
Araucria House. This timber architecture is still very
common in Brazilian urban and rural landscapes. Its
most signicant production came from the region
of Curitiba, because of the rst steam-powered
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
37
sawmills that used araucria pine forests, with its abundant and high-quality prime matter. These
houses present a singular style that reects the culture of the masses of immigrants that arrived in
Brazil in the late 19th century. The Superintendency of IPHAN in Curitiba is installed in one of these
houses, built around 1920, in a ranch at the Porto neighbourhood. The house was disassembled
and transported to its current address, in the neighbourhood of Juvev, enabling its preservation.
PERA DE ARAME (WIRE OPERA)
One of Curitibas landmarks, the Wire Opera
was inaugurated in 1992, in Pedreiras Park.
The theatre was built from a tubular structure
with a clear polycarbonate ceiling, a project
by architect Domingos Bongestabs, a profes-
sor in UFPRs School of Architecture and Ur-
ban Planning. An articial lake surrounds the
building, and a footbridge crosses the waters
and leads to the auditorium, that can hold 2.4
thousand spectators and whose stage mea-
sures 400 square metres. In the park that was
once a quarry, visitors may now appreciate the
native forest and several species of birds.
BOTANICAL GARDENS
Covering an area of 245 square metres, the
geometrical gardens and the three-domed
greenhouse are the trademark of the Botan-
ical Gardens and one of Curitibas main land-
marks. The greenhouse contains plants typical
of Brazils Atlantic Rainforest, and is built over
a metallic art nouveau structure inspired by a crystal palace that existed in London in the 19th centu-
ry. Surrounding the greenhouse, the Frans Krajcberg cultural space displays permanently 114 sculp-
tures by the Brazilian-naturalised Polish artist and environmentalist. The Botanical Gardens include
also the Municipal Botanic Museum, hiking trails through thickets of araucria pine trees, a lake,
sports courts and a velodrome.
TIRADENTES SQUARE
The Square is Curitibas historical Ground Zero, as it was formally founded in this place. Legend has
it that the area was chosen by the Tindiquera chief, from the Tingui tribe, to house the regions rst
inhabitants, who lived in a camp at the banks of the Atuba river, now the Bairro Alto neighbourhood.
In 1889, when the emperor of Brazil passed through the city, it was renamed Dom Pedro II Plaza. The
name Tiradentes Square came with the Republic, in 1889. The Square holds the historical monolith
with the Cross of Christ, symbolizing the power legally constituted by the king of Portugal, estab-
lished on March 29, 1693. The citys Birthplace is also located there.
38
IPHAN
METROPOLITAN CATHEDRAL
The Minor Basilica Cathedral of Nossa Senhora da Luz, in Tiradentes Square, is one of the citys most
relevant cultural heritage sites. This Neogothic temple was built between 1876 and 1893, following
the project of French architect Alphonse de Plas. It was erected at the place of the old 17th-century
mother church, and is still dedicated to Our Lady of Light of the Pines, patron of Curitiba. Site: www.
cultura-arte.com/curitiba/catedral.htm.
CHURCH OF ROSRIO DOS PRETOS
Located at the Historical Centre, the current Church of Nossa Senhora do Rosrio dos Pretos de So
Benedito was built in 1946, in Baroque style, at the same place as the old one, demolished in 1931.
The rst Church of Rosrio, inaugurated in 1737, was built by slaves and for slaves, in Colonial style.
It was Curitibas third church, originally called Church of Nossa Senhora dos Pretos de So Benedito.
It was the citys mother church from 1875 to 1893, during the construction of the Cathedral, in Tira-
dentes Square. The current faade still sports the tiles from the original church, and in its interior are
Portuguese tiles depicting the Stations of the Passion of Christ.
CHURCH OF ORDEM
The Church of Ordem Terceira de So Francisco das Chagas was built by the Portuguese in 1737,
under the name of Church of Nossa Senhora do Tero. It is the oldest church in Curitiba. Its present
name was established with the arrival of the Order of Saint Francis to Curitiba, in 1746. It was used as
a Franciscan convent until the 19th century, when it became the parish of Polish immigrants. Around
1834, part of the church fell over, not to be restored until 1880, with the visit of emperor D. Pedro
II. A heritage site since 1965, the temple was again restored from 1978 to 1980. The Museum of
Sacred Art was established there in 1981. In 1993, during a reform, an opuscule was found between
the walls containing precious information on the history of the church.
LARGO DA ORDEM
This plaza, in front of the Church of Ordem, is the heart of the citys Historical Downtown. It was a
busy commercial area from the 18th century and through much of the 20th. In 1917, it was ofcially
named Largo Coronel Enas. Other heritage sites are also located in the plaza: the Romrio Martins
House (considered the oldest in Curitiba), the Casa Vermelha (a cultural space), the Museum of Sa-
cred Art (annex to the Church of Ordem) and the Drinking Fountain, where muleteers and farmers
brought their horses and mules for a drink of water, in the mid-18th century.
OSCAR NIEMEYER MUSEUM
Inaugurated in November 2002, under the name of New Museum and following the project of ar-
chitect Oscar Niemeyer, it is known as the Museu do Olho, or Eye Museum, because of its shape. It is
one of the largest exhibit complexes in Brazil, covering almost 16 thousand square metres devoted to
works of art. Its various spaces include a 400-seat auditorium, a caf and leisure areas.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
39
UKRANIAN MEMORIAL
Located at Tingui Park, the Ukranian Memorial pays tribute to Curitibas Ukranian immigrants, and
was inaugurated in 1995, when their arrival completed one hundred years. The ensemble consists of
a replica of the Church of So Miguel Arcanjo, a typical house, an open-air stage and a gate. All of
these buildings are made of encased wood, in Ukranian style.
PASSEIO PBLICO
It is the citys rst and most central park. It was inaugurated in 1886, covering 70 thousand metres of
natural forest, at the banks of the Belm river. It was also the citys rst zoo, and still possesses a few
animals and an aquarium. The Passeio Pblico is considered an ecological sanctuary at the heart of
Curitiba, with a lake and islands, a grout, a suspension bridge and a oating stage.
RUINS OF SO FRANCISCO
Located at Joo Cndido Square, in the neighbourhood of So Francisco, these ruins are the remains
of a construction that would become the Church of So Francisco de Paula. Initiated by the Portu-
guese in 1811, the high chapel and the sacristy were eventually completed, but, in 1860, the stones
that would be used to complete the church were used to raise the tower of the old Mother Church.
Stories say although they have never been proved that tunnels connect the ruins to other places
in the city.
MATE HISTORICAL PARK MUSEUM
A heritage site listed by IPHAN in 1985, the Park of the Town of Campo Largo (PR) covers 31.7 hect-
ares of an extensive green area, including native forest areas, a lake and leisure spaces. The main
building, made of wattle-and-daub over brick masonry, houses the Museum resulting from the
restoration of an old Mate Farm from the second half of the 19th century. It is the sole remainder
from the countless water-powered mate mills in Paran. The Museum displays objects that describe
the process of mate production and transport, as well as the importance of the Mate Cycle for the
states formation. The Mate Historical Park is associated to the Paranaense Museum and to the State
Secretariat of Culture.
LAPA HISTORICAL CENTRE
Listed as a heritage site in 1992, the town of Lapa (PR)
arose from muleteer camps. It was the set of signicant
battles, such as the Contestado War and the episode
known as Lapa Siege, referring to the 26 days of strug-
gle and resistance by the Florianist army commanded
by General Gomes Carneiro against the Rio Grande do
Sul Federalist forces, in 1894. The protected urban en-
semble includes buildings of various architectural styles,
such as Portuguese-Brazilian, immigrant and Eclectic.
40
IPHAN
PARANAGU HISTORICAL CENTRE
Paranagu is a port town, and was the rst urban nucleus in the state of Paran. Its Historical Centre,
listed as a heritage site by IPHAN in 2009, includes some major exemplars of Brazilian Colonial archi-
tecture, such as the Church of Ordem Terceira de So Francisco das Chagas and the Jesuit College.
Also note the rows of two-story houses in Praia Street, the typical dwellings of afuent classes in the
late 16th century. Some other aesthetic inuences, such as Neoclassicism, were absorbed and can be
seen in the Municipal Chamber building and in the Viscount of Ncar Palace.
ANTONINA HISTORICAL CENTRE
As a determinant inuence for the occupation of
the territory, the natural environment formed by
the Serra do Mar mountain range and the Para-
nagu Bay is harmoniously integrated to the ur-
ban landscape of Antonina (PR) a rare quality
that reveals great potential for the towns social
development. Its historical relevance is associated
to the so-called rst cycle of gold in Brazil, before
its exploration in Minas Gerais. The buildings in
Antonina Historical Centre present features of Bra-
zilian Colonial, Eclectic and Art Dco styles. For its
historical and landscape value, it was listed by IPH-
AN as a heritage site in 2012. The protected area
includes a rare exemplar of industrial architecture
from the early 20th century, known as Matarazzo
Complex, representing the golden age of industri-
alisation and of port activities in Paran.

FORTRESS OF NOSSA SENHORA DOS PRAZERES
This fortress was built in the northern part of
Mel Island, at the entrance to Paranagu Bay
(PR), between 1767 and 1770. It lies at the foot
of Baleia Hill, from which the stones used in
its construction were removed. It is the sole ex-
emplar of 18th-century military architecture in
Paran, and consists of an organic fortication,
that is, one that adapts to the sites topograph-
ical conditions. It counted originally with 12
pieces of artillery and a small military detach-
ment. The battery of cannons on top of the hill
was installed at a later date, in the early 20th
century, but it was never completed.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
41
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE
FANDANGO CAIARA (SP AND PR)
The fandango caiara is a cultural expression that involves music and dance, wisdom and skills, work
and amusement. In Paran, this expression is deeply rooted in the caiara communities of the mu-
nicipalities of Guaraqueaba, Paranagu and Morretes. The fandango is practiced by caiara com-
munities that make their own musical instruments and prepare food and drink for the dances. The
community gathers around the abundant feasts in celebrations that reinforce their relations of kin-
ship and conviviality, to the sound of the viola (ve-string guitar) or the accordion, with round dances
and tap dancing, alternating with music and poetry. This cultural manifestation can be experienced
in Guaraqueaba 173 km from Curitiba, at the banks of the beautiful Paranagu Bay.
THE CAPITAL OF MULETEERS
Voted as the Capital of Brazilian Culture, the town of Lapa
(PR) is home to a relevant cultural heritage. The troops
of muleteers that crossed the region of Campos Gerais
from the Serra do Mar mountain range towards So Paulo
played a major role in its history. The towns population
inherited the habits, values and customs of these people,
who tilled these lands with love and courage, making the
city part of the route of a history that will not be forgot-
ten. The congadas, an expression symbolizing devotion
and praise to Saint Benedict, and muleteer cuisine are
also strong manifestations of the towns spirit. Its typical
cuisine shows the inuence of Portuguese, Indians and
Africans. One of its favourite dishes is the paoca lapeana,
made with dried meat and cracklings, manioc our and
quirera (broken corn and pork loins).
42
IPHAN
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
43
Manaus Brazils environmental capital
The name of the city comes from the Indigenous language mana, meaning Mother of the Gods. Its
history began in 1669, as an Indian settlement surrounding the Fortress of So Jos da Barra, built
to avoid the access of Dutch invaders and ensure the Portuguese crowns domination in the region.
This historical port city, located at the heart of the worlds greatest tropical rainforest, is known pri-
marily by its potential for ecotourism. With its extraordinary natural resources, the city is considered
Brazils Environmental Capital and counts with some major parks and ecological reserves, such as the
Mindu Park, the Sumama State Park, the Ponte dos Bilhares Park and the Adolpho Ducke Botanical
Gardens the largest in the world.
The Ja National Park, for instance, is Brazils greatest national park and the largest in the world con-
sisting of intact humid tropical rainforest. The word Ja, from the Tupi (ya), is the name of one of
the largest sh in Brazil and also of the river that crosses the Park. Located at 220 km from Manaus,
it was listed by Unesco in 2000 as a World Natural Heritage Site.
The city is known not only for its natural beauties, however, but also by its architectural and cultural
heritage, including numerous temples, palaces, museums, theatres, libraries and universities. One
of its main tourist attractions is the Amazonas Theatre, inaugurated on December 31, 1896. The
Historical Centre, the Amazonas Theatre, the Downtown Port Complex, the Adolpho Lisboa Market,
the Moc Reservoir and the Meeting of the Waters (photo above) were all recognized by IPHAN as
national heritage.
The climate in Manaus is considered humid tropical, with a yearly average temperature of 26.5
o
C,
increased rainfall during the summer and a high relative humidity throughout the year, with monthly
averages ranging from 76 to 89%.
River transportation is very common in the city, through its great and very busy port the largest
oating port in the world -, reaching practically all of the countrys North region. The Eduardo Gomes
International Airport, located at 14 km from Downtown Manaus, is t to receive all kinds of aircraft.
44
IPHAN
SELECTED MONUMENTS
ADOLPHO LISBOA MARKET
The Adolpho Lisboa Municipal Market, one of the most important centres for the trade of regional
products in Manaus, was built in the golden days of rubber extraction. Because it is an unparalleled
exemplar of iron architecture in the world, it was listed as heritage on July 1, 1987, by IPHAN. Above
the ag of the main gate, there is a cartouche engraved with the name of Adolpho Lisboa, mayor of
the city of Manaus at the time of its construction. The Market itself was eventually named after him.

MANAUS HISTORICAL CENTRE
The historical centre of Manaus is a stretch of urban area in which buildings from the golden days
of rubber extraction coexist with modern buildings. It is one of the greatest testimonials to a unique
economic era in Brazil. Cities such as Manaus, Belm (PA) and Rio Branco (AC) are examples of the
occupation and development of the North region, when the exploitation of latex enabled industrial
development throughout the world. For its cultural value, the historical centre was listed as heritage
by IPHAN in 2012.
MEETING OF THE WATERS
The meeting of the waters of rivers Negro and Solimes is an
exceptional and singular phenomenon. The volume and speed
of the waters of the river at the moment of their meeting are
two of its most notable features. Its expressive strength and
grandeur certainly make it the largest meeting of waters in the
world: from the point where the waters meet, it takes ten kilo-
metres for them to merge completely. The rst three kilometres
are marked by an almost rigid line, dividing the clear and mud-
dy waters of the Solimes river, to the right, and the dark and
transparent waters of Negro river to the left. The site is consid-
ered national heritage by IPHAN for its landscape value.
AMAZONAS THEATRE
Inaugurated in 1896, it is the most signicant expression of the
regions wealth during the Rubber Cycle. The city was then one
of the most prosperous in the world, fuelled by the wealth of
latex extraction, a product in high demand by European and
North American industries. The society of the time felt, then,
the need for a space where foreign companies could perform,
requiring the construction of the theatre. The selected archi-
tectural project was developed by the Portuguese Cabinet of
Engineering and Architecture of Lisbon. It is now the greatest
architectural heritage of the Amazon, listed as historical heri-
tage by IPHAN on November 28, 1966.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
45
CAIXA DGUA MOC RESERVOIR
A magnicent work in Neo-renaissance style, it was inaugurated in 1899 during the golden days of
rubber extraction. The reservoir, covering an area of about a thousand square metres, was planned
and built with the aim of solving the water supply issues that aficted the city in the late 19th century.
It stands out for its imposing inner structure completely made of iron imported from England sup-
porting two enormous metallic tanks, installed at the top of the building. Listed as heritage by IPHAN
on March 13, 1995, the Moc Reservoir still supplies part of the city of Manaus.
JA NATIONAL PARK
It is the greatest National Park in Brazil and the largest in the world consisting of a continuous stretch
of intact humid tropical rainforest. The Ja National Park is located in the municipalities of Novo Airo
and Barcelos, at 200 km from Manaus in a straight line. It was named after one of the largest sh in
Brazil, the Ja (from the Tupi ya), that also lends its name to the main river in the Park. In 2000, the
Park was inscribed in UNESCOs World Heritage List.
DOM PEDRO II SQUARE
Inaugurated in 1897, the Dom Pedro II Square
was originally surrounded with railings. Re-
moved in 1907, they were installed at the South
entrance of the Adolpho Lisboa Market, where
they remain to this day. The square contains an
iron bandstand, completed in 1888, manufac-
tured by the English company Francis Morton &
Cia. Limited Engineer, from Liverpool, as well as
a water fountain also made of iron. The square
was built above an Indian cemetery, discovered
in the late 19th century, and listed as an archae-
ological site in the 1960s. It is part of the pro-
tected area of Manaus historical centre.
46
IPHAN
MUNICIPAL CLOCK
Built in 1929, the clock was designed by the Amazonian Coriolano Durand in Neoclassical style, with
a Swiss engine. It has two faces. One of them bears the Latin inscription Vulnerant omnes, ultima
necat, meaning They all wound, the last one kills. It is located within the protected area of the
historical centre of Manaus.
AMAZONENSE ACADEMY OF LETTERS
Founded in 1918, the Academy originally met in Manaus University Institute. The current Eclectic
building was donated in 1935. The property is listed by the State of Amazonas and is located within
the protected area of Manaus historical centre, as dened by IPHAN.
BENJAMIN CONSTANT INSTITUTE
An Eclectic construction from the late 19th
century, it had a number of uses: the Baron
of So Leonardos palace, a botanic muse-
um, the Benjamin Constant Institute or-
phanage. It is now a unit in the Amazonas
Centre of Technological Education. It is lo-
cated within the protected area of Manaus
historical centre, as dened by IPHAN.
STATE PUBLIC LIBRARY
Built between 1905 and 1910, at the plot where the Public Stables used to be, it was hit by a re
in 1945, when it lost almost all of its collection and the buildings south wing, that was rebuilt and
reopened two years later. It was designed by architect Jos Castro de Figueiredo, from the state of
Par. A notable feature of its Eclectic architecture, with a predominance of Classical elements, is the
internal stairway in openwork wrought iron from Liverpool, England. It is located within the protect-
ed area of Manaus historical centre, as dened by IPHAN.
SO JOO BATISTA CEMETERY
Its rst plots were purchased in 1890, and
the cemetery was inaugurated in 1891. In
1905, the walls facing lvaro Botelho Maia
Avenue and Major Gabriel Street were built,
including their iron gates from Scotland. The
other walls date from the early 1920s. Its
chapel in Neogothic style was inaugurated
in 1906 and reformed in 1915. It is located
in the surroundings of the Moc Reservoir.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
47
CHAMIN ART CENTRE
The building was once a sewage treatment plant, run by the English Manaos Improvements Limited
Company. Its construction was completed in 1910. In 1993, it was converted to house the Chamin
Art Centre.
CORREIOS E TELGRAFOS AGENCY
Built in the early 20th century to accommodate the Marius & Levy company, this Eclectic building
displays a ceramic coating of apparent brick in all its faades. The Correios e Telgrafos (Post and
Telegraph) Company has been in activity in the building since 1921. It is located within the protected
area of Manaus historical centre, as dened by IPHAN.
EUCLIDES DA CUNHA SCHOOL GROUP
Its construction dates from 1896, and it had a
number of uses through time. Between 1905
and 1906, it was the Complementary School
for Boys, followed by the State Public Health
Department, until, in 1927 it became the Guer-
reiro Antony School Group called Euclides da
Cunha School Group after 1931.
BARO DO RIO BRANCO SCHOOL GROUP
The building had a number of uses: Milagres de Santo Antnio Village, residence of merchant Tancre-
do Porto, Portuguese Consulate. In 1943, it became a school building. This Eclectic building is located
within the protected area of Manaus historical centre, as dened by IPHAN.
JOS PARANAGU SCHOOL GROUP
Built by the enterprise Alberto Grossi & Cia, it was inaugurated in 1895, with no ofcial name. Its
original aspect was altered because of expansion works, resulting in an Eclectic typology. It is now the
State Education Council headquarters.
LAW COLLEGE
This building once housed the Silvrio Nery School
Group and the Nilo Peanha School Group. After
1934 it became the College of Law and Social Sci-
ences of Manaus, renamed in 1936 Law College
of Amazonas and transferred to the University
Campus in 2004. The second oor of this Eclectic
building was built during a reform, between 1936
and 1938. It is located within the protected area of
Manaus historical centre, as dened by IPHAN.
48
IPHAN
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE
IAUARET WATERFALL A SACRED PLACE FOR THE INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS OF THE UAUPS AND
PAPURI RIVERS
The Iauaret Waterfall is a place of vital importance for the Indigenous peoples that live in the region
bathed by the Uaups and Papuri rivers distributed in ten communities, most of them multicultural,
consisting of ethnicities of the Eastern Tukano, Aruaque and Maku linguistic branches. Many of the
stones, agstones, islands and channels in the Iauaret waterfall symbolise episodes of wars, perse-
cutions, deaths and alliances as described in these peoples origin myths and historical narratives. It
is considered their Sacred Place, bearing the marks of the history of their origins and their settlement
in the land, as well as the history of the establishment of relationships of afnity that still allow the
coexistence and the shared cultural standards of a number of groups that have been living in that
territory for millennia.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
49
NEGRO RIVER TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM (AM)
The Negro River Traditional Agricultural System is based upon manioc growing, and involves a set
of knowledge and skills that has deep roots in the daily lives of the Indigenous populations of the
Northwest Amazon, along the channel of Negro River and its tributary river basins. It takes place in
a multi-ethnic and multi-linguistic context with shared means for the transmission and circulation of
knowledge, practices and products. This cultural asset involves knowledge that is strategic to deal-
ing with the limitations and potential of the regions ecosystem, while avoiding its degradation. It is
based on the coivara or slash-and-burn method, consisting of felling an area of primary forest that is
left to dry and then burned. These clearings are then planted for a period of two to three years, when
they are gradually abandoned to their natural recovery and visited only for collecting fruit.
50
IPHAN
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
51
So Paulo National and international
inuence
Founded by Jesuit priests in 1554, So Paulo is the largest city in the country. This world-renowned
metropolis exerts signicant cultural, economic and political inuence in Brazil and abroad.
The massive immigration of the late 19th and early 20th centuries brought to the state people from
all over the world. A great portion of the more than ve million immigrants who landed in Brazilian
territory eventually settled in the state of So Paulo. The population descends mostly from Europeans
(especially Portuguese, Italians, Spaniards and Germans). There are also large communities of people
from the Middle East (Lebanese, Syrians and Armenians) and from Eastern Asia (Japanese, Koreans
and Chinese), as well as people of African and Indigenous descent. The diversity of peoples and cul-
tures that helped build the city also makes the regions gastronomy a major tourist attraction in its
own right.
Its cultural life is considered one of the best in the country. Countless theatres, movie theatres, muse-
ums and art galleries cater to all tastes. Some of its most important monuments are the Latin America
Memorial, the Portuguese Language Museum, the Ipiranga Museum (photo), the So Paulo Museum
of Art, the Ibirapuera Park, the So Paulo Botanical Gardens and Paulista Avenue. The city also hosts
major events such as the International Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix of Formula One, the So
Paulo Fashion Week and the So Paulo Indy 300.
Historical and cultural heritage is spread throughout So Paulo. In the capital, for instance, are the
three houses designed by Gregori Warchavchik considered the rst works of Modern architecture
in Brazil, as well as churches, paintings and images, estates and museum collections. The Monument
to the Independence of Brazil, a sculptural ensemble in granite and bronze, can be seen at the his-
torical site where Dom Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil, proclaimed the independence of the country from
the United Kingdom of Portugal.
So Paulo shares with Paran the stretch of Atlantic Rainforest declared Biosphere Reserve by UNES-
CO in 1991 and Natural World Heritage in 1999. The biodiversity of Atlantic Rainforest is comparable
to that of the Amazon, and its biome may be subdivided into a number of ecosystems because of
variations in latitude and altitude. The UNESCO listing intends to preserve the primary forests and
ensure the existence of its ethnic and cultural heritage, represented by the indigenous communities
that live in the outskirts of the protected area. These communities have been coexisting with the
environment in perfect harmony, using it without destroying it.
The state of So Paulo encompasses four different types of climate: super-humid tropical, high-alti-
tude tropical, hot and humid tropical and humid subtropical. The two main airports are located in the
capital: Congonhas Airport, for domestic ights, and the So Paulo International Airport, one of the
most important in Brazil, located in the municipality of Guarulhos, serving domestic and international
ights. There is also the Campo de Marte Airport, for helicopters and small airplanes.
52
IPHAN
SELECTED MONUMENTS
CHURCH OF SO MIGUEL PAULISTA
A church consisting of a single nave, a high chapel and a
ceilingless gable roof with apparent timberwork, built out
or rammed earth. Its interior is furnished with pieces made
of lathed jacaranda wood. At the request of the Francis-
cans, it was reformed in 1691 and again in the 18th cen-
tury. The chapels ceiling height was raised from four to
six metres, leaving the roof of the churchs side porch at a
lower level, allowing the creation of the choir windows. It
was one rst of the rst buildings to be listed as heritage
by IPHAN, in 1938.
WARCHAVCHIK MODERNIST HOUSE
The Modernist House, designed and built in 1927 by Gregori Warchavchik (1896-1972), was the rst
construction to employ the rational principles of French architect Le Corbusier. This two-story house,
with its straight design comprised of cubes and planes, is covered by a Colonial tile roof framed by
platbands. Its mouldings, made of timber or iron, were designed by him and made in his own work-
shop. The garden was designed by his wife, Mina Klabin, in an area of 12 thousand square meters,
with typically Brazilian plants.
IPIRANGA ENSEMBLE: INDEPENDENCE PARK
The Independence Park was inaugurated in 1988 in the
neighbourhood of Ipiranga as part of Brazilian national his-
torical heritage. It includes the Ipiranga Museum, the Mon-
ument to the Independence, the gardens and the Casa do
Grito, or House of the Cry (of Independence). A French-
style garden connects the museum and the monument to
the other buildings in the place, including a plant nursery
and a zoology museum. At a lower terrain, the garden con-
joins the Museum building in an ensemble of great visual
impact.
IPIRANGA ENSEMBLE: PAULISTA MUSEUM
The Museums Eclectic building, designed by Italian en-
gineer Tommaso Gaudenzio Bezziser, was conceived as
a monument commemorating the independence of the
country.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
53
IPIRANGA ENSEMBLE: MONUMENT TO THE INDEPENDENCE
This sculptural ensemble in granite and bronze was created by Italian
sculptor Ettore Ximenes. It is located at the banks of Ipiranga Creek, at
the historical site where Dom Pedro I, the emperor of Brazil, proclaimed
the countrys independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil
and Algarves, on September 7, 1822.
IPIRANGA ENSEMBLE: CASA DO GRITO
A simple wattle-and-daub construction, it was rebuilt in 1955 according to the scene conceived by
Pedro Amrico in his renowned painting depicting the Independence of Brazil.
MASP - SO PAULO MUSEUM OF ART AS-
SIS CHATEAUBRIAND
The So Paulo Museum of Art was cre-
ated by Assis Chateaubriand, in 1947,
initially,in the Dirios Associados building.
During the administration of Adhemar de
Barros, in 1959, the City Hall ceded an
area of Trianon Park for the construction
of the Museums permanent building,
inaugurated on November 7, 1968. The
building is an icon of the city of So Pau-
lo. It was listed as heritage by IPHAN in
2003. The MASP is a museum as well as a cultural centre offering a number of activities such as an
art school, workshops, dance, music and theatre performances, lectures and debates, courses for
teachers and many others, throughout the year.
CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DO ROSRIO
The monument consists of a single building comprising the
church and the former residence of priests. The design of its
doors and windows creates a delicate movement on the faade.
This is one of the most relevant and well-preserved remnants of
Jesuit constructions in So Paulo, characterized by the simplicity
of its straight lines. The church was built around 1700, by the
priest Belchior de Pontes, to replace a chapel installed at the farm
of Catarina Camacho, also dedicated to Our Lady of the Rosa-
ry, patron of the municipality of Embu. It was built of rammed
earth, with paintings in the high chapel and sacristy. Between
1730 and 1734, the Jesuits built their residence annex to the
church, forming a continuous architectural ensemble of a simple and sober design. In the 19th cen-
tury, the Jesuit architectural ensemble of Embu received a number of sacred sculptures and carvings
by the priest Macar, also preserved in the Church and in the Museum of Sacred Art.
54
IPHAN
PARANAPIACABA RAILWAY VILLAGE
In the Tupi-Guarani indigenous language, Paranapiacaba means a place from which one sees the
ocean. On a bright day, that was the view the Indians had when passing through that place, after
climbing the Serra do Mar mountain range towards the plateau. In the 19th century, at the steep
path used by the Indians since pre-Colonial times, a railway was built that changed the landscape of
the So Paulo inlands and led to the foundation of the Village of Paranapiacaba. At rst, the Village
was merely a camp for construction workers. After the inauguration of the railway, in 1867, part of
them had to settle there to take care of the systems maintenance. In 2002, it was listed by IPHAN as
cultural heritage of Brazil.
TILE PALACE
A historical building located at downtown Campinas (SP), at the crossing of Ferreira Penteado and
Regente Feij Streets. It is thus called because of its Portuguese tile coating at the upper oor. It was
built in 1878 as the residence of Joaquim Ferreira Penteado, the Baron of Itatiba. In 1908, the build-
ing was donated by the Barons descendants to the municipality, becoming the the Forum and the
Town Hall headquarters until 1968, when the Jequitibs Palace was completed. In 1967, the Tile Pal-
ace was acknowledged in the federal, state and municipal levels, and was listed as heritage by IPHAN.
OFICINA THEATRE
Founded in 1958, in the Law School of the University of So Paulo, by Amir Haddad, Jos Celso Mar-
tinez Correa and Carlos Queiroz Telles, the Teatro Ocina Uzyna Uzona, or simply Ocina Theatre,
is located in the neighbourhood of Bixiga. The place was a hub for great artists and also witnessed
the release of an important manifesto for Brazilian culture, the Tropicalismo a 1970s revival of
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
55
Oswald de Andrades Anthropophagical movement, from the 1920s that exerted great inuence
on musicians, poets and other artists. The place became a public state theatre in 1984, under the
management of Grupo Ocina. Now very different from the original, the building was reconstructed
in 1986, according to the project of architect Lina Bo Bardi, maintaining the simple faade of a house
in Bixiga, but with a Modernist interior. The Theatre was listed as heritage by IPHAN in 2010, for its
cultural, historical and architectural value.
LUZ STATION
The Station was built in the neighbour-
hood of Luz, in the late 19th century, to ac-
commodate the recently created So Pau-
lo Railway Company, a British enterprise.
Its great relevance, however, stems from
its role in the countrys economic infra-
structure: the station received the coffee
that would be shipped from Santos har-
bour as exports. Luz Station also received
imported consumer and capital goods to
supply the city that was still scarcely indus-
trialized. The Station reects the historical
moment in which it was built, as testimo-
nial to the power of coffee in the citys ex-
pansion. Built next to the Luz Garden, its tower dominated part of the landscape of central So Paulo
for decades. Luz Station was listed as heritage by IPHAN in 1996.

CHURCH AND MONASTERY OF SO BENTO
The Monastery of So Bento, at So Bento Square, in Downtown So Paulo, is one of the citys most
important historical buildings. It is part of an ensemble that includes also the Abbatial Basilica of
Nossa Senhora da Assuno, the So Bento School and the So Bento College. The original church
of So Bento was built in 1598. In the rst decade of the 20th century the church and the monastery
ensemble were demolished and replaced by the actual building in Neoromantic style.
RESGATE FARM
An old coffee farm in the municipality of Bananal (SP). The house, built in the mid-18th century in
the style of a Portuguese manor (with a single story) and adapted to the style typical of Minas Gerais
coffee production in the rst half of the 19th century (with two stories, but no renement) received a
Neoclassical faade, with a central ashlar stairway. The materials used in its reform are also different
from those of its rst construction: the ground oor is made of stone and wattle-and-daub, and the
second, of adobe bricks. The Resgate Farm is, then, a preserved monument of Brazilian history. It is a
heritage site protected by IPHAN and considered one of the hundred most beautiful and important
buildings in the history of Brazil.
56
IPHAN
CNDIDO PORTINARI HOUSE
The house where painter Cndido Portinari lived during his childhood, in the town of Brodowsky (SP),
was not built all at once. Its annexes are the result of successive expansions of a construction that is,
in its structure, very simple. The Nonna Chapel, located in its gardens, was built for the prayers of the
artists grandmother. In the chapel, Portinari painted his grandmothers favourite saints, all of them
with the physiognomy of people from his family. Most of the paintings in the house collection cover
religious themes. The Portinari House was listed as heritage by IPHAN on December 9, 1968.
VILLAGE OF CARAPICUBA
The Village of Carapicuba is a historical town located at the South of the municipality of Carapicuba
(SP). In spite of its great indigenous population, its lands are limited to two leagues surrounding the
Santa Cruz Chapel. It was created by Jesuit priests, who took possession of the land donated by a
farmer and his wife in mid-1759. Ofcially, however, its foundation date is considered October 12,
1580. The Village is listed as national historical heritage.
MAND RANCH
The Mand Ranch House, a heritage site under IPHAN, is an im-
portant landmark that illustrates the passage of Jesuits, bandei-
rante explorers and muleteers through the town of Cotia (SP).
It is an example of 17th-century rural architecture in So Paulo,
featuring a veranda at the back of the house and vestiges of a
hardwood oor. The inner chapel has a dome at the high chap-
el with paintings from the 1600s. The ensemble consists of a
Colonial-style house with four bedrooms and two porches, one
at the front, as part of the social area, and another at the back,
for domestic services. The word mand comes from the Tupi
Indian language Manduaha, meaning ambulant load.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
57
SO LUIZ DO PARAITINGA HISTORICAL CENTRE
With its Colonial style architecture, the town preserves features from the age of coffee barons. The
historical centre congregates houses, slopes, chapels, squares, bandstands and fountains. Under the
protection of IPHAN since 2010, the heritage site encompasses the historical centre and the visual
preservation of the towns Serra do Mar mountainous surroundings.
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE
FANDANGO CAIARA
A festive expression that involves music, dance
and poetry and can be found throughout the
Southern Coast of So Paulo and the Northern
Coast of Paran. It has deep roots in the daily lives
of caiara communities, reinforcing their identity
and determining local socialization patterns, with
its complex structure dened by a set of practic-
es that involve work, play, religiosity, music and
dance, prestige and rivalries, wisdom and know-
how. The Fandango Caiara is divided into batido
and bailado or waltzed, according to the instru-
ments used, the musical structure, the verses and
beats. The balls are the occasion for establishing
networks of exchange and dialogue between
generations, for exchanging instruments, tunings,
trends and steps, enabling the continuity of its
memory and of the practice of its many songs and
dances.
58
IPHAN
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
59
Rio de Janeiro 231 listed properties
The city of So Sebastio do Rio de Janeiro was founded in the 16th century, in 1565. As its political,
administrative and economic relevance grew, it eventually became the seat of the viceroyalty and
capital of the Colony, in 1763, a status that previously belonged to Salvador. The citys central role
since the Colonial period made Rio de Janeiro the geopolitical foundation of Brazil. Through time, it
witnessed the most important political moments in the countrys formation: it was capital of viceroy-
alty, Imperial Court, capital of the Republic. Thus, the history of the city runs parallel with the political,
social and cultural history of Brazil itself.
A crucial moment for the transformation of the city as well as the formation of the country was the
transfer of the Portuguese court to Rio de Janeiro, in 1808 an unparalleled event in the entire world.
The presence of the court in Rio de Janeiro not only unveiled a new political and economic landscape,
particularly after the Opening of the Ports, but also put an end to the citys intellectual and cultur-
al isolation. Public libraries were founded, as well as scientic, philosophic and literary academies,
schools and theatres, and the citys urban and architectural structure was remodelled. Thousands of
immigrants arrived in the capital in that same period, and the arrival of merchandise from abroad, as
well as economic facilities, contributed to alter the material and everyday life of cariocas, turning the
city into a cosmopolitan centre.
With the Proclamation of the Republic, in 1891, Rio de Janeiro retained its position as seat of the
political and administrative powers, and was at the time the largest city in the country, with over 500
thousand inhabitants. At the dawn of the 20th century, a large-scale urban remodelling took place,
in which broad avenues were opened and an Eclectic, art nouveau-inspired architecture was created
that came to inuence the whole country. When the capital was transferred to the Central Plateau,
in 1960, Rio de Janeiro lost its status as political centre, but remained a metropolis renowned the
world over for its exceptional interaction between culture and nature. With its exuberant beaches
and mountains, its musicality expressed in samba, choro and bossa nova, its typical cuisine, Rio de Ja-
neiro is one of the top tourist destinations in the world and the most visited in Brazil. It represents the
most internationally acknowledged image of the countrys heritage. Its striking and singular features
earned the city the unprecedented title of UNESCO World Heritage in the Urban Cultural Landscape
category.
Its heritage itinerary is comprised of gardens, squares and parks, museums, buildings, fortresses,
urban ensembles and landscapes. It includes the Botanical Gardens, the Pao Imperial, the Outeiro
da Glria, the Church and Monastery of So Bento, the ensembles of Teles Arches, Conceio Hill,
Quinta da Boa Vista, Praa XV, Guinle Park, among others. The relevance of the city in the formation
of Brazil contributed to the exceptional number of properties listed as cultural heritage in the state of
Rio de Janeiro: a total of 231. Twenty-two other municipalities in the state have heritage properties
under the tutelage of Iphan, including historical towns such as Vassouras and Petrpolis, as well as
the town of Paraty.
The city can be reached through the Santos Dumont and Galeo airports. By car, from the Cen-
tre-West and Minas Gerais, it can be reached through BR-040; from So Paulo, through Via Dutra;
from the North Coast of So Paulo, through the Rio-Santos highway; from the South and Northeast,
through BR-101. By bus, there are several lines leaving most capitals in the country.
60
IPHAN
SELECTED MONUMENTS
PASSEIO PBLICO

In 1779, Master Valentim was commissioned by the viceroy Luiz
de Vasconcelos, with the construction of a park for the city of
Rio de Janeiro. To this day, the Passeio Pblico retains the great
Rococo-style wrought-iron gates boasting the royal coat of arms.
It was created around paths. The rst passed between two pyra-
mids and ended at Fonte dos Amores, or Fountain of Love, lead-
ing to a terrace above the waters of Guanabara Bay. The Rua
das Belas Noites, or Street of Beautiful Nights, led to the Marre-
cas spout, with the bronze statues of the Hunter Narcissus and
the Nymph Echo (now found at the Botanical Gardens). In the
late 19th century, the Passeio Pblico was rearranged by botanist
Glaziou, who opened new gracious winding paths. The Passeio Pblico is considered the rst gar-
dened park in Brazil. (Rio de Janeiro Historical Downtown, between Lapa and Cinelndia).
SO BENTO MONASTERY
Founded in the 16th century by Benedictine monks, it includes a monastery and a church. In spite of
considerable alterations and expansions undertaken at the end of the same century, the ensembles
frontispiece still preserves the character of the building as it was in 1617. The churchs exuberant
interior is completely covered with gilded carvings. It is considered one of the greatest monuments of
Colonial art in the country. It remains a place of silence, prayer and labour, as well as an excellence
centre for Gregorian chant, with the Choir of the Monks of the Monastery of So Bento performing
Sunday Mass at 10 a.m. Its repertoire includes pieces from the 5th to the 12th century. (Phone num-
ber: +55 21 2206.8100. http://www.osb.org.br/mosteiro/index.php).
CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DA GLRIA
Originally, in the 17th century, there was a
chapel devoted to Our Lady of Glory on top of
the hill now known as Outeiro da Glria. The
current church was built in the early 18th cen-
tury and completed in 1739, following a plan
attributed to Lieutenant-Colonel Jos Cardo-
so Ramalho. It represents the introduction, in
Brazil, of Baroque-style elongated polygonal
oor plans. This church lies at the centre of a
wide parvis, dominating the landscape with its
Baroque silhouete dened by a succession of
monumental pillars placed along the sides of
the nave, extending all the way up to the up-
per cornice. (Nossa Senhora da Glria Square,
n. 135/204).
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
61
LAPA ARCHES
During the government of Aires de Saldanha (1719-1725), an aqueduct was built to bring water
from the springs of the Carioca river, along the slopes of the Santa Teresa range, to the square Lar-
go da Carioca. In order to cross the valley between the hills of Santa Teresa and Santo Antnio, the
most notable work of architecture in the Colonial period of Brazil was created: a cyclopean masonry
construction, with a double arcade and considerable length. The Carioca Aqueduct, as it was then
called, was later used as a viaduct for the cable cars that serve the neighbourhood of Santa Teresa.
(Arcos Street, n. 1 Downtown).
MUNICIPAL THEATRE
On October 15, 1903, mayor Pereira Passos launched a public bid calling for projects for the con-
struction of a Municipal Theatre. Two projects were tied in rst place: the quila, pseudonym for
engineer Francisco de Oliveira Passos, and the Isadora, pseudonym for French architect Albert
Guilbert. The nal decision was to merge the two projects, since they actually corresponded to the
same typology. The building was decorated by the most important painters and sculptors of the time,
such as Eliseu Visconti, Rodolfo Amoedo and the Bernardelli brothers. European artisans were also
recruited to make glass panes and mosaics. (Marechal Floriano Square, Downtown. Phone numbers:
+55 21 2332.9191 and 21 2332.9134 www.theatromunicipal.rj.gov.br).
62
IPHAN
GUSTAVO CAPANEMA PALACE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
AND HEALTH BUILDING
The building is the most important symbol of modern ar-
chitecture in Brazil and the rst application, in a monumen-
tal scale, of the ideas of Le Corbusier. The rigorous plastic
discipline applied to each component and the concision of
the formal elements used, in which each detail is completely
subordinate to the composition, justify the crucial impor-
tance of this construction in the panorama of Modern archi-
tecture in Brazil and in discussions of it abroad. This 14-sto-
rey building rises above the terrain, standing on raised pillars
10 meters high. It contains panels by Portinari, gardens by
Burle Marx and a sculpture by Celso Antnio Dias. (Imprensa
Street, n. 16 Downtown).
ASSOCIAO BRASILEIRA DE IMPRENSA (BRAZILIAN PRESS
ASSOCIATION)
Designed by the Roberto brothers (architects Marcelo, Mil-
ton and Maurcio) and inaugurated in 1938, the ABI build-
ing was one of the rst Modern buildings in Rio de Janeiro.
The building was listed not only because of its pioneering
forms, but also for the historical signicance of the entity,
always associated with ghts for freedom of expression in
the country. Built according to the system advocated by Le
Corbusier, the building has notable architectural merit. All the furniture and other equipment serving
the building were designed by the Roberto brothers. (Arajo Porto Alegre Street, n. 71 Downtown).
NATIONAL LIBRARY
The creation of the Royal Library in Brazil is associated
with the arrival of Queen D. Maria I, the Prince Regent D.
Joo and all the royal family and the Portuguese Court in
Rio de Janeiro, in 1808. The collection brought to Brazil,
comprised of 70 thousand pieces including books, man-
uscripts, maps, stencils, coins and medals, was housed at
rst in one of the rooms of the Hospital of the Convent
of Ordem Terceira do Carmo, at Direita Street. The date
October 29, 1810 is ofcially considered the foundation
of the Royal Library, although it would not be open to
the public until 1814. The National Library of Brazil, ac-
knowledged by UNESCO as one of the ten greatest na-
tional libraries in the world, is also the largest in Latin
America. (Rio Branco Ave., n. 219. Phone number 55 21
3095.3879, http://www.bn.br).
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
63
FORMER CASA DA MOEDA
In 1853, the Minister of Finance, Joaquim Jos Rodrigues Torres, the Vice-Count of Itabora, request-
ed from the Chamber Houses the credit for the construction of a building to house the Mint of Rio
de Janeiro, founded in 1767 to cast and coin the gold extracted from mining. The two-storey Neo-
classical building, designed by engineer Teodoro de Oliveira, was erected in Repblica Square and
inaugurated in 1868. It now holds the National Archives.
RUI BARBOSA HOUSE
The house was built in the mid-19th century and purchased by Rui Barbosa in 1893. This Neoclassical
building is surrounded by a beautiful garden and has a partial second storey at the centre of the main
faade, with a series of doors and windows and a wide porch. On display are objects that belonged
to Rui Barbosa, and the library is one of the most valuable in the country. (So Clemente Street, n.
134 - Botafogo).
64
IPHAN
CHCARA DO CU
A property that belonged to the family of Raimundo de Castro Maia, where his son Raimundo Otoni de
Castro Maia gathered a valuable art collection. As part of the Raimundo Otoni de Castro Maia Founda-
tion, it was turned into a museum on March 22, 1972. The building covers approximately 460 m and
was designed by Wladmir Alves de Souza, built in masonry over a structure of reinforced concrete, with
three storeys, and surrounded by a great park. (Murtinho Nobre Street, n. 93 - Santa Teresa).
ROWS OF HOUSES AT CATETE (34 HOUSES)
These two-storey houses were built after the Catete Palace, in a style that is typical of the mid- and
late 19th century. They were intended as residences, with doors at the ground oor, French windows
and sole or long balconies at the upper oor. They are usually topped by slightly decorated platbands,
some with marble or stucco statuettes and vases.
NATIONAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS
This monumental building was erected at the then recently inaugurated Central Avenue, now Rio
Branco. Designed by Adolfo Morales de Los Rios, it consists of four wings surrounding a central patio.
It occupies an entire block. The National Museum of Fine Arts was ofcially created on January 31,
1937, by Minister Gustavo Capanema. Before it was effectively opened to the public, however, on
August 19, 1938, it went through a few changes. The collections of the National School of Fine Arts
and the administrative sectors remained in the building, but the courses were gradually transferred to
other places. (Rio Branco Avenue, n. 199 Downtown. Phone number 55 21 2240.0068).
CASTRO MAIA FOUNDATION
The property measures about 25,000 m and was purchased by Raimundo Castro Maia to serve as
residence for his family in 1913. It is a simple two-storey building, with a large porch at the front,
modied to look as though it was a Colonial Brazilian building. The two annex pavilions were made
after 1920, when the great thicket was also reformed. On the path leading to it are several Portu-
guese ceramic statues from the famous factory of Santo Antnio do Porto. On the porch walls, sev-
eral tile panels from the D. Maria I period. The former coach-house, turned into the Debret Gallery,
displays that artists watercolour collection as well engravings by other artists who had been to Brazil:
Rugendas, Planitz, Hastrel, Arago, Monvoisin, Pallire etc. (Murtinho Nobre Street, n. 93. Phone num-
bers: 55 21 3970.1297 and 21 3970.1641).
CANDELRIA CHURCH
Its construction began in 1755 and ended in 1811. It follows a Latin Cross oor plan, with two sac-
risties, one at each side. Italian inuence is evident in the interior, coated with marble rather than the
usual Portuguese wooden carvings. The main faade is made of wrought stone and the bronze doors
were crafted by sculptor Teixeira Lopes. The plaster sculpture is the work of Bartolomeu Meira. The
wall paintings were made by Zeferino da Costa, with the participation of Bernadelli, Oscar da Silva,
Castagneto, Pinto Bandeira and others. The blueprint of the church was designed by master engineer
Francisco Joo Roscio (Pio X Square Downtown. Phone number: 55 21 2233.2324).
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
65
COPACABANA PALACE
Inaugurated in 1923, the traditional Copacabana Palace Hotel building, facing Atlntica Avenue,
was built by architect J. Gire, at the request of the Federal Government, in order to promote the de-
velopment of the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro, particularly Copacabana, at the time nothing but a
huge sandbank. The building is one of the greatest exemplars of Eclecticism in Brazil. In its admirably
functional oor plan, supply and maintenance services are distributed with impeccable precision. It
has 145 rooms, as well as stores, restaurant, bar and services on the ground oor, and great halls, on
the rst oor. (Atlntica Ave, n. 1702 Copacabana. Phone number: 55 21 2548.7070).
PAO IMPERIAL
The Royal Order of November 27, 1730 authorized the
construction of a house for the residence of viceroys, in
Rio de Janeiro. The former Pao da Cidade, designed by
engineer Jos Fernandes Pinto Alpoim and inaugurated
in 1743, covers an area of 2,940 m, in the historical
downtown of Rio de Janeiro. It was later used as work-
place by the viceroy of Brazil, the king of Portugal D.
Joo VI and emperors Pedro I and II. It is now a cultural
centre managed by IPHAN. For its historical and aesthet-
ic relevance, the Pao Imperial is considered the most
important of civil Colonial buildings in Brazil, a living
document of aspects of Portuguese and Brazilian archi-
tecture before the arrival of the French Artistic Mission.
(Quinze de Novembro Square, n. 48 Downtown).
66
IPHAN
FLAMENGO PARK
Flamengo Park, encompassing an area that ranges from Santos Dumont Airport to Viva Hill and the
beginning of Botafogo Beach, resulted from the reclaiming of a broad strip of land at the front of
Esplanada do Castelo, Lapa, Glria, Russel and Flamengo, with material from the levelling of Santo
Antnio Hill. The urbanisation, buildings and equipment were all designed by Afonso Eduardo Reidy,
and the landscape design by Roberto Burle Marx. The beach was reconstituted at the coastal strip,
and a number of other recreational equipment were created. The park includes also the Museum of
Modern Art, designed by Afonso Reidy, and the Monument to the Dead in World War II.

COPACABANA FORT
Located at the promontory of the former Church of Nossa Senhora de Copacabana, the Fort was
inaugurated in 1914, to reinforce the defence of Guanabara Bay. The casemate retains its original
features, with its 12-meters-thick walls facing the sea and its arsenal from the Krupp factory. Now a
Cultural Centre, the Copacabana Fort presents visitors with a number of curiosities and attractions.
In the Army Historical Museum, major events are narrated through exhibits, videos, scale models and
even a very original interactive sector, greatly attended by visitors. To top it all, a panoramic view of
one of the most beautiful spots in our entire Coast. (Coronel Eugnio Franco Square, n. 1 - Copaca-
bana. Phone number: 55 21 2521.1032).
FORTRESS OF SO JOO
The Fortress of So Joo was raised at the promontory of Cara de Co Hill, at the entrance to the
bar of Guanabara Bay, next to the Sugar Loaf, at an area that now belongs to the Brazilian Army. It
is a veritable centuries-old belvedere open to the bay (the long-retired casemates sculpted in stone
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
67
look out over a panorama of the forts in Niteri and at the entrance to the Bay) comprised of three
redoubts (small fortlets also called Batteries) and a great Fort, the So Jos Fort, built in 1578 the
third oldest fort in the country. It is the ideal place to understand the citys foundation and feel the
enchantment of living history. Visitors may also explore the Cara de Co Hill, considered by IBAMA
an Environmental Preservation Area, as well as the Armys Sport Museum. (Urca. Phone number: 55
21 2543.3323).
CHRIST THE REDEEMER / CORCOVADO CLIFF
One of the most celebrated tourist attractions in
Rio de Janeiro, Corcovado is a mountain of 704
m in altitude, located at the frontal extremity of
the Carioca Range, visited for the rst time in the
19th century. It was Emperor D. Pedro I who de-
cided to open a path leading to the Corcovado,
giving rise to the habit of strolls in the region. Ac-
cording to tradition, the priest Pedro Maria Boss,
chaplain of the Imaculada Conceio School in
Botafogo, came up with the idea of having an
image of Christ at the summit of Corcovado Hill.
Heitor da Silva Costa won the contest, in 1923,
but the image he envisioned, of Christ holding a
globe and a cross, was replaced by the current
image of Christ, made by French artist Paul Landowsky. (Tijuca National Park, Alto da Boa Vista.
Phone number 55 21 2558.1329).
PO DE ACAR HILL (SUGAR LOAF)
The Po de Acar Complex consists of the Po
de Acar, Urca and Babilnia Hills. Bathed by the
Guanabara waters, it includes as a complementary
attraction the cable car ride, connecting Vermelha
Beach, Urca Hill and the Po de Acar. The Po
de Acar Cable Car was envisioned in 1908 and
inaugurated in 1912, as the rst cable car system
installed in the country. The Po de Acar Hill con-
sists of a single block of gneiss-granite over 600
million years old, deriving from the separation be-
tween the South-American and African continents.
It rises at 395 meters above sea level and is home
to rich vegetation, including several species of bro-
meliads and orchids. (Urca).
68
IPHAN
MRIO FILHO STADIUM MARACAN
Considered the Temple of Football, the Jornalista Mrio Filho Stadium, a.k.a. Maracan, was inau-
gurated in 1950 especially to host the World Cup. Miguel Feldman, Waldir Ramos, Raphael Galvo,
Oscar Valdetaro, Orlando Azevedo, Pedro Paulo Bernardes Bastos and Antnio Dias Carneiro were the
authors of the architectural project that won the public bid launched by the Rio de Janeiro City Hall,
in 1947. More than two thousand workers were involved in its construction. The Maracan witnessed
some great moments in Brazilian and world football, such as Pels thousandth goal, Brazilian Champi-
onship nals, memorable matches in the Carioca Football Championship, Libertadores da Amrica Cup
and FIFAs rst Club World Championship. Recently modernized, Brazils largest stadium now holds 78
thousand people. (Professor Eurico Rabelo Street, Maracan. Phone number: 55 21 8871.3950).
BOTANICAL GARDENS
At the foot of the Tijuca Massif, between the
Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon and the mountain,
the Botanical Gardens of Rio de Janeiro were
created in 1808, after the arrival of the Por-
tuguese Royal Family, originally as a garden
for exotic plants and spices from the East. 53
out of its current 137 hectares are open to
the public, with a great in situ collection of
plants organized in geometric alleys. Among
its greatest attractions are the towering palm
trees that give the place a sense of vastness.
The remaining area is integrated to the Tijuca
National Park and is dedicated to preservation and scientic research, conducted by the Botanical
Gardens Research Institute, a world reference centre in Atlantic Forest studies. The Casa dos Piles
Museum, in the former Royal Gunpowder Factory building, is also part of its facilities. (Jardim Botni-
co Street, n. 1008. Phone numbers 55 21 3874.1808 and 3874.1214)
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
69
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE
SAMBA
Rio de Janeiro samba partido alto, samba de terreiro and samba enredo is the music that resounds
throughout the city, from January to December. In addition to the performances in various cultural
spaces, a visit to the Cartola Cultural Center (Visconde de Niteri Street, n. 1.296, Mangueira, Phone
number: 55 21 3234.5777, www.cartola.org.br e http://centroculturalcartolaocial.blogspot.com.br)
is an opportunity to learn about the origins of this musical genre and the history of its composers and
singers, the so-called old guard of samba in Rio de Janeiro.
JONGO
Jongo (or caxambu) is a round dance practiced
by men and women of African descent in Rio
de Janeiro and other Brazilian states. In Rio,
many communities preserve the roots of this
dance, such as the Jongo da Serrinha Cultural
Centre, that promotes performances of jon-
go groups (Silas de Oliveira Street, Ladeira da
Balaiada, Morro da Serrinha, Vaz Lobo/Madu-
reira. Phone numbers: 55 21 2437.5546 and
2539.8623, www.jongodaserrinha.org.br).
70
IPHAN
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
71
Recife The inuence of Dutch invasion
One of the oldest cities in the country, Recife became the principal city in the Captaincy of Pernam-
buco, renowned in the whole commercial world of the time for its extensive sugarcane production.
This fact arose the interest of the Dutch, who, attracted by the Captaincys wealth as well as Recifes
strategic position, invaded and occupied the city for 24 years, between 1630 and 1654.
While, on one hand, the period of the invasion hindered the expansion of the regions material and
artistic heritage, on the other, it fostered the creation of a new town, Mauritipolis, on the island of
Antonio Vaz, at the mouths of the Capiberibe and Beberibe rivers, built according to the invaders
traditional urban planning systems. The Forts of Cinco Pontas and Brum, built by the Dutch for their
defence, are remnants from this period. The Historical National Park of Guararapes, in the town of
Jaboato dos Guararapes, was created in 1971, preserving the memory of the spot where the two
battles took place that put an end to Dutch domination in Brazil.
Recife counts with 33 properties listed by IPHAN. They include churches, palaces, fortresses, convents,
buildings, urban ensembles and many other works that witnessed the different stages and aspects of
the capital of Pernambuco. Among its top attractions are the forts, the landscape ensemble of Stio
da Trindade, the architectural, urban and landscape ensemble of Recife, the churches of the Convent
of Santo Antnio, of Nossa Senhora da Conceio dos Militares, of Ordem Terceira de Nossa Senhora
do Carmo, the Convent and Church of Santo Antnio, the So Jos Market, and many others.
But the citys architectural wealth is not its only interesting feature. There is also a rich cultural variety
that includes crafts with the gurines moulded in clay by craft masters, even more famous because
of the inuence of popular ceramist Mestre Vitalino and popular festivities: in music and dance,
its greatest expression is the Frevo, declared Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2012, a
form of music, dance and poetry that has deep roots in Recife and Olinda and is the mark of Carnival
celebrations in these two cities.
The city of Olinda, neighbour to Recife, is one of the oldest in Brazil. Founded in 1535, it was origi-
nally the seat of the Captaincy of Pernambuco. Its location, difcult to defend, eventually led to the
primacy of Recife. Burnt down by the Dutch, the city regained its original status with the return of
the Portuguese, but in 1837, the title of capital went permanently to Recife. Olinda was the second
Brazilian town to be declared Historical and Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, in 1982, af-
ter Ouro Preto. The city features some exceptional exemplars of religious architecture from the 16th
and 17th centuries, such as the Convent and Church of Nossa Senhora do Carmo and the Convent
of Nossa Senhora das Neves, integrating the architectural ensemble of the Convent of So Francis-
co, perfectly integrated to Olindas architectural, urban and landscape ensemble. One tradition of
Carnival in Olinda that has been alive since the 1930s are the giant dolls, peculiar characters in this
unmistakable celebration.
Recife and Olinda can be reached through the International Airport, through roads BR 101 and BR
232, or through the bus station, the Antnio Farias Integrated Passenger Terminal, receiving buses
from various regions in the country.
72
IPHAN
SELECTED MONUMENTS
GOLDEN CHAPEL, CLOISTER AND PRAYER HOUSE OF THE THIRD ORDER OF SO FRANCISCO DE ASSIS
Dating from the 17th and 18th centuries, this exuberant Baroque church is richly ornamented with
Rococo tiles and carvings on the cloister walls and on its dome, as an expression of the economic
apogee of Pernambuco at the time. It is completely covered with gilded carvings, and the panels by
Jos Pinho de Matos depict saints belonging to the Franciscan Order. Its curved ceiling is ornament-
ed with gilded carvings in its entirety, except where there are tiles and paintings. The chapel is open
for religious cult, and is located at Imperatriz Street, n. 147.
FORT OF SO JOO BATISTA DO BRUM
The construction of this fort began in 1629, at the isthmus of Olinda. Its project was continued by
the Dutch, during the invasion of 1630. When the Portuguese took back the Fort, in 1654, they
developed a plan for its reconstruction, including the moat protected by the wall. Made of stone
and lime on a quadrangular oor plan, it features two bulwarks facing Beberibe river. During the
Pernambucana Revolution, the Fort Brum served as refuge for the governor and general-captain of
the Province of Pernambuco, Caetano Pinto de Miranda Montenegro, and as a jail for war prisoners
during the Equator Confederation and the Praieira Insurrection. It is now a military museum. The Fort
is located at Comunidade Luso-Brasileira Square, Apolo Wharf, Recife.
STIO DA TRINDADE LANDSCAPE ENSEMBLE
In the neighbourhood of Casa Amarela, in Recife, the Stio da Trindade was important during the
Dutch invasion (1630-1654) as a place of resistance against the invaders. This elevated area used to
hold the Arraial do Bom Jesus Fort, also called Arraial Velho. These lands were eventually purchased
by the Trindade Paretti family, hence its current name. In 1952, the Stio da Trindade was expropriated
and declared a property of public utility. Acknowledging its historical and social relevance, on June
17, 1974 it was listed as a heritage landscape ensemble by IPHAN.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
73
CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DA CONCEIO DOS MILITARES
The construction of the Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceio dos Militares began in 1723. One of
its attractions is the ceiling with Rococo carvings of an excellent quality. The Church was created by
a military brotherhood, and at its entrance there is a rare and signicant painting depicting the First
Battle of Guararapes, in the Pernambucan Restoration from Dutch dominion, when many victories
were associated to Marian protection towards the military. The church is located at Nova Street, in
the neighbourhood of Santo Antnio, a central area of popular commerce, where rows of two- to
four-story houses from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries are predominant.

CONVENT AND CHURCH OF SANTO ANTNIO
The Carmelite Order settled in Olinda, in the Chapel of Santo Antnio e So Gonalo, around 1580,
when the construction of their church began, the rst of the Order in Latin America. When Olinda
was destroyed by the Dutch, in November, 1631, the church and convent were severely damaged.
After 1654, with the expulsion of the invaders, the friars returned to the convent in ruins and began
its reconstruction. The Church was closed in 1820, when the head priest was transferred to Recife,
and the convent was then abandoned. In 1897 the high chapel was restored, and in 1966 and 1968,
IPHAN (then called SPHAN) restored the temple back to its primitive appearance.
SO JOS MARKET
Inaugurated in 1875, selling fruit, vegetables and sh, it is considered the oldest prefabricated iron
building in Brazil, a rare exemplar of 19th-century iron architecture. When it was inaugurated, hopes
were that Recife would match the most modern cities in the world in terms of supply and hygiene.
For a long time, the So Jos Market fullled its purpose, supplying also hotels, restaurants and ships
that moored at the city. Its acknowledgement as cultural heritage by IPHAN considered the buildings
architectural value as well as its meaning for the inhabitants of Recife. The Market still performs its
original function, now selling also a number of products such as plants and roots. So Jos Market is
located at Vidal Square.
FORTRESS OF SO TIAGO DAS CINCO PONTAS
Dating from the 17th century, this fort was built during
the Dutch invasion (1630-1654) and reconstructed in
stone and lime masonry in 1684, when it received a
new plane, covering an even greater area than origi-
nally. In this reform, it lost one of its braces, giving the
fortress its current quadrangular shape. Inside, there
used to be a chapel devoted to Saint James as well
as an underground prison, both demolished in 1822.
Through time, it staged many political events, and it is
now home to a theatre and the Museum of the City of
Recife, with its collection consisting of a great number
of archaeological pieces, maps, blueprints, photographs
and engravings of Pernambuco.
74
IPHAN
CHURCH AND MONASTERY OF SO BENTO
Works on the Monastery began in 1599. The rst building was destroyed during the Dutch occupa-
tion, in 1631, and rebuilt in the second half of the 17th century. Its internal spaces contain pieces of
high artistic value, such as its jacaranda railings, paintings depicting episodes in the life of Saint Ben-
edict and portraits of former abbots and masters of the Benedictine Order in Brazil. Several monks
from the abbey are buried in the cloister. In 1860, the monastery was completely restored, particularly
its high chapel and its entire gilding. The retable and carvings were inspired by the Convent of So
Bento de Tibes, Portugal. The high altar, with its sculptures of Saint Gregory and Saint Scholastica,
was made by Master Gregrio.
CHURCH AND CONVENT OF NOSSA SENHORA DAS NEVES
AND ORDEM TERCEIRA DE SO FRANCISCO
The construction of the Convent of So Francisco began in
1855. With Dutch invasion, in 1631, the building was grave-
ly damaged and abandoned. After its reconstruction, in the
18th century, it became one of the most beautiful ensem-
bles in Brazil. The convent is part of a Baroque architectural
ensemble of exceptional importance, including the Church
of Nossa Senhora das Neves, the Chapel of So Roque, the
cloister and a beautiful Franciscan sacristy. The church, con-
tiguous to the Convent, has a single nave and a lateral chap-
el. The interior of the nave consists of a boxed ceiling with
painted panels and walls decorated with blue and white tiles
from Portugal.
OLINDA URBAN ENSEMBLE
Recognized as World Heritage by UNESCO, the Historical Centre of Olinda still preserves, with great
authenticity, the urban layout, the landscape and the site of the village founded in the rst half of
the 16th century, when the Portuguese began the occupation of the land discovered in 1500. The
urban layout is typical of Portuguese Medieval settlements, and its enchantment is intensied by the
landscape and the location. The unique character of Olinda lies in this landscape setting, its identify-
ing feature throughout its history.
CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DA GRAA AND OLINDA SEMINARY
Located on top of Seminrio Hill, the Church of Nossa Senhora da Graa was one of the rst to be
built in Brazil, after 1551, by order of Duarte Coelho, to catechise the Indians. With the re of Olinda,
in 1631, the complex was seriously damaged. The Church and College were rebuilt between 1661
and 1662. The faade is now of a simple and unassuming Renaissance style. The gable roof with
apparent timberwork is still from the 17th century.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
75
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE
An unmistakable style of music and dance that is the Frevo that takes over the streets of Recife and
other towns in Pernambuco, attracting adults, youngsters and children alike. The public mingles with
the dancers that cross the whole city. Through time, the eclectic repertoire of music bands, consist-
ing of many different musical genres, resulted in three modes: frevo de rua, or street frevo, frevo de
bloco, block frevo, and frevo-cano, song frevo.
At Pao do Frevo (Arsenal da Marinha Square, Neighbourhood of Recife, Phone numbers: 55 81
3355.3302 and 3355.3303, www.casadocarnaval.blogspot.com), visitors may learn more about this
Brazilian cultural manifestation. In addition to Frevo, Capoeira is another popular manifestation in
Recife, with schools and masters promoting rounds at the citys main tourist attractions.
76
IPHAN
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
77
Salvador The rst capital
The city of Salvador was the rst capital of Brazil. Founded in 1549, its early development was based
on sugarcane production. Later, its strategic location afforded great opportunities for establishing
trade with the African Coast, the East and Europe, making the city a major hub for the redistribution
of merchandise and consolidating Salvador as the most relevant Port in the Colony. One century af-
ter its creation, Salvador was the second most important city in the Portuguese Empire, after Lisbon
itself. It was originally structured in two levels Cidade Alta, or Upper City, concentrating the admin-
istrative, residential and religious functions, and Cidade Baixa, or Lower City, for commercial and port
activities, according to Portuguese urban tradition.
Salvador is now the third most populous municipality in Brazil and the economic centre of the State
of Bahia. It is also an export outlet and an industrial, administrative and touristic centre. Its archi-
tectural and landscape heritage is notable for its exceptional cultural value and for its extension it
includes about three thousand buildings, raised in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, making the
city home to more than half of the individual listed properties in all of Bahia. This heritage consists of
monuments of religious, civil and military architecture as well as temples belonging to cults of African
descent. The Salvador Historical Centre, with the neighbourhood of Pelourinho as its greatest icon
(photo below), was inscribed as World Heritage by UNESCO in 1985.
Among the citys main attractions are various properties that are part of its historical, urban and ar-
chitectural heritage, including Colonial churches and convents such as Nossa Senhora da Conceio,
Nossa Senhora do Carmo and Church and Convent of So Francisco de Assis; as well as the Mercado
Modelo or Model Market, the Lacerda Elevator and the Fort of Santo Antnio da Barra. In the out-
skirts of the capital are the historical towns of Cachoeira, So Flix and Itaparica; Porto Seguro, Santa
Cruz Cabrlia and Santo Amaro; as well as Candeias, Maragogipe and Itaparica, among others.
The city of Salvador can be reached through a number of roads leaving from the countrys differ-
ent regions; through the Port of Salvador and, by airplane, through the Deputado Lus Eduardo
Magalhes International Airport.
78
IPHAN
SELECTED MONUMENTS
SALVADOR HISTORICAL CENTRE
Like Lisbon and Oporto, the city of Salvador was founded on a site than enabled an elementary de-
fence system without hindering its linear expansion. The Lower City, as in Oporto, lies on a narrow
strip of land between the hills and the sea. The houses are higher than those in the Upper City, and
by the 18th century its thin and narrow rows of houses stretched all the way to Itapagipe. In 1714
a street was developing along the beach, dominated by two- and three-story houses. Soon the
neighbourhoods of S and Arruda appeared around this street, followed by the neighbourhoods of
So Bento and Carmo. In 1985, the Historical Centre of Salvador was listed by UNESCO as Cultural
Heritage of Humanity.
CHURCH OF SO FRANCISCO
In front of the Salvador Cathedral rises the
Church of So Francisco, partially covered
by the houses in the square. Built between
the 17th and 18th centuries, it is considered
one of the most singular and rich expressions
of Brazilian Baroque. Its faade displays
sculptures and reliefs forming garlands
of fruit and foliage. The stone doorway is
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
79
beautifully ornamented, and its interior contains a series of Portuguese tiles depicting Lisbon before
the earthquake of 1755. Annex to the church, the Third Order of Saint Francis, built in 1703, is one
of the most surprising works of art in Brazil, unique in the entire Portuguese world. It contains a small
museum exhibiting pieces of sacred art.
CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DA CONCEIO DA PRAIA
The construction of the monumental Church of Nossa Senhora
da Conceio da Praia, in Salvadors Lower City, began in 1739,
and the temple was consecrated in 1765, although it would
not be nished until the mid-19th century. It was built of Lioz
limestone (called stone of the kingdom, in Brazil), imported from
Lisbon, numbered one by one in Portugal and brought to the
Colony. Its interior, in Joanine style or late Portuguese Baroque,
the style in vogue during the reign of D. Joo V (1706-1750) ,
displays ceiling paintings that follow the illusionist concept of
Italian Baroque, made by Jos Joaquim da Rocha.
CHURCH AND HOLY HOUSE OF MISERICRDIA
The rst known references to the construction of this hospital
date from 1650. The Brotherhood of the Holy House of Mercy,
created to care for the ill, has been present in Salvador since
its foundation, in 1549. The rst hospital and chapel were built
with the resources obtained through donations, on a plot of land
donated by Tom de Souza. An institution formed by the citys
elite, it was soon able to expand the building, granting it its mon-
umental proportions. This typically conventual architectural en-
semble consists of the church and the administrative and hospital
oors. The building contains a vast collection of paintings, tiles,
furniture and liturgical objects, among other pieces.
SALVADOR BASILICA CATHEDRAL
Salvadors current cathedral was part of the
now disappeared Jesuit convent and school,
the greatest and most important in Colonial
Brazil. It was built between 1652 and 1672.
For its artistic collection and its monumen-
tality, it is considered by many scholars the
most important sacred building of Colonial
Brazil. Its faade and interior are made of
Lioz marble, brought from Portugal already
cut and sculpted. The sacristy contains oors
and altars made of coloured marble, a num-
ber of canvases by different authors from the
80
IPHAN
1600s, furniture in jacaranda wood with mother-of-pearl inlays and sacred objects made of gold and
silver. When the Jesuits left Brazil, the church was abandoned. The convent was used as a military
hospital and, after 1808, as a School of Medicine, the rst in the country.
ARCHIEPISCOPAL PALACE
Located at S Square, it was built in the 18th century, around
a patio. The building consists of a basement and three oors
above street level. Considered one of the nest exemplars of
civil architecture in the Colonial period of Brazil, it is located in
the historical zone of Pelourinho. This three-storied construc-
tion consisting of four separate buildings was raised around an
internal patio. The entrance is marked by a portal made of Lioz
limestone from Portugal, decorated with the coat of arms of D.
Sebastio Monteiro da Vide, the archbishop of Salvador at the
time. The windows on rst two oors have sills, and those on the noble oor feature balconies with
iron railings. There used to be a suspended footbridge connecting the palace to the former See, de-
molished in 1933.
SALDANHA PALACE
In 1699, Colonel Antnio da Silva Pimentel purchased and demol-
ished a few houses belonging to the Third Order of Carmel to build
his own mansion. It is one of the most remarkable palaces built
in Colonial Brazil, with its carved stone doorway and its beautiful
veranda, known as Saldanha Belvedere. In the 1960s, a re de-
stroyed the buildings interior and damaged its exterior, including
the monumental doorway. After a long period of abandonment, it
was restored, and now houses the Bahia School of Arts and Crafts.
MUNICIPAL PALACE (FORMER CHAMBER AND JAIL-
HOUSE)
Built between the 17th and 18th centuries, the Mu-
nicipal Palace is the background to Salvadors oldest
square, founded by Tom de Souza in 1549, on top
of the hill facing the harbour. With its bell tower, the
building was the model to other administrative build-
ings, such as those of Santo Amaro and Maragogipe.
Originally, the rst oor housed the Councils meeting
hall and the magistrates courtroom, the civil and crim-
inal ofces and the public auction hall. The ground
oor had two prisons: one for men, on the south side,
and another for women, on the north side. In the patio
there was a chapel dedicated to Saint Anthony, used
by prisoners between 1690 and 1795.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
81
SOLAR AMADO BAHIA
Built in the late 19th century of brick masonry, the mansion is
reached by a lateral doorway, and is completely surrounded by
cast iron porches. It is a three-storied construction that still retains
the chapel with gilded carvings on the rst oor. Its nishing con-
sist fully of imported materials. The great hall features walls cov-
ered with French mirrors, parquet oorings and a stucco ceiling
framed with coves. The ooring in the bedrooms and other halls
is made of scots pine. The paintings on the walls and ceiling were
attributed to Badar (the father).
QUINTA DO UNHO HOUSE
This architectural ensemble consists of a mansion and a chapel dedicated to Our Lady of Conception,
a wharf, a fountain, aqueduct and water spout, warehouses and a pot still with tanks. The bridge
leading to the mansion contains bars of Baroque ornamented tiles, produced in Lisbon between
1770 and 1780. The water spout, originally supplied by the aqueduct, is a Baroque piece in dark
sandstone, formed by a gargoyle, from which water ows, and two superposed shells. The mansions
interior was defaced when it was converted into a snuff factory and a pier.
SETE CANDEEIROS HOUSE
The name of the house is a reference to the
seven oil lamps that hung from it during the
stay of the court of D. Joo VI, in 1808. It be-
longed to the Jesuits until their expulsion from
the country; it was then auctioned. Built in the
17th century with two stories and an attic, the
house had a straight lintel doorway in Lioz lime-
stone bearing the coat of arms of the Fonseca
Galvo family. In the noble oor there are wide
halls and a chapel with a screen to hide the
young ladies from strangers during Mass. The
ceilings and doors feature ornaments in carved
wood. The rectangular house is covered by a four-gabled roof and is linked to an elevated enclosed
patio. The construction is made of stone and lime masonry with French walls as dividers.
FORTRESS OF SO MARCELO OR FORTE DO MAR
The Fortress of So Marcelo was built on a sandbank at the Baa de Todos os Santos, or All Saints
Bay. Its construction dates from 1623, during the General-Government of D. Diogo de Mendona
Furtado. The Imperial coat of arms above the entrance was mutilated after the Proclamation of the
Republic, in 1889, when the crown of the Monarchy was replaced by a ve-pointed star. On March
29, 2006, the monument was opened to public visitation, converted into the Fortress of So Marcelo
Cultural Centre, exhibiting its rich cultural heritage.
82
IPHAN
FORT OF SANTA MARIA
The Fort of Santa Maria is located at Porto da Barra beach, in the Barra neighbourhood, Salvadors
primitive port. Between 1624 and 1694, it was part of a unied command with the Fort of Santo
Antnio da Barra and the Fort of So Diogo in the defence against the rst Dutch invasions in Brazil.
The south faade of the house of command is coated with roof tiles, waterproofed by a treatment
used in the gables of houses in Bahia throughout the Colonial period. The Imperial coat of arms can
be seen above the entrance. The building is made of stone and lime masonry.
MODEL MARKET
Raised in 1861 to serve as Customhouse, the
building was converted to a public market,
called Mercado Modelo, in 1971, retaining
its original Neoclassical architecture even af-
ter it was hit by two res, in 1969 and 1984.
The Model Market lies in the neighbourhood
of Comrcio, Salvadors old commercial cen-
tre, in front of the Lacerda Elevator. It hous-
es 273 stores, offering Bahias greatest vari-
ety of crafts, gifts and souvenirs, as well as
traditional restaurants serving Bahian cuisine.
In addition to the crafts fair and the typical
restaurants, another major attraction are the
capoeira rounds, at the back of the building.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
83
LACERDA ELEVATOR
Located at Visconde Cayru Square, in the
neighbourhood of Comrcio. It was envisioned
by the entrepreneur Antnio de Lacerda, built
by his brother Augusto Frederico de Lacerda
and funded by their father, Antnio Francisco
de Lacerda. Works began in 1869, with steel
pieces imported from England. After its inaugu-
ration, it became the main mode of transpor-
tation connecting the Upper City to the Lower
City. The Elevator had originally two cabins, but
now it operates with four modern, electried
cabins, each holding 20 passengers. The two
other cabins and a new tower were added in
1930 (during the second of the four great re-
forms and repairs in its history), when the ar-
chitectural ensemble received its art dco style.
CHURCH OF ORDEM TERCEIRA DO CARMO AND
CASA DA ORDEM
The Church of Ordem Terceira do Carmo de Salvador,
built in 1636, stands next to the Church of Ordem
Primeira, in Carmo Slope, Salvador Historical Centre.
Its architectural ensemble consists of a church and
a convent. The current building, around two patios,
includes the temple and also a sacristy, a table house,
a house of saints, an ossuary and galleries. In the
Church, there is a cedar image of the Deceased Lord, sculpted in 1730 by the slave Francisco das
Chagas, considered Bahias Aleijadinho.

CHURCH AND PRAYER HOUSE OF ORDEM TERCEIRA DO
CARMO CACHOEIRA
The Carmo ensemble, consisting of the Church of Ordem
Primeira and the Chapel and Prayer House of Ordem Terceira,
is located at Aclamao Square, in the town of Cachoeira.
The Third Order was established in 1691, originally in one
of the chapels of the Church of Carmo. In 1702, the Third
Brothers began the construction of their church on a plot
of land donated by general Joo Rodrigues Adorno. The
prayer house is the element connecting the Church of
Ordem Terceira and the Church of Carmo, characterized by
the frontispiece with superposed galleries, both consisting of
segmental arches supported by octagonal Tuscan columns.
84
IPHAN
CHURCH AND CONVENT OF NOSSA SENHORA DO CARMO
CACHOEIRA
The Carmo Ensemble, built in the 18th century, consists of the
Convent, the Ordem Primeira and the Church of Ordem Terceira.
With the Chamber and Jailhouse, it forms the most important
urban space in the town of Cachoeira. The construction of the
Church and Convent of Carmo began in 1688, according to the
precepts of Counter-reformation: churches should have a single
nave, so that everyone could see the high altar and the cele-
bration of Mass. Light ows in through the choir windows. The
central space of the high chapel holds the image of Our Lady of
Mount Carmel, anked by two Carmelite saints: Elijah and Elisha.
The church now includes also a Museum of Sacred Art.
MUNICIPAL PALACE CACHOEIRA
Originally the Chamber and Jailhouse, the
Palace has all the characteristic features
of this typology in the Recncavo region.
The building at Aclamao Square, with its
rectangular oor plan, is connected to the
Square by a stone stairway shaped as a sec-
tion of a pyramid. The ground oor contains
the prison cells and a portico, at the foot
of the stairs leading to the upper oor. The
rst oor houses the Chamber halls as well
as two rooms that were used as prison cells
for illustrious prisoners. The top oor is cov-
ered, and inside there are canvases by artists
Jos Couto e Antnio Parreiras.
ANA NRI BIRTHPLACE CACHOEIRA
The house where Ana Justina Ferreira Nery was born the pi-
oneer of the nursing profession in Brazil, who worked during
the Paraguay War is now the Hansen Bahia Museum. The
house, with two stories and an attic, was built of mixed stone
and brick masonry with internal pillars in the same material
supporting the upper oor. Its internal dividers are made of
wattle-and-daub, supported by wooden braces. A peculiar
feature of this house is that the ground oor was used as
residence, which was unusual at the time of its construction.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
85
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE
The baianas selling acaraj (photo) are im-
portant characters in Brazilian culture, but
in Salvador, the capital of Bahia, they truly
dominate the scenery in architectural spac-
es, monuments, streets and squares. Visi-
tors who would like to know more about
the history of baianas and their trade
inscribed as Cultural Heritage of Brazil
in IPHANs Book of Knowledge in 2008
and taste a delicious acaraj made on the
spot are welcome to the Baiana de Acara-
j Memorial (Belvedere Street, S Square,
Historical Centre. Phone number: 55 71
3488.0622)
Also part of the culture of African descent
in Bahia, the masters of capoeira rounds
show the game, the moves, the strikes, the
playfulness, the chants, the sounds of in-
struments and the symbols and rituals of
African origin, as recreated in Brazil. The
trade of capoeira masters and the capoeira
round have been inscribed, respectively, in
IPHANs Book of Knowledge and Book of
Record of Expressive Forms, in 2008.
Another Bahian cultural manifestation is the samba de roda, danced by sambadores and sambadei-
ras, inscribed since 2005 in UNESCOs List of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of
Humanity. The Casa do Samba de Roda is in activity at the Solar Suba, in Santo Amaro (Imperador
Street, n. 1. Phone numbers: 55 75 9134.9127 and 9147.8507.) Santo Amaro is located at approxi-
mately 75 km from Salvador.
86
IPHAN
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
87
Natal Thirty listed properties in
Rio Grande do Norte
The city of Natal appeared with an expedition organized in 1597 to drive the French away from the
region. A fortress was then built at the mouth of Potengi river, later resulting in the areas settlement.
The rst chapel of Natal, now called Mother Church of Nossa Senhora da Apresentao, was built at
that place, now Andr de Albuquerque Square, the citys birthplace.
For its strategic geographic position, Natal witnessed the advent of aviation in the 1920s and hosted
military bases for the Allied Forces during World War II. This period brought major physical and cultural
transformations, marked in popular memory and in the citys structure. After the 1950s and 1960s, its
urban area expanded rapidly, with an intensied occupation of the north bank of the river after 1980.
Endowed with beautiful beaches, with dunes of light-coloured sand, lagoons and coves, Natal is a
tourist destination of national and international renown for the beauty of its natural landscapes. It
is also home to a diverse cultural heritage, representative of potiguar identity, consisting of tangible
and intangible elements.
This heritage is expressed in the traditional trades of the women healers and needlewomen, of herb
doctors and shermen. In its cuisine, these traditions involve the making of cheese, butter and curd,
as well as sweets such as the traditional grude of Extremoz, the alfenim, the beiju, the rapadura and
the sausages from the region of Serid. At Redinha Beach, a traditional dish is the ginga with tapioca.
Popular dances include the Boi Calemba, practiced in the Village of Ponta Negra and in the neigh-
bourhood of Felipe Camaro in Natal, as well as in the nearby towns Nsia Floresta and So Gonalo
do Amarante, and also the Congos and the Araruna. The festivals of Our Lady of the Navigators and
of the Holy Kings are strong traditions in Natal. This cultural heritage includes also the novels of Dona
Militana and the works of folklorist Cmara Cascudo, among other manifestations.
There are currently thirty properties in the state that have been included in national tangible heritage
lists, including major buildings, mostly from the Colonial period, a collection of pieces of sacred art
and the Historical Centre of Natal. This site is home to a well preserved architectural and urban en-
semble of signicant historical value, with urban elements harking back to its Colonial settlement,
and others that show the citys trajectory of modernization throughout the Republic. Exemplars of
Colonial and Baroque civil architecture, Eclectic and Modernist buildings, framed by the Potengi river,
form a landscape of great importance for potiguar memory, where most of the citys cultural spaces
are now established.
Its architecture gathers all styles, from Colonial to contemporary, and most buildings date from the
20th century, except for the 18th-century churches and a few monuments from the late 19th century.
In spite of the contemporary interventions incorporated through the years, the citys original area still
preserves historically representative building ensembles and neighbourhoods. For all this wealth, in
2010 the area was listed as a heritage site by IPHAN.
88
IPHAN
Its many properties include the Reis Magos Fort, Natals most important historical monument and the
landmark of the citys birth, as well as the Alberto Maranho Theatre and the Potengi Palace. Careca
Hill is Natals main natural heritage and is located at one of the extremities of Ponta Negra Beach. It is
a mountainous formation of more than a hundred metres in height, consisting of an impressive dune
of white sand, surrounded by dense vegetation.
The city possesses an excellent infrastructure of hotels, bars, restaurants and nightlife. The climate
in Natal is humid tropical, with an average temperature of 28
o
C. Because it is located at less than a
hundred metres of altitude, the area is constantly windy. Natal and its metropolitan area are served
by the Augusto Severo International Airport, the main airport in Rio Grande do Norte, located in
Parnamirim, at 18 kilometres from the capital.
SELECTED MONUMENTS
TOUROS LANDMARK
This Portuguese landmark from the 1500s, made of Lioz lime-
stone, is approximately 1.62 metres high and bears a relief
of the Cross of the Order of Christ and the coat of arms of
the king of Portugal, Dom Manuel. It is believed that the Por-
tuguese eet that left Lisbon in 1501, under the command
of Major-Captain Andr Gonalves, carried this monolith on
board, and it was lain on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte
that same year as an ofcial marker of domination. The land-
mark was identied by historians in 1928, at what is now
Marco Beach; it was listed as heritage by IPHAN in 1962 and
brought to the Reis Magos Fort in 1976, where it can be seen
today.
MOTHER CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DA APRESENTAO
The Church was built at Rua Grande, now Andr de Albuquer-
que Square, where the Mass commemorating the foundation
of Natal was celebrated in 1599. Its date of foundation and its
original aspect are unknown. We do know that, after a number
of expansions and improvements, the temple was inaugurated
in 1862, when the steeple was completed according to its orig-
inal project. This major monument in potiguar Colonial religious
architecture, the citys rst Catholic temple, was listed as heri-
tage by the State Government in 1992 and, after its last resto-
ration, retrieved to the community of Natal in August 1995.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
89
CHURCH OF SANTO ANTNIO
It was the third Church built in Natal, also
known as Church of Galo. It is part of a har-
monious ensemble of historical buildings,
including the Bishops House, the old Pub-
lic Treasure and the Mother Church, among
others. Its works were probably completed in
1766, the date inscribed above the main door-
way. The construction proceeded in parts, and
it received additions for each of the following
institutions that occupied it: the police head-
quarters, the diocesan school and, nally, the
Convent of Santo Antnio. The temple is no-
table for its proportions and beauty, and is a
representative exemplar of Baroque style in
Natal. It was listed as state heritage in 1983.
REIS MAGOS FORT
In 1597, the general governor of Brazil, Dom
Francisco de Souza, organized an expedition
to drive the French away from the Captain-
cy of Rio Grande, building a fort at the bar
of Rio Grande (Potengi river) and eventually
founding a town. On January 6, 1598, the
construction of the fortress began, called Reis
Magos in honour of the Three Kings, celebrat-
ed on that date. The works were completed
in 1630, after improvements. Its blueprint, at-
tributed to Jesuit priest Gaspar de Sampres,
follows the 16th-century theories of Italian
Renaissance architecture.
CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DO ROSRIO DOS PRETOS
Natals second Catholic temple. Its date of foundation is unknown, but by 1714 it had been com-
pleted. Built to serve the least favoured social classes slaves, freed black people and the poor it
holds a privileged position, at a plateau with a clear view of the Potengi estuary. Although there are
no records of its original makeup, the steeple, the sacristy and the lateral wing are known to have
been added later, indicating that it originally resembled a simple farm chapel. Listed as state heritage
in 1987, it was restored and reinaugurated in 1988.
90
IPHAN
ROSRIO STONE
According to tradition, in the morning of November 21, 1753, a chest
was found stranded on a rock at the banks of Potengi River, near the
church of Rosrio. It was the date of the celebration of the citys patron
saint. The image was brought to the Mother Church and recognized as
Our Lady of Presentation, and the rock where the image was stranded
was then called Rosrio Stone.
POTENGI PALACE
In the mid-19th century, this build-
ing housed the Legislative Assembly,
on the upper oor, and the Provin-
cial Treasure, on the ground oor.
The construction of this Neoclassi-
cal building began in 1866 and was
completed in 1873. The Provincial
Treasure occupied the building un-
til 1902, when the governor moved
the seat of the Executive branch to
another building. It is now the State
Pinacotheca, also known as Culture
Palace. It was listed as a heritage site
by IPHAN in 1965.
VU DA NOIVA OR SOBRADINHO
The building is one of the last exemplars
of a 19th-century afuent residence in
Natal. Its construction began in 1816 and
was completed in 1820. The rst private
multi-storey house built in Natal, it was
the residence of a traditional local family.
In the 1920s, it housed institutions such
as the General Workers Union, until, in
1962, it received the Caf Filho Museum.
It is a simple construction with the char-
acteristic features of Brazilian colonial ar-
chitecture. The steep slope at the back
of its roof afforded it the name Vu de
Noiva, or Brides Veil.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
91
OLD CAPTAINCYS ROYAL WAREHOUSE
A solid building of stone and lime masonry, by 1752 the Captaincys Royal Warehouse was already
considered a landmark. Its present features probably date from the late 19th century. The date when
the warehouse was deactivated is unknown, as is the history of its modications and uses. But we do
know that, in 1881, Father Joo Maria settled there for a while, an information that is ingrained in
the memory of Natalenses. It served as residence to several families, until, in the 1970s, it became a
storage space for a shop. In 1987, it was purchased by the Pr-Memria foundation, who restored it
and established in it the Superintendency of IPHAN in Rio Grande do Norte.
FELIPE CAMARO PALACE
The building of Natal City Hall, also known as Felipe Camaro Palace, was built at the place of the
old Municipal Intendency. The Intendencys new building was inaugurated on September 7, 1922,
commemorating the Centennial of the Independence of Brazil. The building features an elaborate
Eclectic faade, very common in the period of its construction.
PORT CAPTAINCYS OLD BUILDING
Located in the citys Cultural Corridor, it was built in the late 19th
century, replacing an old building that had housed the Provincial
government between 1830 and 1862. The Port Captaincy building,
raised after the demolition of the old palace, was in activity until
1972. After years of abandonment, only its Neoclassical external
walls remained. In the late 1980s, the main faade was recovered
in a restoration promoted by the City Hall, and a new building was
raised at the back, now used as a cultural space.
92
IPHAN
SOLAR BELA VISTA
The Solar Bela Vista was built in the 1910s, following the
blueprint of Colonel Aureliano Medeiros, its owner and,
at the time, one of the wealthiest men in the state. This
Neoclassical-inspired mansion was raised with the most
luxurious and modern materials of the time, and with the
collaboration of the nest builders in the region. When its
patriarch died, the Mansion became the Bela Vista Hotel,
for years one of the best in Natal, receiving important po-
litical gures and leaders from the states inland. Listed as
state heritage in 1990, it is now a Culture and Leisure Cen-
tre run by SESI.

NATAL TOURIST CENTRE
The building is located on top of a hill with one of the most
beautiful views of the city. The author of the project is un-
known, as is the date of its construction. By its Neoclassical
features, its oldest wing possibly dates from the late 19th
century. In 1911 it was expanded and adapted as the Padre
Joo Maria Home for the Poor. Between 1920 and 1943, it
housed the Padre Joo Maria Orphanage for girls, run by nuns
belonging to the Filhas de Santana congregation. In 1945,
Natals Detention Centre was moved to this building, remain-
ing there until 1969. In 1976, the property was restored and
became a tourist centre.
ALBERTO MARANHO THEATRE
The nal years of the 19th century marked the de-
velopment of the neighbourhood of Ribeira, by the
early 20th century the citys foremost cultural and
commercial centre. The theatre at Augusto Severo
Square appeared as a mark of this progress, with
its construction beginning in 1898. Inaugurated
in 1904, then called Carlos Gomes Theatre, it was
a cottage-style building of Classical inspiration. In
1910, it was reformed by architect Herculano Ra-
mos. Reinaugurated in 1912, with two oors, fea-
turing Eclectic architecture and art nouveau ele-
ments, the Theatre still maintains this appearance
and is now one of the citys most relevant cultural
spaces.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
93
SILVA JARDIM ESPLANADE OLD RAILWAY STATION
The building is located at Silva Jardim Esplanade, neighbourhood of Ribeira, and was built in the
early 20th century. In 1904, engineer Sampaio Correia arrived in Natal to lead the Commission of
Works Against the Draught, whose action plan included the construction of a railway. In 1905, the
Rio Grande do Norte Central Railway was created. The building was envisioned as a station for pas-
sengers as well as the railways ofce. Workshops for the maintenance of trains were built in 1916.
When the railway was deactivated, the building was used as public ofce space. It is now being
restored and will soon house the National Department of Works Against the Draught in Rio Grande
do Norte.
LICEU INDUSTRIAL OLD BUILDING
This construction probably dates from the early 20th cen-
tury. In 1909, the President of the Republic Nilo Peanha
created the Schools for Apprentice Artisans, ofcially es-
tablished throughout the national territory in 1910, offer-
ing primary and professional instruction to poor children. In
1914, by then called Liceu Industrial, the School was trans-
ferred to this building that was once a military barracks.
This monumental building of expressive architectural value
was restored as part of the requalication of the Histori-
cal Centre of Natal, becoming once again an educational
institution, now housing the Rio Grande do Norte Federal
Institute of Science, Education and Technology.
94
IPHAN
RIO GRANDE DO NORTE HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHIC INSTITUTE
Built in 1938, in Neoclassical style, it is one of the most signicant buildings in Natal. Created in 1902
as the rst institution in charge of researching and disseminating knowledge about the states history,
the Rio Grande do Norte Historical and Geographic Institute is home to one of its most important
cultural estates. Its collection includes the original baptismal basin from the Mother Church of Natal;
the stole that belonged to Father Miguelinho, a martyr and hero of the 1817 revolution; the liturgical
vestments of Father Joo Maria, considered a saint by the people of Rio Grande do Norte; the rst
telephone installed in Natal; and the safe from the Rio Grande Captaincy Royal Treasure, from the
early 18th century, among other pieces, in addition to extensive documental archives.
MOTHER CHURCH OF SO GONALO DO
AMARANTE
The Church of So Gonalo do Amarante was
built between 1838 and 1840, replacing a small
chapel built in the 18th century, one of the few in
the state that still maintains its Baroque-inspired
structure. Considered one of the nest exemplars
of religious architecture in the Northeast, it
features a single nave, with a lateral corridor to
the left and a steeple to the right. The Church of
So Gonalo do Amarante was listed by IPHAN
in 1964, including its entire collection of sacred
images and its integrated assets. (Photo: Heliana
Carvalho).
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
95

ENGENHO CUNHA CHAPEL CANGUARETAMA
The rst mentions of this Chapel date from the rst half of the 17th century, when, during the Dutch
invasion, it was attacked a number of times, as the Cunha Sugar Mill, a major agricultural producer
at the time, was plundered. Implanted on fertile massap lands, this mill witnessed many disputes.
The most remarkable event in its history, however, deeply ingrained in the memory of the place, was
the massacre of 1645, when the local population was brutally murdered by Indians during Sunday
Mass. As witness to this martyrdom, the ruins of the chapel were listed as heritage and, after exhaus-
tive studies, recomposed in the restoration of the 1980s.
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE
SANTANA FESTIVAL IN CAIC
The SantAna Festival in Caic is a traditional Catholic celebration that has been taking place for over
270 years in this municipality of the Serid region. The Festival has deep roots in the history of the
town, in particular, and of the hinterland, in general, harking back to the processes of territorial occu-
pation and formation of society, still in the period of Portuguese colonization. The SantAna Festival
establishes a time and a space for social interactions, where the sacred and the profane are brought
together, communicating also with other of the regions cultural expressions. It is developed in several
moments, ranging from Masses, processions and pilgrimages to open markets selling local produce
and dancing parties. It is an annual event that begins on the Thursday before July 26, the Day of Saint
Anne, patron of Caic, and ends on the following Sunday.
96
IPHAN
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
97
Porto Alegre Multicultural by nature
Porto Alegre is a city in the extreme South of Brazil, born from a small colony of Azoreans that settled
in the region around 1752. In the following centuries, the city welcomed immigrants from all over
the world, and this set of multiple expressions and ethnic and religious origins made Porto Alegre an
inherently multicultural city.
The capital of Rio Grande do Sul is also the Capital of the Pampas, the region formed by extensive
plains, with its characteristic ora and fauna, that dominates the landscape of Southern Brazil as well
as part of Argentina and Uruguay. It is the region of the gaucho, a historical gure endowed with
bravery and a warrior spirit, resulting from legendary battles, revolts and boundary disputes between
the kingdoms and Portugal and Spain since the 16th century.
Porto Alegre is home to a diverse cultural life and to intense artistic, sporting and scientic activities,
as well as to rich folkloric traditions and a signicant historical heritage, represented by centuries-old
buildings and countless museums. Its nightlife caters to a variety of tastes, from the most conserva-
tive to the most avant-garde and irreverent, in a huge number of bars, pubs, cafs, venues and dance
clubs.
Its many river islands, parks and natural preservation areas, along with its rural area and the dense-
ness of its tree canopy, make Porto Alegre a green city. The climate is classied as humid subtropical,
with wide variations as a striking feature.
From the Salgado Filho International Airport, one of the largest in the country, it is only a 15-minute
drive to the city centre. Urban public transportation, consisting of buses, taxis and vans, offers ample
mobility, and a surface train quickly connects the capital to the other towns in its metropolitan area.
98
IPHAN
SELECTED MONUMENTS
CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DAS DORES
An Eclectic building whose construction began in 1833, on top of a previous building that was used
as high chapel, preserving the image of its patron saint. Completed in 1901, by the architect of
German origin Jlio Weise, its internal decoration and the carvings at the altars were made by Portu-
guese master Joo do Couto e Silva. The ceiling paintings were made by Germano Traub. Its stairway
faces the former Praia Street, now Andradas Street. The original building, from 1807, had Baroque
steeples with rounded domes in Portuguese style. It was reached by Ponte Street, now Riachuelo.

CMARA MANSION
The Solar dos Cmara, or Cmara Mansion, was built be-
tween 1818 and 1824. The house is not only a landmark in
Porto Alegre, but was also the scenery of important political
meetings and witness to major decisions. It was built by Jos
Feliciano Fernandes Pinheiro, the rst president of the Prov-
ince of So Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, as his own residence.
Originally conceived in Colonial Portuguese style, the house
went through a major reform in 1874, updating it to Neoclas-
sical taste. The building was expanded and the rooms received
such renements as velvet, chandeliers, carpets and crystals. In
1963, the building was listed as National Historical Heritage by
IPHAN, since, in addition to its historical value, it had become
the oldest surviving exemplar of 18th-century residential archi-
tecture in Porto Alegre.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
99
FORMER POST AND TELEGRAPH BUILDING
RIO GRANDE DO SUL MEMORIAL
Its construction began in 1910 and was com-
pleted in 1913. The project was entrusted
to engineer Rodolfo Ahrons and to architect
Theodor Wiederspahn. Its architectural style
is marked by its Baroque-like features. The
main set of sculptures represents the services
offered by the Post, connecting continents.
Two other sculptural sets on the faade sym-
bolise the family: the mother holding her
child with one arm, while with the other she
holds a letter (showing the pain of separation
experienced by immigrants and the domestic
role of woman as the foundation of the fam-
ily). The idea of depicting the expectations
of immigrants in the sculptures pleased the
Positivist government. A policy of incentives
to immigration and its integration to Colonial economy was then in vigour.
CENTRAL PORTICO AND DOCKLAND WAREHOUSES
The extremely light iron structure of the Dockland Central Portico was the doorway through which
travellers arriving by packet entered the capital, in the 1920s. This French portico built between 1911
and 1922 opens to 3.2 thousand metres of stone pavement, along which there were 17 warehouses.
100
IPHAN
ARGENTINA PALACE
Built in 1901, by the Tomatis brothers, for Sebastio de Barros, it became the Argentina School Group
in 1940, and was expropriated by the State Government in 1971. In 1984, IPHAN restored the build-
ing and established its regional headquarters there. The rened urban mansion with Eclectic features
was part of the ensemble of Independncia Avenue, from which few exemplars remain. With one
main oor and a high basement, it was reached through a lateral stairway. Reformed in 1928, it
received an addition at the back, with a winter garden on the top oor. Its walls were painted with
geometric patterns or oral motifs, in strong colours and with decorative bars near the ceiling. Note
the art nouveau and art dco stained glass windows and the elements lathed in jacaranda wood.
UFRGS ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY
Designed by engineer Manoel Barbosa Assumpo
Itaqui, it was built between 1906 and 1908. According
to experts, it is the most complete exemplar of art nou-
veau architecture in Porto Alegre. Its faades are rich in
decorative elements inspired by animals and plants. On
top of the building there is a gyrating dome, built in iron
and covered with wood. The wall painting on the third
oor depicting Saturn, God of Time, and the rened
openwork wooden mouldings are also noteworthy.
CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE COUNTRY OF THE WORLD CUP
101
FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL LAW SCHOOL
On February 17, 1900 the Law School of Porto Alegre was created, the rst of its kind in the South
of Brazil and one of the landmarks of Humanities studies in UFRGS. Its monumental, symmetrical
architecture is dened by its regular volume in the shape of a rectangular prism, with a Classic ped-
iment, exuberant but proportionate ornaments on the faades, roofs and platbands, and a central
dome adorned with a rich set of gurative statues. Inside, the main hall marks the symmetry and
reinforces the ensembles monumental character, with its marble stairways and its Venetian stucco
handrail, the decorative paintings on the ceiling and walls and the stained glass windows depicting
Justice, Doctrine and Science. Also note the magnicent mural by Ado Malagoli, in the auditorium.
MATRIZ SQUARE HISTORICAL SITE
In the heart of the city of Porto Alegre, the square was known, in 1770, as Alto da Praia. With only a
few buildings, it was not much more than a steep piece of land, marked by erosion. Between 1772
and 1773, a Mother Church (Matriz) was built in tribute of Our Lady Mother of God, at the place
where the Metropolitan Cathedral is now. For this reason, the area was named Matriz Square. The
region gained greater prominence, however, in 1858, with the inauguration of So Pedro Theatre.
The area was landscaped, planted and paved after 1881. With the Proclamation of the Republic, in
1889, it was renamed Marechal Deodoro, its ofcial name still today. Since 1914, at the centre of the
square, the monument to Jlio de Castilhos, created by sculptor Dcio Villares, depicts the biogra-
phy of the states rst Republican president with gures aligned in a pyramid-shaped ensemble. The
square witnessed relevant historical events and popular manifestations, and is also known as Praa
dos Poderes, or Powers Plaza, because it is home to the decision-making centres of the Executive,
Legislative and Judiciary branches.
ALFNDEGA SQUARE HISTORICAL SITE
The history of Alfndega Square, or Customhouse
Square, is associated to its activities in the 18th cen-
tury, in the old river port of the city, at the Guara
River. In July 1782, a stone dock was built to facil-
itate the loading and unloading of passengers and
merchandise. In 1804, a large pier was built, with
24 ashlar pillars reaching into the bed of the river.
In 1866, the Porto-Alegrense Hydraulic Company in-
stalled a water fountain of bronzed iron in the square
and began to plant its trees. The areas landscaping
and ornaments were made by the inhabitants them-
selves, according to the directions of public engineer-
ing. Alfndega Square is surrounded by a few land-
mark constructions, some of them historical, such as
the Rio Grande do Sul Art Museum Aldo Malagoli
and the Rio Grande do Sul Memorial. Since 1955,
every second half of October, the Square is occupied
by the traditional Porto Alegre Book Fair.
102
IPHAN
IMPERADOR BRIDGE
The construction of the bridge over Feitoria River began in 1855. It was named Emperors Bridge in
honour of Emperor Dom Pedro II, the ruler of Brazil at the time of its construction. Built in stoneware
ashlar, it is 88 metres long, 14 metres high and 14.2 metres wide, with three round arches through
which water runs and lateral exits with ramps leading to the residences. A notable feat of engineer-
ing for the time because of its broad dimensions, it was built to replace a wooden bridge. It connect-
ed the Colonial region and the Province capital, and all the immigrants production was brought to
the Porto Alegre consumer market through that bridge. For this reason, it is considered an important
landmark in the States economic history.
MOTHER CHURCH OF NOSSA SENHORA DA
CONCEIO
The region originally known as Campos de Viamo
(RS) was one of the rst settlements of Rio Grande, in
Southern Brazil. Its occupation began in 1732, with
the donation of a plot of land to Manoel Gonalves
Ribeiro. Later on, the arrival of Azorean couples in
the region consolidated Portuguese possession of
these lands. The construction of the chapel dedicat-
ed to Our Lady of Conception dates from the early
days of this occupation. Viamo became a Parish in
1741, and the construction of its Mother Church be-
gan in 1747, following the project of architect Jos
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103
Custdio de S e Faria. It was Province capital from 1763 to 1773. The Mother Church of Viamo,
including its entire estate, was listed by IPHAN in the Book of Fine Arts in 1938, because of its great
architectural, historical and artistic relevance.
BENTO GONALVES BIRTHPLACE
The house where Bento Gonalves was born dates from the second half of the 18th century and was
built by his grandfather, the founder of Sesmaria de Piedade the original name of the town of Tri-
unfo (RS), at the banks of Jacu River. It is a small, typically Portuguese-Brazilian ground-oor house.
Today, the building accommodates the Farroupilha Museum, or Bento Gonalves Municipal Museum.
SCHMITT-PRESSER HOUSE
A half-timbered building that is represen-
tative of German immigrant culture in the
State, in the Hamburgo Velho neighbour-
hood of Novo Hamburgo (RS). The house
was built in the rst half of the 19th centu-
ry. A basement in stone masonry was added
in the beginning of this century, when the
street in front of it was lowered. Its relevance
lies in its elaborate constructive system as
well as its history as a landmark for the so-
cial, economic and cultural development of
Sinos River Valley, as it housed one of the
most important stores (warehouses) in the
Colonial region.
VILA DE SANTO HISTORICAL ENSEMBLE
Santo Amaros rst civil inhabitants arrived in 1755.
In 1771, the Azorean couples arrived and began to
build their residences on the plots distributed to the
settlers. In 1881 the Village was emancipated. In
1938, with the creation of a war arsenal in the Mar-
gem District, the seat of the municipality was trans-
ferred to that place, renamed General Cmara (RS)
in 1939, a name it retains to this day. The Village of
Santo Amaro, however, remains practically intact un-
til today, with its typically Portuguese rows of houses
and its important church dominating the landscape.
It is one of the most signicant urban ensembles of
Portuguese origin in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A broad rectangular square, now crossed by a
street, located at the highest and attest point of the Village, has the Church on one of its extremi-
ties, and the dwellers semi-detached homes on the sides.
104
IPHAN
INTANGIBLE HERITAGE
PELOTAS PASTRIES

The pastry-making region of Pelotas (RS) is home to a relevant intangible cultural heritage the
know-how for making these treats, brought to Brazil by Portuguese colonizers. IPHAN has been pro-
moting studies for recording this heritage. The confectioners of Pelotas preserve this culinary tradition
that involves sponge cake, gueda pastries, Sever sweetmeats, Vouga boats and Ilhavo sweet rice;
and also the camafeus, bem-casados, angel hair (egg threads), Braga slices and Santa Clara nests
and pastries. The regions variety of fruit offers the ideal conditions for making compote and candied
fruit. These delights are sold in the Sweets National Fair (Fenadoce), taking place yearly from May 29
to June 17, at the Event Centre (Pinheiro Machado Ave., n. 3390. BR-116 Industrial District. Phone
numbers: 55 53 3271.0002 and 9122.4109). Pelotas is located at 271 km from Porto Alegre, and can
be reached by car in about three hours or by airplane in about an hour.
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MBY-GUARANI CULTURAL WORLD
The So Miguel Arcanjo Archaeological Site, acknowledged by UNESCO as Cultural Heritage of Hu-
manity, is a major visiting attraction in the municipality of So Miguel das Misses (RS), at 485 km
from Porto Alegre. In this region, concentrating remnants from the old Jesuit Missions relevant cul-
tural references for the Mby-Guarani community IPHAN has been developing the Project for the
Appreciation of the Mby-Guarani Cultural World, in partnership with Spains Andalusian Institute of
Historical Heritage (IAPH). The program intends to foster respect for this peoples culture, ensuring its
acknowledgement, appreciation, promotion and management.