E
h
= Horizontal component of the earthquake load (storey Force).
E
= 0.5C
a
ID, therefore,
E = E
h
+ 0.5C
a
ID
5
Load Combinations
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
UBC97 Load Combinations
Therefore, the following load combinations of UBC97 are
generated:
1.1[1.2D + 0.5L 1.0 (E
h
+ 0.5C
a
ID)}
]..(i)
1.1[0.9D 1.0 (E
h
+ 0.5C
a
ID)] (ii)
NOTE: D, L and E
h
represents load effects axial force, shear, and
bending moment due to respective loads.
6
Load Combinations
4
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
UBC97 Load Combinations
As an example lets write UBC Load Combinations for
following seismic zone data:
Seismic Zone: 2B
Soil type: SD
Importance factor (I)= 1
For seismic zone 2B and soil type SD, Seismic coefficient C
a
= 0.28
With this data, following UBC97 load combinations are
obtained:
7
Load Combinations
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
UBC97 Load Combinations
1.1[1.2D + 0.5L 1.0 (E
h
+ 0.5C
a
ID)]..(i)
1.1[1.2D + 0.5L 1.0 (E
h
+ 0.5 0.28 1.00 D)]
1.32D + 0.55L 1.1E
h
0.154D
1.474D + 0.55L 1.1E
h
.. (ia)
1.166D + 0.55L 1.1E
h
.. (ib)
8
Load Combinations
5
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
UBC97 Load Combinations
Similarly,
1.1[0.9D 1.0 (E
h
+ 0.5C
a
ID)] (ii)
1.1[0.9D 1.0 (E
h
+ 0.5 0.28 1.00 D)]
0.99D 1.1E
h
0.154D
1.14D 1.1E
h
.. (iia)
0.84D 1.1E
h
. (iib)
9
Load Combinations
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
UBC97 Load Combinations
Finally, six load combinations are used for analysis of structure
1.4D
1.4D+1.7L
1.474D + 0.55L 1.1E
h
.. (ia)
1.166D + 0.55L 1.1E
h
.. (ib)
1.14D 1.1E
h
.. (iia)
0.84D 1.1E
h
. (iib)
10
Load Combinations
6
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Load Combinations in Other Codes
ACI 31802 & 05
1.4D
1.2D+1.6L
1.2D + 1.0L 1.0E
0.9D 1.0E
Note: This E must be calculated using IBC code.
BCP SP2007
BCP has same combinations as UBC97.
11
Load Combinations
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Compatibility of BCP (UBC) and ACI
BCP chapter 7 can be used for earthquake resistant design
of RC structures using load combination and Strength
Reduction Factors of chapter 5 of BCP (UBC 97 load
combinations).
To maintain compatibility in the usage of BCP code, analysis
is done using load combinations of UBC 97. Design can be
done using:
UBC 97 design procedure of chapter 19 which is ACI 31899.
ACI 31805 using load combinations and strength reduction factors of
UBC 97.
12
Load Combinations
7
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Following steps are followed to apply load combinations:
The structure is analyzed for unamplified load cases separately e.g.,
Analysis for unamplified dead load (1.0D),
Analysis for unamplified live load (1.0L)
Analysis for unamplified lateral storey load cases (1.0E
h
).
Load effects obtained for each load case are multiplied with amplification
factors and combined as per code load combination requirements.
With this approach, the structure has to be analyzed only for each load case.
After analysis, any load combinations can be performed with load cases.
13
Load Combinations
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Example 1: Apply Load combinations to analysis results of the encircled bay of
the given structure.
14
Load Combinations
20 ft 20 ft 20 ft 20 ft
15 ft
15 ft
15 ft
f
c
= 3 ksi
f
y
= 40 ksi
SDL = 40 psf
LL = 60 psf
SDL = 40 psf
LL = 60 psf
SDL = 40 psf
LL = 60 psf
Seismic Zone: 2B
Soil: SD
Slab: 6
Beams:12 18
Columns: 12
BAY
8
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Example 1
Following load combinations for zone 2B and soil SD are used:
1.4D+1.7L
1.474D + 0.55L 1.1E
h
.. (ia)
1.166D + 0.55L 1.1E
h
.. (ib)
1.14D 1.1E
h
.. (iia)
0.84D 1.1E
h
. (iib)
15
Load Combinations
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Example 1
16
Load Combinations
E
17 17
9
0.5
1.0
22
22
39
37
37
33
1.0D 1.0L 1.0E
1.0E
39
37
37
33
22
22
1.4D + 1.7L
89 89
52
2.8
4.5
1.474D + 0.55L + 1.1E
43 90
35
46
44
41
35
1.166D + 0.55L 1.1E
79 29
29
41
37
41
37
1.14D + 1.1E
20 68
23
45
43
41
36
0.84D 1.1E
57 8
20
42
38
41
36
89 90
52
46 41
Envelop
44 37
For higher zone, this value might
become positive
E
Bent left (+) Bent right ()
BM Sign convention for column
Bent down (+) Bent up ()
BM Sign convention for beam
43 43
26
1.4
2.0
9
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Case Study 1: Study on Results of Analysis using UBC and ACI
Load Combinations.
17
Load Combinations
20 ft 20 ft 20 ft 20 ft
15 ft
15 ft
15 ft
f
c
= 3 ksi
f
y
= 40 ksi
SDL = 40 psf
LL = 60 psf
SDL = 40 psf
LL = 60 psf
SDL = 40 psf
LL = 60 psf
Seismic Zone: 2B
Soil: SD
Slab: 6
Beams:12 18
Columns: 12
Portion of frame
considered
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Case Study 1: Following load combinations for zone 2B and soil
SD are used:
In ACI load combination, E is as per IBC. In this example E is
taken as per UBC with vertical component ignored.
18
Load Combinations
UBC 97 Load Combinations:
1.4D+1.7L
1.474D + 0.55L + 1.1E
1.166D + 0.55L 1.1E
1.14D + 1.1E
0.84D 1.1E
ACI 31805 Load Combinations:
1.2D+1.6L
1.2D + 1.0L + 1.0E
1.2D + 1.0L 1.1E
0.9D + 1.0E
0.9D 1.0E
10
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Case Study 1
19
17 17
9
0.5
1.0
22
22
39
37
37
33
1.0D
1.0L
1.0E
1.0E
Analysis Results for Unamplified Individual load Cases
39
37
37
33
Bent left (+) Bent right ()
BM Sign convention for column
Bent down (+) Bent up ()
BM Sign convention for beam
Load Combinations
22
22
43
43
26
1.4
2.0
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Case Study 1
20
89 89
52
2.8
4.5
1.4D + 1.7L (UBC97)
1.2D + 1.6L (ACI31805)
75 75
37
3.3
4.3
Load combination 1
Load Combinations
11
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Case Study 1
21
1.474D + 0.55L + 1.1E (UBC97)
1.2D + 1.0L + 1.0E (ACI31805)
42
85
33
42
40
37
33
43
90
35
46
44
41
35
85
42
33
1.2D + 1.0L 1.0E (ACI31805)
36
33
36
33
1.166D + 0.55L 1.1E (UBC97)
79
29
29
41
37
41
37
Load combination 2 & 3
Load Combinations
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Case Study 1
22
1.14D + 1.1E (UBC97)
0.9D + 1.0E (ACI31805)
85
42
33
0.9D 1.0E (ACI31805)
36
33
36
33
13
56
19
41
39
36
33
20
68
23
45
43
41
36
57
8
20
42
38
41
36
Load combination 4 & 5
Load Combinations
0.84D 1.1E (UBC97)
12
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Case Study 1: Conclusions
For the given frame, except gravity load combination 2, there is no significant
difference between UBC97 and ACI 31805 load combination results.
However in some cases it may be more.
Note that in each case, strength reduction factors are different. Therefore,
there will be difference in reinforcement as well.
Caution about use of load combination in SAP2000: Before designing in SAP2000,
make sure that combinations used are the same as used in the relevant code.
23
Load Combinations
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Example 2: Complete Example using Approximate Analysis
24
Load Combinations
20 ft 20 ft 20 ft 20 ft
15 ft
15 ft
15 ft
f
c
= 3 ksi
f
y
= 40 ksi
SDL = 40 psf
LL = 60 psf
SDL = 40 psf
LL = 60 psf
SDL = 40 psf
LL = 60 psf
Seismic Zone: 2B
Soil: SD
Slab: 6
Beams:12 18
Columns: 12
13
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Example 2: EW Frame to be analysed. Lateral load from Static
Lateral Force Procedure are shown.
25
F
3
=23 kips
l
1
=20 ft
l
2
=20 ft
l
3
=20 ft
h=10.5 ft
F
2
=15.5 kips
F
1
= 7.74 kips
l
4
=20 ft
h=10.5 ft
h=10.5 ft
Load Combinations
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Example 2: Analysis Results for 1.0D
26
Column
Moments
Beam
Moments
Load Combinations
14
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Example 2: Analysis Results for 1.0L
Column
Moments
Beam
Moments
Load Combinations
27
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Applications of Load Combinations
Example 2: Analysis Results for 1.0E
Load Combinations
28
15
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Example 2: Analysis Results for 1.0E
Load Combinations
29
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Example 2: Analysis Results for 1.2D+1.6L
Column
Moments
Beam
Moments
Load Combinations
30
16
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Applicationn of Load Combinations
Example 2: Analysis Results for 1.2D+1.0L+1.0E
Column
Moments
Beam
Moments
Load Combinations
31
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Example 2: Analysis Results for 1.2D + 1.0L 1.0E
Column
Moments
Beam
Moments
Load Combinations
32
17
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Example 2: Analysis Results for 0.9D + 1.0E
Column
Moments
Beam
Moments
Load Combinations
33
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of Load Combinations
Example 2: Analysis Results for 0.9D 1.0E
Column
Moments
Beam
Moments
Load Combinations
34
18
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Application of load Combinations
Example 2: Envelop Used For Design & Comparison with SAP
Column
Moments
Beam
Moments
Load Combinations
74 52 31 52 74
55 62 52 62 55
91 133 123 133 91
74 109 88 88 88 88 109 74
78 58 58 78
100 135 114 114 114 114 135 100
78 58 58 78
146 181 160 160 160 160 181 146
78 58 58 78
10 10 2 2 2 2
56 56 48 48 48 48 37 37
54 22 21 22 54
56 42 37 42 56
85 81 77 81 85
38 60 80 71 71 80 60 38
84 36 36 84
72 93 86 85 85 86 93 72
50 37 37 50
97 123 109 105 105 109 123 97
54 37 37 54
6 6
46 10 10 46 3 10 10 3
35
Approximate Analysis Envelop SAP2000 Envelop
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Comparative study between gravity and earthquake load
analysis for various zones of the given structure using
SAP2000.
36
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
20 ft 20 ft 20 ft 20 ft
15 ft
15 ft
15 ft
The study has been done
using SAP2000 using ACI
31805 load combinations
and is done for all
seismic zones. The study
has been done on the
same 4 by 3 (2015)
panel building.
19
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
The objective of this study is to determine for the given 3D
structure:
Bending moment due to gravity loads
Bending moments due to earthquake loads from zone 1 to 4.
Compare the bending moments to see the variation in bending
moments due to change in loading.
Compare the reinforcement requirement due to change in loading.
37
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Gravity Load Analysis (1.2D+1.6L) for all seismic zones
38
34
50
51
80
75
73
37
36
1.2D+1.6L
44
38
2
38
54
85
79
71
36
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
20
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Combinations for Zone 1
39
11
21
35
65
41
59
25
16
1.2D+1.0L+1.0E
1.2D+1.0L1.0E
34
46
31
43
60
39
25
32
36
31
22
19
35
32
5
54
95
51
80
31
60
41
51
86
42
33
0.9D+1.0E
0.9D1.0E
4
10
27
48 25 44
25
8
13
12
32
9
32
61
19
52
17
27
36
21
27
44
24
18
25
27
23
32
45
22
18 55
15
19
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Combinations for Zone 2A
40
8
19
48
89
47 80
33
16
1.2D+1.0L+1.0E
25
22
60
50
66
40
49 81
45
33
46
51
43
64
17
59
113
30 95
33
83
41
33 100 27
37
5
0
28
57
18 52
18
2
0.9D+1.0E
8
7
61 32
40
79 5 67
19
37
46
21
18 52 16
19
32
33
28
63 68
23
0 69 0
22
0.9D1.0E
1.2D+1.0L1.0E
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
21
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Combinations for Zone 2B
41
2
13
50
94
42
85
33
12
1.2D+1.0L+1.0E
21
19
77
1.2D+1.0L1.0E
56
72
40
44
86
40
34
50
54
45
81
0.9D+1.0E
0.9D1.0E
11
6
30
63
13
56
19
2
4
4
80
46
90
3
77
20
42
53
22
12
57
12
20
36
37
30
80 82
24
10 78
9
24
31
63
123
21
105
33
97
41
22
109
18
38
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Combinations for Zone 3
42
1.2D+1.0L+1.0E
1.2D+1.0L1.0E
64
81
39
37 92 34
36
56
59
49
104
16
5
4
53
101
36
91
33
6
16
100 49
70
138 15 117
36
116
42
8 121 5
40
0.9D+1.0E
0.9D1.0E
0
18
14
32
70
7
63
20
7
0
101 64
49
105 15 89
23
50
61
22
5 63 5
21
31
42
34
104 101
26
24 90 22
28
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
22
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Combinations for Zone 4
43
1.2D+1.0L+1.0E
1.2D+1.0L1.0E
71
89
40
29 97
27
35
61
64
53
127
11
13
3
54
108 29
98
33
1
12
122
68
78
152 4
130
37
134
42
6
132 6
44
0.9D+1.0E
2
26
23
35
77 0
69
20
12
5
123
83
58
119 26
102
21
0.9D1.0E
58
70
23
1 69
0
22
47
46
38
126 119
29
39
101 34
34
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Beam Moment Comparison for all zones
44
A
B
(A) (B)
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
Tension on opposite face
for higher seismic zone
No significant effects of
Lateral loads
23
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Beam Moment Comparison for all zones
45
A
B
(A) (B)
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
Tension on opposite face
for higher seismic zone
No significant effects of
Lateral loads
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Beam Moment Comparison for all zones
46
C
(C) (F)
F
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
Marginal effect of lateral
loads
Marginal effect of lateral
loads
24
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Comparison for all zones
47
C
F
(C) (F)
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
Tension on opposite face
for higher seismic zone
Tension on opposite face
for higher seismic zone
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Beam Moment Comparison for all zones
48
E
(E)
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
No significant effects of
Lateral loads
25
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Comparison for all zones
49
E
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
(E) No significant effects of
Lateral loads
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Column Moment Comparison for all zones
50
Top moment
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
Increase in BM for higher
seismic zone
26
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Case Study 2
Conclusions
Lower storey positive end moment in beams may become significant in
higher seismic zones.
There is no significant change in beam mid span positive moments for
all zones.
The column moments increases with increase in seismic zone.
Generally, the moment due to lateral loads in beams and columns both
increases from top to bottom stories and is maximum at the aground
storey
Within a storey, exterior negative moment in a beam increases more
than that of interior negative moments in the same seismic zone.
51
Gravity vs. Earthquake
Loading
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
ETABS
Following slides present broad steps required to perform analysis.
52
Analysis & Design Using
Software
27
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
1. After completing the modeling, goto
Option Preferences Concrete Frame Design
ETABS
Select UBC97 so that UBC load combinations can be generated
3. Goto Define Special Seismic Load Effects and select from two
options based on requirement:
(i) Include Special Seismic Design Data
(ii) Do Not Include Special Seismic Design Data
Option (i) is normally selected.
Vertical component of earthquake loads can be
included from this option.
Vertical component of earthquake loads can also be neglected
if acceptable. Goto Define Load Add Default Design
Combos to Generate load combinations Select Concrete Frame Design to
generate load combinations for concrete
material
Goto Define Load Combinations to see the
generated Load combinations
Click Modify Button to see details of
load combinations
Load Combination details
(Without inclusion of vertical
component of earthquake load)
Load combination including vertical
component of earthquake load
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
SAP2000
Following slides present broad steps required to perform analysis.
54
Analysis & Design Using
Software
28
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
SAP2000
After completing the structural model, go to Define Load cases
and all required load patterns.
Earthquake load pattern should be defined as discussed in
previous lecture
Defined Load patterns
Note: UBC 97 used for earthquake load definition.
Go to Design Concrete Frame Design View/ Revise Preferences
to select code for design.
To generate load combinations select the code. As UBC is used for
earthquake definition therefore select UBC.
Go to Define load Combinations to generate Load
combinations as per UBC97
Sometimes the desired load combinations might not match the required code
combinations, therefore all combinations should be checked before final design.
After this, the model is ready for analysis and design as per UBC97.
In a second option, To perform analysis and design as per BCP, manually define all load
combinations as per UBC97 in Define Load Combination section.
Then go to design Concrete Frame Design View/ Revise Preferences and change design code
to ACI 31805.
Change the strength reduction factors as per UBC i.e., for shear and torsion = 0.85 instead
of 0.75.
Option 1 Option 2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
ACI Special Provisions for Seismic
Design
56
29
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
The principal goal of the Special Provisions is to ensure adequate
toughness under inelastic displacement reversals brought on by
earthquake loading.
The provisions accomplish this goal by requiring the designer to
provide for concrete confinement and inelastic rotation capacity.
No special requirements are placed on structures subjected to low or
no seismic risk.
Structural systems designed for high and moderate seismic risk are
referred to as Special and Intermediate respectively.
57
ACI Special Provisions for
Seismic Design
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Based on moment resisting capacity, there are three types of RC
frames,
SMRF (Special Moment Resisting Frame),
IMRF (Intermediate Moment Resisting Frame),
OMRF (Ordinary Moment Resisting Frame).
Some general requirements will be presented first, which are
common to all frames. Specific requirements for each type of frame
are presented later on.
58
ACI Special Provisions for
Seismic Design
30
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
General Requirements
Concrete in members resisting earthquake induced forces
Min f
c
= 3000 Psi (cylinder strength) for all types
No maximum limit on ordinary concrete
5000 psi is maximum limit for light weight
59
ACI Special Provisions for
Seismic Design
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
General Requirements
Reinforcement in members resisting earthquake induced forces
Grade 60, conforming to ASTM A 706 (low alloy steel)
Grade 40 or 60, conforming to ASTM A 615 (billet steel) provided that
F
y (actual)
F
y (specified)
+18 Ksi
Actual Ultimate / Actual F
y
1.25
60
ACI Special Provisions for
Seismic Design
31
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
General Requirements
Hoops, Ties and Cross Ties
Confinement for concrete is provided by transverse reinforcement
consisting of stirrups. hoops, and crossties.
To ensure adequate anchorage, a seismic hook (shown in figure) is used
on stirrups, hoops and crossties .
61
ACI Special Provisions for
Seismic Design
(Seismic Hook)
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
General Requirements
Hoops, ties and Crossties: Advantages
Closely spaced horizontal closed ties in column help in three ways:
i. they carry the horizontal shear forces induced by earthquakes, and thereby
resist diagonal shear cracks,
ii. they hold together the vertical bar and prevent them from excessively
bending outwards (in technical terms, this bending phenomenon is called
buckling), and
iii. they contain the concrete in the column. The ends of the ties must be bent
at 135 hooks. Such hook ends prevent opening of hoops and
consequently buckling of concrete and buckling of vertical bars.
62
ACI Special Provisions for
Seismic Design
32
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provisions for Flexural Members
These provision applies to flexural members with:
Factored axial compressive force A
g
f
c
/10.
Note: These provisions generally apply to beams because axial load on beams
is generally less than A
g
f
c
/10.
However they are also applicable to columns subjected to axial load less
than A
g
f
c
/10.
63
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provisions for Flexural Members
1. Size: The members must have:
a. clear spantoeffectivedepth ratio of at least 4, (L
n
/d 4)
e.g., for L
n
= 15 ft, d = 16, L
n
/d = 15 12/16 = 11.25 > 4, O.K.
b. widthtodepth ratio of at least 0.3, b/d 0.3
e.g., for width (b) = 12 and depth (h) = 18, b/h = 12/18 = 0.67 > 0.3, O.K.
c. web width of not less 10 inches.
64
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
33
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provisions for Flexural Members
2. Flexural Reinforcement
65
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
A
sl
A
sl+
(A
sl
)/2
A
s
or A
s+
(at all section) (maximum of A
s
at either joint)/4
A
sr
A
sr+
(A
sr
)/2
r
min
= 3f
c
/f
y
, 200/f
y
(at critical sections)
r
max
= 0.025 (at critical sections)
Min. 2 bars continuous at all sections
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provisions for Flexural Members
3. Transverse Reinforcement
66
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
s
d/4
8 smallest longitudinal bar diameter
24 hoop bar diameter
12 2
2h 2h
s d/2
Column
Column
34
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provisions for Flexural Members
4. Lap Splice
67
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
Lap splice length =1.3 l
d
= 1.3 0.05 (f
y
/ f
c
)d
b
50 d
b
for f
c
3 and f
y
40 ksi
70 d
b
for f
c
3 and f
y
60 ksi
Spacing of stirrups
Least of d/4 or 4
inches
Lapping prohibited in regions where
longitudinal bars can yield in tension
Lapping of
Longitudinal bars
2h 2h
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011 68
Provisions for Flexural Members
Mechanical Splice of Longitudinal Reinforcement
Mechanical Splices shall conform to 21.2.6.
Section 21.2.6 says that welded splice shall conform to 12.14.3.2
which states A full mechanical splice shall develop in tension or
compression, as required, at least 125 % of the specified yield
strength (f
y
) of the bar.
68
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
35
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011 69
Provisions for Flexural Members
Welded Splice of Longitudinal Reinforcement
Welded Splices shall conform to 21.2.7.
Section 7.3.6 says that welded splice shall conform to 12.14.3.4
which states A full welded splice shall develop at least 125 % of
the specified yield strength (f
y
) of the bar.
69
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provision for Frame Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Load
The provision applies to members with:
Factored axial compressive force > A
g
f
c
/10
70
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
36
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provision for Frame Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Load
1. Size
a) Each side at least 12 inches
b) Shorter to longer side ratio 0.4.
i.e. 12/12, 12/18, 12/24 OK; but 12/36 not O.K
71
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provision for Frame Members
Subjected to Bending and Axial
Load
2. Longitudinal Reinforcement
72
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
0.01 r
g
0.06
Clear span, h
c
37
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provision for Frame
Members Subjected
to Bending and
Axial Load
3. Trans. Rein.
73
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
h
2
h
1
s
0.25 (smaller of h
1
or h
2
)
6 long. bar dia.
s
o
s
6 long. bar dia.
6
l
o
l
o
Larger of h
1
or h
2
Clear span/6
18
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provision for Frame Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Load
3. Trans. Rein.
74
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
4 s
o
= 4 + [(14 h
x
)/3] 6
h
x
= max. value of h
x
on all column faces
h
x
14
h
x
h
x
h
x
h
x
h
x
6d
b
3 6d
b
extension
Alternate
90deg hooks
Provide add.
trans. reinf.
if thickness > 4
38
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provision for Frame Members Subjected
to Bending and Axial Load
4. Lap Splice
75
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
Tension lap splice
within center half of
member length
Lap splice length =1.3 l
d
= 1.3 0.05 (f
y
/ f
c
)d
b
50 d
b
for f
c
3 and f
y
40 ksi
70 d
b
for f
c
3 and f
y
60 ksi
Spacing of ties in lap
splice not more than
smaller of d/4 or 4
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Joints of Special Moment Frame
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
Beam
Column
Beam Column Joint
Column ties (with 135
o
)
hook continued through joint
(ACI 21.5.2)
76
39
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Joints of Special Moment Frame
Successful seismic design of frames require that the
structures be proportioned so that hinges occur at locations
that least compromise strength. For this, weak Beamstrong
column approach is used.
After design, the member capacities are calculated based
on designed section.
Column flexural capacity > Beam flexural capacity
77
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011 78
Joints of Special Moment Frame
Minimum Flexural Strength of Column at Joint
78
M
+
nc,t
M

nc,b
M
+
nb,r
M

nb,l
M
+
nc,b
+ M

nc,t
6(M
+
nb,l
+ M

nb,r
)/5
M

nc,t
M
+
nc,b
M
+
nb,l M

nb,r
M

nc,b
+ M
+
nc,t
6(M

nb,l
+ M
+
nb,r
)/5
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
40
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Joints of Special Moment Frame
To prevent beam column joint cracking, ACI Code 21.5.1
requires that the column dimension parallel to the beam
reinforcement must be at least 20 times the diameter of the
largest longitudinal bar.
79
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
Beam longitudinal
reinforcement with
diameter (d
b
)
20d
b
Beam
Column
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Joints of Special Moment Frame
Beam longitudinal reinforcement that is terminated within a
column. must be extended to the far face of the column core.
The development length (l
dh
) of bars with 90 hooks must be not
less than 8d
b
, 6 inch, Or f
y
d
b
/ (65 f
c
).
80
ACI Provisions for Special
Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF)
Beam
Column
Beam longitudinal
reinforcement
l
dh
41
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provision for Flexural Members
1. Size: No special requirement (Just as ordinary beam
requirement).
2. Flexural steel: Less stringent requirement as discussed next.
3. Transverse steel: Same as for SMRF.
4. Lap: No special requirement (Just as ordinary beam
requirement).
81
ACI Provisions for Intermediate
Moment Resisting Frames (IMRF)
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provisions for Flexural Members
2. Flexural Reinforcement
82
ACI Provisions for Intermediate
Moment Resisting Frames (IMRF)
A
sl
A
sl+
(A
sl
)/3
A
s
or A
s+
(at all section) (maximum of A
s
at either joint)/5
A
sr
A
sr+
(A
sr
)/3
r
min
= 3f
c
/f
y
, 200/f
y
(at critical sections)
t
0.004
42
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provision for Columns
1. Size: No special requirement (Just as ordinary column
requirement)
2. Flexural steel: No special requirement (Just as ordinary column
requirement)
3. Transverse steel: Less Stringent requirement as given next.
4. Lap: No special requirement (Just as ordinary column
requirement)
83
ACI Provisions for Intermediate
Moment Resisting Frames (IMRF)
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Provision for Columns
84
ACI Provisions for Intermediate
Moment Resisting Frames (IMRF)
h
2
h
1
s
o
/2
Trans. reinf. based on M
n
and
factored tributary gravity load
s
o
8 smallest long. bar dia.
24 tie bar dia.
0.5 min. (h
1
or h
2
)
12
l
o
l
o
Larger of h
1
or h
2
Clear span/6
18
s
d/2 (As per ACI 11.5.4)
43
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
IMRF are not allowed in regions of high seismic risk, however,
SMRF are allowed in regions of moderate seismic risk.
Unlike regions of high seismic risk, two way slab system without
beams are allowed in regions of moderate seismic risk.
In regions of low or no seismic risk ordinary moment resisting
frames OMRF are allowed but IMRF and SMRF may also be
provided.
85
Miscellaneous Considerations
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Detail the selected frame of EW interior frame of the given
structure as per SMRF requirements. The structure is already
designed for the following seismic zone data.
Seismic zone: 4
Magnitude of earthquake 7.0
Slip rate 5.0
Closest distance to known seismic source > 15 km.
Soil type: SD (stiff).
Concrete compressive strength = 3 ksi,
Steel yield strength = 40 ksi
Modulus of elasticity of concrete = 3000 ksi.
86
Design Example
44
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Given 3D structure:
87
Design Example
20 ft 20 ft 20 ft 20 ft
15 ft
15 ft
15 ft
10.5 ft
10.5 ft
10.5 ft (floor to floor)
SDL = 40 psf
LL = 60 psf
SDL = 40 psf
LL = 60 psf
SDL = 40 psf
LL = 60 psf
f
c
= 3 ksi
f
y
= 40 ksi
Zone = 4
C
a
= 0.44
C
v
= 0.64
I = 1
W = 2002
V = 259 kip
SlabBeam
Frame
Structure
Beams: 15 24
Columns: 15 square
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Load Combinations
ACI 31805 load combinations have been used.
1.2D+ 1.6L
1.2D + 1.0L + 1.0E
1.2D + 1.0L 1.0E
0.9D + 1.0E
0.9D 1.0E
88
Design Example
45
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Design Example
Analysis
Analysis has been done using SAP2000. SAP2000 develops
envelop of maximum bending moments automatically for the
given load combinations.
During the design, the software automatically checks SMRF
requirements at each and every section.
89
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Design Example
Analysis
Analysis results for shown portion of EW interior frame is
shown next.
90
20 ft 20 ft 20 ft 20 ft
15 ft
15 ft
15 ft
10.5 ft
10.5 ft
10.5 ft (floor to floor)
46
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Analysis Results
91
E
43 43
26
17.5 17.5
11
0.5
1.0
1.4
2.0
43
43
72
67
68
61
1.0D 1.0L 1.0E
1.0E
72
67
68
61
43
43
1.2D + 1.6L
65 65
40
2.2
3.2
1.2D + 1.0L + 1.0E
13 98
40
74
70
68
61
1.2D + 1.0L 1.0E
98 12
40
70
64
68
61
1.14D + 1.1E
+14
70
26
73
68
68
61
0.84D 1.1E
70
+15 26
71
66
68
61
98 98
+40
74 68
Envelop
70 61
+14 +15
E
Bent left (+) Bent right ()
BM Sign convention for column
Bent down (+) Bent up ()
BM Sign convention for beam
Design Example
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Design Example
Selected portion of EW interior Frame:
Bending Moment Envelop
As the software checks SMRF moment capacity requirements and ACI
minimum moment capacity requirements at critical sections. Therefore
final shape of the bending moment envelop of the beam is as shown:
92
20 ft 20 ft 20 ft 20 ft
57
98 98
48 48 Values used in design
98 98
+40
74 68
Analysis Envelop
70 61
+14 +15
47
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Design Example
Calculation of number of bars:
93
20 ft 20 ft 20 ft 20 ft
# of bars = A
s
/A
b
Use No. 5 bar,
Negative reinforcement at joint:
Left joint:
1.61/0.31= 5.19 (take 6 bars in 2 layers)
Right joint:
1.61/0.31= 5.19 (take 6 bars in 2 layers)
Positive bars (mid span):
1.21/0.31 = 3.9 (take 4 bars in 1 layer)
Positive bars (at joint):
1.01/0.31 = 3.29 (take 4 bars in 1 layer)
Column reinforcement:
2.25/ 0.31 = 7.25 (take 8 bars for even distribution
of bars at all faces of column)
1.61
1.61
1.02
1.02
1.21
2.25
2.25
Reinforcement in in
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Design Example
Calculation of number of bars:
94
20 ft 20 ft 20 ft 20 ft
# of bars = A
s
/A
b
Use No. 5 bar,
Negative reinforcement at joint:
Left joint:
1.61/0.31= 5.19 (take 6 bars in 2 layers)
Right joint:
1.61/0.31= 5.19 (take 6 bars in 2 layers)
Positive bars (mid span):
1.21/0.31 = 3.9 (take 4 bars in 1 layer)
Positive bars (at joint):
1.01/0.31 = 3.29 (take 4 bars in 1 layer)
Column reinforcement:
2.25/ 0.31 = 7.25 (take 8 bars for even distribution
of bars at all faces of column)
6 bars
6 bars
4 bars
4 bars
4 bars
8 bars
8 bars
No. of #5 bars
48
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
SMRF Requirements Checklist
Provisions for Beams
Sizes
l
n
/d = 20 12/21 = 11.4 > 4 (ACI 21.3.1.2 satisfied)
Width/ depth = 15/24 = 0.625 > 0.3 (ACI 21.3.1.3 satisfied)
Width = 15 > 10, O.K.
Therefore 15 24 deep beams is OK.
95
Design Example
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
SMRF Requirements Checklist
Provisions for Beams
Flexural Reinforcement
96
Design Example
A
s+
(at joints) A
s
(at joints)
4 #5 bars (6 #5 bars)
A
s
(any section) Max. A
s
at joints
2 #5 bars (6 #5 bars)
A
s
(at all critical sections) A
smin
As A
smin
= 6 #5 bars
A
s
(at any section) A
smax
A
smax
= 0.025bd = 25 #5 bars
OK
OK
Provide at least 6 bars at critical sections)
OK
A
sl
= 6 #5
A
sr
= 6 #5
A
smid+
= 4 #5
A
sl+
= 4 #5
A
sr+
= 4 #5
N.G
49
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
SMRF Requirements Checklist
Provisions for Beams
Flexural Reinforcement
97
Design Example
A
sl
= 6 #5
A
sr
= 6 #5
A
smid+
= 6 #5
A
sl+
= 6 #5
A
sr+
= 6 #5
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
SMRF Requirements Checklist
Provisions for Beams
Transverse Reinforcement
98
Design Example
s
d/4 = 21/4 = 5.25
8 smallest long. bar dia.= 8 5/8= 5
24 hoop bar diameter = 24 3/8= 9
12 2
2h = 48
s d/2 = 21/2 = 11
Column
2h = 48
50
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
SMRF Requirements Checklist
Provisions for Beams
Lap Splice: If required then,
Not to be provided within joints. Not to be provided within 2h region from face of
the support.
Spacing of hoops within lap = least of d/4 or 4 c/c = 4 c/c
Lap splice length =1.3 l
d
= 1.30.05 (f
y
/ f
c
)d
b
30 = 2.5
50 d
b
= 50 (5/8) = 31.25 2.5 for f
c
3 and f
y
40 ksi
99
Design Example
2h=48 2h=48
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
SMRF Requirements Checklist
Provisions for Columns
Size: All columns are 15 square, which is more than least required for
SMRF (i.e., 12).
Flexural Reinforcement: All columns are reinforced with 8 #5 bars
which gives
g
= 0.011, within the specified range 0.01
g
0.06.
100
Design Example
51
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Design Example
SMRF Requirements
Checklist
Provision for Columns
Transverse Reinforcement:
l
o
= max (larger column
dimension, h
c
/6, 18) = 18
Spacing of ties in l
o
region is
least of = smaller column
dimension/4, 6 long bar
dia = 3.75
Spacing in the remaining
region will be least of 6
long bar dia or 6 = 3.75
h
c
= 8.5
l
o
l
o
15 15
column
8, #5 bars
101
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Design Example
SMRF Requirements Checklist
Provisions for Columns
Lap Splice:
Tension lap splice within center
half of member length.
Spacing of ties in lap splice not
more than smaller of d/4 or 4
Lap length = 1.3 0.05 (f
y
/ f
c
)d
b
=
30 2.5
And from 50d
b
= 50(5/8) =
31.25
h
c
= 8.5
102
52
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Design Example
SMRF Requirements Checklist
Provision for Joints
To prevent beam column joint cracking, ACI Code 21.5.1 requires that
the column dimension parallel to the beam reinforcement must be at
least 20 times the diameter of the largest longitudinal bar.
20 5/8 = 12.5
Column dimension parallel to beam long bar = 15, OK
103
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Design Example
SMRF Requirements Checklist
Provision for Joints
6 #5 bars
6 #5 bars
2
Column
Beam
Joint
Interior joint
104
53
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Design Example
SMRF Requirements Checklist
Provision for Joints
For exterior columns, the column dimension parallel to beam longitudinal
bar must be greater than the development length of beam bars in
columns with 90 hooks is not to be less than largest of:
The development length of beam bars in columns with 90 hooks is not
to be less than largest of:
8d
b
= 8 5/8 = 5
6
l
dh
= f
y
d
b
/(65 f
c
) = 40000 (5/8)/ {65 (3000)} = 7
Therefore, development length = 7. The column dimension is 15 which
satisfies this requirement.
105
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
Design Example
SMRF Requirements Checklist
Provision for Joints
2
Development of beam
reinforcement in column
= 13 > l
dh
= 7
Development of beam
reinforcement in column
= 22 > l
dh
= 7
Column
Beam
Joint
Exterior Joint
106
54
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
References
ACI 318
Design of Concrete Structures by Nilson, Darwin and
Dolan.
UBC97
BCP
107
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011
The End
108