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CPU Overload Control

WCDMA RAN
Feature Guide









CPU Overload Control Feature Guide

ZTE Confidential Proprietary 2011 ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved. 1

CPU Overload Control Feature Guide
Version Date Author Reviewer Remarks
V5.0 2010-10-15 Zhao Zesheng Cai Lan






2011 ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved.
ZTE CONFIDENTIAL: This document contains proprietary information of ZTE and is
not to be disclosed or used without the prior written permission of ZTE.
Due to update and improvement of ZTE products and technologies, information of the
document is subjected to change without notice.


CPU Overload Control Feature Guide

ZTE Confidential Proprietary 2011 ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved. 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 Functional Attribute ........................................................................................ 3
2 Introduction .................................................................................................... 3
2.1 Function Introduction ........................................................................................ 3
2.1.1 CPU Overload Control Function ....................................................................... 3
3 Technical Description .................................................................................... 4
3.1 Overload Control Function ................................................................................ 4
3.1.1 CPU Load Statistics .......................................................................................... 4
3.1.2 Congestion Control and Restoration ................................................................. 4
3.1.3 CPU Overload Control for New Call Attempts ................................................... 5
3.1.4 CPU Overload Control for Existing Calls ........................................................... 6
4 Parameters and Configuration ...................................................................... 6
4.1 Parameter List .................................................................................................. 6
5 Counter and Alarm ......................................................................................... 6
5.1 Counter List ...................................................................................................... 6
5.2 Alarm List ......................................................................................................... 6
6 Glossary .......................................................................................................... 7


CPU Overload Control Feature Guide

ZTE Confidential Proprietary 2011 ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved. 3

1 Functional Attribute
System version: [RNC V3.09, Node B V4.09, OMMR V3.09, OMMB V4.09]
Attribute: [Optional]
Involved NEs:
UE Node B RNC MSCS MGW SGSN GGSN HLR
- - - - - - -
Note:
*-: Not involved.
*: Involved.
Dependency: [None]
Mutual exclusion: [None]
Remarks: [None]
2 Introduction
2.1 Function Introduction
RNC CPU Overload Control based on the statistics value of RNC processors, perform
Admission Control of service in accordance with pre-configured CPU load threshold, and
keep the processor load in the normal range.
This document describes the CPU load control technology in the UMTS RNC. It is written
mainly for operators and engineers who want to understand the detail functionality of the
RNC CPU load control.
2.1.1 CPU Overload Control Function
The CPU overload control is implemented on the RCP board (RNC Control-plane
Processor). The RNC monitors the CPU load of the RCP based on the statistics and
determines whether the CPU load exceeds pre-configured CPU load threshold. The RNC
defines several radio processes. Before implementing the process, the RNC calls the
interface supplied by the system load control mechanism to determine whether the called
can be implemented. If the CPU admission result is Reject the process will not be
implemented. If the CPU admission result is Allowed, the process will be implemented.
This action stabilizes the CPU load.


CPU Overload Control Feature Guide

ZTE Confidential Proprietary 2011 ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved. 4

3 Technical Description
3.1 Overload Control Function
3.1.1 CPU Load Statistics
CPU load statistics refers to the CPU utilization rate within a period, that is, the
proportion of the effective calculation time implemented by the CPU in the total run time.
Perform the following steps to get the CPU utilization rate:
Design a reference code. When the system starts, execute the reference code many
times. Then, obtain the execution time of the reference code and calculate the average
run time (t) of the reference code.
Create an idle task with the lowest priority in the system. Execute the reference code
circularly in the idle task and count the execution times. Assume that the reference code
is executed n times at the interval of T s within the specified time, calculate the CPU
utilization rate (CPURate) in the following formula:
CPURate = (100 - (100 * n * t / T)) %
Calculate the CPU utilization rate every two seconds in the task and output the CPU
utilization rate for application query.
3.1.2 Congestion Control and Restoration
The process of congestion control and restoration is as follows:
The system queries the CPU utilization rate periodically (every second). When the CPU
utilization rate exceeds 80%, the system state is identified as congested. The system
then sets the service admission proportion (R) to 0.1 and then starts restricting service
admission according to the proportion R.
If the CPU utilization rate is still higher than 80% in the next continuous ten seconds from
the beginning of congestion, the system sets R to 0.01. If the CPU utilization rate is still
higher than 80% in the next continuous twenty seconds from the beginning of congestion,
the system sets R to zero.
If the system detects that the CPU utilization rate is lowered to 75% in one query (RNC
query the CPU load each second), the system sets R to 1 and then cancels the
restriction on service admission. The CPU is returned from congested to normal.

The admission process of service operations is as follows:
When receiving a service process request, the system firstly query the current service
admission proportion (R) by calling the load control interface. If R is less than 1, the
system generates a random number between 0 and 100 and divides the random number
by 100 to get the parameter r.

CPU Overload Control Feature Guide

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If r is greater than R, the system rejects to execute the service process. If r is less than
or equal to R, the system implements the service process.
3.1.3 CPU Overload Control for New Call Attempts
For new call attempt, a RRC Connection Request message will be received, before
implementing RRC connection process, the system needs to call the load control
interface to determine whether the process can be implemented. Perform the following
steps to determine whether RRC connection process can be implemented:
When the RNC receives a RRC Connection Request, the system will invoke CPU
Load Control defined in Section 3.1.2 to determine whether the connection is
allowed.
If CPU Load Control returns reject, the RRC connection will be rejected, the RNC
generates a RRC Connection Reject message and sends it to the UE, and then
quits from handling.
If CPU Load Control returns allowed, the RRC connection will be allowed, the
system proceeds with the subsequent handling.
UE RNC
RRC Connection Request
CPU Load Control defined
by Section 3.1.2
RRC Connection Reject
RRC Connection Setup
CPU Load Control return
Reject
CPU Load Control return
Allowed

Figure3-1: RRC connection process in CPU congestion

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3.1.4 CPU Overload Control for Existing Calls
Some procedures including DRBC, channel switching and handover will be executed for
existing calls, and these procedures will also be determined by CPU Overload Control.
Refer the following statement for details.
When a measurement report message from UE is received, CPU Overload
Control function is invoked at first, if the function return reject, this measurement
report will be discarded (e.g. act as the message is not received).
When DRBC is triggered, CPU Overload Control function will be invoked before
execution, if the function return reject, this execution will be discarded.
When handover including soft Handover, intra-frequency hard handover, inter-
frequency hard handover and Inter-RAT handover is triggered, CPU Overload
Control function will be invoked before execution, if the function return reject, this
execution will be discarded.
When channel switching is triggered, CPU Overload Control function will be
invoked before execution, if the function return reject, this execution will be
discarded.
4 Parameters and Configuration
4.1 Parameter List
There is no relevant parameter configuration
5 Counter and Alarm
5.1 Counter List

Counter No. Description
C311340000 Peak load of CPU usage of the main processor
C311340001 Mean ratio of the CPU usage
C311340002 Duration of the main processor keeping in busy state
5.2 Alarm List
Alarm Code 198002560
Description The usage of CPU is over the threshold

CPU Overload Control Feature Guide

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Severity Major
Cause
1. Excessive data traffic at higher layer.
2. System is performing data synchronization or saving.
3. CPU alarm threshold setting is under configured

6 Glossary
CN Core Network
DRBC Dynamic Radio Bearer Control
MSC Mobile services Switching Centre
OMC Operation & Maintenance Center
RCP RNC Control plan Processor
RNC Radio Network Controller
ROMP RNC Operation & Maintenance Processor
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
UMTS Universal Mobile Terrestrial System
WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access