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1.

|n|rcduac
1.1. His|cricc dcs raics-X
2. Raics-X
2.1. Gcraac dc raics-X
2.2. Principic |isicc da cnissac dc raics-X
3. Difraac dc Raics-X
3.1. |ci dc 8ragg
4. Mc|cdcs dc difraac
4.1. Tccnica dc |auc
4.2. Mc|cdc dc pc
5. An4|iscs dc cs|ru|uras cris|a|inas
5.1. Sis|cna cuoicc
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1. lntroduo
O fcncncnc da difraac c u|i|izadc para dc|crninar
as carac|cris|icas da cs|ru|ura cris|a|ina. na|urcza, paranc|rcs dc
rcdc, |anannc c cricn|aac dcs cris|ais
Mc|cdcs. difraac dc raics-X, difraac dc c|c|rcns (jun|c ccn M|) c
difraac dc ncu|rcns (fcn|c dc a||a in|cnsidadc/rca|crcs nuc|carcs/pcsquisa)
1.1. Hlstrlco dos ralos-X
Dcsccocr|c cn 11/1895 pcr li|nc|n Ccnrad Rcn|gcn.
|xpcrincn|c
Traoa|nc ccn |uocs dc raics ca|cdiccs (t4|tu|a dc Hi||crf-Crcc|cs).
|ntc|tc a t4|tu|a ccn car|c|ina prc|a nc |aocra|cric as cscuras.
Ooscrta una |unincsidadc nuna p|aca (fc|na dc papc| |ra|ada
ccn p|a|inccianc|c dc o4ric - rctc|aac fc|cgr4fica).
Ncnnuna |uz cu raics ca|cdiccs pcdcrian |cr cscapadc (car|c|ina prc|a).
Cc|cccu ditcrscs cojc|cs cn|rc a t4|tu|a c a p|aca c |cdcs cran
|ransparcn|cs.
|s|ata dcsccocr|c un nctc |ipc dc raic, c pcr nac ccnncccr a crigcn,
a na|urcza c as prcpricdadcs dc ncsnc, oa|izcu dc RA|OS-X.
||c prcpric dutidcu da sua dcsccocr|a, nas cn 28/12/1895 scu ar|igc
fci puo|icadc c cn 1902 c|c ganncu c 1
c
prcnic Ncoc| dc fisica.
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1.1. Hlstrlco dos ralos-X
Ccnc|us5cs dc Rcn|gcn.
prcpagan-sc cn |inna rc|a
sac intisitcis
afc|an as cnu|s5cs fc|cgr4ficas
prcduzcn f|ucrcsccncia c fcsfcrcsccncia cn ccr|as suos|ancias
nac sac afc|adcs pcr canpcs c|c|riccs cu nagnc|iccs
sac nui|c nais pcnc|ran|cs quc as radia5cs |unincsas
pcssucn tc|ccidadc dc prcpagaac carac|cris|ica
pcdcn scr u|i|izadcs nc cs|udc das par|cs in|crnas dc ccrpc nunanc
c dc cojc|cs (radic|cgia - an4|iscs dc |rincas c fra|uras)
As ap|ica5cs radic|cgicas fcran u|i|izadas incdia|ancn|c apcs sua
dcsccocr|a (ccnc nc casc da |ccria das disccrdancias) apcsar da fa||a
dc ccnnccincn|c scorc a na|urcza da radiaac.
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2. Ralos-X
Dcfiniac. sac radia5cs c|c|rcnagnc|icas (cnda
c par|icu|a), ccnc a |uz (6000A), pcrcn ccn
ccnprincn|cs dc cnda ncncrcs (0,2 a 2,5 A).
2.1. Produo de ralos -X
A cnissac dc raics-X cccrrc duran|c c
ocnoardcancn|c dc un a|tc nc|4|icc (nc|iodcnic)
pcr c|c|rcns acc|cradcs (fi|ancn|c dc |ungs|cnic).
Os c|c|rcns sac cni|idcs pc|a passagcn dc una
ccrrcn|c c acc|cradcs pcr a||a tc||agcn nc t4cuc
(ddp - 35|V).
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2.2. PrlncIlo fIslco da emlsso dos ralos-X
||c|rcns da canada K dc nc|iodcnic sac cxpu|scs dc 4|cnc pc|a aac dc
ocnoardcancn|c dc c|c|rcns dc a||a cncrgia (tc||agcn), ccnduzindc a
cxci|aac dcs 4|cncs.
||c|rcns das dcnais canadas cacn para aoaixar cs nitcis dc cncrgia c
passan a ccupar as pcsi5cs dcs c|c|rcns da canada K.
Duran|c c dccaincn|c cccrrc a cnissac dc cncrgia ccn ccnprincn|c
dc cnda carac|cris|ica.
A radiaac cni|ida rcprcscn|a a supcrpcsiac dc dcis cspcc|rcs.
|spcc|rc ccn|inuc. gcradcs pc|a dcsacc|craac dcs c|c|rcns
c ccn t4rics ccnprincn|cs dc cnda.
|spcc|rc carac|cris|icc. gcradc pc|c dccaincn|c c ccn
ccnprincn|c dc cnda cspccificc (ncnccrcn4|icc).
A radiaac carac|cris|ica K

c rc|a|ita a |ransiac dc c|c|rcn


da canada | para K.
A radiaac carac|cris|ica K

c rc|a|ita a |ransiac dc c|c|rcn


da canada M para K. A in|cnsidadc dc K

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2.2. PrlncIlo fIslco da emlsso dos ralos-X
A radiaac K

aprcscn|a dcis piccs K

cnanadcs dc
duo|c|cs. A in|cnsidadc dc K

As radia5cs das canadas M para | c N para | sac dcsignadas


pcr. |

c |

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2.2. PrlncIlo fIslco da emlsso dos ralos-X
A cnissac dcpcndc da in|cnsidadc da ddp ap|icada.
A radiaac carac|cris|ica sc cccrrc a par|ir dc una dada ddp.
Cada c|cncn|c quinicc prcduz radia5cs ccn ccnprincn|c dc cnda cspccifica.
Cr K

= 2,291000 A Cc K

= 1,790260 A
|c K

= 1,937355 A Cu K

= 1,541838 A
Mc K

= 0,710737A
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3. Dlfrao de ralos-X
|n 1912, Max tcn |auc (prcnic Ncoc| dc 1914) prcpcs a scguin|c nipc|csc.
Sc cs sc|idcs |itcrcn un arranjc pcricdicc dc 4|cncs (cris|ais) c sc cs raics-X sac cndas c|c|rcnagnc|icas
ccn ccnprincn|c dc cnda ccnpar4tc| ac cspaancn|c in|cra|cnicc, cn|ac sc un fcixc dc raics-X incidir
scorc un cris|a|, para dc|crninadas ccndi5cs, cccrrcr4 in|crfcrcncia ccns|ru|ita (difraac).
||c |raoa|nata nc |ns|i|u|c dc |isica da Unitcrsidadc dc Muniquc ccn pcsquisadcrcs ccnc Rcn|gcn, Max
P|anc|, Scnncrc|d, Pau| Knipping, la||cr |ricdricn, Pc|cr Pau| |ua|d (a|unc dc PnD) cn|rc cu|rcs.
|nicia|ncn|c ningucn sc cn|usiasncu pc|a idcia. Ajudadc pcr Knipping c |ricdricn, incidiu un fcixc dc
raics-X nun cris|a| dc su|fa|c dc ccorc c rcgis|rcu a inagcn nuna cnapa fc|cgr4fica (Ncoc| dc 1914).
Os 8raggs (li||ian Hcnrq - pai - Unitcrsidadc dc |ccds c li||ian |aurcncc - fi|nc - Unitcrsidadc dc
Canoridgc) sc in|crcssaran pc|c |raoa|nc dc |auc c dc|crninaran as cs|ru|uras dc ditcrscs cris|ais.
NaC|, KC|, Ca |2, Ca Cc3, |c, Cu c cu|rcs. Rcccocran c prcnic Ncoc| dc fisica dc 1915.
A difraac pcrni|c cs|udar cs dc|a|ncs da cs|ru|ura cris|a|ina. dis|ancias in|cra|cnicas, angu|cs das
|iga5cs a|cnicas c cu|rcs.
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3. Dlfrao de ralos-X
Rcsu||adcs dcs |raoa|ncs dc |auc .
|s|aoc|ccc a na|urcza dcs raics-X (cnda c par|icu|a),
Dcsccorc c fcncncnc da difraac dc raics-X pc|cs cris|ais,
Cria un nctc nc|cdc dc cs|udar a suocs|ru|ura da na|cria ccndcnsada.
3.1. Lel de Bragg
Quandc un fcixc dc raics-X a|ingc un 4|cnc, cs c|c|rcns dcs|c scrac cxci|adcs ccn a ncsna frcqcncia.
Os c|c|rcns sc |crnan cargas c|c|ricas cn tioraac c cni|cn raics-X ccn frcqcncia idcn|ica (i = r).
Os raics rcf|c|idcs sacn ccn ditcrsas dirc5cs (cspa|nancn|c dc fcixc).
Hatcr4 in|crfcrcncia ccns|ru|ita (difraac) nc rc|icu|adc cris|a|inc, sc (ccnprincn|c dc cnda) |itcr a
ncsna crdcn dc grandcza dc paranc|rc dc rcdc, sc c angu|c dc incidcncia fcr = ac angu|c dc rcf|cxac c sc
a dis|ancia cx|ra pcrccrrida pc|c fcixc fcr un
nu||ip|c in|circ dc .
n. = SQ + QT = d
n||
.scn + d
n||
.scn
n. 2.d
n||
.scn
cndc. d c c cspaancn|c in|crp|anar
c c angu|c dc 8ragg
A dis|ancia cn|rc dcis p|ancs para|c|cs c
adjaccn|cs c funac dc paranc|rc dc rcdc c
dcs indiccs dc Mi||cr.
Para cc|u|as cuoicas .
2 2 2
l k h
a
d
hkl

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3.1. Lel de Bragg
A |ci dc 8ragg c ncccss4ria, nas nac suficicn|c.
||a c cspccifica para cs 4|cncs si|uadcs ncs tcr|iccs dc rc|icu|adc.
|cncs da facc cu dcn|rc dc rc|icu|adc pcdcn cu nac difra|ar
c fcixc dc raics-X (CCC n + | + | = par).
A in|cnsidadc dc fcixc difra|adc c funac. dcnsidadc p|anar,
na|urcza dcs 4|cncs, nuncrc dc p|ancs, angu|c dc incidcncia,
|cnpcra|ura, dcfcrnaac c cu|rcs.
4. Metodos de dlfrao
Tccnica dc |auc, cris|a| gira|cric c nc|cdc dc pc (cspcc|rcnc|ria
c Dcoqc-Scncrcr)
4.1. Tecnlca de Laue
Dc|crninaac da cricn|aac cris|a|cgr4fica dc ncnccris|ais
Radiaac incidcn|c c oranca (|cdcs cs dc cspcc|rc)
c c angu|c c dc incidcncia c fixc.
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4.2. Metodos do P (esectrometrla de ralos-X)
Radiaac incidcn|c c ncnccrcn4|ica c c angu|c dc incidcncia taria duran|c c cnsaic.
O fcixc c gcradc cn T, incidc na ancs|ra (S) c c fcixc difra|adc c dc|cc|adc cn C.
Os supcr|cs da ancs|ra (x

c dc dc|cc|cr (2x

giran c
cs|ac dcfasadcs dc ncdc quc c angu|c dc incidcncia c c dc
rcf|cxac scjan iguais a nc|adc dc angu|c dc difraac (2.
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5. An|lses de estruturas crlsta|lnas
Dc|crninaac dc |ipc da cs|ru|ura, indcxaac dcs piccs dc difra|cgrana c dcs paranc|rcs dc rcdc.
5.1. Regras de Dlfrao nas Ce|u|as cblcas
________________________________________________________________________________________
Estrutura Rcf!cxcs prcscntcs Rcf!cxcs auscntcs
CCC (n + | + |) = par (n + | + |) = inpar
C|C (n, |, |) = |cdcs parcs cu |cdcs inparcs (n, |, |) = ncn |cdcs inparcs cu |cdcs parcs
________________________________________________________________________________________
ndIccs dc MI!!cr dns p!anns dIfratadns
|hk!| (h
2
+ k
2
+ !
2
) P!anns DIfratadns
CFC - CCC
;100) 1 --- ---
;110) 2 --- 110
;111) 3 111
;200) 4 200 200
;210) 5 --- ---
;211) 6 --- 211

P|ancs difra|adcs dc CCC fcrna a scqcncia.
;220) 8 220 220 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24,.
;221) 9 --- ---

P|ancs difra|adcs dc C|C fcrna a scqcncia.
;310) 10 --- 310 3, 4, 8, 11, 12, 16, 19, 20, 24, 27, 32, .

P|ancs difra|adcs dc CS fcrna a scqcncia.


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, .
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5. An|lses de estruturas crlsta|lnas
5.2. Ordem de Ref|exo
Rcgras para difraac dc p|ancs
2 2 2
l k h
a
d
hkl

sen . . 2 .
hkl
d n