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Types of networking
o LAN - Local Area Network
o WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network
o WAN - Wide Area Network
o MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
o SAN - Storage Area Network, It can also refer with names like System Area Network, Server Area Network,
or sometimes Small Area Network
o AN - amp!s Area Network, ontroller Area Network, and often l!ster Area Network
o "AN - "ersonal Area Network
o DAN - Desk Area Network
LAN - Local Area Network
LAN connects networking devices with in short spam of area, i#e# small offices, home, internet cafes etc# LAN !ses T"$I"
network protocol for comm!nication %etween comp!ters# It is often %!t not always implemented as a single I" s!%net# Since
LAN is operated in short area so it can %e control and administrate %y single person or organi&ation#
WAN - Wide Area Network
As 'word( Wide implies, WAN, wide area network cover large distance for comm!nication %etween comp!ters# The Internet
itself is the %iggest e)ample of Wide area network, WAN, which is covering the entire earth# WAN is distri%!ted collection of
geographically LANs# A network connecting device ro!ter connects LANs to WANs# WAN !sed network protocols like
ATM, *#+,, and -rame .elay for long distance connectivity#
LAN Wireless - Local Area Network
A LAN, local area network %ased on wireless network technology mostly referred as Wi--i# /nlike LAN, in WLAN no
wires are !sed, %!t radio signals are the medi!m for comm!nication# Wireless network cards are re0!ired to %e installed in the
systems for accessing any wireless network aro!nd# Mostly wireless cards connect to wireless ro!ters for comm!nication
among comp!ters or accessing WAN, internet#
MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
This kind of network is not mostly !sed %!t it has its own importance for some government %odies and organi&ations on larger
scale# MAN, metropolitan area network falls in middle of LAN and WAN, It covers large span of physical area than LAN %!t
smaller than WAN, s!ch as a city#
CAN - Campus Area Network
Networking spanning with m!ltiple LANs %!t smaller than a Metropolitan area network, MAN# This kind of network mostly
!sed in relatively large !niversities or local %!siness offices and %!ildings#
SAN - Storage Area Network
SAM technology is !sed for data storage and it has no !se for most of the organi&ation %!t data oriented organi&ations#
Storage area network connects servers to data storage devices %y !sing -i%er channel technology#
SAN - System Area Network
SAN, system area networks are also known as cl!ster area network and it connects high performance comp!ters with high
speed connections in cl!ster config!ration#
PAN
"ersonal area network 1"AN2 is a comp!ter network designed for comm!nication %etween comp!ter devices 1incl!ding
telephones and personal digital assistants close to one person2# The devices may or may not %elong to the person in 0!estion#
The reach of a "AN is typically a few meters# "ANs can %e !sed for comm!nication among the personal devices themselves
or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet# "ersonal area networks may %e wired with comp!ter %!ses s!ch
as /S3 and -ireWire# A wireless personal area network 1W"AN2 can also %e made possi%le with network technologies s!ch
as Ir4A and 3l!etooth
Wireless -idelity 5 pop!larly known as Wi--i, developed on I666 78+#99 standards, is widely !sed technology advancement
in wireless comm!nication# As the name indicates, WI--I provides wireless access to applications and data across a radio
network# WI--I sets !p n!mero!s ways to %!ild !p a connection %etween the transmitter and the receiver s!ch as 4SSS,
-:SS, I. 5 Infrared and ;-4M#
Wi--i provides its !sers with the li%erty of connecting to the Internet from any place s!ch as their home, office or a p!%lic
place witho!t the hassles of pl!gging in the wires# Wi--i is 0!icker than the conventional modem for accessing information
over a large network# With the help of different amplifiers, the !sers can easily change their location witho!t disr!ption in
their network access# Wi--i devices are compliant with each other to grant efficient access of information to the !ser# Wi--i
location where the !sers can connect to the wireless network is called a Wi--i hotspot# Thro!gh the Wi--i hotspot, the !sers
can even enhance their home %!siness as accessing information thro!gh Wi--i is simple# Accessing a wireless network
thro!gh a hotspot in some cases is cost-free while in some it may carry additional charges# Many standard Wi--i devices s!ch
as "I, mini"I, /S3, ard %!s and " card, 6)press ard make the Wi--i e)perience convenient and pleas!ra%le for the
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!sers# 4istance from a wireless network can lessen the signal strength to 0!ite an e)tent< some devices s!ch as 6rmanno
"ietrosemoli and 6sLa.ed of =ene&!ela 4istance are !sed for amplifying the signal strength of the network# These devices
create an em%edded system that corresponds with any other node on the Internet#
Limitation of Wife
Interference from other deices
Wi--i transmits data at +#> ?:& making s!scepti%le to interfere 3l!etooth ena%led devices, mo%ile phones, cordless,
Microwaves and other comm!nication devices, closer the interfering devices are the poor comm!nication will %e and vice
versa#
Lacking high-!uality media streaming
Today@s fastest Wi--i standards are p!shed %eyond their limit when trying to view high end media# :igh definition video and
a!dios cannot %e viewed flawlessly %eca!se of lower transfer rate< things can %e m!ch more worst if other clients are
accessing the same access points#
6ven the fastest c!rrent Wi--i standards are p!shed %eyond their limit when trying to handle some of todayAs high-end media#
:igh-definition a!dio and video files are timely-delivery-intensive, and typical wireless networks have neither the transfer
speeds nor the consistency to transfer them flawlessly# This pro%lem is f!rther compo!nded if there are m!ltiple devices
connected to the same %eca!se the %andwidth m!st %e divided %etween all of the e0!ipment#
WI-I technology s!pports two types, one is called 'infrastr!ct!re( other one is 'Ad hoc( In ad hoc Wi--i network can
%e connected witho!t central device known as ro!ter or access point Ad hoc mode is always preferred over infrastr!ct!re
mode, however ad hoc networks have following iss!es Wi--i devices config!re on Ad hoc mode offers nominal sec!rity
against network intr!ders# Ad hock Wife config!red devices cannot disa%le SSI4 %roadcast in contrast to infrastr!ct!re mode#
Network attackers will not re0!ired m!ch of effort to prevail in Ad hoc Network
What is Wife "epeater#
Wireless networks are very famo!s among the people and different type of technologies or devices are !sed to enhance the
working performance of the wireless devices# Wife that is generally called as the wireless LAN are very !sef!l device of
wireless technology %!t in some area its signals are limited and they do not work properly# So to enhance the range and the
transmission of the signals of the wife a special type of device is !sed that is refer to as the wife
repeater# It is an electronic device that is !sed to amplify the signals and can transmit it in the distant areas#
That is !sed in the wife repeater to amplify the signals# The ro!ter theta is !sed in the set!p of the wifi repeater sho!ld
prod!ce the healthy signals %eca!se it is the %asic need of wifi repeater# ommonly the steps that are !sed to set!p the
repeater are given %elow
9# Wireless ro!ter sho!ld have power to %roadcast the strong signal that has a%ility to amplify or re%roadcast again with
help of wifi repeater# If it is not in the good condition then change it first#
+# "l!g the power ca%le first in the wireless ro!ter then I the wall o!tlet of the electric power# Then pl!g one end of
6thernet ca%le in the %ack of the wifi repeater and other end with the wireless ro!ter#
B# After these connection t!rn on the wifi repeater and install its re0!ired software with the help of comp!ter from given
disk# After installing disconnects repeater from the %oth ca%les#
># Then place the repeater %etween yo!r wireless ro!ter and comp!ter o!t from the range it will amplify the signals# Test
the repeater on different wireless networks at halfway access point#
$ow does Wifi "epeater Works#
Wifi repeater is a device that is operate electronically and it f!nction is only to amplify the signals of the wireless or the wifi
devices in those areas where the signaling power of the wifi devices are 0!ite weak# -irst of all wireless or the wifi repeater
collects all the signals with the help of antenna from the local area network or the so!rce of signals, commonly different types
of radio devices are !sed for s!ch p!rpose# After the collection of all the signals of the wifi media then e)pand them to the
!sers that are connected with the wifi repeater device, %!t only local !sers can take %enefit with the device in the partic!lar
area# ?enerally it increases the power of the radio waves and match them with higher level and are !se to increase the
infrastr!ct!re of the partic!lar device# Instead of wifi repeater, repeaters are also applica%le on the other devices s!ch as radio
etc#
Pro%lems with Wifi "epeater&
6very advance technology has some pro%lems with their working and performance# Like others wifi repeaters also have some
pro%lems and if !sers neglect them they are !na%le to e)pand or amplify the signals of the wifi device# Some of the common
pro%lems of the wifi repeaters are as follows
9# Sometimes different types models of the systems are connected with it that has new or different infrastr!ct!re and the
repeater does not s!pport them# So in s!ch conditions wifi repeater can not repeat or amplify the radio waves#
+# another common pro%lem with the wifi repeater is that some times the signaling or the radio waves from the first
so!rce are very weak and the repeaters are fail to e)pand them or amplify them# So the signals from the so!rce sho!ld
%e relia%le for perfect e)pendit!re#
An IP address is a logical address for a network adapter# The I" address !ni0!ely identifies comp!ters on a TCP/IP network#
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An I" address can %e private - for !se on a local area network 1LAN2 - or p!%lic - for !se on the Internet or other wide area network 1WAN2
1assigned to a comp!ter %y a system administrator2 or dynamically 1assigned %y another device on the network on demand2#
Two I" addressing standards are in !se today# The IPv4 standard is most familar to people and s!pported everywhere on the Internet, %!t the newer
it and starting to %e deployed#
I"v> addresses consist of fo!r %ytes 1B+ %its2# 6ach %yte of an I" address is known as an octet# ;ctets can take any val!e %etween 8 and +,,# =ario!s conventions e)ist for the
n!m%ering and !se of I" addresses#
'thernet is a physical and data link layer technology for local area networks 1LANs2# 6thernet was invented %y engineer
.o%ert Metcalfe#
When first widely deployed in the 9C78s, 6thernet s!pported a ma)im!m theoretical data rate of 98 mega%its per second
1M%ps2# Later, so-called D-ast 6thernetD standards increased this ma)im!m data rate to 988 M%ps# Today, ?iga%it 6thernet
technology f!rther e)tends peak performance !p to 9888 M%ps#
:igher level network protocols like Internet "rotocol 1I"2 !se 6thernet as their transmission medi!m# 4ata travels over
6thernet inside protocol !nits called frames#
The r!n length of individ!al Ethernet cables is limited to ro!ghly 988 meters, %!t 6thernet networks can %e easily e)tended
to link entire schools or office %!ildings !sing network %ridge devices#
Common IP (IP)* Addresses -
98#8#8#9
9+E#8#8#9
9C+#9F7#8#9
9C+#9F7#9#9
9C+#9F7#+#9
Also +nown As& I" n!m%er
A network adapter interfaces a comp!ter to a network# The term DadapterD was pop!lari&ed originally %y 6thernet add-in
cards for "s#
Modern network adapter hardware e)ists in several forms# 3esides traditional "I 6thernet cards, some network adapters are
"MIA devices 1also know as Dcredit cardD or D" ardD adapters2 or /S3 devices# Some wireless network adapter gear for
laptop comp!ters are integrated circ!it chips pre-installed inside the comp!ter#
Windows and other operating systems s!pport %oth wired and wireless network adapters thro!gh a piece of software called a
Ddevice driver#D Network drivers allow application software to comm!nicate with the adapter hardware# Network device
drivers are often installed a!tomatically when adapter hardware is first powered on#
A few network adapters are p!rely software packages that sim!late the f!nctions of a network card# These so-called irtual
adapters are especially common in virt!al private networking 1="N2#
What is ,CP-IP#
IP 1Internet "rotocol2 is the primary network protocol !sed on the Internet, developed in the 9CE8s# ;n the
Internet and many other networks, I" is often !sed together with the Transport ontrol "rotocol 1T"2 and
referred to interchangea%ly as T"$I"#
I" s!pports !ni0!e addressing for comp!ters on a network# Most networks !se the Internet "rotocol version >
1IPv42 standard that feat!res I" addresses fo!r %ytes 1B+ %its2 in length# The newer Internet "rotocol version F
1I"vF2 standard feat!res addresses 9F %ytes 19+7 %its2 in length#
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4ata on an Internet "rotocol network is organi&ed into packets# 6ach I" packet incl!des %oth a header 1that
specifies so!rce, destination, and other information a%o!t the data2 and the message data itself#
I" f!nctions at layer B of the ;SI model# It can therefore r!n on top of different data link interfaces incl!ding
6thernet and Wi--i#
,ransmission Control Protocol 1T"2 and Internet "rotocol 1I"2 are two distinct network protocols, technically speaking#
T" and I" are so commonly !sed together, however, that ,CP-IP has %ecome standard terminology to refer to either or %oth
of the protocols#
I" corresponds to the Network layer 1Layer B2 in the ;SI model, whereas T" corresponds to the Transport layer 1Layer >2 in
;SI# In other words, the term T"$I" refers to network comm!nications where the T" transport is !sed to deliver data across
I" networks#
The average person on the Internet works in a predominately T"$I" environment# We% %rowsers, for e)ample, !se T"$I" to
comm!nicate with We% servers#
The protocol that allows the sharing of reso!rce among cooperate comp!ters across a network is known as T"$I"# The
protocol was developed %y a %!nch of researchers settled aro!nd the A."Anet# It is %eyond do!%ts that the A."Anet is !ntil
now the %est T"$I" network# Interestingly, more than 9B8 vendors has e0!ipments to s!pport T"$I" till G!ne, 9C7E and the
protocol was !tili&ed %y tho!sands of networks#
Internet "rotocol S!ite is the most acc!rate name for those protocols which are disc!ssed here# T"$I" are two protocols that
%elong to this s!ite# They are the most fre0!ently !sed protocols and now it is %ecame a rit!al to com%ine the two name, the
T" and the I", in order to refer to the family#
Internet is a term that refers to the entire collection of networks# It has regional networks like NHsernet, Arpanet, local
networks at research centers and ed!cational instit!tions and indeed military networks# ;n %ehalf of 4epartment of 4efense,
44N 14efense 4ata Network2, manages the s!%nets of them# All networks are inter-connected# If there are no policy or
sec!rity restrictions on accessing a network hen the data can %e shared %etween the !sers of all networks# The standards that
an internet comm!nity adapts for its personal !se are internet protocol doc!ments#
The family of protocols is T"$I"# -ew of them provide f!nctions of low level that are re0!ired in many applications,
incl!ding /4", I" and T"# ;ther protocols are dedicated to perform a restricted tasks s!ch as sending emails, finding who is
logged in on another system or transferring files %etween the comp!ters# ;nly minicomp!ters or mainframes were the initial
!sers of T"$I"# The machines were self-governed and have their own disks# :ere are some of the most conventional services
performed %y the T"$I"#
9# .ile ,ransfer& The -T" 1file transfer protocol2 is a protocol that allows the !ser of one comp!ter to send files to
another comp!ter# To ens!re the sec!rity of the -T" data, a !ser name and a password is prescri%ed# It is a !tility that
can %e !sed to access a file that is placed on another system any time# The protocol can %e r!n to copy files to one@s
comp!ter so the person can work on personal copy#
+# "emote Login& The T6LN6T 1network terminal protocol2 empowers a !ser to log in from any other comp!ter system
that is availa%le on a network# It is started %y a remote session in which a comp!ter is specified to connect with#
Anything the !ser type on one comp!ter is sent to another !ntil the session is finished# The talent program is
developed to make the r!nning comp!ter invisi%le# Whatever is typed is sent to other system witho!t any delay# It
mostly f!nctions like a dial !p connection# The remote system will %e a!thori&ed %y the !se of a !ser name and a
password that can %e assigned %y the creator of the dial !p# The talent program will e)it when the !ser log off the
other comp!ter#
B# Computer Mail& It ena%les !sers to send messages to other comp!ters# Those who are interested in !sing not more
than two comp!ters will esta%lish Imail file@ on the machines# It is a system %y the virt!e of which one can add
message to the mail file of another !ser# In the environment of microcomp!ters, it offers some pro%lems as the micro
is not s!ita%le for receiving the comp!ter mail# ;n sending s!ch mail, the mail software is programmed to open a
connection to the comp!ter whose address is descri%ed, which is t!rned off or not r!nning the mail system#
The comp!ter mail is not s!pported %y the micro-comp!ters, %!t these services are present in all implementations of T"$I"#
It is interesting to see that these traditional applications are still playing significant role in networks %ased on T"$I"# It is
o%served that the passage of time has changed the way of !sing networks# The large, self-s!fficient comp!ter systems are les
pop!lar now# They are now replaced# A n!m%er of comp!ters like mainframes, minicomp!ters, workstations and
microcomp!ters are a part of today@s installations# S!ch comp!ters are config!red for performing e)cl!sive tasks#
A n!m%er of people are still interested in remaining confined to J!st one comp!ter system# -or speciali&ed services, the
system will call on the net# The server$client model of networking services was th!s initiated# A server is the one that is
responsi%le for providing certain services to all systems on a certain network where client is a comp!ter system that asks for
the service and makes !se of it# The f!nctions of a server and of client can %e performed %y the same comp!ter# There is no
need to have two operating systems#
:ere are the kinds of servers typically present in a modern comp!ter set!p# Note that these comp!ter services can all %e
provided within the framework of T"$I"# Types and f!nctions of servers are already provided#
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These protocols are an affective part of the internet s!ite# The definitions of protocols are not defined as their s!pport is
widely availa%le on their commercial installation# :owever, these protocols are the most effective part of the internet s!ite#
We have listed only a n!m%er of simple services provided %y the T"$I"# In case yo! want to know a%o!t e)tensive f!nctions
performed %y the T"$I", do inform !s in the comment section# We hope that the post has helped yo! in %!ilding !p an idea
on what is T"$I" and what are its f!nctions#
The history of servers moves parallel to the history of comp!ter networks# The comp!ter networks allow m!lti systems to
comm!nicate with each other at the same time and its evol!tion was e)pected to assign some comp!ters with some serving
role where all other comp!ters that are in direct interaction with the h!man !sers, perform as clients# Servers have grown
along with the development and growth of networks# To do the Jo% of serving, servers and associated software are
man!fact!red
The origin of server is to serve - technically means that the specific comp!ter is serving all those comp!ters that are present in
its network# It facilitates them %y making 0!e!e of the printing command of several comp!ters at a time and also acts like a
file server for those applications that are accessed %y the online terminals#
Today the role of server is similar to that of microcomp!ters of the past which are now s!%stit!ted# -or this role many servers
are appointed %!t this allocation does not limit the role of a server as many other roles can %e assigned to the server
sim!ltaneo!sly# -or instance we can take the e)ample of a small office where a desktop comp!ter can serve all other
comp!ters present within the office while sim!ltaneo!sly serving as a workstation for some employee#
Typically servers are of fo!r typesK -T" servers, pro)y servers, online game servers and we% servers# Server networking
model or client is !sed %y many systems together with email services and we% sites# "eer to peer networking, a s!%stit!te
model, makes all comp!ters to work like servers and clients sim!ltaneo!sly# Ho! can %etter !nderstand a server %y these
e)amples# Name servers gives information a%o!t internet host names, -T" servers keep hold on -T" sites and provide files to
does !sers who re0!est for it, mail servers are responsi%le for delivering e-mails, we% servers are %o!nd to send we% pages
where list servers are programmed to administrate mailing lists#
Servers are physically like other comp!ters where their hardware config!ration is specifically optimi&ed to make them most
appropriate for their role# In many servers the hardware installed is alike the hardware of any other normal comp!ter %!t the
software r!n in the server is far more different form the software that are installed in other comp!ters# Additional processing,
storage capacity and memory are commonly config!red in the network servers to improve its capacity to handle clients 5 other
comp!ters on the network
The !nderlying hardware or software for a system that drives the server is called a server platform# Instead of operating
system, the term server platform is !sed#
Application Serers
Application servers have lion@s share in comp!ter territory %etween data%ase servers and the end !ser, where servers are often
connected to the two# They are often referred as middleware Middleware is that software which esta%lishes a connection
%etween two separate applications that are otherwise apart# A n!m%er of middleware prod!cts can link a data%ase system to a
We% server# It ena%les !sers to re0!est data from data%ase %y the help of those forms that are displayed on We% %rowser and
%ased on the !sers@ profile and re0!est, allowing the We% server to ret!rn dynamic We% pages#
List Serers
To improve the management of mailing lists list servers are !sed despite of what is there type# Whether they are interactive
de%ates open to the p!%lic or one-way lists that deliver newsletters, anno!ncements or advertising#
Chat Serers
This server ena%les a n!m%er of people to share information in the environment of an internet newsgro!p that offer real time
disc!ssion capa%ilities# It is !sed to refer to a n!m%er of different feat!res of comp!ter# To immediately respond to the inp!t
real-time operating systems are !sed#
I"C Serers Internet .elay hat is comprised of vario!s independent networks of servers that allow !sers to connect
to each other via an I. network# It is an option for those who are seeking real time competence#
.a/ Serers Those organi&ations that want to red!ce the incoming and o!tgoing telephone reso!rces< a fa) server is
an ideal sol!tion# :owever, there is a need to fa) the act!al doc!ment#
0roupware Serers It is software that is designed to make the !sers a%le to work together, regardless of their
location, thro!gh Internet or a corporate Intranet and to work together in a virt!al environment#
Mail Serers Mail server is as important as we% server s and mail servers to send and store mails on the corporate
networks thro!gh LANs and WANs and across the internet#
,elnet Serers 3y the help of it !sers log on to a host comp!ter and perform work as if they are working on isolated
comp!ter#
News Serers They work as so!rce of distri%!tion and delivery for h!ndreds of availa%le p!%lic news gro!ps
accessi%le over the /S6N6T news network# /S6N6T is glo%al %!lletin %oard system that can %e approached via
internet or via a variety of online services
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Pro/y Serers These servers work in-%etween a client programme 1commonly a We% %rowser2 and an e)ternal server
1another server on we%2 to filter re0!ests, improve performance, and share connections#
The role played %y the server in a network is very significant# An o!t of order server can halt the interconnectivity of all
comp!ters on its network# The rise in the !sage of internet in homes and office !sers along with the increase in corporate
comp!ter networks are responsi%le for %oosting the development of server# Servers are !sed in today@s comp!ters and we do
not know what will %e there developed form and of co!rse what will %e the choice of the !pcoming generation# Let !s wait
and see how will %e these serving comp!ters molded in near f!t!re
1SI LA2'" M13'L
Transferring of data %etween different comm!nication devices is divided into logical layers called ;SI layers, these layers are
seven in n!m%er# ;SI model stands for 1pen Systems Interconnection4 it was designed %y *ero) orporation and Intel in
9C7> and later IS; 1International Standard ;rgani&ation2 standardi&ed it# ;SI is logical framework for standards for comp!ter
networks and data comm!nication# ;SI model is !sed as set standards for comp!ter networking world wide# MaJor
networking protocols are specifically designed keeping ;SI model in view#
These layers are as follow
"hysical layer
4ata Link layer
Network layer
Transport layer
Session layer
"resentation layer
Application layer
These layers helps dividing different tasks of comm!nication and transferring data with in the network into s!%tasks, that@s
how one completes cycle of comm!nications %etween network1s2 is completed# 6ach layer completes its tasks independently#
These layers are also divided into !pper and lower layers#
Physical Layer& Layer 5
As name is s!ggests, "hysical layer handles all sorts of physical aspects incl!ding, networking ca%les, networking
cards$adaptors and other physical devices re0!ire for networking# It defines %it steam on physical media# It is responsi%le for
providing interfaces %etween networks and network comm!nication devices# "hysical layer also handles mechanical,
electrical and optical aspects on the network# -ollowing are the protocols which works with physical layers are I666 78+,
I666 78+#+ and IS4N# -or network devices are h!%s, repeaters, amplifiers, and oscilloscope#
3ata Link Layer& Layer 6
omm!nication links and its proced!res are handled data link layers ,-rames packets
:andle detection and correction of packets transmitted errors#
Protocols& Logical Link Control
L 4ata flow control and error correction
L :andle SA"s M link control
78+#9 ;SI Model, 78+#+ Logical Link ontrol
Media Access Control
L comm!nicates with the network adapter card
L controls the type of media %eing !sedK
78+#B SMA$4 16thernet2, 78+#> Token 3!s 1A.net2, 78+#, Token .ing, 78+#9+ , 4emand "riority
Network 3eices& 3ridge $ Switch, IS4N .o!ter, Intelligent :!%, NI ,Advanced a%le Tester
Network Layer& Layer 7
Network layer is of great importance when it comes to talk a%o!t comm!nication %etween networking devices# This layer
helps in determining the data %eing transferred %etween different network devices# Network layer also translate logical address
into act!al physical address for e)ample, converting comp!ter name in to MA address# The layer is held responsi%le for
controlling the core processes of networking, for e)ample, ro!ting, managing network and its pro%lem, addressing etc#
.o!ter$Switches are the hardware which work on network layers, if sending devices are !na%le to %reak down data into
packets similar to receiving devices then network layer comes in and %reakdown the data into smaller !nites and then re-
assem%le the data at receiving end#As we read earlier it handles the core processes of networking, network layer ro!tes data in
form of packets according to network address# It is responsi%le to send all the data to specific destination with in the
network#"rotocols !sed are .I", A.", IM",;SI, ;S"6 and I"*#
Network devices which are !sed at network layer are .o!ters, -rame .elay device and ATM switches#
,ransport Layer& Layer )
Transport layer handles the delivery of data packets at their respective ends and destinations# It is also responsi%le for
identifying errors and d!plication of data thro!gh o!t with in the network# ;nce data is transferred to their respective ends
s!ccessf!lly it provides acknowledgement a%o!t it and resends the data on receiving errors d!ring transferring# Transport
layer keep the connection alive d!ring the data transmission and also handles error d!ring the co!rse of transferring of data
7
with in the network#"rotocols which are !sed on this layer are S"*, N6T3;IS, T", N6LINN and AT"?ateway and a%le
tester etc are network devices#
Session Layer& Layer 8
Session layer is designed to manage esta%lished sessions %etween two different nodes 1!sers2 with in the network# Session
layer is also responsi%le to esta%lish connection then identifies who and how m!ch data is to %e sent how m!ch time is
re0!ired for it# Session layers keeps the connection alive, incase if it is disconnection d!ring the transfer, it re connects and
contin!es the session# 6)ample of session layers can %e Login system or time taking in file transferring %etween two different
!sers is one session# Session layers also keep the reports and !pper layer errors are also recorded#
"rotocols in session layers Mail Slots, Net3I;S, Names "ipes and ." where as gateways are !sed as network devices#
Presentation Layer& Layer 9
"resentation layers works as interfacing layer %etween different formats# It present data into similar format and !pdate the
difference of formats among two different systems# It also provide interface %etween application data to network data format#
It is !sed for protocol conversions, encryptions, decryptions and data compressions# ryptography is done with in presentation
layer#
Application Layer& Layer :
this is !pfront layer that helps in interfacing for comm!nication and data transfer with in the network# It also provides s!pport
services like transfer services, handles network access, e-mailing, error management and !ser application s!pport#
"rotocols that can %e !sed in this layer are -T" 1 file transfer protocol2, 4NS, SNM", SMT" 1emailing2, -IN?6., T6LN6T,
T-T", 3;;T" SM3 etc where as gateway are !sed for network devices#
What is networking switch - Network Switch
There are many networking devices arte !sed to carry on the working and the performance of the network# Similarly another
networking device takes part in this race that is called as network switch# 3asically it is defined as the networking device that
a%le to Join or connect the different fragments of the network and contin!es networking %y forming a %ridge %etween them is
called as the network switching# It is also called as the switching h!%# Networking switches are generally not applica%le on the
passive networks# 4!e to the a%ility of the forming a %ridge %etween the networking components they are also referred to as
the network %ridge#
$ow Network Switch Works#
A partic!lar switch can perform different f!nctions s!ch as connecting the network segments or monitoring the networking
traffic or also can pass the I" traffic# As we all know that the %asic f!nction of the switch is to connect the networking parts
so, when they installed properly they are a%le deal with all the parts of network s!ch as h!%s, printers or another networking
device that is re0!ired to do the comm!nication %etween two places# So, the f!nction of the networking switch is 0!ite similar
to that of the ro!ting device# Network switches are !se to transfer the data in the form of data packets %etween the two
different networking devices present in the LAN network# The main advantage of the !sing the network switch instead of
ro!ter is that it can organi&e a network %etween more then +88 devices# 4!ring transformation network switch also monitors
the network traffic and manage the network %rilliantly# There are different types of layer take part in the networking thro!gh
switches that perform the partic!lar f!nction of transferring the data#

,ypes of Network Switch&
There are different types of network switch %ased !pon the form and the config!ration# ;n the %asis of their form they are
categori&ed into rack mo!nted, chassis or catalyst switch etc# And on the %asis of config!ration they are differentiated into
managed, !nmanaged, smart or enterprise managed switches#
Managed Switches&
8
A type of network switch in which different types of methods are !sed to manage the different parts of the network and can
a%le to !pgrade the working and the performance of the switch with the help of common methods of management is called as
the managed network switch#
;nmanaged Network Switch&
3asically these networking switches are designed for those c!stomers that are not a%le to spend more money %eca!se those are
less e)pensive# A type of network switch in which interface is not involved is called as !nmanaged network switches# They
are designed for the direct !se#
Smart Switches&
3asically the smart network switches are the important types of managed switches in which the specific management feat!res
are disc!ssed# Typically these switches re !sed for the networking devices s!ch as =LANs# They also increase the working
a%ility of the parts connected %y the switches
Advantages of Network SwitchK
4!e to the relia%le and the easy working of the network switches to manage the network %y Joining the different segments of
the network# Some of the partic!lar advantages of the network switching are given %elow
9# Network switches are very %eneficial for the e)pendit!re of the network and can also helpf!l in decreasing the load
from the systems individ!ally
+# They are also helpf!l for the in maintaining and enhancing the performance of the network !sing switches
B# In the networking data is transmitted in the form of the data packets and in these cases there are more chances of
collision %etween the packets %!t network switches are also a%le to avoid the collision %etween the data grams
$u%s <s Switches - 3ifference %etween hu%s and switches
An important device that is re0!ired to %!ild a connection %etween different systems to r!n them like a single network is
called as the networking h!%s# 3asically all the working of the h!%s is carried o!t with the help of access points of m!ltiple
nat!res# The main f!nction of the networking h!% is to deliver the data over the connected network in the form of the
electrical signals and all the systems that are connected with the h!% device are %enefited with the re0!ired information or data
that is amplified#
Introduction to Switches&
Another important networking device that takes part in the transmission of data is called as the networking switches# Typically
they are defined as the networking device that is !sed to form the %ridge or the connection %etween the different or the
specific segments of the network to carry on the working and maintain the performance is referred to as the network switch#
?enerally they provide no advantage to the passive networks# 4!e to the a%ility of forming a %ridge %etween the fragments
network switches are also called as the networking %ridge#
?eneral omparison %etween Networking :!%s and SwitchesK
-eat!res :!%s Switches

Types
;n the %asis of networking performance and
the constr!ction, generally networking h!%s are
categori&ed into different types# Some of them
are as follows
9# Active h!%s
+# Intelligent h!%s
B# "assive h!%s
Network switches also have some different types that are
really helpf!l in maintaining the performance and the working
of the connected networks# MaJor types of switches are given
%elow
9# Managed switches
+# /nmanaged switches
B# Smart switches
-!nction The f!nction of the h!% is generally depends
!pon the config!ration and the installation of
the networking devices with it# Networking
h!%s can perform different d!ties of connecting
and managing the networking devices s!ch as
printers# There are different ports present in the
device thro!gh which the systems are
connected# Traditional h!%s can only s!pport
the > or , ports %!t the modern h!% can provide
the 9F or +> ports to the !sers for the
e)pendit!re of the network
Network switches can also perform the work similar to h!%s %!t
they can different in some aspects# The f!nction that is similar
to the h!%s is that switches also help in connecting the different
parts of network# %!t the feat!res that are different from the
networking h!%s are as follows
9# Switches are also a%le to monitor the whole networking
traffic and manage the parts of the network well
+# They are also a%le to check and monitor the passing I"
addresses from them
B# They are also a%le to perform the ro!ting properties like
ro!ter#
Advantages Some important advantages of the networking
h!%s are as follows
Network switches also have some advantages# These advantages
are as follows
9
9# :!%s are generally less e)pensive as
compared to different types of other
devices !sed for the same p!rposes
+# It is very convenient to %!ild the home
network with the help of h!%s
B# :!%s can provide the opport!nity to the
!sers to !se their old and the !seless
thing with the help of networking h!%s
># networking h!%s arte generally helpf!l
in e)pand the networking area well
9# Network switches are !sed to increase the %andwidth of
the network
+# Switches are also red!ce the work load on the network
B# As we know that data packets are involved in the
transmission of the data, so network switches also
red!ce the collision %etween them
># network switches are also very helpf!l in increasing the
performance of the whole network %y decreasing the
load on the individ!al comp!ters
Protocol Analysis = Analy>er - What is protocol analysis - Protocol analysis techni!ues
In comp!ter networking there are different types of r!les which are !sed for data transmission from one device to another
device on the network s!ch as Wi-i or 6thernet, these r!les are called as protocols# There are two main types of protocols
which are !sed to spread information on internet s!ch as T" and also !sed for transmission of data in the form of data
packets that are called as data gram s!ch as I"# These two protocols are completely responsi%le for great networking in the
field of information technology
Protocol Analysis&
In the field of comp!ter networking a method which is !sed for different processes and device to decode the
data that transmit in the form of packets from start towards end or we can say that from head to tail which is also a%%reviated
as headers and trailers, s!ch process is referred as protocol analysis# It also deals with the informative data which is present in
the data gram# These packets transfer data from one device to another with the help of protocols i#e# internet protocol 1I"2 or
transmission control protocol 1T"2# "rotocol analysis is only applied when the data packets are going to transfer from one
networking device to another device# The program or a device on which protocol analysis depends is called as protocol
analy&er#
3asically the architect!re of protocol analysis is %ased !pon layering of different network protocols and different
comm!nication devices# In the protocol analysis the data which is present on one layer is comm!nicate with other data present
on the same layer and after the comm!nication process they can transfer from one system to another networked system#
"rotocol analysis also plays its vital role in monitoring the traffic of networking d!ring transmission#
Protocol Analysis ,echni!ues&
There are different techni0!es of protocol analysis which are !sed for decoding in the %est possi%le way#
9# "rotocol analysis can analy&e the %asic information present in the header of the data packets present in the protocol# It
can divide the information into parts %y !sing the highlight techni0!es#
+# Some times for more data protocol analysis is !sed different kinds of techni0!es s!ch as diagnostic techni0!es# In this
techni0!e it can analy&e the data %y !sing the process of hypothesis#
Some times protocol analysis can identity the advanced pro%lems of networking %y !sing m!ltiple layers, s!ch protocol is
called as e)pert analysis# And the device which is responsi%le for protocol analysis is known as protocol analy&er#
"rotocol Analy&erK
A special type of device which is re0!ired to carry protocol analysis and also !sed for analy&ing the data
which is present in the data packets at a very high networking speed are known as protocol analy&er# Some times protocol
analy&er !sed different types of m!ltiple layers to decode the data present in the data packets< it is also !sed to re%!ild the data
packets at advanced or higher level#
,ypes of Protocol Analy>ers&
"rotocol analy&er divides into two different types on the %asis of their working in transferring data,
these two types are "orta%le protocol analy&ers and distri%!ted protocol analy&ers#
Porta%le Protocol Analy>ers&
A type of device or software which is !sed to collect the data from network and perform the task
of data analysis and also help in monitoring the network traffic is called as porta%le protocol analy&ers# They are very costly as
compared to other devices#
3istri%uted Protocol Analy>ers&
A type of protocol analy&er which is !sed to check the whole network centrally is known as
distri%!ted protocol analy&ers# It consists of two main parts i#e# monitoring pro%e and consol# Monitoring pro%e is a device or
a program which is re0!ired to deals different segments of network and onsol is that part which is re0!ired to check the
network centrally#
$ow to set up ,CP - IP network
10
A r!le which is developed for transferring the data from one device to another is called as protocol# When internet was
designed there was no protocol !sed for this p!rpose# 3!t in 9CE8s two protocols were esta%lished which are !sed for data
transferring from one device to another# These two protocols are T" and I"# T" stands for transmission control protocol
and it is often !sed for transferring data from one device to another device and I" stands for internet protocol and it is also
!sed for the same p!rpose as T"# 3asically these two protocols are the %ase of internet protocol s!ite# 3oth are involved in
data transferring from one device to another, %!t internet protocol I" deals the data at initial level and divide the data in the
form of small data packets and T" deals the data at higher level of transmission## I" deals the data at lower level
transmission where as T" works at advanced level transmission# The packets of data are also called as data grams# These
%oth protocols work as a single !nit in the internet networking
$ow it Works#
The working of these T" or I" protocols is %ased on their composition# These protocols consists of different layers which are
present in their model and there working is completely depends !pon the layer composition# In this composition, layers are
present of three types s!ch as link layer, internet layer, transport layer and application layer and these layers are responsi%le
for their operations of data transferring from one device to another device# When the operating system assign the d!ty for
T"$I" to performing the data transferring task %etween two comp!ters, then these two protocols divide the data into different
fragments# -irstly internet protocol 1I"2 changes the data into data gram at lower level and then transfer it from this layer to
!pper higher layer where T" deals the data transferring at higher or advanced level# After changing the data it will transfer to
ne)t comp!ter#
9# Setting ;p ,CP-IP&
There are different steps or ways to config!re the T"$I" network on the operating system# The ways are different for
different operating system like Win C7, Win +888 or Win *" etc, these all have different steps# The main post!lates
of config!ration are as follows
-irst of all install the operating system and then go to My Network "laces< here yo! will see different icons like 4ial
!p connections %!t click on Local Area connection and follow the men!#
+# Select internet protocol from the properties of local area connection and then click the properties of T"$I" and
follow the men! appear#
B# Select the radio %!tton from the left of the men! of properties of T"$I" from this yo! can get the I" a!tomatically#
At the %ottom of the same window sho!ld check 4NS server address also and then press the advanced %!tton at the
%ottom of same window for moving towards advanced settings of T"$I"#
># When the new window opens click 4NS %!tton to config!re 4NS s!ffi) and then check the WINS address %y
clicking the WINS ta% if it has %een filled already then proceeds towards ne)t window %!t if is not filled then press
the Add %!tton and follow the instr!ctions#
,# When yo! confirmed that the WINS men! has %een filled then click ;k to close the window of T"$I" Advanced
settings yo! will ret!rn to the previo!s men! of Internet "rotocol then again press the ;N %!tton at the %ottom to save
the changes#
F# "ress the ;k %!tton also in the window of Local Area connection to save the changes# Now yo!r comp!ter is ready to
work with T"$I"#
3igital Communication
omm!nication is %asically interaction among people or sharing information# As we all know that we have mainly two types
of comm!nication#
5? Analog communication
6? 3igital communication
4igital comm!nications means transferring data from one place to another# It is done %y physical path or physical connection#
In digital comm!nication digital val!es are taken as discrete set# It is %it complicated as compare to analog comm!nication
and its also fast and appropriate in modern sit!ations#
:ere we have some central e)amples of digital comm!nication
;nline ?amesK
6-Mails 16lectro
Sending short messages from one mo%ile phone to another#
SMS 1Short Message Service2
It is a method of sending and receiving messages from one comp!ter to another#
6lements of omm!nication Systems
11

Transmitter
Mod!lationK Mod!lation converts message signal or %its into amplit!de, phase, or fre0!ency of a sin!soidal carrier
1Am, -M, O"SN2# Mod!lation may make the transmitted signal ro%!st to channel impairments#
Amplit!de mod!lationK The first method is Amplit!de mod!lation# The amplit!de mod!lation wave is created %y
m!ltiplying the amplit!de of sin!soid carrier with the message signal#
S1t2 P m 1t2 c1t2
"hase Mod!lationK In digital "M, the delivery service point transfer hastily, rather than contin!o!sly %ack and forth#
-re0!ency Mod!lationK -M is a distinction of angle mod!lation# 3oth "M and -M signals are theoretically the same,
the only dissimilarity %eing in the first case phase is mod!lation directly %y the message signal and in -M case, the
message signal first integrated and then !sed in place of phase#
odingK coding is the proced!re in which digital data is converted into digital signals# We s!ppose that data in the
form of te)t, n!m%ers and graphical images, a!dio and video#
Channel
A comm!nication channel is a path over which information can %e pass on# This channel can %e a physical path or radio
waves and satellites# In this, the information is represented %y individ!al data %its#
9# Attenuation& Atten!ation means loss of energy# When a signal passes thro!gh a medi!m it loses some of its energy in
overcoming the resistance of the medi!m#
+# Noise& Noise is random motion of electrons in a wire which creates an e)tra signal not originally send %y transmitter#
B# 3istortion& 4istortion means that signal changes its original form or change#
"eceier
4etection 14emod!lation Q 4ecoding2K 4ecoding is the process of converting digital signals %ack into the digital data#
-iltering 160!ali&ation2K -iltering means taking o!t the %est res!lt#
What are 0ateways- $ow Computer 0ateway Works#
The world of information technology is far ahead than what h!man %eings perceived a%o!t it in last cent!ry# There is no end
to this world of interconnection# The world has shr!nk# 4istance is no more distance# There is no need to travel tho!sands of
miles# Ho! can get access to any destination right at yo!r home# Hes the chance of discovery has red!ces as nothing left
!ndiscovered, we have already t!rned all stones# It is impossi%le to look at o!r lives witho!t p!tting in it the image of some
personal comp!ters, a laptop and of co!rse a smart phone#
All this a%ridging of distances and development of knowledge is primarily %ased on the internet# The internet has no do!%t
revol!tioni&ed o!r lives and will certainly transform the world into 1near f!t!re2 smaller destination# The internet can connect
the !ser of Antarctica to any one from the continent of Asia# Time and place is no more a h!rdle# 3!t the world of internet is
not as simple as I or yo! imagine it# Infect none of !s ever %other to imagine what internet it# It is widely accessi%le and all we
do is to take %enefit of the invention or the idea witho!t knowing what and how it is#
I am going to disc!ss gateways in this post %eca!se I want to enlighten yo! on the s!%Ject of internet trafficking and data
sharing, altho!gh it is not possi%le to encompass the whole idea of internet into a single post# Let !s start from the start#
A J!nction that allows one to enter into a network or !sed as an e)it to go o!t of the network is known as gateway# The node
on internet, the stopping point, is called a host node or gateway# A gateway node is that comp!ter which is !sed to control and
manage traffic and %andwidth on yo!r company@s network or at yo!r IS" 1internet service provider2 or network# Mostly, IS"s
themselves provide gateway to the !sers in their homes that connects them to the internet#
Simply, a gateway is an entrance a point to access a network other than yo!rs# It is an inter operatings system that has a
capacity to serve several networks at a time# It can either %e in the form of software or hardware# The f!nction of gateway
node is of firewall or pro)y server in the enterprise network#
A ro!ter co!ld %e a device or comp!ter software that informs yo! a%o!t the data sent to the network ne)t to the ne)t comp!ter#
So!nds comple)R Let me e)plain f!rther# It is a common practice to attach a gateway to the ro!ter# A ro!ter is !s!ally
associated with more than two networks# -or data, it is !sed to decide the !pcoming destination which depends on its
!nderstanding of the condition of the other networks# The 0!estion still prevails, why gateways !se ro!ters# Well, a ro!ter !ses
headers and forwarding ta%les to sort o!t the destination where data or packets sho!ld %e sent and gives path %y the help of
which the information can %e sent in and o!t of the gateway#
There are two sides of a gatewayK a h!% or switch is !sed to connect the LAN side to yo!r private network where the WAN is
connects to a ca%le# Its %asic f!nction is to make a ro!te of the traffic from to the internet and from the internet to the
comp!ter# It is !sed to make a portal %etween two or more networks that are physically and logically different from each
12
other# A gateway can %e made %y any comp!ter that is 0!ipped with two NI cards#
The config!ration of p!%lic side is commonly composed of IS" gateway I" address, s!%net mask, 4NS server, I"
address and host name# ;ne more thing, yo! m!st have to activate the """o6 in yo!r gateway if yo!r IS" !ses ""o6#
Ho! have to activate 4:" to config!re the private side of the gateway# There are some settings that m!st %e a part
of all those comp!ters that are a part of some network, witho!t which comp!ters can neither %ecome mem%er of
certain network or a%le to comm!nicate thro!gh it# The activation of 4:" will a!tomatically ena%le all comp!ters
on yo!r network to accept the settings from the 4:" server# Ho! m!st also ens!re that the installation of T"$I"
protocol on each and every comp!ter is appropriate# arry o!t a re%oot after config!ring all comp!ters#
When all comp!ters on yo!r network are re%ooted then a %linking !nder the network icon on the task %ar will %e
visi%le# In case everything has gone perfect then yo! can access not only internet %!t also share data on yo!r network
and !se printer# To monitor the !ncertified traffic on yo!r network, it can also config!re a firewall#
;!t of n!mero!s paths, a gateway is J!st a single way to e)press o!rselves in the World Wide We%# To transfer data %ack and
forth while entering vario!s networks is only possi%le %y the virt!e of a gateway# -or r!nning more than two networks on
single comp!ter software are availa%le# To have a gateway on one@s comp!ter is very %eneficial#
7 ,ier Architecture
Three layer architect!re is a kind of system which imposes separation %etween these partsK
9# lient Tier or !ser interface
+# Middle Tier or %!siness logic
B# 4ata Storage Tier
Any piece of software can %e s!%divided into the following regionK
9# 3rowser or ?/I Application P 3!siness logic P 3!siness .!les, it deals with data validation and task-specific
performance#
+# We% Server or Application Server P "resentation logic P /ser Interface, showing data to the !ser, allowing inp!t
from the !ser#
B# 4ata%ase Server P 4ata%ase omm!nication, making SOL 0!eries and completing them via the related A"I#
What is a Layer#
A layer is a fraction of code that can %e !sed again and which performs partic!lar f!nction# In the network environment, a
layer is typically a set of connections as a proJect that sym%oli&es this partic!lar p!rpose# This partic!lar layer works with
other layers to carry o!t some partic!lar aim#
Single tier structure
If yo! have the code dealing with presentation logic 1prod!ction of :TML doc!ments2, %!siness logic 1the making of r!les2
and data access logic 1the prod!ction and completing of 4ML statements2 into a single mod!le then yo! are having a single
tier str!ct!re# All processing was done in single comp!ter and all the reso!rces was also attached to single comp!ter this
means that on that comp!ter the load was high#
3ou%le tier structure
If yo! divide the code that deals with the comm!nication with physical data%ase to separate component it is called + tier
architect!re#
,hree tier structure
If yo! divide f!rther the presentation logic and %!siness logic into separate components then yo! can have B tier architect!re#
In this str!ct!re there is not any direct comm!nication %etween the presentation and data access layers everything m!st pass
thro!gh %!siness layer which is in the middle#
As soon as the architect!re is implemented the %enefits the %enefits can %e noticed as more code can %e shared rather than
%eing d!plicated# Many components in the presentation layer share the same parts in the %!siness layer and all parts in the
%!siness layer share the same parts in the data access layer#
Advantages of B tier architect!re
The advantage of a B-tier system is that the contents of any of the tiers$layers can %e replaced witho!t making any
res!ltant changes in any of the others# -or e)ampleK
A change from one 43MS to other will only involve a change to the part in the data access layer#
A change in the /se Interface 1from desktop to the we%, will need only some changes in the components of the
presentation layer#
The %enefit of writing the presentation and %!siness layered architect!re in different lang!ages is that it is an
advantage of the presentation and %!siness layers is that it is feasi%le to !se different developer teams to work on
each# It means that only ":" skills are re0!ired for data access layer and %!siness layer, and :TML, SS and *LS
13
skills for presentation layers# It is easier to find a developer with skills in one of these rather having a kind of
developer having all of the skills#
Another main advantage of !sing *ML$*LS in the presentation layer is that it the o!tp!t can %e changed from :TML
to WML or "4- or any other format !sing a different *LS style sheet# *LS files can %e !sed to change *ML
doc!ments into a n!m%er of formats and not only :TML#
It has %etter wait %alancing system %eca!se the entire work load is divided#
Sec!rity polices can %e imposed witho!t effecting the clients#
What Is Mo%ile @road%and#
The term Dmo%ile %road%andD refers to high-speed wireless Internet connection services designed to %e !sed from ar%itrary
locations# 3eside phones, these network technologies are appearing in laptop comp!ters, a!tomo%iles and p!%lic
transportation#
3efinition& Wireless access points 1A"s or WA"s2 are specially config!red nodes on wireless local area networks 1WLANs2#
Access points act as a central transmitter and receiver of WLAN radio signals#
Access points !sed in home or small %!siness networks are generally small, dedicated hardware devices feat!ring a %!ilt-in
network adapter, antenna, and radio transmitter# Access points s!pport Wi--i wireless comm!nication standards#
Altho!gh very small WLANs can f!nction witho!t access points in so-called Dad hocD or peer-to-peer mode, access points
s!pport Dinfrastr!ct!reD mode# This mode %ridges WLANs with a wired 6thernet LAN and also scales the network to s!pport
more clients# ;lder and %ase model access points allowed a ma)im!m of only 98 or +8 clients< many newer access points
s!pport !p to +,, clients#
What is Ad-$oc Mode in Wireless Networking#
Answer& ;n wireless comp!ter networks, ad-hoc mode is a method for wireless devices to directly comm!nicate with each
other# ;perating in ad-hoc mode allows all wireless devices within range of each other to discover and comm!nicate in peer-
to-peer fashion witho!t involving central access points 1incl!ding those %!ilt in to %road%and wireless ro!ters2#
To set !p an ad-hoc wireless network, each wireless adapter m!st %e config!red for ad-hoc mode vers!s the alternative
infrastructure mode# In addition, all wireless adapters on the ad-hoc network m!st !se the same SSI4 and the same channel
num%er#
An ad-hoc network tends to feat!re a small gro!p of devices all in very close pro)imity to each other# "erformance s!ffers as
the n!m%er of devices grows, and a large ad-hoc network 0!ickly %ecomes diffic!lt to manage# Ad-hoc networks cannot
%ridge to wired LANs or to the Internet witho!t installing a special-p!rpose gateway#
Ad hoc networks make sense when needing to %!ild a small, all-wireless LAN 0!ickly and spend the minim!m amo!nt of
money on e0!ipment# Ad hoc networks also work well as a temporary fall%ack mechanism if normally-availa%le infrastr!ct!re
mode gear 1access points or ro!ters2 stop f!nctioning#
"outers are physical devices that Join m!ltiple wired or wireless networks together# Technically, a wired or wireless ro!ter is
a Layer B gateway, meaning that the wired$wireless ro!ter connects networks 1as gateways do2, and that the ro!ter operates at
the network layer of the ;SI model#
:ome networkers often !se an Internet "rotocol 1I"2 wired or wireless ro!ter, I" %eing the most common ;SI network layer
protocol# An I" ro!ter s!ch as a 4SL or ca%le modem %road%and ro!ter Joins the homeAs local area network 1LAN2 to the
wide-area network 1WAN2 of the Internet#
3y maintaining config!ration information in a piece of storage called the routing table, wired or wireless ro!ters also have
the a%ility to filter traffic, either incoming or o!tgoing, %ased on the I" addresses of senders and receivers# Some ro!ters allow
the home networker to !pdate the ro!ting ta%le from a We% %rowser interface# 3road%and ro!ters com%ine the f!nctions of a
ro!ter with those of a network switch and a firewall in a single !nit#
A network adapter interfaces a comp!ter to a network# The term DadapterD was pop!lari&ed originally %y 6thernet add-in
cards for "s#
Modern network adapter hardware e)ists in several forms# 3esides traditional "I 6thernet cards, some network adapters are
"MIA devices 1also know as Dcredit cardD or D" ardD adapters2 or /S3 devices# Some wireless network adapter gear for
laptop comp!ters are integrated circ!it chips pre-installed inside the comp!ter#
Windows and other operating systems s!pport %oth wired and wireless network adapters thro!gh a piece of
software called a Ddevice driver#D Network drivers allow application software to comm!nicate with the adapter hardware#
Network device drivers are often installed a!tomatically when adapter hardware is first powered on#
A few network adapters are p!rely software packages that sim!late the f!nctions of a network card# These so-called irtual
adapters are especially common in virt!al private networking 1="N2#
Also +nown As& NI, LAN card
An SSI3 is the name of a wireless local area network 1WLAN2# All wireless devices on a WLAN m!st employ the same
SSI4 in order to comm!nicate with each other#
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The SSI4 on wireless clients can %e set either man!ally, %y entering the SSI4 into the client network settings, or
a!tomatically, %y leaving the SSI4 !nspecified or %lank# A network administrator often !ses a p!%lic SSI4, that is set on the
access point and %roadcast to all wireless devices in range# Some newer wireless access points disa%le the a!tomatic SSI4
%roadcast feat!re in an attempt to improve network sec!rity#
SSI4s are case sensitive te)t strings# The SSI4 is a se0!ence of alphan!meric characters 1letters or n!m%ers2# SSI4s have a
ma)im!m length of B+ characters#
A network gateway is an internetworking system capa%le of Joining together two networks that !se different %ase
protocols# A network gateway can %e implemented completely in software, completely in hardware, or as a com%ination of
%oth# 4epending on the types of protocols they s!pport, network gateways can operate at any level of the ;SI model#
3eca!se a network gateway, %y definition, appears at the edge of a network, related capa%ilities like firewalls tend to %e
integrated with it# ;n home networks, a %road%and ro!ter typically serves as the network gateway altho!gh ordinary
comp!ters can also %e config!red to perform e0!ivalent f!nctions#
What Is a Network NameS
Answer& A network name is a te)t string that devices !se to reference a partic!lar comp!ter network# These strings are,
strictly speaking, separate from the names of individ!al devices and the addresses they !se to identify each other# Several
different forms of network naming e)ist#
SSI3
Wi--i networks s!pport a type of network name called SSI4# Wi--i access points and clients are each always assigned an
SSI4 to help identify each other# When a person speaks of wireless network names, they typically are referring to SSI4s#
1SI model
:? Application Layer
NNT" A SI" A SSI A 4NS A -T" A ?opher A :TT" A N-S A NT" A SM"" A SMT" A 4:" A SNM" A Telnet A Netconf A
1more2
9? Presentation Layer
MIM6 A *4. A TLS A SSL
8? Session Layer
Named "ipes A Net3I;S A SA" A L+T" A ""T"
)? ,ransport Layer
T" A /4" A ST" A 4" A S"*
7? Network Layer
I" 1I"v>, I"vF2 A IM" A I"sec A I?M" A I"* A AppleTalk
6? 3ata Link Layer
ATM A S4L A :4L A A." A SLI" A SLI" A "LI" A I666 78+#B A -rame .elay A IT/-T ?#hn 4LL A """ A *#+,
5? Physical Layer
6IA$TIA-+B+ A 6IA$TIA->>C A IT/-T =-Series A I#>B8 A I#>B9 A ";TS A "4: A S;N6T$S4: A ";N A ;TN A 4SL A
I666 78+#B A I666 78+#99 A I666 78+#9, A I666 78+#9F A I666 9BC> A IT/-T ?#hn ":H A /S3 A 3l!etooth A 3l!e
1SI Model
3ata unit Layer .unction
15
$ost
layers
4ata
E# Application Network process to application
F# "resentation
4ata representation, encryption and decryption, convert machine dependent data
to machine independent data
,# Session Interhost comm!nication
Segments ># Transport 6nd-to-end connections and relia%ility, flow control
Media
layers
"acket B# Network "ath determination and logical addressing
-rame +# 4ata Link "hysical addressing
3it 9# "hysical Media, signal and %inary transmission
3efinition& A <PN !tili&es p!%lic telecomm!nications networks to cond!ct private data comm!nications# Most ="N
implementations !se the Internet as the p!%lic infrastr!ct!re and a variety of speciali&ed protocols to s!pport private
comm!nications thro!gh the Internet#
="N follows a client and server approach# ="N clients a!thenticate !sers, encrypt data, and otherwise manage sessions with
="N servers !tili&ing a techni0!e called tunneling#
<PN clients and <PN serers are typically !sed in these three scenariosK
9# to s!pport remote access to an intranet,
+# to s!pport connections %etween m!ltiple intranets within the same organi&ation, and
B# to Join networks %etween two organi&ations, forming an e)tranet#
The main %enefit of a ="N is the lower cost needed to s!pport this technology compared to alternatives like traditional leased
lines or remote access servers#
="N !sers typically interact with simple graphical client programs# These applications s!pport creating t!nnels, setting
config!ration parameters, and connecting to and disconnecting from the ="N server# ="N sol!tions !tili&e several different
network protocols incl!ding ""T", L+T", I"sec, and S;NS#
="N servers can also connect directly to other ="N servers# A ="N server-to-server connection e)tends the intranet or
e)tranet to span m!ltiple networks#
Many vendors have developed ="N hardware and software prod!cts# Some of these do not interoperate d!e to the immat!rity
of some ="N standards#
A network protocol defines r!les and conventions for comm!nication %etween network devices# "rotocols for comp!ter
networking all generally !se packet switching techni0!es to send and receive messages in the form of packets#
Network protocols incl!de mechanisms for devices to identify and make connections with each other, as well as formatting
r!les that specify how data is packaged into messages sent and received# Some protocols also s!pport message
acknowledgement and data compression designed for relia%le and$or high-performance network comm!nication# :!ndreds of
different comp!ter network protocols have %een developed each designed for specific p!rposes and environments#
Internet Protocols
The Internet "rotocol family contains a set of related 1and among the most widely !sed network protocols# 3esides Internet
"rotocol 1I"2 itself, higher-level protocols like T", /4", :TT", and -T" all integrate with I" to provide additional
capa%ilities# Similarly, lower-level Internet "rotocols like A." and IM" also co-e)ist with I"# These higher level protocols
interact more closely with applications like We% %rowsers while lower-level protocols interact with network adapters and
other comp!ter hardware#
"outing Protocols
.o!ting protocols are special-p!rpose protocols designed specifically for !se %y network ro!ters on the Internet# ommon
ro!ting protocols incl!de 6I?.", ;S"- and 3?"#
$ow Network Protocols Are Implemented
Modern operating systems like Microsoft Windows contain %!ilt-in services or daemons that implement s!pport for some
network protocols# Applications like We% %rowsers contain software li%raries that s!pport the high level protocols necessary
for that application to f!nction# -or some lower level T"$I" and ro!ting protocols, s!pport is implemented in directly
hardware 1silicon chipsets2 for improved performance#
What Is "acket Switching on omp!ter NetworksS
Answer& Packet switching is the approach !sed %y some comp!ter network protocols to deliver data across a local or long
distance connection# 6)amples of packet switching protocols are -rame .elay, I" and *#+,#
$ow Packet Switching Works
"acket switching entails packaging data in specially formatted !nits 1called packets2 that are typically ro!ted from so!rce to
destination !sing network switches and ro!ters# 6ach packet contains address information that identifies the sending comp!ter
16
and intended recipient# /sing these addresses, network switches and ro!ters determine how %est to transfer the packet %etween
hops on the path to its destination#
Pros and Cons of Packet Switching
"acket switching is the alternative to circuit switching protocols !sed historically for telephone 1voice2 networks and
sometimes with IS4N connections#
ompared to circ!it switching, packet switching offers the followingK
More efficient !se of overall network %andwidth d!e to fle)i%ility in ro!ting the smaller packets over shared links#
"acket switching networks are often cheaper to %!ild as less e0!ipment is needed given this a%ility to share#
Longer delays in receiving messages d!e to the time re0!ired to package and ro!te packets# -or many applications,
delays are not long eno!gh to %e significant, %!t for high-performance applications like real-time video, additional data
compression and OoS technology is often re0!ired to achieve the re0!ired performance levels#
"otential for network sec!rity risks d!e to the !se of shared physical links# "rotocols and other related elements on
packet switching networks m!st designed with the appropriate sec!rity preca!tions#
Also +nown As& Transmission ontrol "rotocol $ Internet "rotocol
What Is a 4NS ServerS
The 4omain Name System 14NS2 is a standard technology for managing the names of We% sites and other Internet domains#
4NS technology allows yo! to type names into yo!r We% %rowser like compnetworking.about.com and yo!r comp!ter to
a!tomatically find that address on the Internet# A key element of the 4NS is a worldwide collection of DN servers# What,
then, is a 4NS serverS
Answer& A 3NS serer is any comp!ter registered to Join the 4omain Name System# A 4NS server r!ns special-p!rpose
networking software, feat!res a p!%lic I" address, and contains a data%ase of network names and addresses for other Internet
hosts#
3NS "oot Serers
4NS servers comm!nicate with each other !sing private network protocols# All 4NS servers are organi&ed in a hierarchy# At
the top level of the hierarchy, so-called root servers store the complete data%ase of Internet domain names and their
corresponding I" addresses# The Internet employs 9B root servers that have %ecome somewhat famo!s for their special role#
Maintained %y vario!s independent agencies, the servers are aptly named A, 3, and so on !p to M# Ten of these servers
reside in the /nited States, one in Gapan, one in London, /N and one in Stockholm, Sweden#
3NS Serer $ierarchy
The 4NS is a distri%!ted system, meaning that only the 9B root servers contain the complete data%ase of domain names and I"
addresses# All other 4NS servers are installed at lower levels of the hierarchy and maintain only certain pieces of the overall
data%ase#
Most lower level 4NS servers are owned %y %!sinesses or Internet Service "roviders 1IS"s2# -or e)ample, ?oogle maintains
vario!s 4NS servers aro!nd the world that manage the google#com, google#co#!k, and other domains# Ho!r IS" also maintains
4NS servers as part of yo!r Internet connection set!p#
4NS networking is %ased on the client $ server architect!re# Ho!r We% %rowser f!nctions as a 4NS client 1also called DN
resolver2 and iss!es re0!ests to yo!r Internet providerAs 4NS servers when navigating %etween We% sites#
When a 4NS server receives a re0!est not in its data%ase 1s!ch as a geographically far away or rarely visited We% site2, it
temporarily transforms from a server to a 4NS client# The server a!tomatically passes that re0!est to another 4NS server or
!p to the ne)t higher level in the 4NS hierarchy as needed# 6vent!ally the re0!est arrives at a server that has the matching
name and I" address in its data%ase 1all the way to the root level if necessary2, and the response flows %ack thro!gh the chain
of 4NS servers to yo!r client#
3NS Serers and $ome Networking
omp!ters on yo!r home network locate a 4NS server thro!gh the Internet connection set!p properties# "roviders give their
c!stomers the p!%lic I" address1es2 of primary and %ack!p 4NS servers# Ho! can find the c!rrent I" addresses of yo!r 4NS
server config!ration via several methodsK
on the config!ration screens of a home network ro!ter
on the T"$I" connection properties screens in Windows ontrol "anel 1if config!red via that method2
from ipconfig or similar command line !tility
An ISP is a company that s!pplies Internet connectivity to home and %!siness c!stomers# IS"s s!pport one or more forms of Internet access, ranging from traditional
dial-!p to 4SL and ca%le modem %road%and service to dedicated T9$TB lines#
More recently, wireless Internet serice proiders or WIS"s have emerged that offer Internet access thro!gh wireless LAN or wireless %road%and networks#
In addition to %asic connectivity, many IS"s also offer related Internet services like email, We% hosting and access to software tools#
A few companies also offer free ISP service to those who need occasional Internet connectivity# These free offerings feat!re limited connect time and are often %!ndled with
some other prod!ct or service#
17
.inding the IP Address of An 'mail Sender
Internet emails are designed to carry the I" address of the comp!ter from which the email was sent# This I" address is stored
in an email header delivered to the recipient along with the message# 6mail headers can %e tho!ght of like envelopes for
postal mail# They contain the electronic e0!ivalent of addressing and postmarks that reflect the ro!ting of mail from so!rce to
destination#
Internet email headers contain several lines of te)t# Some lines start with the words "eceied& from# -ollowing these words is
an I" address, s!ch as in the following fictito!s e)ampleK
.eceivedK from teela#mit#ed! 1F,#,>#97,#BC2
%y mail9#aol#com with SMT"< B8 G!n +88B 8+K+EK8+ -8888
These lines of te)t are a!tomatically inserted %y email servers that ro!te the message# If only one D.eceivedK fromD line
appears in the header, a person can %e confident this is the act!al I" address of the sender#
;nderstanding Multiple "eceied& from Lines
In some sit!ations, however, m!ltiple D.eceivedK fromD lines appear in an email header# This happens when the message
passes thro!gh m!ltiple email servers# Alternatively, some email spammers will insert additional fake D.eceivedK fromD lines
into the headers themselves in an attempt to conf!se recipents#
To identify the correct I" address when m!ltiple D.eceivedK fromD lines are involved re0!ires a small %it of detective work# If
no faked information was inserted, the correct I" address is contained in the last D.eceivedK fromD line of the header# This is a
good simple r!le to follow when looking at mail from friends or family#
;nderstanding .aked 'mail $eaders
If faked header information was inserted %y a spammer, different r!les m!st %e applied to identify a senderAs I" address# The
correct I" address will %e normally not %e contained in the last D.eceivedK fromD line, %eca!se information faked %y a sender
always appears at the %ottom of an email header#
To find the correct address in this case, start from the last D.eceivedK fromD line and trace the path taken %y the message %y
traveling !p thro!gh the header# The D%yD 1sending2 location listed in each D.eceivedD header sho!ld match with the DfromD
1receiving2 location listed in the ne)t D.eceivedD header %elow# 4isregard any entries that contain domain names or I"
addresses not matching with the rest of the header chain# The last D.eceivedK fromD line containing valid information is the
one that contains the senderAs tr!e address#
Note that many spammers send their emails directly rather than thro!gh Internet email servers# In these cases, all D.eceivedK
fromD header lines e)cept the first one will %e faked# The first D.eceivedK fromD header line, then, will contain the senderAs
tr!e I" address in this scenario#
Internet 'mail Serices and IP Addresses
-inally, the pop!lar Internet-%ased email services differ greatly in their !se of I" addresses in email headers# /se these tips to
identify I" addresses in s!ch mails#
?oogleAs 0mail service omits the sender I" address information from all headers# Instead, only the I" address of
?mailAs mailserver is shown in .eceivedK from# This means it is impossi%le to find a senderAs tr!e I" address in a received
?mail#
MicrosoftAs $otmail service provides an e)tended header line called D*-;riginating-I"D that contains the senderAs
act!al I" address#
6mails from 2ahoo 1if !ntampered2 contain the senderAs I" address in the last .eceivedK entry#
Latency of Satellite Internet Serice
Satellite Internet service ill!strates the difference %etween latency and %andwidth on comp!ter networks# Satellite Internet
connections possess %oth high %andwidth and high latency# When loading a We% page, for e)ample, most satellite !sers can
o%serve a noticea%le delay from the time they enter a We% address to the time the page %egins loading# This high latency is
d!e primarily to propagation delay as the re0!est message travels at the speed of light to the distant satellite station and %ack
to the home network# ;nce the messages arrive on 6arth, however, the page loads 0!ickly like on other high-%andwidth
Internet connections 14SL or ca%le2#
3esides propagation delays, latency also may also involve transmission delays 1properties of the physical medi!m2 and
processing delays 1s!ch as passing thro!gh pro)y servers or making network hops on the Internet2#
$ow Can I .ind the IP Address of a We% Site#
6ach We% site on the Internet possesses at least one Internet "rotocol 1I"2 address# Nnowing a We% site I" address can %e
!sef!l to determine its physical location, %!t this address is not a!tomatically shown in We% %rowsers# :ow can yo! find the
I" address of a We% siteS
Answer& -irst, yo! can !se the ping !tility to look !p We% site I" addresses# "ing attempts to contact the We% site %y name
and will report %ack the I" address it finds# -or e)ample, to find the I" address of a%o!t#com, entering the command
ping a%o!t#com
18
will ret!rn a res!lt similar to the following that contains the I" addressK
"inging a%o!t#com T6B:?6)5?5)C?CBU with B+ %ytes of dataK # # #
Note that many larger We% sites do not ret!rn replies to ping commands, %!t the site I" address can !s!ally still %e o%tained#
The ping method will fail if the We% site is temporarily DdownD of if the comp!ter !sed to perform the ping is not connected
to the Internet#
,he Internet W$1IS System
An alternative method to find We% site I" addresses relies on the Internet W:;IS system# W:;IS is a data%ase that tracks
registration information for We% sites incl!ding the owner and I" address#
To look !p We% site I" addresses with W:;IS, simply visit one of the many p!%lic sites 1like whois#net or
networksol!tions#com2 that offer W:;IS data%ase 0!ery services# Searching for a partic!lar site name like a%o!t#com, for
e)ample, prod!ces a res!lt similar to the followingK
!rrent .egistrarK .6?IST6.#;M, IN#
I" AddressK 6B:?6)5?5)C?CB 1A.IN M .I"6 I" search2 # #
$op
In comp!ter networking, a hop represents one portion of the path %etween so!rce and destination# When comm!nicating over
the Internet, for e)ample, data passes thro!gh a n!m%er of intermediate devices 1like ro!ters2 rather than flowing directly over
a single wire# 6ach s!ch device ca!ses data to DhopD %etween one point-to-point network connection and another#
In networking, the hop count represents the total n!m%er of devices a given piece of data 1packet2 passes thro!gh# ?enerally
speaking, the more hops data m!st traverse to reach their destination, the greater the transmission delay inc!rred#
4oes I" Address Location 1?eolocation2 .eally WorkS
So-called geolocation systems attempt to map I" addresses to geographic locations !sing large comp!ter data%ases# Some
geolocation data%ases are availa%le for sale, and some can also %e searched for free online# 3!t does all of this geolocation
technology really workS AnswerK it depends#
Duestion& 4oes I" Address Location 1?eolocation2 .eally WorkS
In comp!ter networking, I" addresses do not correspond e)actly to geographic locations# It is still theoretically possi%le,
however, to determine the physical location of I" addresses in many cases#
So-called geolocation systems attempt to map I" addresses to geographic locations !sing large comp!ter data%ases# Some
geolocation data%ases are availa%le for sale, and some can also %e searched for free online# 4oes this geolocation technology
really workS
Answer& ?eolocation systems generally f!nction for their intended p!rpose1s2 %!t also s!ffer from some important
limitations#
$ow Is IP Address Location ;sed#
?eolocation can %e !sed in several different casesK
Managing We% sites - We%masters can !se a geolocation service to track the geographic distri%!tion of visitors to their site#
3esides satisfying general c!riosity, advanced We% sites can also dynamically change the content shown to each visitor %ased
on their location# These sites may also %lock access to visitors from certain co!ntries or locales#
.inding spammers - Individ!als %eing harassed online often want to trace the I" address of email or instant messages#
'nforcing the law - The .ecording Ind!stry Association of America 1.IAA2 and other agencies may !se geolocation to find
people illegally swapping media files on the Internet, altho!gh typically they work directly with Internet Service "roviders
1IS"s2#
What Are the Limitations of 0eolocation#
I" address location data%ases have greatly improved in acc!racy over the years# They may attempt to map each network
address to a specific postal address or latit!de$longit!de coordinate# :owever, vario!s limitations still e)istK
I" addresses may %e associated with the wrong location 1e#g#, the wrong postal code, city or s!%!r% within a
metropolitan area2#
Addresses may %e associated only with a very %road geographic area 1e#g#, a large city, or a state2# Many addresses are
associated only with a city, not with a street address or latit!de$longit!de location#
Some addresses will not appear in the data%ase and therefore cannot %e mapped 1often tr!e for I" n!m%ers not
commonly !sed on the Internet2#
Can W$1IS @e ;sed for 0eolocation#
The W:;IS data%ase was not designed to locate I" addresses geographically# W:;IS tracks the owner of an I" address
range 1s!%net or %lock2 and the ownerAs postal address# :owever, these networks may %e deployed in a different location than
that of the owning entity# In the case of addresses owned %y corporations, addresses also tend to %e distri%!ted across m!ltiple
different %ranch offices# While the W:;IS system works well for finding and contacting owners of We% sites, it is a highly
inacc!rate I" location system#
19
Where Are Some 0eolocation 3ata%ases#
Several online services allow yo! to search for the geographic location of an I" address %y entering it into a simple We% form#
Two pop!lar services are ?eo%ytes and I"+Location# 6ach of these services !tili&es a proprietary data%ases of addresses %ased
on Internet traffic flow and We% site registrations# The data%ases were designed for !se %y We%masters and can %e p!rchased
as a downloada%le package for that p!rpose#
What Is Skyhook#
A company named Skyhook Wireless has %!ilt a geolocation data%ase of a different kind# Their system is designed to capt!re
the ?lo%al "ositioning System 1?"S2 location of home network ro!ters and access points, which may also incl!de residential
street addresses# The Skyhook system is not p!%licly availa%le# :owever, its technology is %eing !sed in the A;L Instant
Messenger 1AIM2 DNear MeD pl!g-in#
What A%out $otspot 3ata%ases#
Tho!sands of wireless hotspots are availa%le for p!%lic !se aro!nd the world# =ario!s online data%ases e)ist for finding Wi--i
hotspots which map a hotspotAs location incl!ding its street address# These systems work well for travelers seeking Internet
access# :owever, hotspot finders provide only the network name 1SSI42 of the access point and not its act!al I" address#
"ead More - A%o!t Tracing I" Addresses
heck I" Addresses on 4NS 3lacklists
;ne way to confirm whether email or other messages yo!Are receiving are spam is to check its originating I" address against
one of the p!%lic 4NS %lacklist - 4NS3L - data%ases availa%le online#
A 3NS %lacklist (3NS@L* is a data%ase that contains the I" addresses of malicio!s hosts on the Internet# These hosts are
typically email servers that generate large vol!mes of !nsolicited mail messages 1spam2 or other Internet servers !sed for
network attacks# A 4NS3L tracks servers %y I" address and also within the Internet 4omain Name System 14NS2#
4NS %lacklists help yo! to determine whether message senders may %e spammers or hackers# Ho! can also report spam and
s!spicio!s addresses to a 4NS3L for the %enefit of others on the Internet# The larger %lacklists contain millions of entries#
To !se the 4NS3L services listed %elow, type an I" address into the form they provide to look it !p in the data%ase# If
researching the origin of a spam email, yo! can o%tain its I" address from the mail headers 1seeK :ow To -ind the I" Address
of an 6mail Sender2
S;.3S data%ase
Spamha!s %lock list
Spamop %locking list
Spamanni%al look!p
-inally, note that a 4NS3L contains only p!%lic addresses, not private I" addresses !sed on local networks#
What Is the I" Address of Ho!T!%eS
"eople sometimes want to know Ho!T!%eAs I" address when they are !na%le to connect to the site %y its host name# Nnowing
its I" address may not solve this pro%lem, however#
Duestion& What is the I" Address of Ho!T!%eS
"eople sometimes want to know 2ou,u%eEs IP address when they are !na%le to connect to the site %y its !omain name#
Answer& Like many pop!lar We% sites, Ho!T!%e !tili&es m!ltiple Internet servers to handle incoming re0!ests# These are the
most common Ho!T!%e I" addressesK
+87#F,#9,B#+B7
+87#F,#9,B#+,9
+87#F,#9,B#+,B
+87#99E#+BF#FC
G!st as yo! can visit the Ho!T!%e home page %y entering http"//www.#outube.com/ into yo!r %rowser, yo! can also enter
http"// followed %y any of the a%ove addresses - for e)ample
httpK$$+87#F,#9,B#+B7$
If yo! cannot reach Ho!T!%e !sing httpK$$www#yo!t!%e#com$, yo!r We% host may %e %locking access to it# In these cases,
!sing an I" address %ased /.L may s!cceed yet violate yo!r host networkAs accepta%le !se policy 1A/"2#
heck yo!r A/" or contact yo!r local network administrator %efore !sing an I" address to connect to Ho!T!%e#
An Accepta%le ;se Policy (A;P* is a written agreement all parties on a comm!nity comp!ter network promise to adhere to
for the common good# An A/" defines the intended !ses of the network incl!ding !naccepta%le !ses and the conse0!ences
for non-compliance# Ho! will most commonly see A/" when registering on comm!nity We% sites or when working on a
corporate intranet#
Why Accepta%le ;se Policies Are Important
A good Accepta%le /se "olicy will cover provisions for network eti0!ette, mention limits on the !se of network reso!rces,
and clearly indicate of the level of privacy a mem%er on the network sho!ld e)pect# The %est A/"s incorporate Dwhat ifD
scenarios that ill!strate the !sef!lness of the policy in real-world terms#
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The importance of A/"s is fairly well-known to organi&ations like schools or li%raries that offer Internet as well as internal
1intranet2 access# These policies are primarily geared towards protecting the safety of yo!ng people against inappropriate
lang!age, pornography, and other 0!estiona%le infl!ences# Within corporations, the scope e)pands to incl!de other factors
s!ch as g!arding %!siness interests#
What Should an Accepta%le ;se Policy Contain#
Many policy details yo! sho!ld e)pect to find in an A/" relate to comp!ter sec!rity# These incl!de managing passwords,
software licenses, and online intellect!al property# ;thers relate to %asic interpersonal eti0!ette, partic!larly in email and
%!lletin %oard conversations# A third category deals with over!se or mis!se of reso!rces, s!ch as generating e)cessive
network traffic %y playing comp!ter games, for e)ample#
If yo! are in the process of developing an Accepta%le /se "olicy, or if yo! already have s!ch a policy in yo!r organi&ation,
here are some factors to consider in eval!ating its effectivenessK
4oes it clearly specify the policy owner or ownersS
:ave scenarios %een doc!mented !nam%ig!o!sly for the key policy iss!esS 4escriptions of so-called D!se casesD or
Dsit!ational analysesD help everyone to relate the policy to real life sit!ations especially those %ased on act!al past
e)perience#
Are the conse0!ences for non-compliance clear and intended to %e enforcedS
An increasing n!m%er of organi&ations monitor their comp!ter networks for !naccepta%le !ses, and good Accepta%le /se
"olicies cover network monitoring strategies s!ch as theseK
Scanning pro)y server logs to find hits to inappropriate We% sites incl!ding non work-related access occ!rring d!ring
%!siness ho!rs#
Installing filtering software that %locks access to certain p!%lic We% sites
Scanning of incoming and o!tgoing emails
6sta%lishing disk space 0!otas on shared network drives
;se Cases for an A;P
onsider what yo! wo!ld do in these sit!ationsK
a co-worker asks to log into the network !sing yo!r !ser name and password %eca!se their acco!nt is D!navaila%leD
yo! receive a politically sensitive Joke in email that yo! think is very f!nny and are considering forwarding it to yo!r
office mates
the person sitting ne)t to yo! spends all of their time at work downloading financial 0!otes and trading stocks online
yo!r word processor claims it has detected a vir!s on yo!r comp!ter
If yo! arenAt certain of the action to take in cases like these, an Accepta%le /se "olicy sho!ld %e the place yo! t!rn for
answers#
What Is the I" Address of -ace%ookS
"eople sometimes want to know -ace%ookAs I" address when they cannot connect to www#face%ook#com# Like many pop!lar
We% sites, -ace%ook !tili&es m!ltiple Internet servers and I" addresses#
What Is the I" Address of -ace%ookS
"eople sometimes want to know -ace%ookAs I" address when they are !na%le to connect to the site %y its domain name
1www#face%ook#com2#
Answer& Like many pop!lar We% sites, -ace%ook !tili&es m!ltiple Internet servers to handle incoming re0!ests to its We% site
www.facebook.com# The following I" address ranges %elong to -ace%ookK
FF#++8#9>>#8 - FF#++8#9,C#+,,
FC#FB#9EF#8 - FC#FB#9C9#+,,
+8>#9,#+8#8 - +8>#9,#+B#+,,
"eaching .ace%ook ia IP Address
-ace%ook#com !tili&es some %!t not all of the addresses in these ranges# 3elow are the most common active I" addresses for
-ace%ook#comK
FC#FB#9EF#9B
FC#FB#979#9,
FC#FB#97>#9>+
FC#FB#97E#9E
FC#FB#97E#97
FC#FB#97E#9C
FC#FB#979#99
FC#FB#979#9+
G!st as yo! can visit the -ace%ook home page %y entering httpK$$www#face%ook#com$ into yo!r %rowser, yo! can also enter
httpK$$ followed %y any of the a%ove addresses - for e)ample
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httpK$$FC#FB#9EF#9B$
Accepta%le ;se of .ace%ook IP Adddress
If yo! cannot reach -ace%ook !sing httpK$$www#face%ook#com$, yo!r Internet provider may %e %locking access to the site#
/sing an I" address %ased /.L might %ypass s!ch restrictions# 6ven if it s!cceeds, however, s!ch a workaro!nd may violate
yo!r host networkAs accepta%le !se policy 1A/"2# heck yo!r A/" and$or contact yo!r local network administrator to ens!re
visiting -ace%ook is allowed#
Tracero!te
Tracero!te is a !tility program that monitors the network path of test data sent to a remote comp!ter# ;n /ni) and Lin!)
comp!ters, the tracero!te application is availa%le in the shell, while on Windows comp!ters, the tracert program can %e
accessed from 4;S#
3efinition& ,raceroute is a !tility program that monitors the network path of test data sent to a remote comp!ter# ;n /ni)
and Lin!) comp!ters, the Dtracero!teD application is availa%le in the shell, while on Windows comp!ters, the DtracertD
program can %e accessed from 4;S#
Tracero!te programs take the name or I" address of a remote comp!ter on the command line# When r!n, tracero!te sends a
series test messages over the network 1!sing IM"2 to each intermediate ro!ter progressing !ntil the last message finally
reaches its destination# When finished, tracero!te displays the ordered list of ro!ters that represent the path from that comp!ter
to the destination#
;S@ - ;niersal Serial @us
/S3 stands for /niversal Serial 3!s, an ind!stry standard for short-distance digital data comm!nications# /S3 allows data to
%e transferred %etween devices# /S3 ports can also s!pply electric power across the ca%le to devices witho!t their own power
so!rce#
/S3 +#8K the c!rrent version s!pports a m!ch faster theoretical ma)im!m rate of >78 M%ps
$% &.'K the f!t!re standard is e)pected to s!pport !p to >#7 ?%ps
;sing ;S@ for Local Networking
To %!ild a /S3 network, simply connect $% cables to the /S3 ports on those devices# /S3 is plug an! pla#
compati%le, meaning the operating system $% !river software a!tomatically detects and config!res device
connections# ;ne /S3 network s!pports !p to 9+E devices#
;S@ +eys
As an alternative to !sing /S3 technology for local area networking, $% ke#s can %e !sed to transfer files %etween
two devices witho!t re0!iring ca%les# To !se a /S3 key 1also known as a memor# stick2, copy files from one
comp!ter onto the key, then physically carry the stick to a different comp!ter and copy the files onto that device#
ICMP is a network protocol !sef!l in Internet "rotocol 1I"2 network management and administration# IM" is a re0!ired
element of I" implementations# IM" is a control protocol, meaning that it does not carry application data, %!t rather
information a%o!t the stat!s of the network itself# IM" can %e !sed to reportK
errors in the !nderlying comm!nications of network applications
availa%ility of remote hosts
network congestion
"erhaps the %est known e)ample of IM" in practice is the ping !tility, that !ses IM" to pro%e remote hosts for
responsiveness and overall ro!nd-trip time of the pro%e messages# IM" also s!pports tracero!te, that can identify
intermediate DhopsD %etween a given so!rce and destination#
Also +nown As& Internet ontrol Message "rotocol
In comp!ter networking, a NIC provides the hardware interface %etween a comp!ter and a network# A NI technically is
network adapter hardware in the form factor of an add-in card s!ch as a "I or "MIA card#
Some NI cards work with wired connections while others are wireless# Most NIs s!pport either wired 6thernet or Wi-i
wireless standards# 6thernet NIs pl!g into the system %!s of the " and incl!de Jacks for network ca%les, while Wi-i NIs
contain %!ilt-in transmitters $ receivers 1transceivers2#
In new comp!ters, many NIs are now pre-installed %y the man!fact!rer# All NIs feat!re a speed rating s!ch as 99 M%ps, ,>
M%ps or 988 M%ps that s!ggest the general performance of the !nit#
Also +nown As& NI also stands for Network Information enter# -or e)ample, the organi&ation named DInterNID is a NI
that provides information to the general p!%lic on Internet domain names#