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NUCLEAR POWER CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED

(A GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ENTERPRISE)

KUDANKULAM NUCLEAR POWER


PROJECT
NUCLEAR TRAINING CENTRE
TRAINING MANUAL ON
POWER SYSTEMS AND NPP OPERATION

Document
No:
Prepared by

Revised by

IO1.KK.0.0.TN.MN.WD410

C.M. Agrawal,
SO/ C

Checked
by

Rev number: 0
Date: December 2005

S.Nambi, SO/ E

Next Rev. due Date:


December 2008
Issued
By

Rev. date

Suresh Kumar
Pillai, TS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
S.No.
Chapter 1
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

TITLE
Grid Characteristics and Interaction of NPP with Grid
Introduction
Related Plant Factors
AC and DC Transmission
System Voltage Selection
Interaction Of NPP with Grid

Page No.
1-9
1
2
4
6
7

Chapter 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
Chapter 3
3.1
3.2
2.3
Chapter 4

Power Systems Representation And Analysis


Power Systems Representation
Power Systems Analysis
Per Unit Representation
Voltage And Frequency Control
Frequency Control
Voltage Control
Concept of Power system Black Out
Synchronous Machine, Synchronizing and Load
Shedding

10-13
10
13
13
14-19
14
16
18
21-37

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

General
Induced E.M.F. in a Synchronous Machine
Synchronous Generator Running On No Load
Synchronous Generator Running On Load
Synchronous Impedance and Phasor Diagram of a
Synchronous generator
Sudden Three Phase Short Circuit
Synchronizing
Load Shedding
Power System Stability
General
Steady State Stability
Transient Stability
Equal area Criterion for Stability
Effect of Fault Clearing Time on Stability
Effect of Excitation System on Stability
Main Output and Service systems
General
Power Ouput System
Offsite power system
Onsite power system
Fault analysis and Grounding
Faults in Power Systems
Methods of Fault Calculations

21
23
24
26
28

4.6
4.7
4.8
Chapter 5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Chapter 6
6.1
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
Chapter 7
7.1
7.2

30
32
34
38-45
38
38
41
44
44
45
46-57
46
46
49
44
58-78
58
58

7.3
7.4
Chapter 8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
Annexure1
Annexure2

Electrical Systems Transients


Grounding
Pritective Relaying
General
Relays Classification
Device Function Number
Suffixes
Operating Principle of Operating Relays
Some auxiliary Relay
Protective system Design Approach
Generator Protection
Transformer Protection
Bus Protection
Line Protection
Power Line Carrier Protection
Power Evacuation Scheme at KKNPP
Station Auxiliary Power Supply System scheme

ii

69
71
79-114
58
58
82
84
85
89
92
95
103
108
110
112

CHAPTER - 1
GRID CHARACTERISTICS AND INTERACTION OF NPP WITH
GRID
1.0

INTRODUCTION

An electric power system is one of the tools for energy conversion and
transportation. It is an interconnected network of generating sources and loads. Hence the
system consists of following three major components.
1. Generating stations.
2. Transmission lines.
3. Distribution systems.
A well knit power system network becomes a highly reliable source of electric
power during normal and abnormal operating conditions. It is also known as a power grid.
On large power grids, the available generation includes Hydraulic, thermal and
nuclear stations. Hydel stations are used for peak load capability. Water sources are limited
and increasing demand has to be met by thermal and nuclear stations at higher cost. Nuclear
stations are operated as base load stations at high capacity factors in order to keep cost of
generation low. The interest charges on huge capital cost of engineering and construction is
very high. These high capacity factors also depend on station availability which must also
incorporate allowances of down time for preventive and breakdown maintenance. This
places a requirement for highly reliable electrical systems and equipment and redundancy of
critical components to permit maintenance during operation.
The locations of hydro stations are fixed by the presence of water power, but the
choice of sites for steam stations using fossil or nuclear fuels is more flexible. Steam stations
are normally spotted throughout the system, so that there is at least one station near each
large load centre. Energy conversion from hydro, fossil fuel and nuclear fission are being
economically exploited throughout the world. Other sources like, Tidal, solar, Nuclear
Fusion, Magneto hydro dynamics & Wind energy have yet to prove their large scale
viability for conversion to electric power.
Electricity being the most flexible for generation, transmission and utilization right
from conversion stage, it is universally used as the energy medium for normal consumption
in the form of heat, light and mechanical power.
The demand for large blocks of power with high reliability suggests the necessity of
an interconnected system. We need to have only few generators in a sub-system to act as
reserve capacity for peak loads. It may even be economical to buy power from a system than
to generate it at an obsolete plant.

1.1

RELATED PLANT FACTORS

A number of terms will be encountered when one studies about plant generation
distribution and utilisation. Some of them are discussed below.
1.

DEMAND FACTOR
It is the ratio of the maximum demand of system or a part of a system to the
connected load. Thus in a residence or locality, the maximum demand would not be the sum
of all lighting and appliance loads; but would be some value less than that, since it is
extremely unlikely that all lights and appliances would be in operation at the same time.
2.

DIVERSITY FACTOR
This is applicable to a number of subsystems in a major system. It is defined as the
ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands of various subsystems to the maximum
demand of the whole system. It is normally greater than one.
3.

LOAD FACTOR
It is the ratio of average load to peak load of a system over a time period under
consideration.
A low load factor means that the total capacity installed in the plant is used for
short-periods of time. Thus, a large investment is needed to generate a small load. The cost
of electricity will be high to bring a return on an investment that is idle for a large
percentage of the time.
4.

CAPACITY FACTOR
This is the ratio of the average load on a machine to the rated capacity of the
machine for the time under consideration.
5.

OUTPUT FACTOR
It is the ratio of actual energy output to the energy output, which would have
occurred if the machine had been operating at its rated capacity for the period under
consideration. This differs from capacity factor only in that the load that could have been
delivered by the plant is considered as the total capacity of the plant times the number of
hours that the plant was in actual operation.
6.

UTILISATION FACTOR
It is the ratio of the maximum demand of a system to the rated capacity of the
system. In comparison with demand factor, the former is applied to a generating system,
while demand factor is applicable normally to an equipment.
7.

OPERATION FACTOR
It is the ratio of the duration of the actual service of a machine or equipment to the
total time duration under consideration.
8.

COLD RESERVE
This is the reserve generating capacity available for service, but not in operation.

9.

HOT RESERVE
This is the reserve generating capacity in operation but not in service.

The above two definitions are normally applicable to thermal power station using
oil, coal or nuclear energy.
10.

SPINNING RESERVE

It is the reserve generating capacity connected to the bus and ready to take load. This
term is normally used in connection with Hydel power station.
11.

STATION LOAD
This is the power required for operation of all generating station auxiliaries.

12.

BASE LOAD PLANT


Base load is the load below which the demand never falls and is supplied 100% of
the time. It can be understand in a better way by following diagram:

Daily Load Curve showing Base load and Peak load


The base load plants are plants which are loaded very heavily. Operating costs of such
plants are very important. A high capital cost is permissible if low operating costs can be
maintained (e.g. nuclear power stations).

13.
PEAK LOAD PLANT
As per name suggests peak load is the maximum the load ever in a day. The peaking load
occurs for about 15% of the time. It is also shown in daily load curve.
Since peaking load plants are used only for a small fraction of time, the fuel cost is not of
major importance. Minimum capital cost should be the criterion. It could be a gas turbine
unit, pumped hydro-system, compressed air energy storage system or a diesel engine
depending on the size and scope of availability.
A careful study of the load curves helps to decide the capacity of the base load plant and
also of the peak load plant. The base load plant should be run at high load factor. The peak
load plant should be of smaller capacity to reduce the cost of generation.
1.2

AC & DC TRANSMISSION

1.2.1

ADVANTAGES OF AC TRANSMISSION
A widespread use of three phase AC transmission was due to the transformer which
makes possible the transmission of electrical energy at a voltage much higher than
the generated or utilized.
To transmit a given amount of power, a high voltage requires less current. This
results in less I2 R losses and economy in conducting material. AC generator is also
much simplex than a DC generator. Common power frequencies are 50 Hzs and 60
Hzs. older systems still use 16 2/3 Hz and 25 Hz. A higher operating frequency
reduces cross sectional area of magnetic core and necessitates shorter length of
conducting material.

1.2.2

ADVANTAGTES OF DC TRANSMISSION

1.

Line construction is simple as compared to AC transmission. A Single conductor


line with ground as return is sufficient. Hence the line is relatively cheaper and has
the same reliability as that of 3 phase line.

2.

For transmitting both AC & DC circuits let us assume that the 2 lines have the same
number of conductors and insulators:
Assuming that the current is limited by temperature rise, the direct current is equal to
the RMS alternating current. Since the crest voltage in both cases is same for
insulators the direct voltage is 2 times the RMS alternating current voltage.
The power in case of DC is:
Pdc = Vdc Idc
Power in case of AC is:
Pac = Vac Iac Cos

Where Iac and Idc are currents and Vac and Vdc are the line to ground voltage and Cos
the power factor.
Now since Vdc = 2 Vac and Idc = Iac
Pdc
-------------Pac

Vdc Idc
2
= ----------------- = --------------Vac Iac Cos
Cos

Since Cos < 1.0


hence power in case of DC is more as compared to AC.
3)

The AC resistance of a conductor is somewhat higher than its DC resistance because


in case of AC the current is not uniformly distributed over the section of the
conductor. The current density is higher on the outer section of the conductor as
compared to the inner section. This is known as skin effect. As a result of this,
conductor section is not fully utilized. This is absent in the case of DC.

4)

Long distance AC power transmission is feasible only with the use of series and
shunt compensation for stability reasons. Since DC lines operate at unity power
factor and charging currents are absent no compensation is required.

5)

Less Corona loss and Radio interference


The corona loss is directly proportional to (f+25) where f is the frequency of supply
and being zero in the case of DC. The corona losses are less compared to AC.
Corona loss and radio interference in case of DC is less compared to AC.

6)

Higher operating voltages


The High voltage transmission lines are designed based on expected switching
surges rather than the lightning voltages because the former are more severe as
compared to the latter. The level of switching surges for DC is lower as compared to
AC and hence the same size of conductors and string insulators can be used for
higher voltages in case of DC.

1.2.3

DISADVANTAGES OF DC TRANSMISSION

1.

Expensive Converters: Converters required at both the ends are expensive than
conventional equipments.
Voltage transformation: The power transmitter can be used at lower voltages only.
Voltage transformation is not easier in case of DC and hence it has to be done on to
AC side of the system.

2.

1.3

SYSTEM VOLTAGE SELECTION

The selection of utilisation, distribution and transmission voltage level is one of the
most important considerations in power system design. System voltages usually affect the
economics of equipment selection and plant expansion more than any other single factor.
Voltage is classified as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.

250 V and below


250 V to 650 V
650 V to 3.3 kV
Above 3.3 kV

Low
Medium
High
Extra High Voltage

Following are the factors affecting voltage selection :


1.

LOAD MAGNITUDE

In the selection of low voltage, this is not an important factor. The voltage rating of
the utilisation device governs this entirely. But load magnitude must be considered for
distribution voltage selection.
2.

DISTANCE POWER IS TO BE CARRIED

Distance, normally does not affect voltage selection in the low voltage class. It is an
important factor in selecting distribution voltage and transmission voltages, where main
loads are located at quite a distance from the main plant.
3.
EFFECT OF UTILISATION DEVICES
Incandescent lamps, fractional horse power motors, hand tools, business machines
are normally rated at 120 V, 230 V single phase. Poly phase motors are available from 415
V, 3.3 KV, 6.6 KV, 11 KV 3 phase and the normally varies with horsepower rating.
4.

SAFETY

For voltages below 230 V, safety is a prime consideration. For example, where there
is a possibility of contact with energised parts, such as in ungrounded frame portable tool,
voltages of the order of 24 volts is selected because it has been shown that voltages above
50 V to ground generally prove lethal.
For a properly designed system, voltage regulation is one of the most important
parameter monitored. Long time transient voltage dips caused due to starting of high inertia
motor loads, should not take the system voltages below the rated input range of any voltage
regulator supplying voltage sensitive devices.
Voltage dips should not be low enough to limit accelerating torques so that motor
starting time is excessively long causing possible trips on motor overload or stalling.

Voltage dips should not cause drop out of contactors or under voltage relays to cause
system instability. Poor voltage regulation is detrimental to life of an equipment.
No load volts - Full load volts
Voltage Regulation = -------------------------------------- X 100
( in %)
Full load volts
1.4

INTERACTION OF NPP WITH GRID

Most nuclear fuelled plant is operated in a base load regime especially as the output cost /
KW from nuclear plant is cheaper than most fossil fuelled plant. Clearly the electrical
system must facilitate the operational flexibility where this is required.
In nuclear plant with overriding consideration is one of the nuclear safety, and this is
uppermost in the designers mind. The system chosen for nuclear plant must have an
inherent ability to be configured keeping emergency core cooling etc. loads in mind, the
alternative supply choices available.
In general, during the design of the power system having nuclear power plants following
needs should be considered.
1.4.1

STATION OPERATION CRITERIA

In common with all other areas of design in power stations, the electrical system designers
must have a clear definition of what operating criteria need to be achieved.
The electrical requirements will be the following:
a)

Station rated output is required over a supply frequency range of 48-50.5 Hz


operation below 48 Hz will be infrequently.

b)

A fault, including fire, in any section of any auxiliaries system shall not cause more
than one generators to trip under all usual operating conditions.

c)

The plant system auxiliaries supply arrangement shall be designed to meet all the
operating flexibility requirements e.g. part loading and lead rejections.

d)

The plant auxiliaries system shall satisfactorily with stand any internally generated
switching or other transient over voltages.

e)

The plant auxiliaries system shall accommodate the generator operating with a
terminal voltage in the range of 95% to 105% of the rated value.

1.4.2

NUCLEAR HAZARD NEEDS

The electrical systems provided at nuclear power stations must relate to the plant and
equipment required to prevent the release of radioactivity to the atmosphere.
Initially the favoured source of electrical supplies to these systems should be derived
from the grid network. This network has finite limits of its own, the voltage and frequency
limits.
Consideration of the needs of the safety related plants to the probabilities of losing
grid supplies invariably leads to the provision of a supplementary AC source of supply by
means of on site generation. In most cases this has been provided by diesel generators.
The station requires supplies to be available at all times for supplying station
auxiliaries and depending on the system design, for providing a supply to the unit auxiliaries
for starting up and shutting down of the units as shown in the figure.
1.4.3

ELECTRICAL AUXILIARY SYSTEM

It is required that a fault on this plant will not immediately propagate into the unit
operation. To achieve, this electrical and mechanical plant switchgear and cabling is
segregated between the units, and between the two halves of the station system.
Standard voltage levels of 11KV, 6.6KV, 3.3 kV and 380V have been selected to
accommodate the very wide range of plant drives and equipment.
1.4.3

INTERCONNECTIONS

To enable flexibility of operation and to cater for planned or freed outages, inter
connection between different switch boards at the same voltage levels is normally provided.
These are usually cabled inter connections with circuit breakers at each end. The associated
circuit breakers are arranged such that one is normally closed. This energises the cable
permanently, so that any cable fault is detected and cleared by the protection immediately,
rather than when the circuit is energised just prior to being required. Inter connections may
be one of the two distinct types.
1.

Where the two supplies may be paralleled, thereby giving continuity of supply.

2.

Where any alternate supply is required but the two sources may not be paralleled
due to a paralleled fault level in excess of the switch gear certified rating.

1.4.5 ESSENTIAL SYSTEMS


Essential plant systems for all the power stations are based on additional on site
generators, together with batteries and chargers providing no break supplies. Present
designs also use Uninterrupted Power Supplies (UPS) provide instrumentation and power
supply requirements which are battery backed. These systems are also used in natural
8

operation since they provide a stable voltage and frequency supply isolated from the
transient experienced by the main auxiliaries system. They are based on centralised
schemes of static or rotary inverters with a battery backing for a time scale in the region of
30 minutes to cater for loss of the battery charger as AC supplies.
The DC system voltage levels are chosen for selected duties such as emergency
drives and emergency lighting at 250V, Switchgear with the higher current closing
solenoids at 250V, protection, direct control and remote control and indications at 48V.
1.4.6 THE EFFECT OF LOSS OF GRID SUPPLIES
Loss of grid supplies is a general term which covers events from the loss of a single
generator connection to the total collapse of the local grid network and grid disturbances.
Which cause the voltage and /or frequency to go outside their operating limits.
A power station connected to the national grid will experience all the voltage and
frequency transients which occurs on the surrounding grid system from time to time. From
a system operation connected throughout these disturbances to support the system and its
stability. For conditions which may be considered abnormal, which will probably be
outside the specified limits the power station designer must consider deliberate
disconnection of the station from the abnormal grid. This action is necessary to avoid
possible over stressing of the electrical system or subjecting the mechanical plant to
conditions outside its specified limits.
The power stations have their electrical protection arrangements designed such that
faults which open the generator transformer HV circuit breaker only will ramp down the
generating unit to house load. If the grid becomes available after a short time, the generator
can then be re-synchronised without having to suffer the lengthy down times necessary to
run up a machine after a hot or cold shut down. This is of particular benefit since restarting
is always a lengthy process due to Xenon poisoning in the reactor.
Along with above mentioned points:
A)
Power system is to be designed such that single fault will not cause the loss of more
than one generating unit. This reflects the need to limit the generation loss to the system due
to single faults. The connection to the grid site must also be examined to ensure that a single
system or substation fault will not cause more generation loss than the system can tolerate.
This is of particular concern in situations where more than one station is connected to a
common sub station.
B)
The plant must be designed to meet the voltage and frequency limits set by the
system.

CHAPTER - 2
POWER SYSTEMS REPRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
2.1 POWER SYSTEM REPRESENTATION
2.1.1

Circuit models of power system components:

Power system components can be divided mainly in following parts:


a) Generators
b) Transformers
c) Transmission lines
2.1.1.1 Circuit Model For Transmission lines
Transmission lines are classified as:
a)
Short lines (< 80 km)
b)
Medium length lines. (< 240 km and >80 km)
c)
Long lines (> 240 km)
Normally transmission line is represented as a series inductance L, series resistance R and
shunt admittance Y for the total length of the line. It is shown below

But for short transmission line shunt capacitance is very less and it can be omitted.
2.1.1.2

Circuit Model For Generators

Generators are represented by a voltage source having its no load voltage and its
synchronous impedance. Where synchronous impedance is the sum of the synchronous
reactance and armature resistance .

10

Armature resistance is so small in comparison with synchronous resistance that it can be


omitted.
2.1.1.3
Circuit Model For Transformers
Transformers are represented by its winding series impedance transferred to any one side of
the transformer and shunt admittance responsible for magnetizing current in the transformer.

R1

X1

X2

Rm

R2

Xm

As magnetizing current is very small in comparison of the transformer rated current, shunt
admittance can be omitted during calculations.
2.1.2

Single Line Diagram

We now have the circuit models for transmission lines, synchronous machines, and
transformers; we shall see next how to portray the assemblage of these components to model
a complete system. Since a balanced three-phase system is always solved as a single-phase
circuit composed of one of the three lines and a neutral return, it is seldom necessary to
show more than one phase and the neutral return when drawing a diagram of the circuit.
Often the diagram is simplified further by omitting the completed circuit through the neutral
and by indicating the component parts by standard symbols rather than by their equivalent
circuits. Circuit parameters are not shown, and a transmission line is represented by a single
line between its two ends, such a simplified diagram of an electric system is called a oneline diagram. It indicates by a single line and standard symbols the transmission lines and
associated apparatus of an electric system.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers have published a set of standard symbols for electrical diagrams.
Figure on next page shows a few symbols which are commonly used. The basic symbol for
a machine or rotating armature is a circle, but so many adaptations of the basic symbol are
listed that every piece of rotating electric machinery in common use can be indicated. For
anyone who is not working constantly with one-line diagrams, it is clearer to indicate a
particular machine by the basic symbol followed by information on its type and rating.

11

The purpose of the one-line diagram is to supply in concise form the significant
information about the system. The importance of different features of a system varies
with the problem under consideration, and the amount of information included on the
diagram depends on the purpose for which the diagram is intended.
Following figure is the single line diagram of a very simple power system. Two
generators, one grounded through a reactor and one through a resistor, are connected to a
bus and through a step-up transformer to a transmission line. Another generator,
grounded through a reactor, is connected to a bus and through a transformer to the
opposite end of the transmission line. A load is connected to each bus. On the diagram
information about the loads, the ratings of the generators and transformers, and reactance
of the different components of the circuit is often given.

2.2 POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

12

Power system analysis covers mainly following studies:


1. Power system stability Analysis
2. Fault calculations
3. Load flow studies
4. Load dispatching problems
Upper two of above, (Power system stability Analysis and Fault calculations) are described
in this manual later. Here, we will discuss about load flow studies and load dispatching
problem in brief:
2.2.1

Load Flow studies

The load flow studies are very important on the following reasons.

For planning, control and operation of existing systems.

Planning its future expansions.

To determine the size and best location of power capacitors both for improving
power factor and also raising the bus voltage.

To determine the best locality of new generating stations, substations, new lines etc.

2.2.2

Load Dispatching problems

An important problem in efficient system operation is load despatching. i.e. the


determination of how the total generation required at any time should be distributed among
various generating units. Both analogue and digital computers with Network simulators
have been used on a wide scale to arrive at an optimum solution for such power system
problems.
2.3 PER UNIT REPRESENTATION
Per unit concept has been adopted in electrical system with the following advantages:
1. Yeilds valuable relative magnitude information.
2. Circuit analysis is greatly simplified.
3. Circuit parameters tend to fall in relatively narrow ranges.
If V, I, P, Z are the rated voltage, current, power and impedance in a circuit respectively
then it can be represented in per unit form as follows:
Vp.u
= V/Vb
Where Vb
-Base voltage
Ip.u
= I/Ib
Ib
-Base current
Pp.u
= P/Pb
Where Pb
= V b x Ib
Zp.u
= Z/Zb
Zb
= Vb/Ib

CHAPTER - 3

13

VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY CONTROL


For satisfactory operation of the large grid it is necessary to understand the factors that affect the
ability of the generators to give the output power required (both active and reactive) and the factors
that affect the ability of the transmission lines to transfer electrical power (both active and reactive).
The frequency is the index of Real power matching and the voltage is the index of
reactive power (MVAR) matching between supply and demand.
3.1

FREQUENCY CONTROL

Generally,
for
a
synchronous
power
network
at
any
Power generated = Power absorbed by load + system losses

instant

in

time

If and when this balance is upset by variations in one or more of these powers, machine speed (and
hence system frequency) will change:
System frequency rises when generation exceeds load (the excess is absorbed in plant kinetic
energy).
System frequency drops when load exceeds generation (load absorbs energy from the stored
kinetic energy of the synchronous generators to make up the shortage in input energy to these
machines).
Electrical faults usually cause a rise in frequency due to the associated sudden loss in load seen by
the generators.
Power versus Frequency Characteristics of a Power System
In practice, no systems are infinite, i.e. of a constant voltage and frequency at any point. The
stiffness K of a system is defined as the ratio of the change of power to change of frequency, i.e.
dP
----- = K MW / Hz
df
Hence the stiffness of the system gives an indication of the change in frequency that can be
expected if a sudden load change occurs. The product K. dF is called Area Requirement
and is an important factor for deciding input to governor.
Turbine Speed Governor
The central component is a mechanical transducer which transforms the rotational speed of
the generator shaft into a position output used to open / close a valve (or series of valves).
Although implementation details vary, all mechanical speed governors used on thermal
generators are based on the classical flyball governor as shown below. (Hydro stations have

14

special governor requirements: either mechanical-hydraulic or electro-hydraulic governors


are used.)
The speed control is implemented in such a way that the governor has a droop
characteristic (ie. a slope of speed vs power) of about 4 to 5 % ; this is necessary in order to
allow the generator to operate satisfactorily in parallel with other units with proper division
of load.
The torque exerted by the turbine (and therefore the mechanical power input to the
generator) is approximately proportional to the displacement of the main steam inlet valve
(assuming constant steam pressure from the boiler); consequently, it is necessary to be able
to adjust the governor setting in order to allow the generator to be able to operate at
synchronous speed for different loads. This is achieved by the speeder motor mounted next
to the governor; this motor adjusts the linkage length between the governor sleeve and pilot
valve.
The per unit speed and torque under steady state conditions are then related as
follows
N = G + K (1 T) per unit.
where N and T are speed and torque respectively, K is the droop factor (eg. 0.04) and G the
speeder gear setting.
As a result of friction, mechanical backlash, etc, there is a time deadband of 0.2 to 0.5
seconds in the response of the governor to speed changes.
In conventional frequency control systems the actual frequency is sensed and compared with
a reference. The error is amplified to drive the governor control mechanism to restore the
frequency to normal value. Conventional centrifugal governors are supplemented by electro
hydraulic governors for this purpose.
Basic generator loop is shown in last of the chapter.
For an interconnected power system frequency is not the only index of imbalance between
area load and generation. Consider two systems A & B connected by a tie line.

Suppose thereAis increase in load on 'A'.

B
2000 MW,
300 MW/Hz

2000 MW,
200 MW/Hz
15

1.

`A's speed falls as the demand is temporarily met by the kinetic energy of the
system.

2.

Phase angle between A & B increases; hence more power will flow from B to A.

3.

`B's speed falls because of this power "outflow".

4.

The governors of both system sense the change in speeds & responds in proportion
to their regulating characteristic.

5.

The interconnection settles at a new frequency & a tie line load.

3.2

VOLTAGE CONTROL

Just like frequency is index of real power mismatch, voltage is the index of
mismatch between generation and demand of reactive power (Q). If the supply of lagging
reactive power is less than the demand, a decrease in system voltage results; conversely, if
the supply of lagging reactive power exceeds demand, an increase in system voltage results.
Reactive power is the rate at which electric or magnetic energy is stored in a
capacitor or Inductive coil. It is also called wattles power. Unlike real or active power which
is dissipated in the form of heat, light or mechanical power, reactive power is only
conserved. Majority of the power system loads are inductive. Hence they demand certain
amount of lagging reactive power. e.g. transformer cores, Motor and generator
magnetization, reactors etc. This power can be generated by a generator, inductor or by a
capacitor. If the lagging MVAR demanded by a load is supplied by a capacitor. Then the
generator need to supply only Real power. This improves transmission efficiency & reduces
line losses.
Voltage of the system can be controlled by:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
i)

Excitation control of generators


Switching of capacitors
Synchronous condensers
On load tap-changing of transformers

Excitation control of generators

When power transfer increases or faults occur, the machine terminal voltage will
decrease due to voltage drop in internal reactance. This drop is sensed by AVR
(Automatic voltage regulator), which increases excitation to restore the terminal voltage
to normal. Increase in excitation will increase E. Hence (load angle) must decrease to
maintain equilibrium
Excitation with response is determined by the response ratio, which is defined as the ratio
of the excited voltage build up rate in volts/ sec to the rated field voltage. Exciter

16

response ratio of 2.0 would begin to have an appreciable effect on armature internal
voltage after about 6 cycles during a transient disturbance
Response ratio of exciter =

Ratio of rise of exciter voltage in volts/ sec


Normal exciter voltage

Mainly types of AVRs are used.


1.)

Static rectifier systems in which the dc output is supplied to the main rotor via slip
rings these systems may be forth sub divided into two types:
a)
b)

2.)

ii)

Diodes supplied from shaft driven rotating field ac exciters where the
excitation is controlled by varying the field of ac exciters and
Thyristors supplied usually from the main alternator terminated via a
transformer. Excitation control is then a on thyristors.

Brushless systems where the rectifier unit is rotated on a directly driven shaft this
avoids the need for slip rings brushes.
Switching of capacitors

Another very important method of controlling bus voltage is by shunt capacitor


banks at the buses at both transmission and distribution levels along lines or at
substations and loads. Essentially capacitors are a means of supplying Vars at the
point of installation. Capacitor banks may be permanently connected, but as
regulators of voltage they may be switched on and off the system as changes in load
demand. Switching may be manually or automatically controlled either by time
clocks or in response to voltage or reactive-power requirements. When they are in
parallel with a load having a lagging power factor, the capacitors are the source of
some or perhaps all of the reactive power of the load. Thus, capacitors reduce the line
current necessary to supply the load and reduce the voltage drop in the line as the
power factor is improved. Since capacitors lower the reactive requirement from
generators, more real-power output is available.
iii)

Synchronous condensers

When Synchronous motors are overexcited it supplies reactive power to the connected
bus and hence called synchronous condensers. These are also used for controlling
reactive power and hence the voltage of bus.
iv)

On load tap-changing of transformers

17

Transformers provide an additional means of control of the flow of both real and
reactive power. Our usual concept of the function of transformers in a power system
is that of changing from one voltage level to another, as when a transformer converts
the voltage of a generator to the transmission-line voltage. However, transformers
which provide a small adjustment of voltage magnitude, usually in the range of
10%, and others which shift the phase angle of the line voltages are important
components of a power system. Some transformers regulate both the magnitude and
phase angle.
Almost all transformers provide taps on windings to adjust the ratio of transformation
by changing taps when the transformer is deenergized. A change in tap can be made
while the transformer is energized, and such transformers are called load-tapchanging (LTC) transformers or tap-changing-under-load (TCUL) transformers. The
tap changing is automatic and operated by motors which respond to relays set to hold
the voltage at the prescribed level. Special circuits allow the change to be made
without interrupting the current.
Automatic voltage regulator acts as a fine controller while Tap changers on transformers
can be used for coarse control of voltage.
A long unloaded transmission line generates considerable leading reactive power and
can force power station generators to operate in the under excited mode, it may also
result in high grid voltages.
3.3

CONCEPT OF POWER SYSTEM BLACK OUT

NORMAL

STATE

Load Pick up

Preventive Control
ALERT

Emergency control Control

Resynchronization
RESTORATIVE

EMERGENCY

EXTREME

The above diagram gives the possible states of the power system. In the normal
state, a certain amount of spinning reserve should be kept available. If a disturbance seems
imminent, the system goes to "alert" state. Preventive control measures are taken to bring
the system back to "normal" state. In both these states, the system is a synchronous entity. If
18

preventive controls fail, it enters the "emergency" state. It can enter this state directly from
"normal" state also. The system is still synchronized. But some sections of the system are
overloaded and subsequently may trip to start a process of "islanding".
By emergency control actions, like disconnections of faulted sections or load
shedding, the system can be restored to normal state. Islanding results if emergency control
actions fail and system goes to "extreme" state. If each "island" trips due to overload, it will
result "BLACK OUT" results. The time taken for a blackout to result may be anything from
several seconds to minutes. Restoration can take several hours to days. It includes a process
of start-up of individual generators and resynchronizing of the "islands" to form the normal
system with correct operation of properly set under frequency relays in the system for load
shedding, system collapse can be avoided, if sufficient spare generation is not made
available.

19

20

CHAPTER-4
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE, SYNCHRONIZING
AND LOAD SHEDDING
4.1

GENERAL

The most commonly machine used for generation of electrical power for commercial
purpose is the synchronous generator. Such a synchronous generator is also referred as an
alternator since it generates alternating power supply. A synchronous generator like any
other electrical rotating machine has two main parts, viz. the stator and the rotor.
The part of the machine in which voltage is induced, is called armature. In a synchronous
generator the armature winding is placed on the stator slots. The rotor carries the field poles,
which produce the required magnetic flux.

An AC generator pictorial and schematic drawings

21

Rotors of an AC machine are classified as two types


a. Turbine driven rotor
b. Salient Pole Rotor

Types of rotors used in alternators.


The turbine-driven rotor (shown in above figure as view A), is used when the prime mover
is a high-speed turbine. The windings in the turbine-driven rotor are arranged to form two or
four distinct poles. The windings are firmly embedded in slots to withstand the tremendous
centrifugal forces encountered at high speeds.
The salient-pole rotor (shown in above figure as view B), is used in low-speed alternators.
The salient-pole rotor often consists of several separately wound pole pieces, bolted to the
frame of the rotor.
If we compare the physical size of the two types of rotors with the same electrical
characteristics, we will see that the salient-pole rotor would have a greater diameter. At the
same number of revolutions per minute, it has a greater centrifugal force than does the
turbine-driven rotor.
To reduce this force to a safe level so that the windings will not be thrown out of the
machine, the salient pole is used only in low-speed designs.
A synchronous machine works as a generator when its rotor carrying the field, rotated by a
prime-mover. The same machine will work as a synchronous motor when three-phase
voltage is applied across the armature winding placed in the stator slots.

22

The construction of a synchronous generator depends upon the type of prime over used to
rotate the rotor. The three types of prime movers generally used are:
1.
2.
3.

Steam Turbine
Hydro Turbine
Diesel Engine

In a thermal or nuclear power station a steam turbine is used to drive the alternator.
Steam turbines are designed to rotate at a high speed (3000rpm) as at high speeds the
efficiency of the steam turbine is high. In all power stations electricity is generated at a
constant frequency of 50Hz. This is necessary because a large number of alternators are to
be connected in parallel to supply the load system. An alternator driven by a steam turbine,
which is required to generate voltage at 50Hz, will have only two rotor poles. The
relationship between rotor speed Ns and frequency of generated emf, f and the rotor poles, p
is given by
Ns = 120f/p.
A steam turbine generator set is generally mounted horizontally.
4.2

INDUCED EMF IN A SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE:

Emf is induced in the armature windings due to cutting of flux by the conductors caused by
the rotation of the rotor poles. Distribution of coils in the stator slots and the use of short
pitch coils affect the magnitude and the wave shape of the induced emf.
Let,
T be the number of turns in the coils connected in series in each phase,
is the flux per pole in webers,
P is the number of poles, and
N is the rpm of the rotor.
Magnetic flux cut by a conductor in one revolution of the rotor poles
= P. webers.
The rotor poles make N revolutions per minutes (i.e. per 60s).
Time taken by the rotor poles to make one revolution
= (60/N) second
Therefore, flux cut per second by a conductor of the stator.
P 60/N

Wbs/s

= (P x N/60) Wbs/s

23

Average induced emf in a conductor = flux cut per second


= (P.N/60)/Wbs/s
= (P.N/60) V
Since T is the total number of turns connected in series per phase, total number
of conductors per phase = 2T =Z (say).
Average emf induced per phase
P..NT
=
60
Or Eav =

P. .N2T
60

For a sinusoidally
distributed flux, the
waveshape of the
induced emf will be
sinusoidal.

If the generated emf waveshape is assumed to be sinusoidal, then using the


relation
Erms

=1.11 (for a sine wave)

Eav

The rms value of induced emf,


=
E =

2.22P TPN
60
2.22P. N.T
60

The relationship between f, p and N is given by:


N =

120f
P

Substituting this value in the emf equation,


E = 2.22 . T.2.f V
E = 4.44 .f. T V(1)
This called E.M.F. equation for an AC generator
4.3

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR RUNNING ON NO LOAD

When a synchronous generator is driven at constant speed the terminal voltage on


open circuit can be expressed as:
E=K

Where, K = 4.44f T Kd Kp

This means that the no load terminal voltage depends upon flux per pole. Flux per
pole is produced by field ampere-turns. Number of field turns being constant, flux per pole
is proportional to field current, If.
Therefore, induced emf with the rotor driven at constant speed can be expressed as:
24

E = K 1 If
The relationship between the field current and the induced emf on no load is referred
to as open circuit characteristic (OCC). If the reluctance of the magnetic flux path through
the iron is neglected and only the reluctance of air gap is considered, the OCC will be a
straight line.
However, if the reluctance of both air gap and iron path is considered, the open
circuit characteristics of a synchronous generator will be similar to the one shown in fig.

AIR-GAP LINE

OCC
E or

IF
Figure:- Open Circuit characteristic Of a
Synchronous Generator
The deviation of the OCC from a straight-line relationship is due to the saturation effect of
the iron, i.e. at higher values of excitation current, the rate of rise of induced emf gets
reduced.

For cylindrical type rotors, the saturation effect is the same along the whole of the air gap.
For salient pole type rotors, the saturation effect along the pole axis (also called
direct axis) is different from that along the interpolar axis (also called quadrature axis)
due to the difference of iron along the two axes.
4.4

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR RUNNING ON LOAD:


When a synchronous generator is running on no load, there will be no current
flowing through the armature windings. The flux produced in the air gap will be due to

25

the field ampere-turns only. When load is connected across the armature terminals,
current will flow through the armature windings. This three-phase current will produce a
rotating magnetic filed in the air gap.
The effect of the armature flux on the flux produced by the field ampereturns is called armature reaction.
The armature flux will distort, oppose or help the field flux causing reduction or
increase in the air gap flux depending upon the power factor of the load. The armature
reaction effect at various power factor loads is discussed as follows.
4.4.1

EFFECTOF UNITY POWER FACTOR (RESISTIVE)LOAD:

A synchronous generator supplying power to a resistive load. The direction of


emf induced in the armature conductors can be shown by crosses and dots. Since the
generator is loaded with resistive load, the instantaneous direction for current in the
armature conductors will be the same as the direction of emfs induced in them.
This armature flux will be rotating at synchronous speed. The flux produced by
the rotor ampere turns is also rotating at synchronous speed. Thus these two fluxes will
be stationary with respect to each other. The two fluxes will give rise to a resultant air
gap flux distribution.
It can be observed that flux distribution is now distorted, the flux lines along the
air gap have been lengthened. The flux lines in trying to shorten their path through the air
gap will exert a backward pull on the rotor. The extent of flux distortion and hence the
magnitude to back ward pull will depend upon the magnitude of armature current, i.e. on
the load. The prime mover driving the generator should, therefore, develop more torque
to enable the rotor to continue to rotate at synchronous speed.
4.4.2

EFFECT OF LAGGING POWER FACTOR (INDUCTIVE) LOAD:


With a purely inductive load connected across the armature terminals, the
armature current will lag the induced emf by 90deg.
For a purely inductive load, however, current in R phase will be maximum only
after 90deg elapse of time. By this time, the rotor would have moved forward by quarter
of a revolution and the rotor would occupy the next position.
It is seen that the armature flux is in direct opposition to the rotor field flux. Thus
the effect of armature reaction with a purely inductive load connected across the armature
terminals is to reduce the air gap flux created by the rotor field poles. The distribution of
flux will remain symmetrical and hence no additional torque has to be developed by the
prime-over to enable the rotor rotate at synchronous speed. The reduction of air gap flux
will cause a reduction of induced emf and therefore a drop in terminal voltage. The
amount of voltage drop will depend upon the magnitude of the load.
4.4.3

EFFECT OF LEADING POWER FACTOR (CAPACITIVE) LOAD:

26

When a purely capacitive load is connected across the armature terminals, the
current flowing through the windings will lead the induced emf by 90deg. Maximum
current in R phase, in this case, will occur 90deg before the occurrence of maximum
induced emf in that phase. Therefore, under purely capacitive load when maximum
current in R phase occurs, the position of the rotor would remain 90deg behind as
compared to its position under resistive load. It is seen that the armature flux is in the
same direction as the rotor field flux. The two fluxes will help each other and thereby
strengthen the air gap flux.
The effect of armature reaction under capacitive load is therefore, to help the main
field flux and thereby increasing the emf induced in the armature. Therefore, when a
synchronous generator is capacitively loaded, its terminal voltage will increase.
Effect of armature reaction on terminal voltage at various power factor loads is
shown in fig.
At unity power factor load, the change in terminal voltage with load is somewhat
less as compared to inductive and capacitive load.
At zero lagging or leading power actor load, the change in terminal voltage with
load is large due to the demagnetizing and magnetizing effect of the armature reaction.
Normally the load on a synchronous generator will be of resistive inductive type.
Capacitive loading if occurs, due to say switching off of the load at the receiving end of a
transmission line connected to the generator, may create a serious problem of rise in the
terminal voltage unless preventive measures are incorporated.
In addition to armature reaction effect, terminal voltage will change with load due to
voltage drop in the winding resistance and leakage reactance. Thus, when a synchronous
generator is loaded, its terminal voltage changes due to a voltage drop in the winding
resistance and in the winding leakage reactance and armature reaction effect.
The load characteristics of an alternator at various power factor loads will be similar to
the characteristics shown in fig.

4.5

SYNCHRONOUS IMPEDANCE AND PHASOR DIAGRAM OF A


SYNCHRNOUS GENERATOR:
27

The resistance of each phase winding of a synchronous generator is designated as


Ra. some of the flux lines, produced by the armature ampere-turns, which do not cross
the air gap are called leakage flux. The reactance due to these leakage fluxes is called
leakage flux. The reactance due to these leakage fluxes is called leakage reactance, XL.
when a synchronous generator is loaded, there will be a change in the terminal voltage due
to a voltage drop in armature resistance and armature leakage reactance.
The change in terminal voltage due to armature reaction effect can also be viewed as
a reactance voltage drop. This can be understood from the following explanation:
The rotor field flux, f produces induced emf, E in the armature winding. When
loaded, this emf causes an armature current, Ia to flow through the winding and the load.
The armature ampere-turns produces a flux, a produces another emf, Ea a in the armature
windings.
The phase relationship between the field flux, f armature induced emf, due to field
flux E; the armature current, Ia the flux produced by armature current, f; and the emf
induced in the armature due to armature flux at different power factor loads, Induced emf, E
will lag the field, f as shown in the figure.
Ea

Ia

E
Figure:- Phasor relationship
quantities (Resistive Load)

of

Various

The phase relationship between the induced emf, E and the current flowing through the
armature winding, Ia will depend upon the power factor of the load. At unity power

28

factor load, Ia will be in phase with E. at zero lagging power factor ,load, Ia will lead E
by 90deg. Flux, f produced by the armature current Ia will be in time phase. Emf
induced Ea in the armature windings due to f will lag f by 90deg. A component of the
generated voltage that would be necessary to overcome this armature reaction voltage
must act in the opposite direction.

Ea

Ia
f

Ea

Ia

E
E
Phasor Diagram for
Inductive Load

Phasor Diagram for


Capacitive Load

Since the armature reaction induced voltage always lags the armature current and the flux
producing it by 90deg the component of the voltage drop necessary to overcome this
generated voltage will always lead the armature current by 90deg. This voltage drop is
similar to the component of applied voltage needed to overcome leakage reactance drop due
to emf of self-induction. Thus the voltage induced due to armature reaction effect can be
considered as a reactance drop in the armature winding of the synchronous generator. This
fictitious reactance due to armature flux, a is called Xa. Reactance due to armature leakage
flux, as mentioned earlier, is called leakage reactance, XL. The sum of XL and Xa is called
synchronous reactance, Xs since this reactance is caused due to flux lines which rotate at
synchronous speed.
When an alternator is loaded, there will be voltage drop due to IaRa which is in
phase with Ia and due to IaXs which is leading Ia by 90deg. The difference between the
terminal voltage V is due to the induced emf E and drops in the resistance and reactance,
IaRa and IaXs. the relationship between induced emf E and the terminal voltage V can be
represented as:
E = V + IaRa + jIa (XL +Xa)
or
E = V + IaRa + jIa Xs
or
E = V + Ia (Ra + jXs)
Therefore E = V+IaZs
The sum of Ra and Xs is called synchronous impedance, Zs.

29

PHASOR DIAGRAMS OF ALTERNATORS FOR


(a.) Resistive load
(b.) Inductive load (c.) Capacitive loads
Phasor diagrams representing the various quantities for a synchronous generator on different
power factor loads are shown in above figures.
4.6

SUDDEN THREE PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT

Normally in an inductive circuit, the current lags the applied voltage by 90o in steady
state. If a sinusoidal voltage is switched on to an inductive load at the instant when voltage
is at its maximum (+0o) current also starts from zero magnitude and follows the steady state
sinusoidal pattern. But if the supply voltage is switched on at voltage zero (corresponding to
current peak for steady state) initially there will be a transient exponentially decaying
component added to the current waveform. The resulting waveform is asymmetrical for the
first several cycles and after a time period, steady sinusoidal current flows. Similar
waveforms apply to short circuit currents also, depending on the point of application of short
circuit.

30

Figure is an oscillogram of the stator current of one phase of a generator subjected to


a three phase short circuit and the phase chosen is that which has no DC asymmetry in it (i.e.
the short circuit occurs at maximum stator voltage in this phase; the other two phases would
have equal and opposite amounts of DC component in them).
One immediate difference can be recognised between the short circuit current / time
curve of the generator and that of static plant, such as transformer or line. In the former,
there is a very significant current decrement. In the latter, the current remains substantially
constant.
An examination of fig. shows that the current decays in two stages, the first being a
very rapid decrement, usually about 0.05 s; the second stage takes about 1.0s or less.
The decrement curve is in fact a double exponential, the first decrement being
defined by one exponential, the second by another. The final steady state current will be
defined by the excitation on the machine at the time of the short circuit and the synchronous
reactance will determine its magnitude.
Figure shows that there is initially a very steep decrement: this is known as the
SUBTRANSIENT period and the current is known as SUBTRANSIENT SHORT
CIRCUIT CURRENT. There follows a more prolonged period known as the TRANSIENT
period and the current flowing is the TRANSIENT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT.
It is therefore, as if there were a variable leakage reactance between the machine
terminals and short circuit, this varying as a function of time according to this double
exponential.
For determining these short circuit currents, following reactance have been defined.

31

Subtransient Reactance - For determining the current during first cycle.


Transient Reactance - For determining the current for the next 4-5 cycles.
Synchronous reactance - For determining the steady state short circuit current.
SYNCHRONOUS REACTANCE Xd
This indicates the steady state stability of the machine and governs its behaviour for
slow changes, such as drift of frequency, voltage and load.
TRANSIENT REACTANCE Xd'
Since it is the rate of change of stator current as an RMS quantity which influences
the total machine flux, comparatively rapid changes will involve the rotor winding, where
these are of the order of the time constant of the rotor field winding, i.e. changes which
occur in the range 0.1 to say 3 seconds.
Such changes occur during asynchronous operation, load oscillation of the rotor, and
post fault conditions; so Xd 'is used for the conduct of transient stability studies. This is in
fact a combination of rotor winding leakage reactance and the synchronous reactance.
SUBTRANSIENT REACTANCE Xd''
This determines the initial current values following a system disturbance, such as a
fault or sudden load switching.
This is a combination of damper winding reactance, rotor winding leakage reactance and
synchronous reactance.
It is used in assessing the rupturing capacity of circuit breakers, especially their
ability to withstand closure onto a fault, when fully asymmetrical conditions can also exist.
4.7

SYNCHRONISING

Three conditions must be satisfied before a generator can be connected to a power


system or paralleled with another generator.
1.
2.
3.

Equality of voltages.
Equality of frequencies.
Zero phase angle difference between the voltages at the moment of
synchronising.

If any of these conditions are not satisfied, then large power surges during
paralleling will create enormous damage to the machine and also resulting in violent
oscillations of voltage and frequency of the power system.
A synchroscope is an instrument, which indicates the moment of synchronism by taking the
signals from the bus and the machine to be synchronised.

32

The speed of the rotating pointer corresponds to the frequency difference and the
position of the pointer gives the phase angle difference between the two voltages. FAST
direction indicates higher m/c frequency and SLOW direction indicates lower m/c
frequency. The machine should be synchronised when the pointer rotates very slowly in the
FAST direction and at 12 O' clock position. (0 degree position) signal is given 1 or 2
degrees before this to take care of breaker closing time.
Let us consider the three cases separately,
4.1

VOLTAGE INEQUALITY

Let E1 be the running voltage and E2 be the incoming voltage and assume that
E2<E1. As soon as synchronising switch is closed, the reactance X will be off the
Subtransient order and the current.
X
E1 - E2
Ic = ------X
E1
E2
is essentially an inductive current taken from higher voltage source E1 some power
is taken from the higher voltage source and if voltage difference is small, synchronism will
be achieved.
4.2

FREQUENCY INEQUALITY

Two voltage waves, when superimposed on each other, will have a resultant
pulsating wave whose magnitude at any instant will be the algebraic sum of the component
waves.
At each stage of the pulsations, the synchronising current will shift nearer in phase
with the higher frequency voltage from which the synchronising power will be taken.
Ideally the synchronising of the incoming machine should take place at the instant when the
resultant between the two voltages goes through zero. It follows that before the final
synchronising operation is initiated, the beat frequency should be very slow, so that if zero
point is missed there would be no rapid change to a high voltage value which could reach a
maximum E1 + E2 volts.
Synchronising can be done manually or through automatic synchronising
equipment. It requires considerable skill on the part of the operator to achieve correct
manual synchronising. Auto synchroniser incorporates monitoring, control and check
circuits to ensure that frequency and voltages are matched within prescribed tolerances.
Normally incoming m/c voltage is controlled in the range of 90-110% of rated volts and
frequency in the range of 47.5 - 52 cycles.
Normal limits are:
Max voltage difference 15%
Max phase difference 15o
Max speed difference 0.5% and decreasing.

33

Once the machine is connected to the power system, it is made to take up active
power load by governor controls and reactive power load by excitation control through
Automatic voltage Regulator.
If the energy input to the prime mover is reduced, the m/c will shed MW. But if the
system load is to remain constant the remaining generators must share an increased part of
it. They will slow down slightly till the governor action has increased the steam flow and
hence the power generated.
Similarly if the excitation of one generator is reduced, the proportion of the system
reactive load taken by it will also be reduced. Hence other generators would have to take a
heavier reactive burden and then terminal voltage would fall. The AVR of these generators
will act to restore normal voltage by increasing the excitation. The normal function of the
AVR is to enable the paralleled machine to share MVAR in proportion to m/c rating.
In the same way to unload the m/c, reactive load is reduced by operating excitation
controls, active load through governor controls. When load is zero, the m/c breaker is
opened. This is done to initiate a smooth unloading. Otherwise, a load throw-off will be
initiated producing violent oscillation of voltage and frequency on the power system.
4.8

LOAD SHEDDING

An inherent characteristic of synchronous machines connected together feeding a


load (or combination of loads) is that the machines remain in synchronism (or in step) as the
load on the machines changes. In other words, as a group of interconnected synchronous
machines is loaded (or unloaded), all the machines will slow down (or speed up) but they
will always reach a new common speed at steady state, provided (among other things) that
the load on the machines does not exceed their combined rating.
When a generator is connected in parallel, it should share a portion of the total load
depending upon its kVA rating. We shall examine how load sharing of alternators running
in parallel can be achieved.
4.8.1

Effect of change of Excitation:

For dc generators, load sharing between a number of machines running in parallel


can be achieved by adjusting their excitations. For synchronous generators, change of
excitation, i.e. change of field current does not change the active power shared by them.
Change of excitation only changes the reactive power supplied by each machine, or in other
words changes the power factor of the load supplied by each machine.
4.8.2

Effect of Change of Prime mover Input:

If their input to the prime mover of the incoming generator is increased, it will start
sharing load while remaining in synchronism with the existing alternators connected to the
bus bar. Control of active power shared between the alternators is achieved by changing the
input to their prime mover.

34

Each generator is therefore equipped with a speed governor to regulate its own
speed versus load characteristic. It is then necessary to understand how the total load on the
system is shared amongst each of the synchronous generators in the power system as the
load varies and all the machines return to a new common speed, because the common speed
of the generators determines the common frequency of the ac voltages and currents in the
system, and this common frequency needs to be returned (using the generator governor
settings) to within 2.5 % of the nominal value of synchronous frequency.
With the prime movers equipped with droop governors, it is important that both governors
be set the same if the generators are expected to share load equally. This means each one has
to be set to the same speed. Each one has to be calibrated with the same percentage of
droop. With the speed and droop set the same, the prime movers will equally share the load.
With droop governors, the portion of load supplied by each generator is controlled.
How are the mechanical governors capable of sharing the load?
This can simply be determined by analyzing the performance (droop) characteristics of the
mechanical governor. Following figure shows two generators, each with a droop governor.
As load varies, the kW demand changes cause the generator speed to follow the droop
curve, decreasing speed as load increases and increasing speed as load decreases.

Droop characteristics
To parallel the second generator with generator 1 operating at 100% load and 60Hz, the
normal synchronizing method matches generator frequency (speed) to the bus (Gen 1). This
adjustment of the speed setting causes the droop curve to be in the position shown in
following figure at the time of breaker closure, operating at 60Hz and no load.

35

As the load on generator #2 is increased, the load on generator #1 decreases. As the load on
#1 decrease, the speed increases. When generator #2 is at 25% load, generator #1 is loaded
to 75% and the speed is at approximately 59.8Hz. As the loads are balanced to 50/50 each
generator, the speed has increased to 61.5Hz. At this point both generators are at the same
relative load and speed. An operator must then decrease both governor set points down to
60Hz.

Balanced Load
At this point, if the total load increases, the governors will share the increase proportionately. If generator #2 tries to take more of the load, its speed setting is raised.
By raising its speed setting, generator #2 picks up some load from generator #1, due to
36

the shift of the droop curve of generator #2 and the action of the droop curve of generator
#1. With only two generators in parallel, the total kW demand of the load must come
from the two generators, so the sum of the kW supplied by the two generators must equal
the load kW. In addition, by the action of paralleling, the two generators must maintain
exactly the same frequency. Any increase in power output from one of the generators
results in a corresponding decrease in speed, based on the droop curve. The other unit
will not allow the decrease in speed because its droop curve, seeing a decrease in load,
attempts to increase the speed setting, keeping them in balance.
As the total load increases from 50% to 100%, the paralleled generators will share the
load equally but the system frequency will decrease along the droop curves as in
following figure.

This is a dynamic system with power demand constantly changing on the system.
The droop characteristics of the mechanical governors are a stabilizing mechanism in a
parallel system. Simply put, as load attempts to change among the generators the droop
governor stabilizes and proportions the load.

37

CHAPTER-5
POWER SYSTEM STABILITY
5.1 GENERAL
In the 1950s and into the 1960s, many power generating plants were equipped with
continuously acting automatic voltage regulators. As the number of power plants with
automatic voltage regulators grew, it became apparent that the high performance of these
voltage regulators had a destabilizing effect on the power system. Power oscillations of
small magnitude and low frequency often persisted for long periods of time. In some cases,
this presented a limitation on the amount of power able to be transmitted within the system.
Power system stabilizers were developed to aid in damping of these power oscillations by
modulating the excitation supplied to the synchronous machine.
Modern turbo generators ranging in rating from 220 MW - 2000 MW pose a considerable
problem of stability. Units of this size if suddenly get isolated from a power system, may
subject the latter to serious transient conditions from which recovery may be impossible.
This is especially true if the capacity of the machine forms a sizable proportion of the entire
capacity of the grid.
The tendency of a power system or its component parts to develop forces to
maintain synchronism and equilibrium is known as stability. A system is stable when the
forces tending to hold its machines in synchronism with one another are in equilibrium with
the forces tending to pull them out of synchronism.
5.2 STEADY-STATE STABILITY
In an interconnected power system, the rotors of each synchronous machine in the system
rotate at the same average electrical speed. The power delivered by the generator to the
power system is equal to the mechanical power applied by the prime mover, neglecting
losses. During steady state operation, the electrical power out balances the mechanical
power in. The mechanical power input to the shaft from the prime mover is the product of
torque and speed, PM = TM . The mechanical torque is in the direction of rotation. An
electrical torque is applied to the shaft by the generator and is in a direction opposite of
rotation as shown in Figure below.

Mechanical and Electrical Torque Applied to the Shaft

38

When the system is disturbed due to a fault or the load is changed quickly, the electrical
power out of the machine changes. The electrical power out of the machine can change
rapidly, but the mechanical power into the machine is relatively slow to change. Because of
this difference in speed of response, there exists a temporary difference in the balance of
power. This power unbalance causes a difference in torque applied to the shaft, which
causes it to accelerate or decelerate, depending on the direction of the unbalance. As the
rotor changes speed, the relative rotor angle changes.
Following figure shows the relationship between the rotor (torque) angle, , the stator
magneto motive force (MMF), F1, and the rotor MMF, F2. The torque angle, , is the angle
between the rotor MMF, F2, and the resultant of the vector addition of the rotor and stator
MMFs, R, as shown in Figure below.

Stator, Rotor, and Resultant MMFs and Torque Angle

Following figure is a circuit representation of a synchronous generator connected through a


transmission system to an infinite bus.

Synchronous machine tied to infinite bus

39

The synchronous machine is modeled by an ideal voltage source, E, in series with


impedance, X and it is connected with an infinite bus having V - Bus voltage

Phasor Diagram, Generator tied to infinite bus

Where is the angle between the generator terminal voltage and the internal voltage of the
machine and is the p.f. angle.
From the above phasor diagram.
E sin = IX sin (90 -) = IX cos
V E sin
.
.P = VI cos = -----------X
EV
=
-- -- sin
X
This is the power angle curve equation . The power output from the generator on a
steady state basis is governed by equation. As the power transfer increases, the angle
increases. A disturbance in the system can result in a change in electrical power flow,
resulting in a change in the power angle, .

40

Power Angle Curve


The maximum power output is at = 90o and corresponds to
EV
Pmax = ------ and is the steady state stability limit.
X
5.3 TRANSIENT STABILITY
Generators are connected to each other by a network that behaves much like weights
interconnected by rubber bands as shown in figure on next page. The weights represent the
rotating inertia of the turbine generators and the rubber bands are analogous to the
inductance of the transmission lines. By pulling on a weight and letting go, an oscillation is
setup with several of the weights that are interconnected by the rubber bands. The result of
disturbing just one weight will result in all the weights oscillating. Eventually the system
will come to rest, based on its damping characteristics. The frequency of oscillation depends
on the mass of the weights and the springiness of the rubber bands. Likewise, a transient
disturbance to the generator/network can be expected to cause some oscillations due to the
inability of the mechanical torque to instantaneously balance out the transient variation in
electrical torque.

41

Rubber Band Analogy

Transient stability is considered when load changes are made abruptly, or the system is
shocked by loss of Excitation, faults or switching operations.
The transient stability limit is almost always less than steady state stability limit and
hence is usually the limiting factor in system design.
In a two machine system or a machine connected to an infinite bus, the essential
factors to be considered are:
1.
Prime mover input torque.
2.
Inertia of prime mover and generator.
3.
Inertia of load.
4.
Load torque.
5.
Internal voltage of generator.
6.
Effective voltage of load or bus.
7.
Reactance between source and load.
A power system operating under specified circuit and load conditions is said to be stable if
when displaced from these conditions by any arbitrary force, the system upon removal of
these forces develops restoring forces tending to return it to the original operating condition.
In all the following stability studies, the mechanical input power is assumed to be
constant and electrical power changes take place more or less instantaneously. This is
justified by the slower action of the governor mechanism.
Let as assume a generator operating in steady state producing
Electrical power Pel = mechanical power Pm

42

As seen in the diagram two operating points A and B are possible.

Equal area Criterion


Let as consider point A. Let there be a momentary small sudden increase in
electrical demand. The point of operation shifts to X.
The electrical demand being more than mechanical input Pm, retardation force acts
on the rotor shaft. This reduces the power angle and point of operation moves towards A.
At A because of the inertia of the rotor, the operating point overshoots. Immediately after
this, the electrical demand is less than the mechanical input and hence an accelerating torque
acts on the rotor. The point of operation goes up to Y and then starts moving towards A.
After several oscillations the system losses damp out and finally operation is restored at A.
similar conditions will result if a small electrical power rejection was considered.
Now consider point B. Let there be a momentary increase in electrical power
demand. This necessitates a reduction in power angle . The mechanical power being less
than the electrical output, retardation force acts on the rotor. This reduces
further. The
point of operation goes beyond 90o. Only on crossing point A, an acceleration torque begins
to act on the rotor and steady operation can resume at A as before.
If there was a momentary rejection of electrical power at B, the mechanical power
being greater than electrical load, a continuous accelerating torque on the rotor will cause
angle to go towards 180o and eventually the machine will go out of synchronism. Thus we
have seen only point A can be stable and B, unstable. The region to the left of PQ is called
the stable region and to the right of PQ unstable region.
For initial operating condition at A, if the disturbing forces cause the point of
operation to go beyond B, loss of synchronism will result. Point B is the transient stability
limit for operation at A.

43

5.4 EQUAL AREA CRITERIA FOR STABILITY


One more important requirement for stability - Equal Area Criterion - can be studied
now.
For the disturbance considered to shift the operating point to X, from the diagram it
can be seen the area EAXGF corresponds to the electrical demand. Out of this, area EAGF
corresponds to the mechanical input. Hence the remaining area AXG has to come from the
rotating kinetic energy of the rotor. This area is called the Retardation area.
Similarly when the point shifts to Y during the disturbance, out of the mechanical
input DY-CAE, DYAE corresponds to electrical power produced. The excess are YCA is
the acceleration area. To ensure stable operation at A,
Acceleration Area = Retardation Area.
This is called Equal Area Criterion. The most important thing is the availability of
sufficient Retardation area so as to restore original operating condition.
5.5 EFFECT OF FAULT CLEARING TIME ON STABILITY
Power system stability depends on the clearing time for a fault on the transmission system.
Comparing the two examples in Figure on next page illustrates this point. In the example of
slower fault clearing (left figure on next page), the time duration of the fault allows the rotor
to accelerate so far along the curve of PE, that the decelerating torque comes right to the
limit of maintaining the rotor in synchronism. The shorter fault clearing time (right figure)
stops the acceleration of the rotor much sooner, assuring that sufficient synchronizing torque
is available to recover with a large safety margin. This effect is the demand placed on
protection engineers to install the fastest available relaying equipment to protect the
transmission system.

Effect of Fault Clearing Time

5.6 EFFECT OF THE EXCITATION SYSTEM ON STABILITY


44

Maintaining power system stability depends also on excitation system speed of response and
forcing capacity. Increasing forcing capability and decreasing response time increases the
margin of stability. This effect is illustrated in Figure on next page, where the lower curve,
A, represents the power angle curve of a lower forcing, slower response excitation system.
Comparing the area under the curve for acceleration when the electrical load is less than the
mechanical load to the area under curve A for deceleration clearly shows that a machine
under the example condition will lose synchronism. For curve B representing a faster, higher
forcing exciter, the area under the curve where electrical power exceeds mechanical power
is much greater, sufficient to allow the generator to recover from this swing. This effect is
the source of the demand placed on generation engineers to install the fastest available
excitation equipment with very high levels of positive and negative forcing to secure the
highest level of immunity to transient loss of synchronism.

Effect of High Initial Response Excitation System.

While fast excitation systems provide tremendous benefits to transient stability following
large impact disturbances to the system, the benefit may be outweighed by the impact of
the excitation system on damping the oscillations that follow the first swing after the
disturbance. In fact, the fast responding excitation system can contribute a significant
amount of negative damping to oscillations because it can reduce damping torque. Thus an
excitation system has the potential to contribute to small signal instability of power
systems. With the very old electromechanical excitation systems, the transient response
was relatively slow compared to systems introduced today. This slow response has minimal
effect in reducing the damping torque.

45

CHAPTER-6
MAIN OUTPUT AND STATION SERVICES SYSTEMS
6.1

GENERAL

The most commonly machine used for generation of electrical power for commercial
purpose is the synchronous generator. Such a synchronous generator is also referred as an
alternator since it generates alternating power supply. A synchronous generator like any
other electrical rotating machine has two main parts, viz. the stator and the rotor.
The electrical systems for 2 x 1000 MW Kudankulam NPP consists of Power output
system and Station auxiliary power supply system.
6.2

POWER OUTPUT SYSTEM

The electrical power, generated at 24 kV, 3 phase, 50 Hz by turbo-generator, is stepped up


through 24/400 kV generator transformer and evacuated by six 400 kV transmission lines.
For reserve source of power supply, Kudankulam NPP is connected to two 220 kV
substations by two 220 kV transmission lines. 400 kV & 220 kV buses at Kudankulam NPP
are interconnected by means of two, 3-phase interconnecting autotransformers. Normally
the generated power is evacuated through 400 kV transmission lines. However, since 400
kV and 220 kV systems are interconnected, power can flow through 220 kV lines depending
on generation / load scenario.
The generator for the Kudankulam NPP is rated with a power capacity of 1000 MW, 3phase, 50 Hz, p.f. 0.9 at the voltage of 24 kV.
The generator transformer capacity is determined based on the necessity to evacuate the full
power output of the generator. Due to the limitations imposed by the size, weight and
transportation problems, 3 single phase 24/400 kV generator transformers are considered
with a rating of 3 x 417 MVA each.
The generator is connected to generator transformers through isolated phase bus duct with
the 24kV, 30kA generator circuit breaker connected between generator and generator
transformer. The generator is synchronized with 400 kV network using GCB. The provision
of GCB allows the scheduled start-up and shutdown of power unit from the 400 kV
network.
Indoor SF6 gas insulated switchgear with one and half circuit breaker scheme for 400 kV
switchgear and two main bus scheme for 220 kV switchgear is adopted

6.2.1

OFFSITE POWER SYSTEM

Structurally, India's power system consists of five regions South, West, North, East and
North-East regions. Regions are linked to each other by High Voltage AC electrical
transmission lines with voltage levels of 220 and 400 kV, and also with the help of HVDC
transmission lines in some regions.
The grids of separate regions and India's transmission systems as a whole are formed,
mainly, by double-circuit power transmission lines with a voltage of 400 kV. In the majority
of regions, power transmission line networks normally stretch over 300 km. 765 kV AC
transmission lines are also planned for power transmission in the northern region.
The Southern region of India consists of states, "Tamil Nadu", "Kerala", "Andhra Pradesh",
"Karnataka" and Union territory of "Pondicherry". The installed power capacity of the
Southern region stations amounts to be more than 1/3 of the total installed power capacity of
India's power stations and by the time of commissioning of "Kudankulam" NPP, the
capacity is projected at the level of 48 GW and the maximum load is assumed to be
approximately 34 GW.
The Southern Regional grid is connected to the Western and Eastern regional grids. The
southern regional grid is formed by the 400 kV single and double circuit transmission lines.
The design of grid for the Southern region, developed by the Central Electricity Authority of
India (CEA) is based on the projection of development of India's power sector, including a
considerable amount of construction of 400 kV transmission lines. The design of the
Southern Regional grid as on year 2000, projects the availability of roughly fifty 400 kV
transmission lines, including around 20 double circuit lines.
It is projected to enhance the links of the Southern Region with the Western Region by
constructing a double circuit "Ramagundam-Chandrapur" transmission line with a voltage
level of 400 kV and associated transmission lines in the adjacent power grids by the time of
commissioning "Kudankulam" NPP. The links of the Southern region transmission lines
with neighboring power systems will also be incorporated with the four 220 kV power
transmission lines.
Thermal power stations account for more than 75 % of installed capacity of the Southern
Region. Two NPPs (Kalpakkam and Kaiga) operate in the Region with total installed power
capacity of approximately 880 MW. Maximum unit power capacity of currently operating
thermal power stations and hydroelectric power stations is 660 MW and 150 W
respectively.
Kudankulam NPP will be one of the six biggest power stations of India's Southern Region.
400 kV grid development plans of the power grid of Tamil Nadu State, and the Southern
Region as a whole, envisage connecting the KK NPP to junction substations of 400 kV for
the power evacuation of station's two units (21000 MWe) through six 400 kV power
transmission lines and two 220 kV power transmission lines.

The following transmission lines are envisaged for Kudankulam NPP: (As shown in
Annexure- 1)
400 kV System :
According to the design there are six lines going out from 400 kV system but presently only
four are being constructed
Double Circuit line between Kudankulam NPP Tirunelveli
Double Circuit line between Kudankulam NPP Tirunelveli
Two lines are spare
220 kV System :
According to the design there are three lines going out from 220 kV systems
Double Circuit line between Kudankulam NPP S.R.Pudur
Single Circuit line between Kudankulam TNEB substation and Kayathar of 120kms
The capacity of the intended grid of the Southern Region will provide reliable operation for
two units, 1000 MW each, of KK NPP, both under normal mode and under maintenance.

NPP Reserve auxiliary transformers will be supplied from 220 kV switchgear. NPP design
envisage external reserve power supply sources as long-lasting emergency power supply in
case of switching off of 400 kV lines. Such sources will be connected with two independent
transmission lines.
6.2.2

ONSITE POWER SYSTEMS

The main function of the station auxiliary power supply system is to ensure the
availability of sufficient power during all modes of operation, so that established allowable
design limits and design conditions for cooling the reactor core and maintaining the
containment integrity including significant release of radioactive material to the
environment and the other necessary functions during the postulated accidents, are not
exceeded.
Depending on the degree of reliability for requirement of safety, the power supplies are
classified into three groups: Group-1, Group-2, and Group-3, as defined below:
Group-3:
Power supply to the plant auxiliary loads normally required under all modes
(operation, shutdown, safety / emergency conditions etc.) of plant, but which can tolerate
prolonged interruption in the power supply, without affecting the safety of the plant, and do
not require obligatory availability of power supply even after the actuation of reactor trip
system is classified as Group-3 power supply.
Loads of this group requiring power supply for generation of power at NPP are supplied
from 6kV, 380 V and 220 V AC, 50 Hz supply derived from unit auxiliary transformers or
reserve auxiliary transformers and common station auxiliary transformer and can tolerate
interruption of power for long duration without affecting safety of NPP.
Group-2:
Alternating current power supply to the plant auxiliary loads which can tolerate short
interruption for a time defined by the conditions without affecting safety of the reactor,
(ranging from 20 sec. to 60 sec.) under all modes (operation, shutdown, safety / emergency
conditions etc.) of plant, including the condition of loss of supply from all off-site sources, is
classified as Group-2 power supply.
Loads of this group is supplied from 6kV, 380V and 220V AC, 50 Hz supplies
normally derived from Group-3 power supply and whose backup source of power is from
onsite diesel generator sets.
Group-1:
The power supply to the plant auxiliary loads which require un-interruptible direct
current power or alternating current power with very short interruption of not more than 20
msec. defined by safety conditions, under all modes (operation, shutdown, safety /
emergency conditions etc.) of plant, including the condition of loss of supply from all
alternating current sources, is classified as Group-1 power supply.

Loads of this group are supplied from 220V DC, 380V and 220 V AC, 50Hz power
supplies normally derived from Group-3 or Group-2 power supply sources and whose
backup source of power is from battery banks.
Normally DC Group-1 power is derived from Group-2 power supply through AC to
DC rectifier and AC Group-1 power is derived through DC to AC inverter from DC Group1 power supply. Battery bank provides direct current backup power so that Group-1 power
supply is available even when Group-2 power supply is not available or rectifier is not
available.
The interruption of AC Group-1 power supply for 20 msec. is allowed for the
change over of supply to the loads from one power supply to another power supply in
Group-1 AC auxiliary power supply system.
Based on above groups of power supply the auxiliary power supply systems are
designated as follows: (As shown in Annexure 2)

Normal auxiliary power supply system including common station auxiliary supply
system and reserve auxiliary power supply
Reliable auxiliary power supply system of normal operation
Emergency auxiliary power supply system for safety systems

Load distribution Criteria:


The loads are distributed among the 6 kV and 0.38 kV and 220V DC buses taking into
account of following factors:

Power rating
Necessity to provide the redundancy

Based on the above, following distribution of loads is envisaged:

Motors rated above 200 kW are designed to be fed from 6 kV switchgear


Motors rated at 200 kW and below up to and including 11 kW are designed to be fed
from 0.38 kV switchgear
Motors rated below 11 kW are fed from 0.38 kV Motor Control Centers (MCC)
Heaters of the pressure compensator system are designed to be fed from 0.38 kV
switchgear/MCC
6 kV motors and 6/0.4 kV auxiliary transformers are evenly distributed among 6 kV
buses
380V motors and other loads are distributed evenly among 0.38 kV buses
Inverters and other loads are distributed evenly among 220V DC buses

6.2.2.1 Normal auxiliary power supply system

Normal auxiliary power supply system is designed to provide the electrical power
supply of auxiliary loads of normal operation which allow interruption of power supply for
the time of automatic switching to reserve supply and do not require the obligatory
availability of power supply after the operation of reactor trip and also intended normally to
provide the supply to reliable auxiliary power supply system and emergency auxiliary power
supply system in all modes of NPP, except the condition of non-availability of normal
auxiliary power supply from unit auxiliary transformers and/or reserve auxiliary
transformers.
Four 6 kV buses are envisaged per unit which normally derive the power either from
the unit generator or from 400 kV grid through generator transformer and a set of two nos.
of 3 winding, 63 MVA, 24/6.3 kV unit auxiliary transformers. These 6kV buses are backed
up by power supply from 220kV grid through a set of two three winding, 63 MVA, 220/6.3
kV reserve auxiliary transformers.
The 0.4 kV buses derive power from each of these 6 kV buses through 6/0.4 kV
auxiliary transformers and are backed up by power supply from common standby 6/0.4 kV
auxiliary transformers.
The 6 kV power supply derived either from the unit generator or from 400 kV grid
through GT and UATs is referred as normal auxiliary power supply. Power supply derived
from 220 kV grid through reserve auxiliary transformers as back-up to 6kV buses of normal
auxiliary power supply system is referred as reserve auxiliary power supply. The reserve
auxiliary power supply can be switched on to 6 kV buses of normal auxiliary power supply
system automatically through Automatic switching (Automatic fast transfer) scheme or
manually, in case of loss of normal auxiliary power supply. The normal as well as reserve
auxiliary power supply capacity is sufficient to feed the unit auxiliary loads for generation of
power and also to ensure the safe shutdown of NPP unit.
The normal auxiliary power supply system mainly consists of following equipments:

24/6.3 kV, 63MVA Unit auxiliary transformers


220/6.3 kV, 63MVA Reserve auxiliary transformers
220/6.3 kV, 63MVA Common station auxiliary transformers
6 kV Switchgear
6/0.4 kV Auxiliary transformers
0.4 kV Switchgear / Motor Control Center (MCC)
Common Station Rectifiers
Common Station Batteries
Common Station D.C. Distribution Boards (DCDB)
Cables

Automatic Switching-on Reserve Auxiliary Power Supply (Auto Transfer System)

The system of automatic switching on of reserve auxiliary power supply in case of failure
of the normal power supply is provided for every 6 kV bus of normal auxiliary power
supply system and common station auxiliary power supply system.
The principle being used for the automatic switching system of the reserve auxiliary
power supply is that after the switching-off of circuit breaker Q1 of the normal incoming
supply to 6 kV bus due to relay protection or due to its false or spontaneous switching-off,
the pulse for switching-on of Q2 circuit breakers of the reserve power supply input of this
bus is delivered.
The pulse is formed from the consequent combination of the block contact, stored during
1.1 sec, one, the switched-on position of Q1 circuit breaker after its switching off, and the
other contact, switched-off position of Q1 circuit breaker. In this circuit, there is the facility
of change over for the automatic system of reserve power supply switching on, by means of
switch the operator can put the system into or out of operation (for example, at remote
switching-on of the normal power supply from control panel by operator).
In order to accelerate the automatic switching-on of reserve supply for unit auxiliaries, the
switching-off of the normal power supply circuit breakers is effected not only during the
actuation of the Unit auxiliary transformer protections, but also during the following:
Actuation of protections of generator and generator transformer
Switching-off of 400 kV circuit breakers of the generator-transformer and at closing of
the stop valves of turbine
Switching-off of 400 kV circuit breakers of the generator-transformer and 24 kV
generator circuit breakers of the generator
In case of switching-off of Q1 circuit breaker, the automatic switching on of reserve
auxiliary power supply through Q2 circuit breaker is prevented by protection of the normal
incoming supply responding to short-circuit in 6 kV bus (point K1).
At loss or drop of the voltage at any 6 kV bus with circuit breaker of normal power supply
switched-on, the under voltage protection of 6 kV bus is actuated under the following
conditions:
If the voltage of a considered 6 kV bus of normal power supply system drops down to
80% for 20 s (If the voltage on al the 6 kV buses drops down to 80% for 3 s, then the
unit is shut down without actuation switching system)
If the voltage of a considered 6 kV bus of normal auxiliary power supply system drops
down to 25% for 0.6 s
The 6 kV incomer circuit breaker of normal auxiliary power supply is tripped and
automatic switching system is initiated in case of the following conditions:
If the voltage from the side of reserve power supply is present
If the automatic system for reserve power supply switching-on is operative
Thus, the maximum time of action of the automatic switching system of reserve power
supply itself ton Q2 is determined only by the time of switching-on of reserve power supply

circuit breaker Q2, and the total interruption of supply is equal to tsup.int = t prot + t off Q1
+ ton Q2 Where:
tprot - time of protection action for switching-off of normal supply circuit breaker
toffQ1 - time of switching-off of normal supply circuit breaker Q1 and
tonQ2 time of switching-on of reserve power supply circuit breaker Q2.
Automatic switching-on of reserve power supply is performed without the check of
the voltage synchronism in the reserve power supply network and residual voltage of the deenergized bus. Thus at least one ICT should be in operation.

6.2.2.2 Reliable Auxiliary Power Supply System


Reliable auxiliary power supply system of normal operation is designed to provide electric
power supply to the auxiliary loads of NPP, required to maintain the important & expensive
equipment in operation(e.g. Generator), which allows interruption of power supply for the
time of the switching over to reserve auxiliary power supply from the reserve auxiliary
transformers or from the power supply from common station Diesel-Generators. The system
is designed to provide the power supply even in case of loss of normal auxiliary power
supply system.
The reliable auxiliary power supply system consists of 2 sections, which provide the power
supply to the mutually redundant process system loads, which are required to preserve the
important & expensive equipment in operation.
Each section of the reliable auxiliary power supply system is comprised of following
equipments:
6.3 MW, 6 kV Common station Diesel-Generator
6 kV Switchgear
6/0.4 kV Auxiliary transformers
0.4 kV Switchgear / Motor Control Center (MCC)
6 kV and 0.4 kV Sectionalizers (Tie-breakers)
Rectifiers
220 V DC Batteries
D.C. Distribution Boards (DCDB)
Inverters
Cables and cable structures

6.2.2.3 Emergency Auxiliary Power Supply System


Emergency auxiliary power supply system is designed to supply the electric power to the
loads of safety systems as well as safety related systems performing control and supervision
over the operation of the these systems.
The equipments of emergency auxiliary power supply system are capable of performing its
intended function before, during and subsequent to safe shut down earthquake (SSE)
conditions.
The emergency auxiliary power supply system is designed, taking into account the impact of
the ambient conditions and consequences of the human activity such as missile strike,
aircraft strike etc. The emergency auxiliary power supply system is designed to preserve its
operating capacity both during the event/incident and after the incident.
The emergency auxiliary power supply system is designed to perform its functions in any
operating modes, including loss of power supply from the normal auxiliary power supply
system. In this mode, the emergency auxiliary power supply system ensures independence

from the offsite power supply system by opening the tiebreakers and automatic start-up of
Diesel-Generators and connection of the Diesel-Generator to buses of emergency auxiliary
power supply system.
The emergency auxiliary power supply system corresponds to the structure of the safety
process system, and therefore, the system is designed correspondingly as four-channel
system. Each channel of the emergency auxiliary power supply system is designed to
provide electrical power to the loads of the respective channel of the safety process system
and the corresponding safety control system. All channels of the emergency auxiliary power
supply system are identical.
The emergency auxiliary power supply system meets the single failure criteria i.e. it is
capable of fulfilling its functions, which requires its operation on all initiating events due to
the failure of one of the important elements of one channel, coinciding with the failure of
second channel as a result of independent failure of active or passive component of that
particular channel (irrespective of initiating event) and the non-availability of third channel
due to repair or maintenance of any active element of third channel.
The emergency auxiliary power supply system provides independent operation of each of
the four channels due to electrical independence and the physical separation of the electrical
equipments.
Each channel of the Emergency auxiliary power supply system consists of following
components:
6 kV, 6.3 MW Diesel-Generator
6 kV Switchgear
6/0.4 kV Auxiliary transformers
6 kV and 0.38 kV Sectionalizers (Tie-breakers)
0.38 kV Switchgear / Motor Control Center (MCC)
Rectifiers
220 V DC Batteries
D.C. Distribution Boards (DCDB)
Invertors
Cables
Diesel-Generator systems:
The Diesel-Generator and its auxiliary equipments are designed to be capable of fulfilling
their functions by taking into account the impact of the ambient conditions and
consequences of the human activity such as missile strike, aircraft strike etc.
In the normal operation mode of the NPP, the functions of electrical power supply system of
the Diesel power plant ensures continuous availability of the Diesel-Generator, to be able to
start up and continuously operate at rated load without any attendance of the duty personnel
for duration of 240 hours. During this period suitable action to replenish the diesel fuel will
be taken.

The automatic start-up is performed by the signal of loss of voltage on 6 kV bus of the
emergency auxiliary power supply system. The provision is made for the remote start-up of
the Diesel-Generator from the main control room and supplementary control room. The
start-up is also provided from the local control panel of the Diesel Generator.
Main Parameters of the Diesel-Generator:
Rated Capacity
No-load Voltage
Power factor
Rotation speed
Excitation
Start-up time up to the readiness to take-over the load
Duration of operation without attendance
Duration of uninterrupted operation before first maintenance
Duration before the first major overhaul
Fuel day tank capacity

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

6.3 MW
6.3 kV
0.8
1000 rpm
Brush less
Not more than 15 s
240 hrs
2000 hrs
50000 hrs
:
8 hrs for each DG

Intermediate tank capacity


Common fuel storage reservoir capacity

:
:

2 days for each DG


5 days for each unit

CHAPTER-7

FAULT ANALYSIS AND GROUNDING

7.1

FAULTS IN POWER SYSTEMS

Three phase systems are subjected to different types of faults.


Symmetrical faults

3- short circuit.
3- short to ground.

Unsymmetrical faults

2- short circuit.
2- ground fault.
1- to ground fault.

Normal system currents and voltages form a balanced three phase system.
The vectors follow the sequence Red Yellow Blue in the anti-clockwise direction and are
equal in magnitude. This sequence is all called positive sequence. Only positive sequence
voltages and currents will be present in presence of symmetrical three phase faults.
7.2

METHODS OF FAULT CALCULATIONS:

The analysis of a faulted network aims at the fault current distribution through the
system and the voltages in different parts of the system, due to the fault. Further
boundary values of current at any relaying point must be known if the fault is to be
cleared with discrimination. Fault calculation is, therefore, essentially a matter of
network analysis and can be achieved by a number of alternative methods namely:
(a) District solution of the network equations obtained from the mesh-current or
nodal voltage methods.
(b) Solution by network reduction and back substitution and,
(c) Solution by simulation using a fault calculation of network analyser.
The first of the above methods for large complicated networks may be applied by
employing digital computer facilities and appropriate computer programs.
The last method makes use of a fault calculator or network analyser and has the
advantage of simplicity of application due to one to one correspondence between the real
and the simulated system. At present, the above method is resorted to solve smaller
networks and in places where the digital computer facility is not available.
The method of solving a network by network reduction and back substitution is
widely used, provided the network is limited in size and not very complex. The analysis

mode in the above manner readily gives a power engineer the fault levels at different
points of the system and also the distribution of current and voltages in different parts of
the systems. Hence, the above method is dealt in detail, here, in the following pages.
Basic informations required for the above study:
1. That relating to all the sources from which fault power can originate.
2. That of factors which control the magnitude of the fault.
3. A system schematic showing how the sources of power and limiting factors
are connected or interconnected.
The information regarding the sources (viz. generators) will be available in terms
of its capacity in MVA, synchronous reactance in percentage on its own base unless
otherwise stated for other base values and similarly, for transformers the above values
will be given. Normally, for cables and transmission lines, the resistance and reactance
values will be given in ohmic terms. If calculations are to be made using per unit
method, any item for which ohmic values are given must first be corrected to an
equivalent per unit value using the following formula:
kVA base X value in ohms X105
-------------------------------------V2

Per unit value on a given kVA base =


Where V is voltage between lines in volts.
Symmetrical 3- fault Analysis

Symmetrical 3- fault study and calculation can be done in following steps


The first step is to draw a circuit diagram. This should contain the details of the
sources, transformers and the lines or cables.
The second step is to convert all the plant reactance to a common base. The
actual value of the base is relatively un-important, but for ease of working it is desirable
that this should not be too low a figure and large kVA of 100, 000 is normally used.
Alternatively the kVA rating of the larger piece of plant or network may be taken as the
above kVA.
The actual conversion of the reactance to a common base is dealt with by
applying the formula,
Base kVA
Base reactance p.u. = -------------Plant kVA

plant reactance in p.u.

The next step, is to reduce the network diagram to an impedance or reactance


diagram. Transformers and synchronous machine impedances are predominantly reactive
with X/R ratio typically between ten and twenty or some times more. Hence, resistive
component of the impedance is ignored in comparison with high reactive component.
Load impedances are always large in comparison with the impedances of the power

system plant and they, therefore, have only a small effect on the value of the total current
under short circuit conditions.
Once the impedance or the reactance diagram is made, the further reduction of the
network is only by combining the series and parallel impedances and obtaining the
equivalent impedance connected between the source and the fault point. Some times
when reactances are connected in delta form are found in the network, it is difficult to
combine them with other reactance. It is, therefore, necessary to covert these to an
equivalent star formation which may be easily combined with the remaining reactances in
the particular circuit.
The method of reduction is as follows.
The convert the delta circuit to an equivalent star, the following formula should be
applied.

B
E

D=

A. B
----------A+B+C

E=

B. C
----------A+B+C

F=

C. A
----------A+B+C

With the help of the above procedure, it is easy to reduce the given network and
arrive at the value of the resultant impedance to the fault. The short circuit MVA will be
given by the formula,
kVA base
S.C. MVA
=
-----------------Z x 1000
Where Z is the resultant impedance expressed in p.u.
Unsymmetrical 3- fault Analysis

The above study is applicable only in the case of a symmetrical 3-phase fault.
But, the most of the faults that occur on power systems are unsymmetrical faults, which
may consist through impedances or open conductors. A single line to ground fault, lineto-line fault or double line-to-ground fault, all fall under the above category.
Since any unsymmetrical fault causes unbalanced currents to flow in the system,
the analysis for the above condition can be easily performed by applying the method of
Symmetrical Components, introduced by; C.L. Fortescue at a meeting of the American
Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1918.
According to Fortescues theorem, three unbalanced phasors of a three-phase
system can be resolved into three balanced systems of phasors. The balanced sets of
components are:
1.
2.
3.

Positive sequence components consisting of three phasors equal in


magnitude, displaced from each other by 120 in phase, and having the
same phase sequence as the original phasors.
Negative sequence components consisting of three phasors equal in
magnitude, displaced from each other by 120 in phase, and having the
phase sequence opposite to the original phasors.
Zero sequence components consisting of three phasors equal in
magnitude and with zero phase displacement from each other.
Va

Vb1

Va1

Vc2

Va2

Vc
Vb

Vc1

Vb2

Figure above shows three such sets of symmetrical components of an unbalanced


system having the phasor at the voltages (or currents) as Va, Vb and Vc. We find the
positive sequence components of the each of the above phasor are designated by Va1,
Vb1 and Vc1 which are equal in magnitude, displaced by 120 and having the phase
sequence some as that of the unbalanced phasor (i.e.) a, b, c. The negative sequence
components of the above phasor are designated by Va2, Vb2 and Vc2 which are also
equal in magnitude, displaced by 120, but having the phase sequence opposite to that of
the unbalanced phasor (i.e.) a, c, b. The zero sequence components designated by Vao,
Vbo, Vco are equal in magnitude with zero displacement.
The phasors Va, Vb and Vc are expressed in terms of their components as shown
below:

Va0
Vb0
Vc0

Va = Va1 + Va2 + Va0


Vb = Vb1 + Vb2 + Vb0
Vc = Vc1 + Vc2 + Vc0
Now, if an operator a is defined such that when it is applied to any phasor,
results in a rotation of that phasor by 120 in the counter clockwise direction, without
changing the magnitude ;of the given phasor, a can be given in its polar, exponential
and rectangular forms as shown by the following equations.

120 = e j2/3 = -0.5 + j 0.866


=1

Obviously, it follows:
a2

= 1 240 = -0.5 j 0.866


= 1 360 = 1

a3

Also, 1 + a+a2 = 1-0.5 + j 0.866 0.5 j 0.866 = 0.


Using the above operator a now we can give the unbalanced phasors V a, Vb and
Vc in terms of the positive, negative and zero sequences components of the phase a.
Va = Va1 + Va2 + Vao
Vb = a2Va1 + Va2 + Va0
Vc = aVa1 + a2Va2 + Va0
In matrix form,

Va
Vb

Vc

1
a2
a

a 2

Va0
Va1

Va 2

That is Va,b,c = T Va0,a1,a2


We can give the equations for the positive, negative and zero sequence, component of the
phasors in terms of the unbalanced phasors in the following manner.

Va0
Va1

Va 2

1/ 3

1
a
a2

a 2

Va
Vb

Vc

That is Va0,a1,a2 = 1/3 T-1Va,b,c


Similarly, the equation connecting the unbalanced load currents I a, Ib & Ic and
their symmetrical components Ia0, Ia1 & Ia2 can be given by:
Ia,b,c = T Ia0,a1,a2
Ia0,a1,a2 = 1/3 T-1Ia,b,c
In a three-phase system, the sum of the line currents is equal to the current In in
the return path through the neutral. Thus
Ia + Ib + Ic = In
Comparing above equations
In = 3 Ino
In a 3-phase, 3 wire system (neutral not available) the zero sequence currents are
absent.
Phase sequence networks and impedances:
For the analysis of faults of symmetrical nature, it is sufficient to consider the
equivalent single phase representation of the power system.
But, to analyse the fault conditions of unsymmetrical nature, it is necessary to
consider the positive, negative and zero sequence values of the voltages, currents and
impedances with the help of the phase sequence networks.
Phase sequence impedances:
The phasor ratio of the phase sequence voltage drop to the phase-sequence current
producing it is termed the appropriate phase sequence impedance of the circuit
concerned.
Thus,
Vxi = Zxi Where x = a, b or c and i = 0, 1 or 2

Positive sequence Network:


The system positive sequence network is a single phase network representing the
reference phase of the given power system in so far as positive sequence quantities are
concerned. In the case of a power source it is represented by its positive sequence
impedances and a driving voltage representing the generated e.m.f. behind the source
positive sequence impedance.
Negative sequence Network
The system negative sequence network is a single phase network representing the
reference phase of the given power system in so far as the negative sequence quantities
are concerned. Each three phase circuit is therefore represented by its negative sequence
impedance or impedances. Because there are no generated negative sequence e.m.f.s in
the power system, every power source is represented simply by its negative sequence
impedance, these being no driving voltages corresponding to those in the positive
sequence network.
Zero Sequence Network
The system zero sequence network is a simple phase network representing the
reference phase of the given power system in so far as zero sequence quantities are
concerned. Each three phase circuit is therefore represented by its zero sequence
impedance or impedances. Because there are no generated zero sequence e.m.f.s in the
power system, the zero sequence network, contains no driving voltages.
The sequence networks can be represented by the block diagrams given below:
Ia1

Va1

Ia2

Ea1 Ia1Z1

Va2 = -Ia2Z2

Ia3

Vao = - IaoZo

Analysis of unsymmetrical fault conditions:


(a) Single phase to earth fault:
Let us consider the case in which the phase a comes in contact with the earth to give a
single phase to earth fault.
a
b
c

Under this condition:


Va
Ib

=
=

0
Ic = 0

Ib
Ic

=
=

We know

Therefore,

a2Ia1 + aIa2 + Iao


a Ia1 + a2Ia2 + Iao

Ib Ic = (a2 a) Ia1 + (a-a2) Ia2 = 0.

From which, Ia1 = Ia2 Substituting for Ia2,


Ib + Ic = Ia1 Ia1 + 2 Iao = 0.
Therefore, Iao = Ia1

Hence, Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia0.

Since, Va = 0 or, Va1 + Va2 + Va0 = 0


That is, (Ea1 Ia1 Z1) + (-Ia2Z2) + (- Ia0Z0) = 0
Ea1
Ia1 = --------------- (Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia0)
Z1+Z2+Z0
The above condition is satisfied if all the three sequence networks are connected in series.
Ia

= Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0


= 3 Ia1
Ea1
= ---------------

Z1+Z2+Z0

Ia=Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia0

(b) Phase to phase fault:


Consider the case of a short circuit occurring between two of the phase conductors of a
power system:
b

The conditions at the point of fault being


Ia
=
Ib + I c =
Vb
=

0
0
Vc

We know Ia = Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0 = 0


Ib + Ic = (a2Ia1 + aIa2 + Ia0) + (aIa1+ a2Ia2 + Ia0) = 0
Ib + Ic = - Ia1 Ia2 + 2 Ia0 = 0.
Therefore,
That is,
That is,

Ia + Ib + Ic = Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0 Ia1 Ia2 + 2Ia0 = 0.


3 Ia0 = 0 or, Ia0 = 0
Ia (Ib + Ic) = Ia1 + Ia2 + Ia0 + Ia1 + Ia2 2 Ia0 = 0
2 Ia1 + 2Ia2 = 0

Or
Now,

Ia1 = - Ia2
Vb = a2Va1 + a Va2 + Va0
Vc = a Va1 + a2 Va2 + Va0
Since, Vb = Vc, we get
(a2 a) Va1 = (a2 a) Va2
Vc1 = V2a

From the above, we find the conditions (viz) Ia0 = 0, Ia1 = - Ia2 and Va1 = Va2 will be
satisfied if the positive and negative sequence networks are connected in parallel.
Ia1
Ia2

Since, Ia1 = - Ia2,


The equation Ea = Ia1Z1 = - Ia2Z2 becomes
Ea = Ia1Z1+Ia1Z2
Or

Ea
Ia1 = ---------Z1+Z2

And

-Ea
Ia2 = ---------Z1+Z2

The total fault current


If = Ib = a2Ia1+aIa2 + Iao
= (a2Ia1 aIa1) (Ia1 = -Ia2 and Ia0 = 0)
= Ia1 (a2 a)
= 3 Ia1
(c) Two-phase-to-earth fault
Consider the case if a short circuit occurring between two phase conductors and
earth of a power system
The conditions at the point of fault being,
Ia = 0
Vb = 0

a
b
c

Vc = 0
We know,
Va1 = 1/3 (Va + a Vb + a2 Vc)
Va2 = 1/3 (Va + a2Vb + aVc)
Va1 = 1/3 (Va + Vb + Vc)
Since Vb = 0 and Vc = 0
We get
&

Va1 = 1/3 Va
Va2 = 1/3 Va
Va0 = 1/3 Va

Therefore, Va1 = Va2 = Va0


Since Ia = 0
Ia = Ia1+Ia2+Ia0 = 0
The above two conditions (viz) Va1 = Va2 = Va0 and Ia1+Ia2+Ia0 = 0 will be satisfied
if the positive, negative and zero sequence networks are connected in parallel.

Ia1
P

Or

Ea
Ia1 = ---------Z1+Z2

Ia2
N

Ia0
Z

- Ia1Z0
Ia2 = ---------Z0+Z2
And

- Ia1Z2
Ia0 = ---------Z0+Z2

The total fault current


If

= Ib + Ic = (a2Ia1+aIa2+Ia0) + (aIa1+a2Ia2+Ia0)

Or,
= (a2+a) Ia1+ (a+a2) Ia2 + 2 Ia0 = - Ia1- Ia2 + 2Ia0
Or,
= Ia0 +2 Ia0 = 3 Ia0
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM TRANSIENTS

7.3

Depending upon the speed of these transients, Electrical System Transients are classified
into following:
i)
ii)
iii)

Ultra fast transients-surge phenomena


Medium fast transients-short circuit phenomena
Slow transients-transient stability.

The first class is due to atmospheric discharges on transmission lines and by sudden
but normal switching operations. Due to lightning strikes surge waves of electromagnetic
nature travel along the lines and get reflected at terminations. They travel at speed of light.
Their effect is felt in the first few milliseconds of after the initiation. Lightning arresters
effectively discharge them to earth. If insulation of high voltage equipment is damaged this
transient can lead to short circuits. They are entirely electric in nature.
Medium fast transients are the result of short circuit phenomena leading to sudden
changes in network configurations. Three phase symmetric short circuits with or without
ground, phase to phase unsymmetrical short circuit with or without ground, single phase to
ground faults are examples of short circuit phenomena. These transients are also entirely
electric in nature and their duration depends upon magnetic interaction between generator
windings and range between few cycles to about 5 seconds. They cause thermal damage to
equipment if allowed to flow.
In the last class, the transients result from collapse of voltage due to short circuits.
With the sudden reduction of generator power, the turbine input remaining same as before,
acceleration of rotors result. These slow mechanical oscillations of the synchronous rotors
may cause some or all machines in power system to pull out of synchronism. The system
may fail totally or partially and is said to have reached its "transient stability limit. These
transients last from fraction of a second to a minute or so.
The electrical stresses due to the transients are from normal working stress and over
voltages. The over voltages are generated by temporary or dynamic condition from power
frequency and switching. Generally over voltages are due to:

Loads throw off


Ferro resonance
Ferranti effect
Sub synchronous sequence.

Significance of over voltages in electrical system:


Switching over voltage

Lightning

1.

Decides external insulation


in EHV/UHV system

1.

Decides line insulation (BIL)

2.

Decides arrestor duty by


way of long duration class

2.

50% of outage is due to lightning.

3.

Seriously
insulation.

4.

Impulse current rating of lightning


arrestor.

influence

transformers

Switching Surges
High voltages can be induced during switching of inductive circuits. They are
generally in the range of 3-4 times the system voltages.
Static Effects
Wind blown dust or sand can get highly charged and impart high voltages if they
deposit on electric conductors. Proper grounding will provide a path for discharge of this
static electricity.

Lightning
A lightning stroke represents the discharge of a condenser, one plate being a cloud
and the other earth, air being, the dielectric. The potential can be as high as 10 9 volts and the
stroke current as high as 105 amps.
These surges travel as waves on the conductors with the velocity of light.
Majority of the damages that could arise from the effect of over voltages can be
minimized by adopting a grounding method.

7.4

GROUNDING

The word "grounding" is commonly used in electric power system to cover both
equipment grounding and system grounding.
System ground is defined as a connection from a current carrying conductor of a
power system to ground. Equipment ground is a connection to ground from a non-current
carrying part of the equipment.
Grounding of system neutral is a common practice of reducing line to ground over
voltages. Solid grounding a system through neutrals of Y-connected generators or
transformers reduces the voltage strains to the minimum and permits the lowest settings of
protective gaps and voltage ratings of lightning arresters. Grounding through a resistor or
reactor limits the fault currents and resulting system disturbance in case of line to earth
faults but increases the voltage to earth of unfaulted conductors. If the system is grounded
through impedance, the value must be low enough to permit adequate ground current for
reliable relaying and to prevent dangerously high voltages due to resonant or arcing
conditions. Reactance grounding has limited applications owing to the danger of high
voltages under arcing or resonant condition. The thermal capacity of grounding reactors and
resistors are usually limited to 10 sec. to 2 minutes.
Let us first consider an isolated neutral system shown in following fig

The line conductor have capacitances between one another and to ground, as
represented by delta, set of capacitances has little influences on the grounding characteristic
of the system and may be discarded from considerations hence forth. In a perfectly
transposed line, phase conductor will have the same capacitance to ground. With balanced
three phase voltage applied to the line, the current in each of the equivalent capacitance will
be equal and displaced by 120 degrees from one another. The voltages across each branch
are, therefore, equal and also displaced by 120 degrees from one another. Consequently

there will be no potential difference between the neutral points of the supply transformer
bank and that of the capacitance.
If one conductor, phase B, for example becomes faulted to ground, there will not be
any current flowing in the capacitive branch between phase C and ground because the
difference of potential no longer exists. However, the voltage across the other two
capacitive branches will increase because the voltage across them rises to phase to phase
voltage. As shown in following fig., the voltages to ground are no longer 120 degrees out
of phase but 60 degrees. Hence the sum of current in other two healthy phases becomes
three times the original current to neutral. The faulty phase C supplies current which is
equal and opposite to the resultant of current in other two healthy phases.

In phase position, the current flowing from the faulted conductor to ground, which is
the usual convention, leads the original phase to neutral voltage by 90 degrees. As a result,
intermittent arcing may occur at the point of fault which owing the inductance and
capacitance of the system, may give rise to abnormal voltages thus stressing the insulation
of the system. This may cause fault on other phases. Voltages of 3 to 4 times the phase
voltage of the system are experienced in practice.
Ungrounded systems may be considered for reliability even under single phase to
ground fault conditions. But the over voltage caused because of "arcing earths" or resonance
effects greatly favours the grounded systems.
7.3.1

METHODS OF GROUNDING
The various methods of neutral earthing or grounding are:

1)

Solid earthing.

2)

Resistance earthing.

3)

Reactance earthing

4)

Arc Suppression coil earthing.

7.3.2

SOLID EARTHING

A Simple neutral earthed system, in which a direct metallic connection is made


between the system neutral and earth, is shown in following fig. Consider a ground fault on
phase C as shown in folowing fig.

This following fig shows a phasor diagram relating to capacitive currents only.

The voltage to earth of phase C becomes zero, but the healthy phases, in general,
remain at their normal phase value. Capacity current I F flows from faulty phase C to earth.
In addition, the power source provides a faulty current I F which flows through the faulty
phase conductor to the fault location and returns to the power source by way of the earth
path and the neutral connection.

The magnitude of the fault current IF is determined by symmetrical components from the
relation.
3 VCN
IF = ----------------------Z1+ Z2 + Z0
The resistance component of the zero sequence impedance of the power source
winding is usually, very small so that the value Z1 + Z2 + Z0 is predominantly inductive
and the fault current lags behind the (original) voltage (phasor) of the faulty phase, by
approximately 90 degrees.
The flow of the heavy lagging current through the fault will completely
nullify the effect of the capacitance of the current. No arcing ground phenomenon or
resultant over voltage modifications can therefore occur.
7.3.3

RESISTANCE EARTHING

When it becomes necessary to limit the earth fault, current limiting device is
introduced in the neutral and the earth. One of the current limiting device is resistance,
metallic or liquid. metallic resistors do not alter with time and little maintenance is required.
They are however, slightly inductive and this is a disadvantage with overhead lines exposed
to lighting since traveling waves or impulses are subject to positive reflection. This may
unduly stress the insulation of the equipment and cause the breakdown.
Fig a. shows an earth fault on phase C of resistance grounded neutral system. The
corresponding phase diagram is shown in following fig.

The magnitude and phase relationship of the fault current I F depends on the relative
values of the zero sequence reactance of the power source circuit and the ohmic value of the
earthing resistance. The fault current can be resolved in two components, one being in
phase with the voltage to neutral of the faulty phase and the other lagging it by 90 deg. The
lagging component of the fault current I F in above fig., will be in direct phase opposition to
the resultant capacity current IC at the fault location. By suitable choice of the ohmic value
of the earthing resistance the lagging component of the fault current can be made equal or
more than the capacity current so that no transient oscillation due to arcing grounds can
occur. However if the value of earthing resistance is sufficiently high so that the lagging
component of the system condition approaches that of the ungrounded neutral system with
the risk of transient over voltage occurring. Another important but conflicting consideration
in the choice of ohmic value of the resistance is the power loss in the resistance during line
into ground faults. It is a common practice to fix a generator or transformer. Based on this
practice the value of the resistance to be inserted on the neutral connections of earth is:
Vph
R = -------I
7.3.4

Where

R
Vph
I

Resistance in ohms
Phase to neutral voltage
Full load current

REACTANCE EARTHING

In simple terms a system may be said to be reactance earthed when impedance,


predominantly inductive, is inserted between the neutral point, of generator or transformer
and the earth. The method has the following advantages over the resistance earthing:

1.
For the same maximum earth fault current the reactor is a small device than the
corresponding resistance.
2.

The energy to be dissipated in the reactor is less.

However, mere insertion of reactance in the neutral to earth connection may not
make a system reactance grounded. The reactance grounding of a system is best determined
from the ratio Xo / X1 ; a system being reactance grounded if this ratio exceeds 3 but is less
than the value for resonant grounding. With this definition, a system even with neutral
solidly grounded may be presumed to be reactance grounded if the ratio X 0/X1 exceeds 3.
This may happen when the zero sequence reactance of apparatus connected to ground is
high or some of the possible connections from apparatus neutrals to earth are omitted.
Resonant Grounding
It is desired here to calculate the value of inductance such that 3Ic = I L, so that theoretically
there is no current in the fault or it is so small that the arc will not maintain itself and the
fault is extinguished.

Let Vph be the line to ground voltage of the system. The voltage of the healthy phases
during L-G fault on one of the phases will be 3Vph. lfC is the capacitance to ground of
each phase, then the charging current will be 3 VphC.
If L is the inductance to be connected between the neutral and the ground, thcn
IL= Vph/L
For balance condition
IL= Vph/L= 3 VphC
Or, L=1/(32C)
The use of the resonant grounding will reduce the line interruption due to
transient line to ground faults hich wEll not be possible with other forms of grounding.
Also the tendency of a single phase to ground fault developing into a two or 3-phase fault
will be decreased.
Ground fault neutralizers should not be used where
(i) Fully graded insulation transformers are used as the neutrals of such
transformers are at sufficiently well insulated.
(ii Auto-transformers having a ratio greater than 0.95 to 1 are used.
7.3.5

ARC SUPPRESSION COIL EARTHING

This device is also called Peterson coil after the name of its inventor. This is the
logical development of reactance earthing and is based on a value of reactance in the system
neutral such that the reactance current due to the coil exactly neutralizes the network at the
fault. The resultant current is theoretically nil and in any case inadequate to maintain the
arc. However, the name "arc suppression coil".
With a proper value of reactance in the neutral to ground connection (PETERSON
COIL) the capacitive current is neutralized by the inductive current in the neutral circuit.
Thus the fault current is made zero. [Resonant Grounding].
Resistance may be connected in the nuetral circuit to limit earth fault current. If the
resistance is more resistive than reactive, the effect is more nearly that of an ungrounded
system, with risk of transient over voltages.
Xo
------- > 3.0 Effectively or solidly grounded.
X1
Ro
------- > 1.0
X1
Xo
-------- > 3.0
X1
Large generators are normally grounded through single phase distribution
transformers with resistance load.
The coils of the ground fault neutralizers are ten-minutes time-rated on system
where permanent ground faults can be located and removed promptly by ground relays or

other suitable means. Otherwise, continuous time-rated neutralizers are used on all other
systems. However, if for any reason more cm rent flows through the fault neutralizer a
circuit breaker closes after a certain time-lag and the earth-fault current flows through the
parallel circuit by-passing the arc suppression coil as shown in following figure:

.
7.3.6

GENERATOR NEUTRAL BREAKER

When a line to ground fault occurs the generator armature and field circuit
breakers arc tripped and the input to the prime mover is shut off. With these operations
the current through the fault does not necessarily stop immediately because a certain time
is required for the generator field flux to decay. The fault current can be reduced to a very
low value (as determined by capacitance effects) immediately after the fault, if a
generator neutral breaker is employed and it is also tripped simultaneously along with the
field and armature breakers (Shown in following Fig.). In case the value of the neutral
impedance is very high and the fault current is limited, there is no need for a neutral
breaker.

7.3.7
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

(v)

GROUNDING PRACTICE.
Grounding is normally provided at each voltage level. Between generation
and distribution, there arc various voltage levels; it is desirable to have ground
available at each voltage level.
The generators are normally provided with resistance grounding and
synchronous motors or synchronous capacitors are provided with reactance
grounding.
Where several generators are connected to a common neutral bus, the bus is
connected to ground through a single grounding device. Disconnect switches
can be used to ground the desired generators to the neutral bus.
Where several generators are operating in parallel, only one generator neutral
is grounded. This is done to avoid the interference of zero sequence currents.
Normally two grounds are available in a station but on] one is used at a time.
The other is used when the first generator is out service.
For low voltages up to 600 volts and for high voltages above 33 kV solid
grounding is used whereas for medium voltages between 3.3 kV an 33 kV
resistance or reactance grounding is used.

CHAPTER-8
PROTECTIVE RELAYING
8.1

GENERAL

A protective relay is an electrical device, which senses the abnormal condition in


an electrical equipment or system and gives signals to the relevant circuit breakers for
isolation. In this respect, relays should meet the following requirements.
1.
3.
5.

Sensitivity.
Reliability.
Stability.

2.
4.

Selectivity.
High speed.

8.2

RELAYS CLASSIFICATIONS

There are numerous ways to classify relays. Relays terminology can be confusing
because of the diversity of devices and applications. Although some differences exist
between various groups and organisations, the classification methods and categories of
relays used for electrical power systems are fairly consistent.
The most common methods used to classify relays are by:
*
*
*
*

Function
Input Source
Operating principle
Performance characteristics

The following sections discuss relay classification and nomenclature in more


detail.
8.2.1

CLASSIFICATION BY FUNCTION
Functional classifications stem from the function that a relay provides in a power
system. There are five general categories of relays as defined below:
Protective Relay:

A protective relay functions to detect defective lines or equipment, or other power


system conditions of an abnormal or dangerous nature, and to initiate appropriate control
circuit action. It can be used to initiate switching operations or actuate an alarm. A
protective relay is further classified according to its input quantities, Operating principle,
or performance characteristics. Examples of protective relays are:
*
Over current relays.
*
Under voltage relays
*
Differential relays
*
Reverse Sequence relays
Auxiliary Relay:
An auxiliary relay provides a specific or secondary, function to assist another
relay or control device in performing a general function. Typical functions performed by
an auxiliary relay include circuit seal-in, time delay, control signals or lights, and contact
multiplication. Examples of auxiliary relays are:
*
*
*
*

Control relays
Time delay relays
Lockout relays
Trip and close relays

Monitoring Relay:
A monitoring relay functions to verify that system or control circuit conditions
conform to prescribed limits. Examples of monitoring relays are;
*
*
*
*
*

Alarm relays
Fault detector relays
Network phasing relays
Verification relays
Synchronism check relays

Monitoring relays often provide a permissive function for various power system
operations, such as paralleling across a circuit breaker. However, monitoring
relays are not used to initiate protective functions during a fault.
Regulating Relay:
A Regulating relay responds to normal changes in system operating conditions
and functions to control system parameters (.e.g voltage, power) within specified
operating limits. A Regulating relay is further classified according to its input qualities,
operating principle, or performance characteristics. Regulating relays are typically used
to control transformer tap changers and generator governors.
Programming Relay:
A programming relay functions to establish or detect electrical sequences.
Typical functions performed by a programming relay include re-closing and
synchronising. Examples of programming relays are:
*
*
*
*
*

Accelerating relays.
Phase selector relays.
Re-closing relays.
Synchronising relays.
Initiating relays.

Protective and auxiliary relays make up the majority of relays used in power
system applications. These two classifications of relays are commonly described in
technical documents and literature. Special function relays falling within the monitoring,
regulating and programming classifications tend to be referred to by their specific
function, and are generally thought of as belonging to a broader functional category. For
example, a synchronising relay is a type of programming relay; however, it is seldom
thought of in these terms. Thus these three broader classifications tend not to be used
extensively in practice.
This guide covers protective relays, from the definitions provided above, it is
evident that protective relays constantly monitor power system conditions and only
influence system operation when an abnormal or undesirable condition is detected. Once
a protective relay detects an abnormal condition and initiates protective action, auxiliary

relays and other control devices carry out the specific functions associated with the
protective action.
8.2.2

CLASSIFICATION BY INPUT

Protective relays may be identified by the input parameter monitored. Examples


include:
*
*
*
*
*

Current relays
Voltage relays
Power relays
Temperature relays
Pressure relays
Classification by input alone is not common. More often, a qualifying term is
added to the input parameter (e.g. under voltage, over voltage, reverse power,
over current) thereby classifying the relay on a performance basis.

8.2.3

CLASSIFICATION BY OPERATING PRINCIPLE


Protective relays can be described in terms of their operating principle. This
method of classification provides insight into the basic design features of a relay
and is most useful for discussing hardware. However, classification by operating
principle provides limited information about a relay's intended application or
function. Examples include:
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

8.2.4

Electromagnetic relays
Solid state relays
Harmonic restraint relays
Electromechanical relays
Percent differential relays
Sudden pressure relays
Thermal relays

CLASSIFICATION BY PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS


A protective relay's performance characteristics are a commonly used method to
identify relays. Performance characteristics represent the specific function
provided by the relay. Examples include:
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

High speed differential relays.


Directional over current relays.
Reverse power relays.
Impedance relays.
Mho relays.
Over-current relays
Under voltage relays.

*
*
*
*

Phase balance relays.


Reactance relays.
Frequency relays.
Overload relays.

Additional terms are sometimes used to describe in more detail a relay's exact
performance characteristics. As an example, an over-current relay that is
designed to actuate with no intentional delay is referred to as an instantaneous
over current relay. If the relay can programmed with an intentional time delay, it
is called time over current relay.
8.3

DEVICE FUNCTION NUMBERS


Device function numbers identify the specific function performed by various
types of power system equipment. The use of device function numbers
standardizes the way equipment and devices are represented on engineering
documents (e.g. drawings, specifications, connection diagrams, instruction
books). Maintenance personnel involved with testing protective relays need to be
familiar with device function numbers to effectively use technical documents
associated with electrical power systems.
The specific protective function performed by a protective relay is indicated by its
device function number. The device function number usually correlates with the
relay's performance characteristics classification.
Device function numbers are applied to a wide variety of power system electrical
devices. Table lists the device function numbers for commonly used protective
relays.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Relay Device
Function Number

Protective
Function

Additional
Information

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21

Distance

25

Synchronising

Synchronism or
Synchronizing check.

27

Under-voltage

32

Directional power

Reverse power

40

Loss of excitation

Field relay

46

Phase balance

Current phase balance or


negative sequence current

47

Phase sequence voltage

Reverse phase voltage

49

Thermal

Thermal overload

50

Instantaneous over
current

51

Time over-current

59

Over-voltage

60

Voltage balance

between two circuits.

63

Pressure

Sudden pressure for


Transformers

67

Directional over-current

81

Frequency

86

Lock out

Generally under
frequency

87
Differential
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8.4

SUFFIXES
A device function number may include a latter suffix.
additional information about:
*
*
*

Auxiliary equipment associated with the device.


Distinguishing features or characteristics of the device.
Conditions that describe the use of the device.

A Suffix provides

A Suffix letter may have more than one meaning, depending on the convention
chosen by the designer. For this reason, care should be used when interpreting
device function numbers that contain a suffix.
COMMONLY USED SUFFIX LETTERS
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SUFFIX LETTER RELAY APPLICATION ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A

Alarm only or automatic

Bus protection

Ground fault protection or


Generator protection
System neutraltype

GS

Ground fault protection

Line protection

Motor protection

Ground fault protection

Transformer protection

Voltage

Unit Protection

Toroidal or ground sensor type.

Relay coil connected


in residual CT circuit

Generator and transformer.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The parameters, which are normally sensed, are current, voltage, power, phase
angle, impedance, frequency, flux etc. Majority of relays used in power system protection
are electromagnetic.
Modern developments in semiconductor technology have
introduced static relays, which are proving to have high speed of response, and versatile.
But it will take a long time for entire replacement of electromagnetic relays, which have
proved their worth over the last century. Earlier protection incorporated direct acting
trips, where power for operating the circuit breaker was drawn from the circuit itself
directly.
8.5

OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS

As we have seen in many different types of protective relays are available but
there are really only three fundamentally different operating principles:
(1) Electromagnetic attraction, and
(2) Electromagnetic induction.
(3) Static relays
8.5.1

ELECTROMAGNETIC ATTRACTION UNITS

Devices operated by electromagnetic attraction use an electromagnet to attract a


plunger or hinged armature when the unit is energised with a current or voltage of sufficient
magnitude. The principle of electromagnetic attraction is valid for either ac or dc circuits.
Three different types of electromagnetic attraction units are commonly used:
*
Plunger (or solenoid) devices
*
Hinged armature (or clapper) devices
*
Polar devices
Electromagnetic attraction units are instantaneous devices and are used in
applications in which no intentional delay is desired. Typical operating times range from 5
ms to 50ms. Once the device has picked up, it may not drop out (reset) until the applied
voltage or current drops below approximately 60%. Some applications cannot tolerate such
a low drop out and use a modified design to achieve drop out at 90% to 95%.

Electromagnetic-attraction type relay.


8.5.2

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION UNITS

Assemblies that operate on the principles of electromagnetic induction are the most
commonly used units for protective relays. Electromagnetic induction devices are actually
split phase induction motors that contain contacts. Rotational force is developed in a
moveable element (the rotor) as a result of the inter action between electromagnetic fluxes
and induced eddy currents in the rotor. Electromagnetic induction units are usually
characterised by the configuration of the rotor element. The principle of electro magnetic

induction is only valid for ac circuits. Two different types of electro magnetic induction
units are commonly used:

Induction disk devices


Induction cylinder (or induction cups) devices

INDUCTION DISK DEVICES


A typical induction disk unit is shown in following figure. The induction disk
element consists of a non magnetic conductive disk (usually aluminium) that is mounted to a
rotating shaft. The disk element which acts as a rotor is restrained by a precision spiral
spring in the deenergised position. The disk element also houses the moving contact. The
disk is free to rotate between the pole faces of an electromagnet. The key to producing
rotational torque in the disk is based on the inter action between two magnetic fluxes in the
disk and the resultant force produced by the fluxes as discussed in the previous section.
Two different configurations will be discussed.

Induction disk devices.


Fig illustrates an induction unit that uses a shaded pole to produce out of phase flux.
For this type of unit, a single electromagnet with two sets of poles is used to split the flux.
One of the sets of poles contains a shading ring, which induces a phase shift in the flux
passing through it. Thus, two out of phase fluxes pierce the disk, resulting in a net force on
the disk. note that for both the lag coil unit and shaded pole unit only a single input voltage
or current is needed to produce rotational force. The construction of the device serves to
split the incoming signal and create the phase angle relationship necessary to produce
motion in the disk.
INDUCTION CYLINDER DEVICES

Induction cylinder units, sometimes called induction cup units, contain a rotating
cup or cylinder between the salient poles of an electromagnet. Induction cylinder units
resemble a salient pole induction motor in appearance. Fig. as shown below illustrates a
typical induction cylinder unit. The inner core of the unit is stationary and only the cylinder
surrounding the core is free to rotate in the annular air gap between the poles and inner core.
Movement of the cylinder actuates a set of contacts. The cylinder is usually made of
aluminium.
Operating torque applied to the cylinder is a function of the magnitude of the two
magnetic fields produced by the input and phase angle between the inputs. Movement of
the cylinder is initiated when the torque produced by the input signals overcomes the
restraining spring torque and friction.

Induction cylinder (or induction cups) devices


Induction cylinder units are very sensitive and operate at high speed. Thus, they are used in
applications where no intentional time delay is desired. In contrast, recall that induction
disk units exhibit time delay characteristics.
8.5.3

STATIC RELAYS

Static Relay: static relay is a relay in which the comparison or measurement of


electrical quantities is done by stationary network which gives a tripping signal when the
threshold condition is passed, In simple language static relay is one, which has nor moving
parts except in the slave device. The static relay includes devices the output circuit of which
may be electric, semi conductor or even electromagnetic. But the output device does not
perform relay measurement; it is essentially a tripping device. The slave relay in output
circuit may be electromagnetic type or trip relay may be connected directly in the output
circuit.

Above figure illustrates the essential components in the static relays. The output of of CTs
on PTs is rectified in a rectifier. The rectified output is fed to the measuring unit. The
measuring unit comprises comparators, level detectors, filters, logic circuits. The output is
initiated when input reaches the threshold value. The output of measuring units is amplified
by amplifier. The amplified output is given to the output unit which initiates the trip coil
when relay operates.
Advantage of Static Relays :
i) Low Power Consumption - Consumption in around 100m watt (amp.). Requires small
capacity of CT & PTs. Air gapped CTs can be used. Small cost of CTs & PTs is used.
ii) No Moving Contacts: - So no problem of contact arcing, no contact erosion. No effect of
gravity on static relays.
iii) Low operating time of static relays - As there is no moving part. So operating time of
static relays is order of cycles or so.
iv) Less resettling time & overshoots - by using special circuits, the resetting time and
overshoot time can be reduced, there by the selectively can be improved.
v) Compactness - Static relays are having compact no. moving parts.
vi) Complex logic protection possible - By use of microprocessor complex protection can be
provided to protected equipment.
vii) No effect of vibration & shocks - As no moving part. Risk of unwanted tripping is to
very low due to vibration & shock (earth quake).
viii) Static relay requires less maintenance.

Limitation of Static Relays : or Disadvantages of Static Relays :


i) The static relays are sensitive to voltage spikes or voltage transients. Serious over voltage
are also caused by breaking of control circuit, relay contact etc.
iii) Requires Auxiliary Relay after output device.
iv) Semi conductors are influenced by ambient temperature. Amplification factor of
transistor, diode, resistance etc, Change with temperature Variation.
v) Skilled maintainers are required - People are not fully trained on static relays so training
is needed for maintainers.
8.6

SOME AUXILIARY RELAYS

SEAL-IN OR HOLDING COILS, AND SEAL-IN RELAYS


In order to protect the contacts against damage resulting from a possible inadvertent attempt
to interrupt the flow of the circuit trip coil current, some relays are provided with a holding
mechanism comprising a small coil in series with the contacts; this coil is on a small
electromagnet that acts on a small armature on the moving contact assembly to hold the
contacts tightly closed once they have established the flow of trip-coil current. This coil is
called a "seal-in" or "holding" coil. Figure given below shows such a structure.

One type of contact mechanism showing target and seal-in elements.


Other relays use a small auxiliary relay whose contacts by-pass the protective-relay contacts
and seal the circuit closed while tripping current flows. This seal-in relay may also display
the target. In either case, the circuit is arranged so that, once the trip-coil current starts to
flow, it can be interrupted only by a circuit-breaker auxiliary switch that is connected in
series with the trip-coil circuit and that opens when the breaker opens. This auxiliary switch
is defined as an a " contact. The circuits of both alternatives are shown below.

Alternative contact seal-in methods.


Above fig. also shows the preferred polarity to which the circuit-breaker trip coil (or any
other coil) should be connected to avoid corrosion because of electrolytic action. No coil
should be connected only to positive polarity for long periods of time; and, since here the
circuit breaker and its auxiliary switch will be closed normally while the protective-relay
contacts will be open, the trip-coil end of the circuit should be at negative polarity
Adjustment of pickup or reset is provided electrically by tapped current coils or by tapped
auxiliary potential transformers or resistors; or adjustment is provided mechanically by
adjustable spring tension or by varying the initial air gap of the operating element with
respect to its solenoid or electromagnet.
TIME DELAY AND ITS DEFINITIONS
Some relays have adjustable time delay, and others are "instantaneous" or "high speed." The
term "instantaneous" means "having no intentional time delay" and is applied to relays that
operate in a minimum time of approximately 0.1 second. The operating time of high-speed
relays is usually expressed in cycles based on the power-system frequency; for example,
"one cycle" would be 1/60 second in a 60-cycle system. Originally, only the term
"instantaneous" was used, but, as relay speed was increased, the term "high speed" was felt
to be necessary in order to differentiate such relays from the earlier, slower types.

Relays with time delay


Occasionally, a supplementary auxiliary relay having fixed time delay may be used
when a certain delay is required that is entirely independent of the magnitude of the
actuating quantity in the protective relay.
Time delay is obtained in induction-type relays by a "drag magnet," which is a
permanent magnet arranged so that the relay rotor cuts the flux between the poles of the
magnet, as shown in figure on last page. This produces a retarding effect on motion of the
rotor in either direction. In other relays, various mechanical devices have been used,
including dash pots, bellows, and escapement mechanisms.
The terminology for expressing the shape of the curve of operating time versus the
actuating quantity has also been affected by developments throughout the years. Originally,
only the terms "definite time" and "inverse time" were used. An inverse-time curve is one in
which the operating time becomes less as the magnitude of the actuating quantity is
increased, as shown in Fig. below. The more pronounced the effect is, the more inverse is
the curve said to be. Actually, all time curves are inverse to a greater or lesser degree. They
are most inverse near the pickup value and become less inverse as the actuating quantity is
increased. A definite-time curve would strictly be one in which the operating time was
unaffected by the magnitude of the actuating quantity, but actually the terminology is
applied to a curve that becomes substantially definite slightly above the pickup value of the
relay, as shown in Fig. below.

Curves of operating time versus the magnitude of the actuating quantity.


8.7

PROTECTION SYSTEM DESIGN APPROACH

8.7.1

ZONE OF PROTECTION (PRIMARY RELAYING)

The general design approach of protective relaying is to divide the electrical power
system into zones that can each be protected with the minimum possible disruption to the
rest of the system. The concept of protective zones applies to protective relaying regardless
of whether the system to be protected is a major transmission and distribution system or a
single power plant. In either case, a fault or intolerable transient should be disconnected
from the system with as little impact as possible to the unaffected portion of the system.
A portion of a power system identifying typical zones of protection is shown in fig on next
page.

Single line diagram of a portion of an electric power system illustrating primary relaying.
Figure on last page illustrates primary relaying. The first observation is that circuit breakers
are located in the connections to each power element. This provision makes it possible to
disconnect only a faulty element. Occasionally, a breaker between two adjacent elements
may be omitted, in which event both elements must be disconnected for a failure in either
one.
The second observation is that, without at this time knowing how it is accomplished, a
separate zone of protection is established around each system element. The significance of
this is that any failure occurring within a given zone will cause the tripping (i.e., opening)
of all circuit breakers within that zone, and only those breakers.
It will become evident that, for failures within the region where two adjacent protective

zones overlap, more breakers will be tripped than the minimum necessary to disconnect the
faulty element. But, if there were no overlap, a failure in a region between zones would not
lie in either zone, and therefore no breakers would be tripped. The overlap is the lesser of the
two evils. The extent of the overlap is relatively small, and the probability of failure in this
region is low; consequently, the tripping of too many breakers will be quite infrequent.
Finally, it will be observed that adjacent protective zones of Fig overlap around a circuit
breaker. This is the preferred practice because, for failures anywhere except in the overlap
region, the minimum numbers of circuit breakers need to be tripped
8.7.2

BACK UP PROTECTION

The zones of protection principle described in the previous section are example of
primary protection in which a faulted zone is isolated to remove the fault. Back up
protection is the second line of defence and functions to clear the fault in the event that the
primary protection fails to operate properly.
Consider, for example, the back-up relaying for the transmission line section EF of
following Fig. The back-up relays for this line section are normally arranged to trip breakers
A, B, I, and J. Should breaker E fail to trip for a fault on the line section EF, breakers A and
B are tripped; breakers A and B and their associated back-up equipment, being physically
apart from the equipment that has failed, are not likely to be simultaneously affected as
might be the case if breakers C and D were chosen instead.

Illustration for back-up protection of transmission line section EF.


The back-up relays at locations A, B, and F provide back-up protection if bus faults occur at
station K. Also, the back-up relays at A and F provide back-up protection for faults in the
line DB. In other words, the zone of protection of back-up relaying extends in one direction
from the location of any back-up relay and at least overlaps each adjacent system element.
Where adjacent line sections are of different length, the back-up relays must overreach some
line sections more than others in order to provide back-up protection for the longest line.

8.8

GENERATOR PROTECTION

Detrimental effects on a generator can be caused by internal faults or by external conditions.


The internal faults are phase to phase faults, interturn fault on the same phase, phase to earth
faults of the stator winding and earth faults of rotor or the field winding. Failure of
excitation also can be considered as an internal fault. Faults in the excitation system also
can be considered as internal. Some of the external conditions which require provision of
protection for generator are over current, asymmetrical loading, under frequency and
external faults.
The main protection being provided for a large steam turbine generator is given
below:
8.8.1

Generator Differential

It is the standardized practice of manufacturers to recommend differential protection


for generators rated l000 kVA or higher, and most of such generators are protected by
differential relays. Above 10,000 kVA, it is almost universally the practice to use
differential relays. Percentage-differential relaying is the best for the purpose, and it should
be used wherever it can be justified economically.
The arrangement of CTs and percentage-differential relays is shown in Fig. 1 for a Yconnected machine

If the neutral connection is made inside the generator and only the neutral lead is brought
out and grounded through low impedance, percentage-differential relaying for ground faults
only can be provided, as in figure on next page.

Percentage-differential relaying for a wye-connected generator with only four leads


brought out.
8.8.2

Generator Interturn Fault Protection

Differential relaying, as illustrated above, will not respond to faults between turns because
there is no difference in the currents at the ends of a winding with shorted turns; a turn fault
would have to burn through the major insulation to ground or to another phase before it
could be detected. Some of the resulting damage would be prevented if protective-relaying
equipment were provided to function for turn faults.
For this, protection is provided for faults between turns of the same phase. This protection
becomes necessary when two or more turns of the same phase are put in the same slot. The
most common method of protection is by cross differential as shown in fig on next page.
This type of protection is possible when the stator winding is in two parallel paths, i.e. in
double star. On the neutral side, the leads of the same phase are separately brought out. The
CTs are cross connected to high impedance type differential relay. This relay also shall be
stabilised for through faults.

An alternative scheme is one which utilises the fact that an internal short in the
winding will cause second harmonic currents in the field. The second harmonic current can
be caused by external faults or asymmetrical loaing, which will produce negative sequence
currents in stator. Thus, for discrimination, second harmonic relay connected on the rotor
side will be supervised by a directional negative sequence relay.

8.8.3

Generator Stator Earth Fault Relay

The relay application depends on the type of earthing of the generator neutral. By
restricting the fault current, the damage to core can be limited so that repair will be easier.
For small size generators, the earthing can be done through a resistor. In this case an
instantaneous over current relay is connected to the CT provided on the neutral lead will
give fast and discriminative protection if the Generator is connected to the bus through a
delta-star transformer. If the generator is connected directly to the bus, one inverse time
over current relay has to be used so as to grade the protection with relays on the down
stream side.
For larger generator, the earthing of the neutral is done through distribution
transformer, the secondary of which is loaded by resistance or reactor. In this case the
protection is achieved by inverse time over voltage relay connected across the secondary.
In this case, 100% stator winding cannot be protected. The percentage winding
protected will depend upon the setting given to the relay. Now-a-days, schemes for 100%
earth fault protection are being provided for large generators. One of the schemes takes
advantage of the fact that there is a certain amount of third harmonic voltage, about 1.5%
present in the generator voltage. The absence of third harmonic voltage in the secondary of
earthing transformer indicates an earth fault near to the neutral point, including the neutral
point. But this relay will have to be supervised by a relay, so that this protection will be
through only if generator is running. This is done by a current relay connected to generator
CTs or potential relay connected to generator VT secondary or open delta tertiary. But
protection for the winding from the phase side to 95% of the winding from the phase side to
95% of the winding is provided by a definite time overvoltage relay immune to third
harmonics. The scheme for 100% earth fault protection is done by Supervision by VT
secondary method. A standby earth fault relay is generally provided by inverse time over
voltage relay connected to the open delta winding of the Generator VT. This relay also will
be immune to third and higher harmonics. This relay will protect the winding only up to
90% from phase side. Supervision by voltage will be advantageous as the protection will be
available even when there is no load on the Generator.
8.8.4

Rotor Earth Fault Relay

Sine the field current is from a DC source which is not earthed, the first earth fault is
not injurious. But the detection of the first earth fault is essential, so that the fault can be
removed before a second erth fault occurs. This relay shall be capable of detecting
insulation failure anywhere in the circuit without any blind spots. Generally, the relay used
is with DC injection method. The relay shall be highly sensitive so as to operate for an
insulation level below 200 k ohms. This scheme is operative for a large portion of the
winding even if AC supply is lost. However, supervision of AC supply shall also be
provided.

DC injection method
If a second rotor earth fault occurs, part of the field winding will become short circuited
resulting in
a)
b)

Magnetic unbalance of the field system causing vibration with subsequent


mechanical damage to the machine bearings.
Increased current in the remaining portion of the rotor winding which may cause
mechanical & thermal stresses resulting in damage to rotor.

Hence on appearance of first rotor earth fault, the machine should be taken out of
service at the earliest opportunity and the fault rectified. But till the machine is taken out,
protection should be provided against second rotor earth fault. The normal practice is to
bring in the second rotor earth fault relay in service subsequent to appearance of first rotor
earth fault and cut out the first rotor earth fault relay. The principle of the scheme used is
given in Fig.6. This relay will be made to trip the unit instantaneously.
8.8.5

Loss of Excitation Protection

Loss of excitation can be caused by mal-operation of the field breaker or failure of


excitation system -open or short circuit of exciter field in the case of an exciter and failure of
rectifier bridges or transformer, fault in the case of static excitation system. In the case of
trouble in the static excitation system, direct tripping of the unit is being provided depending
on the nature of fault. Failure of field system will cause the generator to run above
synchronous speed as an induction generator drawing magetising current from the system.
This will cause overheating of the rotor and overloading of the stator.
Loss of excitation can be monitored by an under current relay in the rotor circuit or
by an admittance relay. The undercurrent relay shall be set below the minimum excitation
limit and time delayed to prevent relay operation for slip frequency effects and external
faults.
Generally, an offset mho relay is used for this protection. The offset mho relay can
be arranged to trip the unit instantaneously if there is simultaneous low voltage which
indicates unstability of the system. If the mho relay operates alone, the relay initiates load

sheding and trip the unit subsequently after a time delay. The offset is given to prevent the
operation of the relay for power swings and associated asynchronous running.
8.8.6

Generator pole slipping protection

Pole slipping is causes by excessive load or insufficient field excitation resulting in


generator slowing down and loosing synchronism. This can also occur if the generator
breaker is closed out of synchronism. By this protection, generator is made to trip at the first
slipping of the pole. The protection is achieved by a directional relay and blinder relay in
conjunction with a timer. The relay operates to trip the machine when the pole slipping
locus takes more time than the set time to pass between the two characteristics. An over
current starter is used to start the relay. The application of the relay is limited to close
proximity of the generator as it can only deal with pole slip coming from one direction.
8.8.7

Negative sequence - Current protection

Due to external faults, the generator will be called upon to feed negative sequence
current till the fault is cleared. During this period, the duration of fault may exceed the
negative sequence withstand capability of the generator. Relay which is operated on the
negative sequence current is used for protection against such conditions. Suitable filters will
be used in the circuit. The machine has a continuous withstand capability which is of the
order of 5 to 8% of the rated current and at higher values, it can withstand for a duration
inversely proportional to I2t. I2t for a machine is a constant. The relay will have a similar
charsacteristic with facility to change the constant. The relay will be set such that it will
operate earlier than the withstand limit of the machine. Two relays are used, one to trip the
generator breaker alone to cut off the external fault if there is HP/LP by pass system and
generator can run on houseload and the second to trip the unit if negative sequence current
persists inspite of tripping generator breaker. On the first relay, there will be an
instantaneous relay to give alarm when continuous withstand limit is exceeded.
8.8.8

Under frequency protection

Large size turbine generators have severe limitations on their capability to operate at
frequencies below the normal frequency. The continuous low frequency operation will be
limited to -2 to -2.5% of the rated frequency. Below this, the generator may not be capable
to run for a long time. The manufacturer gives this time limit for under frequency operation.
Their capability will be a short period at a time and a cumulative time for a calendar year
and for lower frequencies, cumulative time for the entire life of the machine. Under
frequency condition occurs when the generator power is less than the power demand of the
load. The corrective action to be taken is at the load centres to reduce the loads so that the
frequency is restored with available genersation. Since the control of the loads may not be
in the jurisdiction of the generating station and since protection to the generator is to be
ensured low frequency protection is provided for the generator. Relays which have got
setting range required as per the capability of the generator are being used for this purpose.
Timers are used for restricting thr running of the generator within capability of the generator
at a time and cumulative time period.

8.8.9

Overvoltage protection

Overvoltages are caused due to sudden load shedding in the system. Under normal
conditions, automatic voltage regulator and governor together should be able to bring the
voltage to normal. But to monitor such a condition, an overvoltage relay is used so that
when the voltage shoots up beyond permissible limits, the generator can be tripped. This
relay can be given two settings, the lower setting to trip the unit with a time delay so that
AVR will have an opportunity to bring the voltage to normal and higher setting to trip the
unit instantaneously. These overvoltage relays shall reset as soon as the voltage is brought
to normal.
The present day practice is to consider the generator and the generator transformer
which connects the generator to the HV grid of the system as one unit. There is no breaker
used between the generator and the transformer. With this type of connection, the
transformer protections will operate to trip the generator set also, except when the protection
operates for external fault when only the transformer breaker is opened out.
8.8.10 Over fluxing Protection
The flux developed in the core of a transformer is proportional to voltage and
inversely proportional to frequency. If the voltage increases or frequency decreases, the flux
level will go up. Modern transformers are designed to work at high flux levels and slight
increase in the flux will tend to saturate the core which will force the flux to areas which
normally do not carry any flux. This will create eddy current heating, which damage the
insulation. Overfluxing of the transformer can occur when the turbine speed is less than
rated speed with excitation in auto mode, which will try to keep the voltage to normal or
when the excitation level is high under manual control when the turbine speed is less than
normal due to high voltage required by the system condition.
Overfluxing relay which measures the ratio of voltage to frequency is used to protect
the transformer under this condition. This relay will have two-step action, first step to
initiate lowering the excitation and second step to trip the generator after a time delay if the
condition persists.
8.8.11 Motoring (32) :
In modern steam turbines, the steam may be at a temperature equivalent to red heat
and may be difficult to think of it as a cooling medium. If the steam supply is reduced
sufficiently, the heat caused by turbulence of the trapped air when generator is connected to
the system, it will motor and can cause severe damage to the blades. Reverse power relays
sensing active power flow are used to isolate the machine. The relays may operate at a
particular value of low Forward power.
8.8.12 Generator Transformer overall differential protection:
In the case of transformer differential protection, the zone of protection is extended
to include the genersator also. This will act as a back up to generator differential protection.
When the generator also is included in the zone of protection, the tap off to the auxiliary

transformers is to be taken care of so that due consideration is given for the load taken by
the auxiliary transformers and for faults in auxiliary transformers and in the auxiliary
system. This protection is called Generator Transformer Overall Differential. There is no
breaker provided on the HV side of the auxiliary transformer also. Therfore any fault which
requires isolation of unit auxiliary transformer will have to trip the generator set also.
However the auxiliary transformer is not included in the overall differential protection.
Scheme is shown below.

8.8.13 AVR Failures :


If AVR trips due to any fault, control of generator voltage is transferred to Manual.
To prevent AVR from unnecessarily increasing the excitation due to a P.T. blown fuse,
AVR tripped by a fuse failure relay. (60).

8.8.14 Start-Up Protection 50/51


In the field breaker is closed at low speeds, faults in the generator have to cleared by
supplementary protection. Instantaneous and time over current relay for phase and ground
faults are provided which are removed from service at a certain frequency.
8.8.15 Accidental Energising Of Generator On Turning Gear
If the main turbo generator on turning gear, is accidentally connected to the power
system, catastrophic results can occur. Loss of excitation relay or main CB - Disconnect
Switch interlock also sometimes may not operate.
Under above conditions, the machine will start and accelerate as an induction motor.
For typical generator and main transformer ratings, a machine connected to an infinite
system will draw 3 to 4 times the rated current and the terminal voltage will drop to 50% to
70% rated value. If the power system is weak, the current will be 1 to 2 times rated value
and voltage may drop to 20% to 40%. The final speed of the machine is a function of
generator voltage and load torque (load being the turbine here) Due to high load torque and
low voltage, the final speed may reach only 30% to 50% of rated speed.
During the acceleration period, severe rotor heating takes place and can damage it in
a few seconds. The bearings may be damaged due to low oil pressure in a fraction of a
second.
8.9

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

The type of protection used for power transformer depends upon the size, voltage rating
and the nature of their application. For small transformers (< 2MVA) protection with fuse
may be adequate; whereas for bigger transformers mainly differential protection is used
for different faults.
8.9.1

Transformer Differential Protection

Differential protection is preferred for transformers over 10 MVA. The differential scheme
is set up to detect faults within the transformer's zone of protection. Since differential relays
operate on the net difference of current flowing into and out of the zone protection,
transformer differential relays should not actuate on a through fault i.e. a fault on a down
stream feeder outside of the transformer's zone of protection.
Differential relays used for transformer protection are generally percent differential
relays with harmonic restraint. A straight differential relay operates on an absolute value of
current and is not best suited for transformer protection. Since some relay current mismatch
will always exist because of different CT ratios, CT characteristics, transformer tap settings,
and relay taps, it is difficult to set the relay for good low level fault sensitivity and also
maintain an adequate margin against inadvertent tripping during heavy through faults. In
contrast, percent differential relays actuate when the ratio of compared currents exceeds a

certain percentage. These relays offer greater sensitivity to low level transformer faults and
minimise the likelihood of inadvertent trips during heavy through faults.

8.9.2

Transformer Differential Protection with harmonic restraint

When energised, transformers have a substantial magnetising in rush current. This presents
a problem when differential protection is applied because the differential relay sees the in
rush as an internal transformer fault. To overcome this problem, harmonic restraint units are
added to transformer differential relays. Transformers exhibit a pronounced second
harmonic when energised. Harmonic units incorporate a filter network that detects this
second harmonic. When the harmonic is present the harmonic units restrain the relay from
operating. In this manner, undesirable trips are avoided during energisation of the
transformer. On smaller distribution transformers, the inrush current may not be severe
enough to require harmonic restraint. In these cases, percent differential protection is
adequate.
Figure on next page shows how the relay is arranged to take advantage of the harmonic

content of the current wave to be selective between faults and magnetizing inrush.

Above figure shows that the restraining coil will receive from the through-current
transformer the rectified sum of the fundamental and harmonic components. The operating
coil will receive from the differential-current transformer only the fundamental component
of the differential current, the harmonics being separated, rectified, and fed back into the
restraining coil.
The direct-current component, present in both magnetizing-inrush and offset fault current, is
largely blocked by the differential-current and the through-current transformers, and
produces only a slight momentary restraining effect.
8.9.3

Thermal Overload Protection

Thermal overload protection is used on medium and large size transformers to detect
overheating that can cause insulation damage and shorten the transformer's life. Similar to
motor thermal protection, the relays are often used for alarm only to allow operators time to
correct the problem. More elaborate schemes may have two settings, one for alarm and one
for trip.
The relay consists of a shaft mounted thermostatic metal spring and heating
elements. The thermostatic spring and heating elements are contained within an enclosure
such that heat from the heating elements is transferred to the thermostatic spring. The
heating elements are connected to a CT and generate heat in proportion to the sensed

current. When the thermostatic spring is heated, it causes the shaft to rotate and close a set
of contacts. The heating characteristics of the thermal units are designed to approximate the
heating characteristics of the protected equipment, hence the term replica relay.
Sophisticated, multi function temperature and protection devices are frequently used
in newer designs to protect critical motors.
8.9.4

Over current (Phase, Ground faults) Protection

Instantaneous and time over current relays are used for primary phase and ground
fault protection of transformers when differential protection is not provided. This generally
applies to smaller unit auxiliary, station service, and secondary distribution transformers.
Differential relays provide better protection against transformer faults than do over current
relays; however, the cost of differential protection is not always justified for small
transformers. Over current relays are often used for back up protection of large (10 MVA
and above) transformers that use differential relays for primary protection.
Time over current relays are used to provide overload and through fault protection of
transformers. Through fault protection of a transformer should be coordinated with down
stream protective devices and should only clear a through fault when transformer damage is
imminent. Transformer overload protection is required to prevent temperature excursions
that can damage insulation.
Over current relays use an induction disk unit to obtain time over current protection
and a hinged armature or plunger type unit for instantaneous tripping.
8.9.5

Gas and Oil Surge Protection

Whenever a fault develops in the transformer slowly, the heat produced begins to
decompose the insulating oil medium into various hydrogenous gases. Analysis of the gases
can give a clue to the type of fault.
Hydrogen, Acetylene

Arcing in oil between constructional parts.

Hydrogen, Acetylene, Methane

Arcing with deterioration of phenol insulation


e.g. fault in tap changer.

H2, C2H4, CO2 & C3H6

Hot spot in windings.

The two operating elements are contained within the gas actuated relay (Bucholz
Relay) which, operates on:
(a)
(b)

Alarm element situated at the top, which operates on the collection of air or gas
due to incipient fault.
The oil surge element at the bottom which causes the circuit breaker to trip when
there is surge of oil due to a fault.

Each element assembly consists of an aluminium bracket pivoted on a fixed shaft


counter balanced by mild steel weight. Each carries a mercury switch, damped to the

balance weight, the leads of which are taken to a moulded terminal block. A baffle plate
is fixed to the balance weight of the bottom element and slod in the plate allow vertical
movement for adjustment purposes.

Bucholz Relay
When a slight or incipient fault occurs in the transformer, small bubbles of gas
will be generated and these, attempting to pass from the tank to the oil conservator, will
be trapped in the relay housing. As this gas accumulates, the oil level in the relay will
fall, leaving the top bucket full of oil. As a result of this bucket will not now be fully

immersed, the extra weight due to the contained oil will overcome the balance weight
and cause the whole assembly to tilt, thereby closing its mercury switch and completing
the alarm circuit.
With a serious internal fault, however, the gas generation is rapid, causing the displaced
oil to surge through the relay. This oil flow will impinge on the baffle plate and cause
the bottom bucket assembly to tilt, closing the mercury switch and completing the trip
circuit to the circuit breakers. Thus the transformer will be isolated from the supply.
If the transformer suffers a loss of oil, causing the oil level to drop below the level of the
relay, the buckets of the two elements will be left full of oil and first the alarm, and then
the surge element will operate to close their respective circuits.
An inspection window is fitted on either side of the relay casting, through which the oil
level can easily be read. The volume of gas present is indicated in cubic centimeters on a
calibrated scale. The clear view from rear of the relay also enables air bubbles to be
observed when drying out the transformer.
8.9.6

Back up protection

Voltages restrained over current relays are provided as a back up and also to be
coordinated with fault relays in adjacent systems. Similarly grounds back up relays are
provided with instantaneous and time delay elements.
8.9.7

Fire protection

Quartz bulbs fusing at a particular temperature are connected to a compressed air


system around the transformer. Melting of these bulbs during fire or other hazards will
initiate a fire fighting deluge system.
8.10

BUS PROTECTION

Main Bus protections are described below


8.10.1 PROTECTION BY BACK-UP RELAYS
Protection by back up relays is shown in Fig. on next page. In this method the bus is
included within the back-up zone of the relays. This method was relatively slow speed, and
loads tapped from the lines would be interrupted unnecessarily, but it was otherwise
effective. Some preferred this method to one in which the inadvertent operation of a single
relay would trip all the connections to the bus.

Bus protection by back-up relays.


8.10.2 THE FAULT BUS METHOD
The fault-bus method consists of insulating the bus-supporting structure and its
switch gear from ground; interconnecting all the framework, circuit-breaker tanks, etc.; and
providing a single ground connection through a CT that energizes an over current relay, as
illustrated schematically in following Fig. The maximum effectiveness in obtained by this
method when the switchgear is of the isolated-phase construction, in which event all faults
will involve ground. However, it is possible to design other types of switchgear with special
provisions for making ground faults the most probable. Of course, if inter phase faults not
involving ground can occur, and if CTs and conventional differential relaying have to be
used for protection against such faults, the fault-bus method would probably not be justified.

Schematic diagram of the fault-bus method of protection.


This method is most applicable to new installations, particularly of the metal-clad type,
where provision can be made for effective insulation from ground. It has been more favored
for indoor than for outdoor installations
8.10.3 DIFFERENTIAL BUS PROTECTION
The principle of current-differential relaying has been described. Following figure shows its
application to a bus with four circuits. All the CTs have the same nominal ratio and are

interconnected in such a way that, for load current or for current flowing to an external fault
beyond the CTs of any circuits, no current should flow through the relay coil, assuming that
the CTs have no ratio or phase-angle errors. But, when a fault occurs in the region of the
CTs of any circuits, resultant current should flow through the relay coil and will trip the
breaker.
However, the CTs in the faulty circuit may be so badly saturated by the total fault
current that they will have very large errors; the other CTs in circuits carrying only a part of
the total current may not saturate so much and, hence, may be quite accurate. As a
consequence, the differential relay may get a very large current, and, unless the relay has a
high enough pickup or a long enough time delay or both, it will operate undesirably and
cause all bus breakers to be tripped.

Bus protection by current-differential relaying.


8.11

LINE PROTECTION

A transmission line is an important part of the system responsible for carrying the
generated power to the consumer. For system stability considerations, the network is
usually interconnected and forms a large grid. Distance protection is very widely used in
protection of transmission lines.
Distance relays are double actuating quantity relays with one coil energized by
voltage and the other coil energized by current (As shown in following figure). The torque
produced is such that when V/I reduce below a set value, the relay operates. During a fault
on a transmission line the fault current increases and the voltage at fault point reduces. The
ratio V/I measured at the location of CTs and VTs. The voltage at VT location depends on
the distance between the VT and the fault. If fault is nearer, measured voltage is lesser. If
fault is farther, measured voltage is more. Hence assuming constant fault resistance each
value of V/I measured from relay location corresponds to distance between the relying point
and the fault. Hence such protection is called impedance Protection or Distance Protection.
Distance protection is non-unit type protection. The distance protection is high speed
protection and is simple to apply. It can be used as a primary and back-up protection. It can
be used in Carrier Aided Distance Schemes and in Auto closing Schemes. General tripping
circuit of a distance relay is as shown.

Many of the faults in transmission lines are transient single phase to ground faults due to
lightning strikes. One the associated breaker poles on either side are opened, dielectric
strength of air builds up to a sufficient value and arc is cleared, now there is no reason to
keep affected breaker poles remaining open. This scheme is actually known as automatic
reclosing and distance relays act in co-ordination with it. Radial circuits are most benefited
by it and there is no need of synchronising also. It also improves system stability.
General faults on lines are phase-phase, phase-ground, three phase and three-phase
to ground. Separate directional ground fault relays are provide in loop networks for
selective operation.
Over current relays are cheapest. But they need frequent readjustments depending
upon generation conditions and future changes in system network. Over current relays with
or without directional features are used as back-up to distance relays. Inverse time - current
relays are also provided with instantaneous elements.

8.12

POWER LINE CARRIER PROTECTION

Along with Unit protection, it is also required to consider protection of interconnected


networks. It will be appreciated that unit protection requires, the interchange of information
about the local conditions existing at each unit between the two terminations of a line.
Need of protection signalling can be explained by following example:
In a conventional distance scheme, it may be seen that faults in the end zones
immediately after the first zone are cleared with a time/delay of about 0.3 secs. In the
interest of limited shock to the system and to minimize the damage to equipment it is
necessary that the fault is cleared as quickly as possible. Further it may be necessary to
reclose the circuit as quickly as possible to keep the system stable and for successful
reclosing the breakers at both ends would open simultaneously. It is therefore desirable to
have some signalling arrangement by which the remote end could be arranged to trip
without delay.
Hence, it is necessary to make provision of a channel, over which information can be
passed between ends. In this chapter we will discuss about the power line carrier
communication.
BASIC PRINCIPLE
When a voltage of positive polarity is impressed on the control circuit of the transmitter, it
generates a high-frequency output voltage. This output voltage is impressed between one
phase conductor of the transmission line and the earth, as shown schematically in Fig. Each
carrier-current receiver receives carrier current from its local transmitter as well as from the
transmitter at the other end of the line. In effect, the receiver converts the received carrier
current into a d-c voltage that can be used in a relay or other circuit to perform any desired
function. This voltage is zero when carrier current is not being received.
Line traps shown in Fig. on next page are parallel resonant circuits having negligible
impedance to power-frequency currents, but having very high impedance to carrierfrequency currents. Traps are used to keep the carrier currents in the desired channel so as to
avoid interference with or from other adjacent carrier-current channels and also to avoid loss
of the carrier-current signal in adjoining power circuits for any reason whatsoever, external
short circuits being a principal reason. Consequently, carrier current can flow only along the
line section between the traps.
There are two types of carrier transmitter/receiver equipment - (a) simplex type and
(b Duplex type. In the Simplex type only one frequency is used so that when one terminal is
transmitting the other terminal is receiving and vice versa. In the Duplex type two
frequencies are used at each end. If f1 is the transmitting frequency at end A, receiving
frequency will be f1 at B. If f2 is the transmitting frequency at B then f 2 will be receiving
frequency at A.

Schematic illustration of the carrier-current-pilot channel.


The schematic diagram of a typical power line carrier equipment for phase to earth
coupling is shown in above Fig.. The information channel is established by transmitting
high frequency currents in the range of 50 KHZ to 50 KHZ over the power line conductor
by means of coupling capacitors which couple the HF equipment to the conductors at both
the ends.
Method of coupling
In line to ground coupling, the transmitter/receiver is coupled to the transmission line
by using one wave trap and one coupling capacitor, whereas in a line to line coupling, two
units are used. The line matching unit i this case is centre tapped on the primary and
grounded.
When the transmission line is long, line to line coupling is used, so as to reduce the
carrier energy loss. in the line to line coupling breakage of a line conductor will not affect
the communication or relaying channel, whereas, in the case of a line to ground channel it
affects adversely. Therefore, when protection signalling channel is employed, it is better to
use line to line coupling, although it cannot definitely be said that line to ground coupling
should not be used as it is possible that carrier energy at a reduced level can reach the other
end under carrier favourable conditions.
Voice communication is established by modulating the carrier frequency by the voice
frequency of a usual bend width of 80 hz to 3000 hz. for relaying purpose either a separate
channel above the voice frequency band say 3400 cyc. is used. Fig. 4 shows the frequency
bands.

Modulation is either amplitude modulation or frequency modulation. Amplitude


modulation is widely used in Power Line Carrier and transmission may be double side band
or single side band type depending upon whether one side or band is suppressed is not
amplitude modulation the intensity of the carrier wave is varied accordingly to the wave
form of the intelligence to be transmitted. Analysis of the output wave shows that carrier
frequency, one upper side band and one lower side band containing the modulating wave
frequency exist. As intelligence is available in any of the side bands in single side band
transmission on side band is suppressed and the other is transmitted. Further, the carrier
frequency itself is suppressed and the transmission is called suppressed carrier, single side
band transmission.