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Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.

Kolmogorov Kolmogorov s s Power Law of Power Law of


Turbulence Deduced from a State of Turbulence Deduced from a State of
Maximum Entropy Production: Maximum Entropy Production:
Workshop on Maximum Entropy Production Workshop on Maximum Entropy Production
YITP Workshop, Kyoto YITP Workshop, Kyoto Univ Univ., Japan ., Japan
10th 10th 12th September, 2007 12th September, 2007
Hisashi Hisashi Ozawa Ozawa
Hiroshima University, Japan Hiroshima University, Japan
Approaches to Turbulence and Approaches to Turbulence and Granular Flows Granular Flows
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Previous Studies on MEP Previous Studies on MEP
Climates of other planets Climates of other planets Lorenz et al. (2001) Lorenz et al. (2001)
Mantle convection Mantle convection Lorenz (2002) Lorenz (2002)
Ocean circulation Ocean circulation Shimokawa Shimokawa and Ozawa and Ozawa
(2002, 2005, 2007) (2002, 2005, 2007)
Climate system Climate system Paltridge Paltridge (1975, 1978) (1975, 1978)
dS dS
prod prod
/dt /dt = Max. = Max.
Fluid dynamics Fluid dynamics Malkus Malkus (1954, 1956) (1954, 1956)
F F = Max. = Max. ! ! = Max. = Max.
dS dS
turb turb
/dt /dt = Max. = Max. Ozawa et al. (2001) Ozawa et al. (2001)
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Why ? Why ?
Statistical explanation Statistical explanation
MEP is the MEP is the most probable most probable state state Sawada (1981) Sawada (1981)
Dewar (2003) Dewar (2003)
Dynamical explanation Dynamical explanation E. Lorenz (1960) E. Lorenz (1960)
Feedback growth of Feedback growth of mechanical mechanical energy energy conversion conversion
(available, free energy) (available, free energy)
Maximum energy extraction Maximum energy extraction
Maximum energy dissipation (MEP) Maximum energy dissipation (MEP)
: : Dynamically most stable Dynamically most stable
Ozawa et al. (2003) Ozawa et al. (2003)
=
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
What is the Use of What is the Use of this Principle ? this Principle ?
A general philosophical A general philosophical understanding of Nature understanding of Nature
Whole global view of the world Whole global view of the world
cf cf. . A space-time view Feynman (1965) A space-time view Feynman (1965)
A tool to solve A tool to solve unsolved problems unsolved problems ? ?
Kolmogorov Kolmogorov s s power law of turbulence power law of turbulence
Vortex formation in Vortex formation in granular flows granular flows
Changes Changes in ocean general circulation in ocean general circulation
Movements of Typhoons/Hurricanes Movements of Typhoons/Hurricanes
Mechanisms of SOC and fractals ... Mechanisms of SOC and fractals ...
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
What is What is Kolmogorov Kolmogorov s s Power Law ? Power Law ?
Wind tunnel Wind tunnel
U
!
v
t
v
0
x = U t
Fourier analysis Fourier analysis
log E
log k
x
v (x)
k
1
k
2
dv
2
E =
dk

5
/3
Fully developed Fully developed turbulence turbulence
v (t)

" "
11
= 2 = 2# # / /k k
11
" "
22
= 2 = 2# # / /k k
22
k = k = 2 2# # / /" " : wave number : wave number
! U
power law power law
(homogeneous, steady) (homogeneous, steady)
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Empirical Empirical Power Law Power Law
Kolmogorov Kolmogorov (1941) (1941)
Champagne (1978) Champagne (1978)
Physical meaning of Physical meaning of C C
KK
? ?
Dimensional Analysis Dimensional Analysis
Wave number k (cm
1
)
E
n
e
r
g
y

s
p
e
c
t
r
u
m


E

(
c
m
3
/
s
2
)
S
lo
p
e
:

S
lo
p
e
:


5
/
3
5
/
3
E = E = C C
KK
$ $
2/3 2/3
k k
5/3 5/3
$ $ : energy dissipation rate : energy dissipation rate
C C
K K
: : Kolmogorov Kolmogorov constant constant
" " 1.6 0.2 1.6 0.2
L L
33

T T
22
L L
22

T T
33
1 1

L L
2/3 2/3 5/3 5/3
= =
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Energy Energy Conversion from Large to Small Eddies Conversion from Large to Small Eddies
Re Re ! ! Re* Re*
$ $
ss
: energy supply : energy supply
Largest edd Largest eddy y
Smallest eddies Smallest eddies
Heat Heat
$ $
cc
Energy Energy cascade cascade
Reynolds number: Reynolds number:
" % " %
""
Re Re = = >> >> Re* Re*
& &
" "
Re*: critical Re number Re*: critical Re number
& & : : kinematic kinematic viscosity viscosity
$ $
dd
: energy dissipation : energy dissipation
% %
""
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Assumption Assumption: :
Turbulent eddies at any scale tend to grow by
converting mechanical energy from larger eddies as
much as possible when Re >> Re*.
Malkuss concept (1956)
shear
energy
supply
Growth of eddies Growth of eddies
Feedback Feedback
Maximum energy Maximum energy
conversion conversion
Energy supply Energy supply
increase increase
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Energy Conversion Rate from Energy Conversion Rate from Large to Small Large to Small Eddies Eddies
% %
""
surface surface
Energy conversion rate: Energy conversion rate: $ $
cc
= = '& '& % %
""

( ( ' ' ! ! volume volume
# " # "
22
" "
# " # "
33
/4 /4 " "
tends to minimum tends to minimum
Minimum Minimum ( (

should satisfy Re* should satisfy Re* " " ( (

% %
""
/& /& (stability criterion) (stability criterion)
$ $
cc
= (4/Re*) = (4/Re*) % %
""
33
/" /" (1) (1)

LE LE SE SE
Self-similar Self-similar
structure structure LE LE
SE SE SE SE
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
In a steady state, In a steady state, $ $
c c
remains constant for all scales remains constant for all scales
4 4 % %
""
33
$ $
cc
= =
Re* Re* " "
% %
""
33
$ $ " " : :
" "
At the dissipation scale: At the dissipation scale: " " " "
00
The proportional constant The proportional constant
Dimensional analysis Dimensional analysis
4 4 % %
""00
33
2 2% %
""00
$ $
cc
= = = = & & ( ( ) )
22
= = $ $
dd
Re* Re* " "
00
" "
00

% %
" "
00
2 2% %
""00
$ $
dd
: : energy dissipation energy dissipation rate by the rate by the space-filling space-filling eddies eddies
% %
""00
" "
00
% %
""00
Re( Re(" "
00
) ) = = " " Re* Re*
& &
Kolmogorov Kolmogorov Obukhov Obukhov s s
scaling relation scaling relation
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Space-Filling by Space-Filling by the Smallest Eddies ( the Smallest Eddies (" "
0 0
) )
Space-filling: empirical Space-filling: empirical homogeneous homogeneous assumption assumption
" " > > " "
00
A consequence of feedback growth of turbulent eddies A consequence of feedback growth of turbulent eddies
Re Re > Re* > Re*
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Kolmogorov Kolmogorov s s Power Law Power Law
Re* Re*
Eq Eq. (1) . (1) % %
""
= ( = (

$ $ " ") )
1/3 1/3
4 4
d d% %
""
22
2 2# #
Energy spectrum Energy spectrum E E # # (wave number: (wave number: k k = = ) )
dk dk

" "
E E = = C C
KK
$ $
2/3 2/3
k k
5/3 5/3
: : Kolmogorov Kolmogorov s s power law power law
C C
KK
= = 0.45 Re* 0.45 Re*
2/3 2/3
: : Kolmogorov Kolmogorov constant constant
C C
KK
" " 1.3 1.3 if if Re* Re* " " 5 5 Experiments by Experiments by Taneda Taneda (1956) (1956)
1.6 0.2 1.6 0.2 87 experiments (Sreenivasan, 1995) 87 experiments (Sreenivasan, 1995)
""
C C
K K
is a function of Re* (the critical Reynolds number). is a function of Re* (the critical Reynolds number).
1.8 1.8 if if Re* Re* " " 7.7 7.7 Stability analysis by Stability analysis by Sorger Sorger (1966) (1966)
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
General Features of Fluid Turbulence General Features of Fluid Turbulence
$ $
ss
Heat Heat
" "
Power law relation Power law relation seems to be seems to be a a
structure structure that links the largest-scale that links the largest-scale
motion motion to the smallest-scale motion, to the smallest-scale motion,
which dissipates mechanical energy which dissipates mechanical energy
at a possible maximum rate. at a possible maximum rate.
$ $
dd
Mechanical energy Mechanical energy
Turbulent eddies have a tendency Turbulent eddies have a tendency
to grow by converting mechanical to grow by converting mechanical
energy from larger eddies as energy from larger eddies as
much as possible. much as possible.
Maximum Maximum
Maximum Maximum
Maximum Maximum
dS dS
turb turb
$ $
dd
= = = Max. = Max.
dt dt T T
$ $
cc

Energy Energy
cascade cascade
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
1.6 m
45
Vortex Formation in Granular Flows Vortex Formation in Granular Flows
Flow experiments Flow experiments
1.9 1.9 4.2 4.2 7.4 mm 7.4 mm
Small Small Middle Middle Large Large
Polystyrene foam particles Polystyrene foam particles
( (' '
m m
" " 0.02 g/cm 0.02 g/cm
33
) )
Nohguchi Nohguchi and Ozawa ( and Ozawa (Physica Physica D D, in press) , in press)
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Results of Results of Flow Experiments Flow Experiments
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Structure Developments Structure Developments
Small Small Middle Middle Large Large
0 0 sec. sec.
0.4 sec. 0.4 sec.
0.8 sec. 0.8 sec.
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Flow Flow Structures Structures
Small Small Middle Middle Large Large
' '
mm
Velocity boundary layer : Velocity boundary layer : ( ( " " d d " " d d d d : diameter : diameter
' '
aa
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Growth Process of Twin-Vortices Growth Process of Twin-Vortices
Reduction of Reduction of
air drag force air drag force
v v + + $ $v v
Increase of conversion Increase of conversion
rate rate (PE (PE KE) KE)
Growth of Growth of
vortex motion vortex motion
Feedback Feedback
Tiny twin-vortex formation Tiny twin-vortex formation
vm
vm + !v
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Front Velocity Front Velocity Evolution Evolution
The rapid growth of flow velocity is associated with The rapid growth of flow velocity is associated with
the twin vortex formation. the twin vortex formation.
Four head formation Four head formation in S in S
Small
Middle
Large
0 0.5 1 1.5
1
2
3
0
dS dS $ $
dd
= = " " Max. Max.
dt dt T T
$ $
dd
" " V V
Final steady Final steady
state: state:
Nohguchi Nohguchi and and
Ozawa (in press) Ozawa (in press)
Hisashi Ozawa, Hiroshima Univ.
Summary Summary
Flow properties of Flow properties of different material systems are investigated different material systems are investigated
from a from a concept of maximum entropy production concept of maximum entropy production (MEP) (MEP)
associated with conversion and dissipation of mechanical associated with conversion and dissipation of mechanical
energy in the concerned systems. energy in the concerned systems.
Kolmogorov Kolmogorov s s power law of turbulence is found to be deducible power law of turbulence is found to be deducible
from a state of maximum entropy production through from a state of maximum entropy production through feedback feedback
growth of turbulent eddies growth of turbulent eddies in in the fluid system. the fluid system.
The moving front of lightweight granular particles The moving front of lightweight granular particles is found to is found to
produce produce a series of a series of twin-vortices twin-vortices, thereby increasing energy , thereby increasing energy
dissipation as well as entropy production, in dissipation as well as entropy production, in a consistent a consistent
manner with the MEP concept. manner with the MEP concept.